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Lecture 17

Sub-structure:

Design of the Abutments

A counter-fort retaining wall.
A counter-fort retaining wall.
The next step is to calcula te the dead weight value w (x) from the

The next step is to calculate the dead weight value w(x) from the superstructure and part of the sub- structure. It can also include some live load if the bridge is in a heavily traveled urban area. From these two values, v s and w(x), we can find the fundamental period T of the bridge and the seismic force p e (x).

9" L =5.26 k v 4 L =0.24 k h 3.88' 5 6 3 12"
9"
L
=5.26 k
v
4
L
=0.24 k
h
3.88'
5
6
3
12"
1
7
2
2'-6"
12"
3'-6"
8
A
7'-0"
12'-0"
1'-6"
5'-6"
12" 3'-0"12"
4'-0"
6'-0"
Wheel load Bridge slab P Approach slab Girder Backfill Abutment e a a
Wheel load
Bridge slab
P Approach slab
Girder
Backfill
Abutment
e
a
a

Normal pavement

12" #4@ 9" front face #4@18" back face Provide 3" clear to all bars except
12" #4@ 9" front face #4@18" back face Provide 3" clear to all bars except
12"
#4@ 9" front face
#4@18" back face
Provide 3" clear to
all bars except 1 1 2 "
clear to bars in
front face of stem
#4 @ 2'-0"
6" drains
@ 10'-0"
#6 @ 6"
3'
1'-6"
5'-6"
#6 @ 6"
2"x6" key
#4 @ 12"
16'-6"
1'-6"
2'
bars, Vert. bars, back faceVert.
back face
#6 @ 5"
#6 @ 10"
Preparing the foundations of an abutment for a high-speed rail overpass (AVE, St, Sadurniu, Barcelona.

Preparing the foundations of an abutment for a high-speed rail overpass (AVE, St, Sadurniu, Barcelona. The AVE is the high-speed rail connection between Paris-Barcelona).

The almost finished abutment for a high-speed rail overp ass (AVE, St, Sadurniu, Ba rcelona.

The almost finished abutment for a high-speed rail overpass (AVE, St, Sadurniu, Barcelona. The AVE is the high-speed rail connection between Paris-Barcelona).

Abutments damaged by seismic forces

San Fernando Earthquake, on February 9, 1971. Settlement of the abutment fill.

San Fernando Earthquake, on February 9, 1971. Settlement of the abutment fill.

Wing-wall damage at abutment

Interchange 210 – Roxford Street Undercrossing at Foothill Boulevard.

Single-span, variable depth, prestressed box girder, slightly skewed and supported on pile diaphragm abutments. The structure was supported entirely on fill. All eight wingwall-to- diaphragm connections were badly damaged.

The structure was supported entirely on fill. All eight wingwall-to- diaphragm connections were badly damaged.

Failure in Shear of Superstructure and End Diaphragm at Soffit.

Balboa Boulevard Over-crossing – South Abutment

Seven-span, reinforced concrete box girder with Class II piles and spread footings. Abutments were diaphragm type.

The south abutment was in original ground and soil supported, while the north abutment was upon fill and supported on concrete piles.

was in original ground and soil supported, while the north abutment was upon fill and supported
Abutment Fill Settlement

Abutment Fill Settlement

Eureka Earthquake – November 8, 1980.

Epicenter –

30 miles northwest of Eureka, CA

Magnitude – 6.6 to 7.1 on the Richter Scale

Damage –

Collapse of Fields Landing Overhead located on Highway 101

CA Magnitude – 6.6 to 7.1 on the Richter Scale Damage – Collapse of Fields Landing
Aerial View of Fields Landing s howing Collapse of Two Spans. Failure caused by earthquake

Aerial View of Fields Landing showing Collapse of Two Spans. Failure caused by earthquake factors which can be attributed to the failure caused by severe skew, rocker bearings at the abutments, hinges at each bent, narrow hinge seats, simply-supported median slab between tan not connected to left and right bridge.

Abutment 1.

All of the pedestals were severely shattered, and most of the steel bearings were ripped from their anchorages.

1. All of the pedestals were severely shattered, and most of the steel bearings were ripped
Steel rocker bearings were torn out of their anchors.

Steel rocker bearings were torn out of their anchors.

Damage to abutment and to the wingwall.

Damage to abutment and to the wingwall.

Route Route 14/5 14/5 Separation Separation & & Overhead Overhead – – Collapsed Collapsed Spans

RouteRoute 14/514/5 SeparationSeparation && OverheadOverhead CollapsedCollapsed SpansSpans atat SouthSouth AbutmentAbutment

Higashi-Kobe Bridge – Vertical Movement of 0.5 Meter at the Top Roadway.

Higashi-Kobe Bridge – Vertical Movement of 0.5 Meter at the Top Roadway.

Failure of Reinforcing Concrete Pier Wall

Failure of Reinforcing Concrete Pier Wall

Hanshin Expressway – Failure of single-column bents

Hanshin Expressway – Failure of single-column bents