NAI Supporting Afghanistan Open Media Tenses

Simple present tense: is used to show the habitual action or general fact. We have three purposes in simple present tense. 1. Habitual action 2. General fact 3. Repeat action I smoke cigarette. God is one. I come to class everyday.

General structure

S+V+C

Present continuous tense: is usually used for what is happening right now or during themoment of speaking it starts right now and it may go to future.

Structure:

sub+ (tobe verb) +verb/ing+complement

I am (am not) working now. We} You} They} He} She} is (isn’t) working now. It}

are (aren’t) working now.

Past tense: Expresses and activity that occurred before now at particular time in the past. It starts in the past and finish in the past. Ex: I went to Pakistan yesterday. Structure: S+2nd form of (V) +C

Prepared and designed by Muhammad Haroon (Nawabi)

Past progressive tense: Expresses an activity that something was in progress in the past. Ex: I was teaching English When she came to class. Structure: S+2nd form of tobe v +V/ing +C

Simple future tense: “Simple future tense” expresses an activity that is occurring in the Coming time or at one particular time in the future, this will happen. Will and be going are used with future tense but the main difference Is that, that be going to is stronger than will. Ex: I will come to class tomorrow. Ex: I am going to study English. Structure: S+will or be going to +V+C

Future progressive tense: Expresses an activity that will happen in the future at progress Time. Ex: He will be sleeping when we arrive. Structure: S+will be+V/ing+C

Present perfect tense: “The present perfect” expresses the idea that something happened (Or never happened) before now, at unspecified time in the past. The exact time it happens is not important. If there is a specific mention of time, the simple past is used. Ex: I have gone to Pakistan. Ex: I have never gone to Pakistan. Structure: S+have/has+third form the verb+C

Prepared and designed by Muhammad Haroon (Nawabi)

Present perfect tense: “The present perfect” also expresses the repetition of an activity . Before now. The exact time of each repetition is not important. Ex: I have gone to London many times.

Present perfect “The present perfect “also, when used with for or since, expresses a Situation that began in the past and continues to the present. In the examples, notice the difference between since and for. Since+ A particular time For + A duration of time. Ex: She has gone to London since 2000. Ex: She has gone to London for four years. General structure: S+have/has+past participle+C

Present perfect progressive: This tense is used to indicate the duration of an activity that Began in the past and continues to the present or it may go to The future. Ex: we have been watching the movie since morning. Structure: S+have/has+been+V/ing +C

Past perfect: “The past perfect” expresses an activity that was completed before another Activity or time in the past. Ex: I had already gone to Pakistan when she called me to come back to Office. If either before or after is used in the sentence, the past perfect is often not Necessary because the time relationship is already clear. The simple past may be used as a following. Ex: Haroon Nawabi left before we got there. Ex: After the guests left, I went to bed. Structure: S+had+past participle+C

Prepared and designed by Muhammad Haroon (Nawabi)

Past perfect progressive “The past perfect progressive” emphasizes the duration of an Activity that was in progress before another activity or time in The past.

Ex: The police had been looking for the criminal for two years Before they caught him. Structure: S+had+been+V/ing+C

Future perfect: “The future perfect “expresses an activity that will be completed before Another time or event in the future. (Notice in the examples: by the time introduces a time clause, the simple Present is used in a time clause.) Ex: I will graduate in June. I will see u in July. By the next time I see You, I will have graduated. Structure: S+will have +past participle+C

Future perfect progressive: “The future perfect progressive” emphasizes the duration of An activity that will be in progress before another time or Event in the future. Ex: I will go to bed at ten p.m He will get home at midnight At midnight I will be sleeping. I will have been sleeping for Two hours by the time he gets home. Structure: S+will have +been +V ing +C

Prepared and designed by Muhammad Haroon (Nawabi)