Has Global media changed our Identity: A critical study

1

2

I.

Certificate 3 Declaration 4 Acknowledgement 5 Abstract 6

II.

III.

IV.

CONTENTS
1. Introduction 2. Review of Literature 3. Hypothesis &Objectives 4. Research Design and Methodology 5. Rationale & Limitations

7-20 21-37 38 39-41 42-43 44-52 53-54 55-56 57 58-60 61-62

6. Results & Data Analysis
7. Conclusion

8. Bibliography
9. Appendix

10.Annexure –I (Questionnaire for Respondents)
11. Annexure-II (List of Participants)

3

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the project report “Has Global media changed our Identity: A critical study” has been completed by Bhanu Joshi under my supervision.

The declaration made by the student is true to the best of my knowledge.

Dr. (Mrs.) Tarjeet Sabharwal Assistant Professor Department of Journalism Delhi College of Arts & Commerce 4

University of Delhi New Delhi

DECLARATION

The dissertation, “Has Global Media changed our Identity: A critical study” has been carried out completely by me under the guidance of Dr. (Mrs.) Tarjeet Sabharwal, Assistant

Professor, Department of Journalism, Delhi College of Arts & Commerce (University of Delhi). I further declare that the work included in the paper is original and has not been submitted in part or full to any other university/institute for degree/diploma.

Bhanu Joshi B.A. (Honours) Journalism, III YEAR Roll No. 502 Department of Journalism, University of Delhi 5

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I extend my sincere gratitude to my research mentor, Dr. at (Mrs.) each and Tarjeet every Sabharwal, stage of this for her of guidance, research creative and critical comments and generous supervision piece work. I am indebted to Prof. K.M. Srivastava, Professor IIMC for allowing me access to the IIMC library and his other valuable inputs. I would also like to thank my parents who extended their valuable support during the completion of this research work.

Bhanu Joshi B.A. (Honours) Journalism, III YEAR Roll No. 502 Department of Journalism, University of Delhi 6

ABSTRACT
Media plays different roles in different cultures. It has been widely recognised as a tool that has helped development and has also lead to the growth and maturing of societies. However media. With a globalization, identities are being seen alienated, sometimes stereotyped and a peculiar “rush” is being observed amongst the societies towards standardization. This research study correlates the advent of global media and its influences on concepts of identity, lifestyle and consumption patterns of college going students in University of Delhi. this seems to be changing in the age of global

7

INTRODUCTION
Globalisation has integrated the world into one. A global community is being created whose backbone is multinational organisations, international institutions and a global society. It is said that media reflects the society we live in and today we see a global media that has seeped into every part of our lives and and is dominant ideas. in creating developing perspectives, views generating The

world is seeing an expansion in its constituency and this expansion has occurred affiliated with the development of a complex global society and international flow of media and cultural products. Some researchers examine these changes from the framework of cultural imperialism (Schiller, 1991) where media products Other in are distinctly from have and dominated the by a few of multinational countries. audiences corporations scholars processing, Western emphasized interpreting industrialized role these media

messages (Berger & Huntington, 2002). Regardless of their positions, researchers have called for a closer examination of the accounts of audience experiences with global media. A clear and distinctive example of global media experienced by audiences in a local context is India. When India changed its policy and opened its doors to international free market forces and its airwaves to global media, it set in motion enormous changes the that affected owned the lives of all its citizens. The changing media atmosphere prodded a change in Doordarshan, state broadcasting network. Doordarshan, in Sanskrit, means distant vision. Describing a 8

changed

Doordarshan

in

a

recent

article

the

writer

said

‘today commercial interests dominate Doordarshan’s policies

and

action.’

The

mantra

now

is

entertain,

entertain,

entertain.” The Industrial Revolution shifted economic and social

change, making the world available to all who wanted to experience it. Efficiency and innovation led society into a new world, a world that needed to stay connected. Mass Media by definition is designed to distribute media to as many people as possible. In essence, Mass Media keeps the world connected. Understanding the process of how Mass Media works, primarily in regards to it relationship with society, one will see the grandeur of the spectacle that is Mass Media. Some say that we are controlled in every aspect by what we see, and what we buy. Money, consumerism, radio, television, now aided printed and even media, guided sell and by fame our have high that constructed speed help the “American Dream”, the spectacle. Thinking for ourselves is internet the connection and the ten o’clock news. These sources also, conveniently enough, products attain “American Dream”. Through careful analysis of the current state of Mass Media and the effects it has on society it is my contention that the Industrial Revolution has created a new, pre-packaged and ultimately non-satisfying self image that is exaggerated by today’s Mass Media and the spectacle it creates.

1. Origin and rise of Global Media

9

Prior

to

the

Industrial

Revolution,

needs

were

based

on

survival. People made, farmed, and bought only what they needed to provide for their families. Occupations existed to provide unique services and you were known for your job. For instance in Europe if you were a blacksmith, your last name

reflected town via

your

occupation or With

and

everywhere and advent and was of

you

went

people and

knew you as the town blacksmith. News travelled from town to travellers at more the best. traders the inconsistent the outdated became Industrial began to

Revolution machines made businesses more efficient, money readily printing available press. people with were the communicate across vast distances with new forms of media, primarily they once However increased with production, people were no longer needed for the occupations served. Town blacksmiths replaced machines which could turn out multiple times more products at higher qualities (Norman and Bodley, 2007). Profits were soaring and individuality was transforming into a collective unit serving to better society (McLuhan M, 1999). society, sentiment and in doing they so they no were longer overcome People the new began to assemble the parts that would serve to build modern with A that were important.

sentiment emerged, “Most men lead lives of quiet desperation and go to the grave with the song still in them.” Henry David Thoreau. Thoreau perhaps encapsulates the entire problem with modern society in that one sentence. Society needed news. People wanted to be informed how the world was advancing and the beginning forms of print journalism exploited this hunger for information.

10

The newspaper of 1897 was the sole purveyor of news until the advent of newsreels in the 1910s (Hearst was a pioneer) and radio in the 1920s. Its comics, fiction, and features made it the home-entertainment centre. Ample advertisements made it the shopping bazaar and wish book, too, both of which explain why so many homes consumed more than one daily each day. The competition for readers in New York was intensified, writes Campbell, by the decline of the previously dominant newspapers—Pulitzer's World, Charles A. Dana's New York Sun, James Gordon Bennett Juniors New York Herald, and Whitelaw Reid's New York Tribune. Even so, Pulitzer sensed enough of the crisis to order his business manager to recruit a spy within Hearst's Journal to find the source of the paper's ideas and identify what dissatisfied talent might be willing to leave Hearst and join him. (Shafer, Jack The Great Press War of 1897, Slate 2006) After the Industrial came to Revolution place money was in full soon gear, mass

merchandising more things

into

and on

people

discovered situating

there were many things available to them for buying. With spend people started themselves into jobs that would provide more money, while not necessarily providing personal satisfaction. More places to spend money lead to more companies competing to win money; less personal satisfaction lead people to try and fill the void with material possessions. The competitions between corporations then about found lead its to roots that mass within commercialism. media and the Commercialism were reading

proliferation of new products was sent to the masses. People products would make their lives better, help them keep up with the Jones’s. “For consumers as a whole, Boss sees a collective psychology prevailing.” We ask, 'What are others doing, and what can I get for myself?' Nobody wants to admit that there's anybody they're 11

keeping up with, but we do collectively keep up with one another." spent, The (Gardner, Christian Marylin, Science A penny earned 2006). is With a penny all of Monitor

society consuming bigger and better products, innovation was at a peak. Soon two new technologies came into the spotlight that would forever change the way society gained information from Mass Media, radio and television. In 1859 Oliver Wendell Holmes described photography as the most remarkable achievement of his time because it allowed human beings to separate an experience or a texture or an emotion or a likeness from a particular time and place — and still remain real, visible, and permanent. He described it as a "conquest over matter" and predicted it would alter the physics of perception, changing forever the way people would see and understand the world around them. Holmes precisely observed that the emergence of this new technology marked the beginning of a time when the "image would become more important than the object itself and would in fact make the object disposable." Contemporary advertising critic Stuart Ewen describes the photographic process as "skinning" the world of its visible images, then marketing those images inexpensively to the public (Thoman, Elizabeth Rise of the Image Culture). Radio became a mainstream technology and transformed once distant social activities into every household. Radio also introduced new forms of marketing and more vibrant sources for news and information. The spectacle was now starting to take shape and people began to distract of themselves sorts from from this reality every night through hypnosis

speaking box. The success of the radio fostered the birth of television, which rapidly transformed the world. The masses became enamoured with television and the stars it created. TV shows become commonplace, 12 and commercials become as

important as the show content. Television starts shrinking the world introducing celebrity fame and furthering the loss of identity. People became so interested in fame they began to wonder if anyone would ever recognize them as an individual. This furthered loss of individuality and started moulding society to emulate importance modelling the lives of the people they see on TV and read about in beauty and tabloid magazines. Commercials interlaced with biased news networks sponsored by media conglomerations started broadcasting stereotypical personalities; the people society wanted to become (Thoman, Elizabeth moved Rise of Image Culture). based Furthermore news shows television to more from information

entertainment based productions. The rise in these types of magazines has everything to do with pent-up demand, said Robert Thompson, a professor of pop culture and television at Syracuse University. Because our society has no aristocracy, Americans have always been obsessed according bragging with to that celebrity. Thompson, George In its earliest slept incarnation, into a “On celebrity Washington worship translated here.

fundamental level, it is appealing to something deep in the American soul,” (Davies, 2005 Jennifer Gluttons for Gossip) In fact, we currently have shows composed of nothing but celebrity entertainment “news”. To reiterate “Entertainment News”, people have become so hypnotized by television that they can’t even distinguish the fact that the news they are watching is for their entertainment not to inform them of real problems they face. That same entertainment news is filled with celebrities talking about face creams or diet programs they themselves buy and or recommend. This substance free programming leaves the viewer with a thirty 13

minute show about nothing of any real consequence. Laced within the thirty minutes are various commercials selling products that more or less add no real value to anyone’s life and of are any repeated ad nauseam. now become selling So a in box essence, products our and mainstream nothing television has broadcasting

substance,

valueless

indoctrinating our “individual” opinions. People start to see beauty which is defined by these companies trying to sell products that will make people beautiful. People start to believe news that will affect how they vote and place people into office to make news and control their lives. People start to see these “beautiful” television and movie stars and do everything in their power to bring any bit of that fame into their own lives. “’There’s a real hunger for this,’ said Steven Cohn, editor-in-chief of Media Industry Newsletter, which tracks industry is a trends. hunger ‘There’s for not a hunger for newsmagazines. There’s not a hunger for business newsmagazines. But there celebrity newsmagazines” (Davies, 2005 Jennifer Gluttons for Gossip). The overwhelming has tragedy of it an all can be seen by what

society

become

today,

entertainment

consuming,

distracted, bland mixture of subtleties and indifference. Individuals are few and far between as the masses consume not just information, but free thinkers. People are so desperate to be unique that they look to other people for inspiration, the problem being that our media broadcasts and highlights the same models of individuality to the masses creating nothing more than a sea of clones constantly trying to keep up and follow the newest trend. There are no changes in the identity of an individual. The loss of individuality is a terrifying proposition that most men lead lives of quiet desperation fighting.

14

2. Historical Context in the Indian Scenario When India gained independence in 1947, the leaders of the time committed the country to socialist principles, which included a strong state (Adams 1990; Hasan1989), and government-controlled, development-oriented mass media. When the Government introduced television in 1959; the goal was to educate the public. Social development was the norm until corporate sponsored prime time serials introduced in 1984 created a gradual shift toward entertainment oriented programming and advertising. Compared with many other developing countries, the Indian press has flourished since independence and exercises a large degree of independence. British colonialism allowed for the development of a tradition of freedom of the press, and many of India's great English-language newspapers and some of of its Indian-language leading press were begun during the was nineteenth century. As India became independent, ownership India's English-language newspapers transferred from British to Indian business groups, and the fact that most English-language newspapers have the backing of large business houses has contributed to their independence from the government. The press has experienced impressive growth since independence. In 1950 there were 214 daily newspapers, with forty-four in English and the rest in Indian languages. By 1990 the number of daily newspapers had grown to 2,856, with 209 in English and 2,647 in indigenous languages. news The expansion and other of literacy and By the 1993 spread India of had consumerism during the 1980s fuelled the rapid growth of weeklies periodicals. 35,595 newspapers--of which 3,805 were dailies--and other periodicals. Although the majority of publications are in 15

indigenous languages, the English-language press, which has widespread appeal to the expanding middle class, has a wide multicity circulation throughout India. Although freedom of the press in India is the legal norm--it is constitutionally guaranteed--the scope of this freedom has often been contested by the government. Rigid press censorship was imposed during the Emergency starting in 1975 but quickly retracted in 1977. The government has continued, however, to exercise accounts more for as indirect much as controls. 50 Government of all advertising percent

advertisements in Indian newspapers, providing a monetary incentive to limit harsh criticism of the administration. Until 1992, when government regulation of access to newsprint was liberalized, controls on the distribution of newsprint could also be used to reward favoured publications and threaten those that fell into disfavour. In 1988, at a time when the Indian a press tough was publishing bill investigative that party mandated leaders reports about corruption and abuse of power in government, Parliament prison protests passed from defamation and sentences for offending journalists. opposition Vociferous

journalists

ultimately forced the government to withdraw the bill. Since the late 1980s, the independence of India's press has been bolstered policy by the the liberalization increase of of government economic and private-sector advertising

provided by the growth of India's private sector and the spread of consumerism. Since the 1980s, India has experienced a rapid proliferation of television and broadcasting the course begin of in that has helped shape popular first culture politics. earnest Although until the the

television program was broadcast in 1959, the expansion of television did not extremely popular telecast of the Ninth Asian Games, which were held 16

in

New

Delhi

in

1982.

Realizing of

the

popular

appeal

and the the

consequent to provide

influence television

television to 90

broadcasting, percent of

government undertook an expansion that by 1990 was planned access population. In 1993, about 169 million people were estimated to have watched Indian television each week, and, by 1994, it was reported that there were some 47 million households with televisions. There also is a growing selection of satellite transmission and cable services available Television programming was initially kept tightly under the control of the government, which embarked on a selfconscious effort to construct and propagate a cultural idea of the Indian nation. This goal is especially clear in the broadcasts of such mega series as the Hindu epics Ramayana and Mahabharata. In addition to the effort at nationbuilding, the politicians of India's ruling party have not hesitated to use television to build political support. In fact, the to political increase abuse the resulted of in Indian of television for the led to demands demands autonomy Doordarshan; these Prasar

ultimately

support

Bharati Act. The 1990s have brought a radical transformation of

television in India. Trans-national satellite broadcasting made its debut in January 1991, when owners of satellite dishes--initially Three Bold months and the mostly at major TV and hotels--began began MTV to receiving via Cable News Network (CNN) coverage of the Persian Gulf War. later, Star broadcasting satellite. Its fare initially included serials such as "The Beautiful" erected programs. receive Satellite and its broadcasting spread rapidly through India's cities as local entrepreneurs transmitted dishes local signals After them through cable systems.

October 1992 launch, Zee TV offered stiff competition to 17

Star TV. However, the future of Star TV was bolstered by billionaire Rupert Murdock, who acquired the network for US$525 million in July 1993. CNN International, part of the Turner Broadcasting System, was slated to start broadcasting entertainment programs, including top Hollywood films, in 1995. Competition change to threatening from its the satellite by stations its at a brought time radical and the when

Doordarshan

cutting revenues

audience

advertising

government was pressuring it to pay for expenditures from internal revenues. In response, Doordarshan decided in 1993 to start five new channels in addition to its original National Channel. Programming was radically transformed and controversial news shows, soap operas, and coverage of highfashion events proliferated. Of the new Doordarshan channels, however, only the Metro Channel, which carries MTV music videos and other popular shows, has survived in the face of the new trend for talk programs that engage in a potpourri of racy topics. All channels beaming into and India do so from outside to the be to

country and are, therefore, beyond direct Indian government control. state Doordarshan and All India Radio continue owned controlled institutions subject

government censorship. The transformation of the media environment has been viewed in many ways. Some are delighted by the availability of a wide range of programming. Others are quite concerned about the social, cultural For and political the committee impact on impact of of televised of the resource cultural programming. parliamentary dramatic and instance 1994 report human our

standing deleterious

development stated: “nothing in the recent past has had such both

18

traditions

as

the

invasion

of

the

Mass

media,

both

indigenous and foreign” (HRD, 1996).

3. Interplay between Global Media and Culture During the 1990s, when Indian joined media the experienced countries its efflorescence, India embracing

globalism. Indian media products increasingly began to be seen as an instrument of Indian cultural/media imperialism within South Asia, similarly to how American products were perceived starting in the 1960s. This challenged the linear West-centric perspective in this globalization age. In the early 1990s, Indian television channels had their highest audience ratings within the region and forced foreign channels to adjust their programs so as to fit into the Indian national and local culture (Sonwalkar, 2001). At the same time, a UNESCO report shows that India has been one of the lowest importers sources of international 1994, programming. by In 1990 only 8 percent of the Indian television programs were from foreign (UNESCO, cited Sonwalkar, 2001). India’s import of foreign media has further dwindled since 1992 due to the rapid development of domestic channels and the growth of domestic production houses. The national experience of India indicates a transition in the previously unbalanced cultural flow: “Between 1975 and 1991, the flow of cultural goods from the developed to the less developed countries has gone down and the flow from (less developed countries) to (developed countries) has increased” (Ambirajan, 2000, p. 2146). 3.1 Technological Reasons International regions and communications countries have systems been 19 redistributed more and among more growing

complicated since the boom in information technology. The earlier this theory more of “blanket effects” of western Due media to the products is now being criticized for failing to account for much complex cultural interaction. effects of globalization, technology is being transferred at a much faster rate from the West to the rest of the world; and new knowledge, ideas and notions spread quickly. Yanal (1999) argues that “thanks to the multi-pronged channels of globalization, the gap between the haves and the have-nots today has a fairer chance of being narrowed at a faster rate than has been the case so far” (cited by Sonwalkar, 2001). The one-sided, incomplete picture given by critical theorists of the US and European media influences on the Third World has ignored those cultural flows not originating from the west.

3.2 Cultural Reasons Indians prefer to be entertained in their mother tongues (Malhotra, 2000, cited by Sonwalkar,), with Hindi being the most widely spoken. This has forced the main foreign satellite channels such as Star TV to adopt Hindi-language programming. Patrick Cross, the managing director of the BBC World Service, said that his corporation had plans to introduce programs in Hindi (Sonwalkar, 2001). This is the first time the BBC has shown interest in local language broadcasting outside the UK, although England has had an intimate and protracted relationship with the Indian subcontinent. Still, the foreign organizations who have made attempts to reach Indian audiences through adopting Hindi in the development of programs have so far failed to make a profit. 20

For example, early entrant Star TV continues to lose heavily on its Indian operations, even after it adjusted its programming and shifted popular English language soaps like Baywatch and The Bold to Star World to make way for Hindi shows (Ninan, 1999, cited by Sonwalkar, 2001). In the localized backdrop of India, the concept of

imperialism acquires new meanings. “…Within South Asia, the notion of Western-based media imperialism is being replaced by the Indian-based version. Within India, the pre-eminent position hitherto enjoyed by Hindi in the national cultural discourse until recently has given way to the suzerainty of local languages” (Sonwalkar, 2001). In the case of India, internationalization regional media in of India media play clearly a very does not tend role to in undermine national culture. Reversely, the strong local and important protecting their national culture.

21

REVIEW OF LITERATURE
1. Culture, Cultural Identity, and Communication The word culture describes everything that makes a large group of people unique. Members of a culture share similar thoughts and experiences (Jandt, 2004). Collier and Thomas define culture as “a historically transmitted system of symbols and meanings, and norms” (Collier & Thomas, 1988). Our culture teaches us rules or norms that tell us how to behave inside our culture. One’s culture is a part of one’s identity others (Jandt, we 2004,). learn does who not We we refer and communicate are just to our identity to and through communication. rather, mutually

Communication communicative. reinforcing). Everyone negotiated has

language; are

actions, rules, behavior, discrimination, and labels are all Identity communication

multiple

identities

that

are

created emerge

and when

through

communication. 22

Identities

messages are exchanged between individuals. Presenting one’s identities is not a simple process. Identities are dynamic; they are created by the self and at the same time by others in relation to group membership (Martin & Nakayama, 1997) To create a culture, a group must first define itself as a group. This may be on the basis of nationality, ethnicity, gender, profession, religion, organization, or others. Once the group defines itself as a unit, then a cultural system may develop. Cultural identity is the particular character of the group communication system that emerges when people claim group membership in a particular situation, event, or communication context (Collier, 2003). 1.1 The Dynamics of Culture Culture is a complex phenomenon. It includes the religious practices of a region, by the modern kinds cities, of architectural ethnic developments embraced recurring

practices, language loyalty, and other aspects of the milieu of social practices that constitute culture. Culture is a constantly changing phenomenon. Globalization has not only affected world cultures but also the world economic system by and belief the with a nation-states capitalist cultural in increasingly have that becoming system. in in is influenced Globalization do not with the world-economic

exchanges

resulted are either It

complex forms of cultural hybridity. While modernism has to steady-states of equilibrium or near equilibrium, the postmodern world does address nature steady-state systems. concerned with the dynamics of change and the nature of this change is closer to the behavior of non-linear systems. It is about change in a cultural flux. 23

The

late

Ilya of

Prigogine concerns noted

(1983) in that

and

colleagues work one on

addressed such

these

kinds

their from

“dissipative

structures.”

They

perspective

structures contained order and structure and from another perspective they were unordered and in chaos. Their concern was in how a steady-state or a system in equilibrium dissipated and then reorganized itself into a new steadystate. How does order emerge out of chaos? When the old system began to break up, the process was irreversible. It appeared as though there was no order when this dissipation occurred. However, there was order in the flux of change and it emerged as a new system in equilibrium. It can be argued that postmodernism is the quest for a new order within a state of dissipation. Postmodernists are trying to make sense of the chaos. They are beginning to see the signs of the new system and this is what they are writing about. Because of the novelty of change, such systems are difficult to express. This difficulty has been interpreted by some as a kind of nihilism, but it is not. The sedimentation theory of cultural space is presented within this context. It is a theory of cultural change that is trying to find a new order in the flux of cultural change 1.2 The Postmodern Approach to Culture MIT researchers function to the have examined user how (e.g.). for modern They use communication and move these studied in

systems

without end from and

central

control

intelligence “viral” computer was

networks in terms of their “viral architecture.” The term adapted biology the marketing, Just as a technology, social sciences.

virus in a biological environment can replicate and become diffused within a system, it is argued that informational 24

objects and processes can also expand within communication networks. Lippman and Pentland (2004) considered viral communication to be a consequence of economic, social, and technical forces within communication networks. Lippman and his colleagues to life. have They noted have that such systems the the fact of create that the of this potential everyday have embed communications into sociology

discussed new

phenomenon has expanded greatly within modern society. They also argued that these forms connectivity facilitate the formation of new social behaviors They have similar views on cultural change under the rubric of viral culture. In a postmodern society, the use of viral communications has shifted. For example, the role of agency has shifted from one of vertical control to the horizontal transmission of information of the same generation. With the advent of these new forms of computer-mediated technology, they have also become producers of knowledge within the new viral culture. In essence, and societies in bend technology forms to of their own uses. These new mediated networks are no longer locally restricted participate various global communication. Most importantly, viral communication is no longer associated with what people buy. It is what people do. It has become the way in which people experience life. There is a new kind of social and cultural habits associated with this new virtual time have to culture. The forms and of social and cultural capital have changed. The authors have noticed that capital Bruenger takes (2005) accumulate “within reproduce itself. viral However, such is not the case with viral capital. Miller and noted, viral networks capital accumulates and reproduces very quickly”. It is an infectious cultural process. 25

2. Identity 2.1 Identity in the Age of Information A quick glance at the criticisms and resistance challenging cultural globalization indicates most of it is aimed to challenge the virtue of globalization and its contradiction with integrity of identities. For example, Manuel Castells, the Spanish sociologist and professor at the University of Berkeley, concludes that our world and our lives are being shaped through two opposite trends namely, globalization and integrity of identities. The information revolution and reconstruction of capitalism have established a new society that could be called the “network society” of (Castells, this 2005). is The most important culture characteristic society its prevalent

established by a diverse and comprehensive media system. This novel society threatens traditional social institutions and alters both it culture creates and wealth collective and poverty identity. and thus Simultaneously,

introduces fresh threats and opportunities. For Castells Identity is “the process of construction of meaning on the basis of a cultural attribute, or a related set of cultural attributes, that is given priority over other sources of meaning”. For a given individual, or for a collective actor, there may be a plurality of identities, but these are a source of stress and contradiction in both self-representation and social action. Lacking a concise and accurate definition of identity in the age of information and globalization, it is impossible to define the role of

26

mass media as the most important contemporary instrument for strengthening or weakening of the identity crisis. In the definition of identity, two conflicting components namely its old elements and historical roots along with the elements of current events and future changes must be considered. Thus, identity has two components of correlation and individuality. A relevant example is the interaction of an individual or with his/her society (either the national society the international society). The individual

constantly receives input from the environment and at the same time possesses his/her unique characteristics, which differentiates his/her independence from social pluralism. If the aforesaid definition of identity is accepted, then it is evident that correlation and interaction causes alterations in the individual as well as the surrounding environment. Cultural beliefs, identity is not a mere collection behaviors of thoughts,

traditions,

languages

and

accumulated

through time. Rather it is a cultural selection on how to respond to an outside stimulant in various time frames. As a result, cultural identity is a work plan created by people for their future activities based on past experiences. Some sociologists believe “the combination of economic

participation and cultural identity is made possible not by a choice between equality and difference, but by the desire to construct or reconstruct a personal or collective experience which combines both universes and a desire to be a social actor”

27

The

social by

manifestation power

of

identity and

has

always has

been three

affected

struggles

basically by

contributing sources for its inception: Legitimizing Identity: introduced the dominant institutions of society to extend and rationalize their domination over social actors. Legitimizing identities generate civil societies and their institutions, which reproduce rational power.

Resistance Identity: produced by those actors who are in a position/condition of being excluded by the logic of domination. Identity for resistance leads to the formation of communes or communities as a way of coping with otherwise unbearable conditions of oppression.

Project

Identity:

proactive as a

movements

which than

aim

at

transforming opposition

society to the

whole,

rather

merely and

establishing the conditions for their own survival in dominant actors. Feminism environmentalism fall under this category During the era of modernization, planned identity stemmed from the heart of civil society. However in network society, the emergence of planned identity comes from the core of resistive social groups. Some scholars especially Castles argue that the crisis of legitimacy legitimate governments has engulfed all institutions, and since the of and development of globalization has dried up the fountain of identities. and the Institutions social organizations labor civil society established on the foundation of democratic contract between capital are becoming increasingly superficial and are unable to address the living values of most people and have lost contact with ordinary citizens. The deterioration of common

28

identity is synonymous with a decline of meaningful social orders, which vividly depicts our status (Castells, 2005). The social challenges pressing the patterns of dominance in network society, usually manifests itself in the form of establishing independent identities, which are alien with the organizational principles of the network society. They confront the ascendancy of technology, legitimacy of power and the logic of the market economy with their traditions and beliefs. One of the main distinctions of the social movements and cultural upheavals surrounding the issue of identity in the is age that of information (regardless do not the of stem their from type, either religious fundamentalism, nationalism, ethnic separatism) social these identities distinct institutions of civil society. They introduce an adversarial logic, completely from functioning principles of the dominant social institutions. In the age of information, the prevalent logic of global networks is so powerful that the only way to defy their authority and dominance is to rebel against the whole system and depart from it by establishing another order with distinctive values and beliefs (Castells, 2005). Moreover, there is a diversity of opinions in relation to the issue of identity that and it is globalization. is not erroneous exclusively For to an example, envision external of our Giddens systems. directly believes This

globalization only on a large scale and solely for giant process phenomenon; rather it is also an internal matter and is intertwined with individualistic aspects livelihood including our individual identity. Therefore, it has a great influence.

29

From this perspective, the globalization theory of Giddens is similar to that of Robertson. Robertson defines globalization as “a form of institutionalization of the twofold process involving the universalization of particularism and the particularization of universalism” (Robertson, 1992, cited Castells). In other words, globalization tends to integrate and dominate on the one hand and particularize on the other hand and the output of this particularization is the development of localization. uniformity Thus, and globalization integration is and inclined towards

simultaneously strengthens cultural uniqueness. Therefore, the inception of uniformity and generalization alongside the intensification of cultural distinctiveness are concurrently evident, which has its own impact on the formation of identities. According to Robertson’s theory, globalization cannot be interpreted as creation of a global culture, rather there is an opportunity for various cultures to interact on a global scale. The identity crisis is not a mere hypothetical and scholastic concern. There is a strong apprehension in regard to the conflict between global and local cultures and its implications. The clash of local and global cultures is the paradox fact, of there globalization is no on the international global scene. In independent culture, more

accurately, certain aspects of national or regional culture enters the arena and becomes universal. Localization is the manifestation of an individual’s or a group’s attempt to regain its identity. Thus, the most comforting and suitable reaction is to search deep inside the historical memory of a group or nation and try to regain past glory and supremacy. These self-assuring memories are intertwined with a specific place and time, which is the 30

core of localization in eastern societies. These societies under choice the but constant to barrage to of western cultures have no return their traditional cultures

(Mohammadi, 1992) 3. Globalization, the New Phenomenon Globalization, construction, which global also has and been called global by

orientation

global

expansion

various schools of thought, is the latest phase process in an old process rooted in the expansion of modern capitalism and encompassing the political, economic and cultural realms worldwide. Modern capitalism that first emerged in the sixteenth century is a far more complex phenomenon embracing a broader economic spectrum and a more detailed definition than the concept of common market. Thus, some experts view it as “contraction and condensation at the global scale coupled with ever-increasing expansion of awareness” Many past have few expressed different to and even contradictory Anthony

definitions of globalization in their discussions over the years. According British sociologist Giddens, some social sectors are utterly pessimistic about globalization and reject it in its entirety. On the other hand, there are those who with perceive globalization and as an undeniable consequences. Yet there are others, who They are generally referred to as as an reality profound inevitable

Global

Expansionists.

view

globalization

inescapable development developing ever-increasing momentum due to the intensification of global interactions and the waning importance of national boundaries. They believe that national economies, cultures 31 and policies will integrate

into a global network and that local and national authority and hence dominance will diminish in favor of a homogenous global economy and culture. On the other side of the the spectrum, of there are opposing Giddens arguments against virtues globalization.

refers to them as the pessimists, and they include a gamut of those from the traditionalists to those challenging the dominance of capitalism. They perceive globalization as synonymous to westernization and Americanization. They even include the environmentalists. This school of thought argues that globalization will create a world of winners and losers along with the global conquest and economic domination of specific political groups, especially in the wealthy nations like the U.S. These groups are strong enough to resist any pressures to alter the new world-order and could impose their desires and goals as global agendas and work plans. The promoters of this school of thought point out to the waning of national sovereignty and local identity and the eventual prevalence of inequality and injustice in the world. Meanwhile, some dispute the idea of the “global village” introduced by Marshall McLuhan and envision more of a “global pillaging” for the underdeveloped countries. There are other theoreticians who dispute this widely held view. For example, Giddens challenges this prospect and believes that the wealthy should not be blamed for all the negative aspects of this phenomenon, which actually is to some extent very similar to is the westernization process. However, group of globalization countries or becoming ever-increasingly Even the

decentralized and thus it is not dominated by a certain multinational being affected 32 companies. by this western countries are new trend.

There

is

increasing

evidence

of

Inverted

Colonialism.

Inverted Colonialism could be defined as the impact of nonwestern countries on the development of western culture and economy (Giddens, 1999). According to Giddens not only is globalization a novel

experience, it is a revolutionary phenomenon. In addition to its economic consequences, its political, technological and cultural impact cannot be underestimated. More than anything, globalization is influenced by the advancement of communication systems. In the middle of these two extreme positions, there is a third opinion, which is called “transformationalism.” This perspective gives limited importance to globalization and emphasizes institutions globalization the significance from its of the national and local Media These (retrieved and International aspects.

Dialogue). This third view does not condemn the whole of praises positive scholars note that although globalization imposes a great deal of pressure on local economies and cultures, it is possible to transform this threat into an opportunity, thereby resisting being conquered by it. Based on this viewpoint, the leaders of the world would support the notion of democratization of global institutions; and nations could play a decisive role in the policy-making process under the framework of the new world order and solidify their territorial rights and legitimacy. The acceptance of this notion is reflected in the response of former French Premier Leonel Jospin on the issue of France’s national identity in the globalization process. He said, “We will do our best to make globalization an internal and endemic process in compliance and harmony with our way 33

of

life.”

He

argued

that

“The

course

this

globalization

process takes will depend on the action we take in relation to it, because although globalization is a fact, it is not an end in itself. We must bring it under control if we are to enjoy its benefits and prevent its negative aspects” It can thus be concluded that the present range of opinions on globalization, differs from the definition of capital expansion of the 16th century. In this sense it is a new concept based on the ever-increasing time-space compression and the enhancement of public knowledge and awareness due to the profound alteration in communication systems and its immense impact on economic, political and cultural trends. It can be stated fairly that “Globalization is a complex phenomenon, marked by two opposing forces. On the one hand, it is characterized inequality, by massive On the economic other and social expansion there tumult, and is and technological increased innovation. hand,

cultural

individual alienation”. 4. Media and Identity Challenges of Globalization The assessment of mass media and its role in the age of information on the issue of identity and cultural crisis in the network society, which itself is the inevitable byproduct of globalization, has become vitally important. The subject of globalization and the function of mass media are so intertwined that it is impossible to imagine globalization without the presence of media. Some scholars go even further in emphasizing the

significance of media and consider the mass media as the main player in the globalization process. They regard the media not just as a mere instrument, rather as an identity 34

in

its

own

right,

which

could

compete

with

national

governments in respect to its power and influence to alter the nature and essence of human societies. The realm information of politics and and communication power revolution within and the

emergence of new technologies have redefined the meaning and structure societies. Thus, power is entrusted to those who produce, control and disseminate information more effectively. Many theoreticians hold and that power magnates levels and and moguls then prepare the to news, the information, science and political decisions at the national international inject them societies through the media. Therefore, mass media is an instrument in the hand of the ruling class that not only justifies audiences. On the other hand, it is impossible to ignore the great transformation and evolution taking place in international telecommunication during the era of globalization including centralization and integration of mass media and the advent of giant media tycoons. This new ownership of mass media has greatly influenced the content and dissemination of news as well as the commercial nature of cultural products. Although, some scholars promoting globalization praise the positive impact of mass media, there are many experts who criticize the negative role of media in weakening the identity of various societies. The followers of the Frankfurt School like Aderno and his colleagues argue that the media has deprived humanity from its intellectual capacities and flexibility and has reduced mankind to a single dimensioned and isolated entity. Meanwhile, Markuze explains this subject as the creation of 35 its authority it gains the support of its

one-dimensional man. Men and women involved in this powerful media network, contribute to a society in which its members do not have strong links with each other and do not play a part in the stability of the social order in any meaningful form. Moreover, many other scholars argue that one of the prominent tasks of the media in the globalization process has been its pursuit in developing a single cultural world. The culture sponsored by the western media is a culture, which dictates to the society what to eat, what to wear, how to live, what to think and what to know. This enormous chain of global communication institutions and its allies in the camp of capitalism have transformed the majority of ordinary people into obedient consumers, without identity or ability to command their destiny. Thus, it is possible process and to the divide two the mass media The in the the with of for

globalization aggressive media of are and and

into

categories, media.

namely

media the

resistive

aggressive

colossal

information they well pursue include as

institutions a limited for

countless audiences. Although they provide a diverse range news information, These pleasure as set objectives. leisure objectives entertainment

education

greater

uniformity and harmony of audiences. These institutions in order tend to to remove spatial identity and temporal The

boundaries

eliminate

barriers.

successful implementation of this task would pave the way for the strategic goal of the capitalist tycoons and giant industrialists exploitation of to conquer the the world of market brains through in the minds, draining

developing countries and injecting a superficial sense of happiness and satisfaction.

36

On the other hand, the resistive media tends to utilize the open atmosphere in the global information system in order to disseminate information its own culture and ideology. do not However, these the institutions generally comprehend

depth and dimensions of the prevailing tragedy and insist on promoting their local and national aspirations instead of finding a broader message for the vast global audiences. Thus, they always fail to compete with the aggressive media in absorbing potential audiences. It is important to point out that technical and practical methods used in presenting the contending culture, is its Achilles heel, not the culture itself. Globalization of Culture and Identity in the Information Era On the subject of globalization, the most controversial

debate is raised on the issue of cultural globalization and its main topic, the “identity crisis” and the role of mass media as a facilitating The various notion of tool for its expansion or has limitation. prompted cultural globalization

reactions,

reflecting

contradictory

implications. Some perceive this phenomenon as an instrument for establishment of universal unity and democracy based on a global culture of new signified as the “global village.” others According to the principles of McLuhan, this is due to the expansion communication systems. However, disagree and contend that globalization has not resulted in a unified political and economic identity (Rajaei, 2001). In contrast, identities. Fukuyama challenges the idea of cultural globalization. He argues that despite external economic pressures, societies tend to preserve their individual identities and cultural 37 cultural globalization has destroyed national

values eventually determine the economic direction of the countries. profound This doesn’t in mean that societies will not be the impacted by the globalization trend. However, there are more elements national cultures, which resist uniformity derived from economic and political ideologies. Critics cultural promoting economic argue that cultural and globalization The will result in of the

dominance excessive and

supremacy.

deterioration dominance of the of

endemic cultures will be replaced with a universal culture consumption and information technology powers world.

These scholars believe that the western world is unfit to provide a suitable response to cultural globalization. This is because it is being challenged by numerous social and cultural predicaments, itself. Tomlinson says: “The cultural globalization that we are

witnessing today is not the net result of human endeavors and experiences and even it has not equitably benefited from cultural diversities. Rather it is the manifestation of dominance of a certain overpowering culture”. These researchers emphasize that the efforts made to conform to the aggressive culture or interpret western culture in various parts of the world have had disastrous results and have revealed insurmountable cultural gaps. Thus, it is impossible to create a global culture with this procedure, and it only widens the existing gap between cultures. Doubtless, globalization has affected certain values rooted in major religions and cultures of the world. Concepts of good and evil, right and wrong, individualism and pluralism, individual interaction with the society and the very meaning of life are all warped and corrupted by global capitalism, international markets, mass media 38 and the promotion of

excessive

consumption.

Even

some

local

languages

and

valuable traditions are on the verge of disappearance as the result of globalization. Global consumerism is now forming a homogeneous global culture where indigenous cultures of the South are being replaced by Western cultures. Others like the philosopher like Coleman James express their dissatisfaction alienation fascination beliefs identity. and values have of of with no with the globalization. with their values. These to weakens the He new the of notes and values the their and societies foreign root or history

connection for

their

national traditions universal

Therefore, local

globalization cultures

sake

uniformity and dominance of a commanding culture through the formidable power of international media.

HYPOTHESIS
The following the research literature question on was hypothesized identity and after global

reviewing media. :

culture,

It was hypothesized that global media contribute to a great extent in establishing the cultural identity cultural

identity, lifestyle and consumption patterns of respondents.

OBJECTIVES
Specific

objectives of the study:

To study the demographic profile of college students

who use global media.  To study the extent of use of global media of

respondents. 39

To analyse the understanding of the concept ‘cultural

identity’ from the respondents point of view.  To examine the effects of global media on the

respondents in terms of changing: 1. 2. 3.  Identity Lifestyle Consumption pattern

To study whether the respondents maintained the status

quo of their cultural identity with respect to time.  To analyse if there is gap between their cultural

identity and that of their parents/grandparents.

RESEARCH METHODOLGY
The present study was designed to examine new media issues, cultural college value students identity, in all and To of their the correlations other participants among are Delhi. control possible

influencing

factors,

undergraduate students from University of Delhi. All of the participants were randomly chosen from 5 Colleges in the city. From these 5 colleges 10 students each were interviewed. Access to internet, socio economic conditions, and interface with different components of global media were kept in before handing over the questionnaire. To guarantee good quality, seems I was on site of for the their young

reference.

This

sample

representative

college students in Delhi. The problem can be attributed to ‘I’. The environment in which ‘I’ stays can be called ‘N’. 40

Two Outcomes are possible:
1.

O1:

The

identities

have

influenced

under

global

influence.
2.

O2: The identities have not changed and remain intact.

The survey was conducted with an interview schedule tool adopted and a questionnaire was designed with both openended and close ended questions. The respondents had to answer without any initiation or help.

Method of Study
1. POPULATION For 17this 25 study the students of the University since media of the and Delhi said are

formed the population. Students in the age group between the years has were been purposefully exposed to selected, global group

quintessential of the modern Indian identity. Five colleges under the University of Delhi were chosen for conducting the survey. This sample was exhaustive since it covers most of Delhi. 2. SAMPLING Non probability sampling technique was adopted and 5

colleges were purposefully selected and fifty students were selected randomly from these colleges where questionnaire was distributed and asked to submit. To select the colleges an equal emphasis was given to 5 areas of Delhi. Quota sampling, technique was then adopted in which the population was first segmented into mutually exclusive sub-groups, just as in stratified sampling. Then judgment is used to select the subjects or units from each segment based on a specified

41

proportion. In this study 50 students between the ages 17-25 were selected out of random sample space. 3. Limitations of the sampling method: In quota sampling, the selection of the sample is non-random unlike random sampling and can often be found unreliable. For example interviewers might be tempted to interview those people in the street who look most helpful, or may choose to use accidental sampling to question those which are closest to them, for time-keeping sake. The problem is that these samples may be biased because not everyone gets a chance of selection. This non-random element is its greatest weakness and quota versus probability has been a matter of controversy for many years. 4. Sample Size Ten these students students from five colleges in were chosen for the of

interview. The total sample size came out to be fifty. All were studying various colleges University of Delhi and were residing in Delhi NCR. 5. Study Design/Research Design A survey was conducted with an adopted ended and and a questionnaire ended was close questions

interview designed keeping

schedule with the both

tool open

following

dimensions in mind. 1- Access to internet 2- Socio Economic Conditions 3- Amount of exposure to internet & other inter face The the method importance of The of data collection the was through items paper to

questionnaire.

questionnaire Internet,

included time

regarding access

online,

English websites, the specific online activities frequency, 42

relation with any TV show etc. In doing this, I hope to explore the correlations between global media items and identity, further understanding the transforming process of identities in the global media world India. The questionnaire consists of two parts. The first part is a self-made assessment of global media questionnaire. In this study, the Internet, as a well-accepted global media form, was chosen to be measured. The questions cover almost all kinds of online activities and main cultural influences, like movies and cultural texts. The second part concerns cultural value identity. This part probed in to questions of identity and how do youngsters interplay with their identity.

RATIONALE & LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
1. Rationale

The

focus

of

this group

study was

is

on

college because

students of their

who

are

enrolled in the various colleges where I will conduct the survey. This chosen previous exposure to Global Media. College students are tech savvy and hence questions on their identity and relation between media were asked. Global media has wide reach but has limited audiences

because of technical, low user awareness, etc among other limitations.

43

The study is intended to find out the status of cultural identity of college students in relation with the rise of global identity media. can Previous either or can studies be be have articulated in one’s by a that own third defined the

constituency/frame

defined

party/foreign body. Accordingly it has been seen that global media is increasingly being seen as setting their agenda and distorting the cultural identities in developing countries. This study is an effort to probe this view and find out whether new media is actually influencing the identities of an individual or is it being subsided by strong cultural influences. The study of places a premium to understand the underlying and

views

Individuality,

Consumerism,

Globalisation,

Identity amongst others as seen by college students aged between 17-25 years. The study probes into their attitudes, views 2007). The research study hence provides a unique opportunity to research and study the role of global media in the making of cultural identity. In addition, it provides an opportunity to consider the extent to which global media can inculcate multicultural values in young people. However, as is shown, the idea of ‘cultural identity’ itself is contested and problematic. The notion that ‘identity’ is a singular set of ideas and practices or the idea that the making of cultural identity is a simple process akin to changing one’s clothes is fraught with difficulties. These are things I knew intuitively before this study. I knew them as a college student who negotiates his identity 44 and perspectives on various tenets of the Indian cultural identity (taking the Shivdesani study into view,

through new cultural worlds. But as a researcher I try to bring a logical angle t the study. 2. Limitations This study is restricted to the students studying in University of Delhi and cannot be generalized to the entire population. Since the respondents belong to the urban city where hence levels of education and space and awareness media views the on are issues quite like high, not identity, Similarly country. individuality the sample global of

expecting

honest/unbiased

seems

doubtful. does

population

reflect the views/notions of the young population of the

RESULTS & DATA ANALYSIS
On the basis of the hypothesis a research survey was carried out and the results were then collated and final analysis was done. The ground research work took a span of seven days after which the results were compiled and evaluated. Following are the results and the analysis: Question: Which of the following Frequency 39 11 50 in your opinion, best define “Identity”: Response Avowal Identity Ascribed Identity Total Analysis: 45 Percentage % 78 24 100 %

78% of the studied sample agreed with statement 2 and 24% agreed with statement 1.The two definition are viewed on the concept of ‘avowal’(you describe yourself) and ‘ascribed’(third part defined identity) notion of identity. It was seen that majority of the college students believe that there identity is described best by themselves. But they do mention in most of the studies that the notion of identity for them is best described by the societal and family members/organisations. Question: Do you identify yourself with any of the characters from TV shows. Response FRIENDS South Park MTV Roadies Others Total Analysis: An amazing 42% of the total respondents pointed towards FRIENDS being one show with which they relate the most. Others came second under which most pointed towards shows like ‘Hip Hip Hurray’, ‘Gossip Girl’,’ Heroes’ etc. This result can be attributed towards the inundation of the American popular culture in the Indian society. FRIENDS is a sitcom involving five friends staying in a suburban NY area and grappling with the nuances of the American life. Many concepts which were alien to the majority Indian society like were ‘young quiet kids openly points moving displayed towards an away and from were parents amongst that house’, important the ‘discussion on matters concerning sexual orientation or sex’ contents of the programme. A stark 42% relation with the programming audience accepts above debates more openly and can identify with the show that in a way defines globalisation and American popular culture. 46 Frequency 21 6 5 18 50 Percentage % 42 12 10 36 100

Question 3: Which seminal text have you read / you find is most relevant for our times Response The Mahabharata The Clash of Civilizations My Experiments with Truth Others Total Analysis: The majority of the respondents showed an inclination towards the historic text ‘Mahabharata’ (33%). This can be attributed to the Social inequity theory as projected by Fukuyama according to which ‘historical text distraught with crime and deceit are increasingly recognised by the knowledge society. it is this mix of philosophy and pain that attracts an evolving society”. A lot also point towards others where George Orwell’s writing like “Animal Farm” and “1984” which are left leaning writings talking about oppression of state and the aftermath. A good 28% also talk about “The Clash of Civilisations” as a text that they hold important for the present times. Question: How will you define your Identity. Response Indian Caste/Regional Identity Global Citizen Others Total Analysis: This is perhaps one of the most important results of the survey which points towards changing identity of the college student. A whopping 44% of the respondents say that they have a global identity as compared to 34% who subscribe to the Indian identity. The increasingly 47 growing trend of Frequency 17 8 22 3 50 Percentage % 34 14 44 6 100 Frequency 18 14 3 15 50 Percentage % 33 28 10 29 100

describing yourself as a global citizen can be seen in the survey where college in not that students there many ascribe countries like to them but as the global worlds their stakeholders important 14%). Question: What in your opinion is most important in shaping one’s identity: Response Education Family Money/Social Status Others Total Analysis: Frequency 15 15 10 10 50 Percentage % 30 30 20 20 100 is only not

progress. Second is the Indian identity but what is also describe state/caste as an identity for themselves (only a meager

This result seems to balance on every proportion with no clear result. Majority of the respondents believe that an equal (30%) education and family are most important sources which concept the shape of identity. family of and This only reinforces is the Indian in the ones bonding and that important in

development of one’s character. Another good 20% talk about importance money friends shaping identity. This 20% seem to be representative of the emerging middle class that sees money and social status as important symbols of identity and identity formation. Question 6: Do you think you possess a unique identity: Response Yes No To a great extent Can’t Say/Others Total Analysis Frequency 42 5 2 1 50 Percentage % 87 10 2 1 100

48

An overwhelming and clear 87% say that they do possess a unique identity. The open ended question that followed was answered in different perspectives while the view since he/she is an entity and hence holds a unique identity. This also points at the larger question of how identities are framed. The discussion points at that in most cases the identity becomes synonymous to individuality, where the possibility of misunderstanding the concept as a whole and mixture of distraught identities can be contested. This is what reveals of the analysis of this data that reflects the identity. Question: Which of the following, in your opinion does an ‘Indian Identity’ best/most symbolise :

Response Debates & Discussions Non Violence/Resilience Hard Working Culturally Diverse Total Analysis: Most of the respondents find

Frequency 9 11 10 20 50

Percentage % 18 22 20 40 100

that

Indian

identity

most

embodies diversity which nowhere else is to be found. This also points towards a greater sense of understanding of the Indian aspect identity which in is the reflective survey is of the their informed that opinion on issues of nationalism and other aspects. Another highlighted thinking Indians are non violent or resilient in nature. This is also echoed in the contemporary debates against terrorism where Indians resilient nature has been highlighted. Question: In your opinion is your generation more clear about their identity then the previous generation: Response Frequency 49 Percentage

Yes No Can’t Say/Others Total Analysis:

14 35 1 50

% 28 69 3 100

The questioned was aimed at finding the levels of generation gap and whether there is an understanding that the levels of identity was more clear to the parents/grandparents was more clear to the parents than them. The results show that 69% said that they believe the previous generation was clearer about such issues than the present generation. In addition it was seen that this result is in continuation to the above results where the respondents have embraced global citizens which in essence means blurring the content and generation. Question: Statement 1: ‘Globalization is large scale and solely meant for giant systems.’ Statement 2: ‘Globalization is an internal matter and is directly intertwined with individualistic aspects of our livelihood including our individual identity.’ Result: Response Option 1 Option 2 To a great extent Can’t Say/Others Total Analysis: This part was specifically respondents aimed were at inquiring to the respondent’s level of inquiry into global institutions and globalisation. The expected answer questions related to effects of globalisation on individuals versus global organisations. Most of the respondents favour 50 Frequency 22 14 14 0 50 Percentage % 44 28 28 0 100

globalisation only for big institutions and systems. They don’t believe that this may be a cause of any effect to them as an individual or as a society, or as a nation as a whole. Question: Do you regard Internet as the most important media in your life: Response Yes No To a great extent Can’t Say/Others Total Analysis: Around 60% of the respondents said that internet was the most important media in their life. They said that they would confirm to various sources on the internet for their news input amongst which international news organisations and others rank higher. This point towards the fact that a large majority of the respondent’s work and use the internet as a major source of their daily news dose. Question: Which of the following in your opinion is the most credible news provider: Response BBC CNN Doordarshan (DD NEWS) NDTV Zee News Others Analysis: The majority of the population holds BBC in high regards as far as news dissemination is concerned. NDTV and Doordarshan News follow a close second and third. This result shows that students are highly motivated towards reading unbiased and 51 Frequency 19 4 9 13 5 50 Percentage % 38 9 18 25 10 100 Frequency 29 11 5 5 50 Percentage % 58 22 10 10 100

other

information

which

according

to

the

sample

survey

points towards international organisations taking a lead and also finalising the information provided by them in full data. This result can also be interpreted as students consuming more of global media and hence treating them as the most credible news provider. Question: What do you read the most in News: Response Culture & History Celebrity Editorials Can’t Say/Others Total Analysis: The results point towards a clear favourite of the young population. 60% of the respondents have pointed towards culture and history as their first choice which they read in the news, which is closely followed by editorials in the newspaper (26%). This clearly is a distinction to other results which show a certain kind of inclination towards other media. This can also be correlated to other question on Indian identity where a majority of the respondents answered culturally diverse as their preferred choice. Thus conclusion can be drawn that cultural diversity is a subject that students manifest in a lot many ways. Question: Do you feel rise in consumerism is a direct result of global media: Response Yes No Maybe/Others Total Analysis: 52 Frequency 42 6 2 50 Percentage % 88 18 4 100 Frequency 31 5 13 1 50 Percentage % 62 10 26 2 100

A clear majority of the respondents feel that the global media has made them consumers and hence has resulted in increased consumerism. But strikingly the data is also points towards another 16% talking about consumerism being an inherent virtue that can’t be affected by any external factor. But the major population seems to disagree with this view and believes rising consumerism is a direct output of global media exposures.

CONCLUSION
The following conclusions were derived on the basis of the research survey:

53

1- The study shows that respondents between the ages 19-22 have maximum exposure to global media. The average time spent consuming such media ranges from six to eight hours per day. Another result borne out of the survey was that consumption pattern soared between age 17-22 and then drastically lowered after 22. 2- The study shows that average consumption of global

media varies with different age group. It was concluded that age groups 17-21 spent more time consuming the media compared to users between age groups 22-25. The second derivation is that respondents are being exposed to different tools of global media at their personal level. 3- The study shows that avowal identity is the ‘preferred’ identity their of the respondents they (78%). Thus, it can be concluded that the respondents consider their self as identity which derive from family (32%), education (32%), friends (28%) and social status/money (8%). It can also be concluded that the respondents are confused about their identity because 78% of the respondents feel that their idea about their identity is not clear from that of their parents/grandparents. 4- The respondents accept that there has been a change in their consumption patterns after being exposed to the global media. 92% of the respondents feel news social channels networking sites, blogs, international

have encouraged them to move towards a ‘standardized identity’ reflective of the American popular culture. 44% of the respondents identify themselves with shows like FRIENDS, South Park and find BBC to be the most credible news disseminator. 54

5- It was concluded that the respondents did not maintain their identity with time. It was noticed that views on identity changed between the age groups 17- 21 and 2125. This can be attributed to the change of space (college/school to office/workplace) and general trend of maturity that is seen amongst students.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Books Consulted:

55

1. Castells, M. (1997). The power of identity, the information age: Economy, society and culture, Vol. II. Cambridge, MA; Oxford, UK: Blackwell. 2. Castells, M. (2005). The network society: A crosscultural perspective. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar. 3. Collier, M. J., & Thomas, M. (1988). Cultural Identity: An Interpretive Perspective. 4. Geertz, C. (2000) Available Light: Anthropological Re.ections on Philosophical Topics. 5. Giddens, A. (1999a). Globalization: An irresistible force. Daily Yumiuri. 6. Giddens, A. (1999b). Runaway world: How globalization is reshaping our lives. London: Profile. 7. Howes, D. (ed.) (1996) Cross-Cultural Consumption: Global Markets, Local Realities. London: Routledge. 8. Jandt, F. E. (2004). An Introduction to Intercultural Communication, 4th edition. Thousand. 9. Kaldor, M. (1999) New and Old Wars. Cambridge: Polity Press. 10. Lippman & Pentland, (2003).Identity and Intergroup Communication. 11. Lull, J. (2000) Media, Communication, Culture: A Global Approach. Cambridge: Polity. 12. Martin, J. N., & Nakayama, T. K. (1997). Intercultural Communication in Context. 13. McLuhan, M., & Fiore, Q. (1968). War and peace in the global village. New York: Bantam.M 14. McLuhan, M. (1964). Understanding media: The extensions of man. New York: McGraw Hill. 15. Morley, D. (2000) Home Territories: Media, Mobility and Identity. London: Routledge. 16. Touraine, A. (2003). Equality and/or difference: Real problems, false dilemmas. 56

17. Yakima,Y. & Gudykunst, W. B. Intercultural Communication.

(Eds.), Theories in

57

APPENDIX

ANNEXURE –I Questionnaire for the study
1. Name: 2. Age: 3. College & Course:

58

4. Instructions: a) There are two parts to the questionnaire, please do not leave any part unfilled. b) If you are filling the form online/in the form of a soft copy then please bold your answers, otherwise just mark the options.

QUESTIONNAIRE
Part 1: Cultural Identity 1. Which of the following in your opinion, best define “Identity”:
“the process of construction of meaning on the basis of a cultural attribute, or a related set of cultural attributes, that is given priority over other sources of meaning” “the process where your character is borne out of one’s social, economic and political surroundings”

2.

Do you identify yourself with any of the characters from the following shows: FRIENDS South Park MTV Roadies Others _______________

3. Which seminal text have you read / you find is most relevant for our times: The Mahabharata (Rishi Ved Vyas) The Clash of Civilizations (Samuel P. Huntington) My Experiments with Truth (M.K. Gandhi) Others _______________

4.

How will you define your Identity : As an Indian As a state/caste identity i.e. (Himachali/Punjabi/Bihari/Brahmin/Dalit etc.) Global citizen Others _______________

5.

What in your opinion is most important in shaping one’s identity :

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Education Family Money/Social status Friends Others _________________

6. Do you think you possess an unique identity: Yes No To a great extent Can’t Say/Others ____________________

If the answer to the previous Question is Yes/No, then please elaborate on WHY you think so. Answer: “

. ”End

7. Which of the following, in your opinion does an ‘Indian Identity’ best/most symbolise: Debates and Discussions Non Violence/Resilience Hard working Culturally diverse Others _______________

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8. In your opinion is your generation more clear about their identity then the previous generation: Yes No Can’t say/Other: _______________

9. Statement 1: ‘Globalization is large scale and solely meant for giant systems.’ Statement 2: ‘Globalization is an internal matter and is directly intertwined with individualistic aspects of our livelihood including our individual identity.’ You agree with:

Statement 1 Statement 2 Both Can’t say/None/Others _______________

10. Statement 1: ‘Sacrificing individual identity for common good is justified.’ Statement 2: ‘Individual good means common good, so upholding individual identity reinforces common good.” You agree with:

Statement 1 Statement 2 Both Can’t Say/None/Others _______________

Part 2: Global Media:
1 .Do you regard Internet as the most important media in your life: Yes No

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To a great extent Others _______________

2. Which of the following in your opinion is the most credible news provider: British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) Columbia News Network (CNN) Doordarshan News (DD News) New Delhi Television (NDTV) Zee News Others _______________

3. What do you read the most in News: News about Culture and history Celebrity News Editorials Others _______________

4. Do you feel rise in consumerism is a direct result of global media: Yes No Maybe/Others _______________

5. Are your parents on your Facebook/ Orkut friend list: Yes No

6. Are you aware of large conglomerates that own media like Time Warner, Rupert Murdoch: Yes No

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Can’t say/Others: _______________

ANNEXURE - II List of Participants of the Survey
No . 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Name Cheishtha Kochar Harsimar Khorana Atirek Dhir Ranjit Arora Saumya Chaterjee Gagandeep Singh Sekhon Shravan Gupta Ishita Singh Saransh Ahmed Divya Setya Ishita Bahadur College Sri Venkateshwara Sri Venkateshwara Sri venkateshwara Sri Venkateshwara Sri Venkateshwara Sri Venkateshwara Sri Venkateshwara Sri Venkateshwara Sri venkateshwara Sri Venkateshwara D.C.A.C. 63 Age 20 21 20 21 20 20 21 20 19 21 20 Email Id kocharcheistha@gmail.com simar@hotmail.com daredevil.dhir@gmail.com arora.ranj@gmail.com saumya_sweet@yahoo.co.in sekhonsinghg@gmail.com gupta.shravan@gmail.com ishita.sg@gmail.com saransh@rediffmail.com divya.setya@gmail.com ishita1701@gmail.com

12 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39.

Sumegha Gulati Nabeel Udayan Biswas Aneena Aggarwal Sandeep Kathuria Karan Oberoi Paras Chander Mohan Himantika Verma Pranav Sukhija Udit Rastogi Shashank Shekhar Rai Srishti Gupta Sumati Arora Mugdha Jain Ishita Aggarwal Dikshant bagh Archit Ashwani Sarthak Kwatra Neha Kamra Garima Rana Abhishek Asthana Phalguni Aneja Kartikeya Batra Sidhi Isherwalia Hamid Mailk Sawan Goyal Abha Parekh Aditi Gupta

D.C.A.C. D.C.A.C. D.C.A.C. D.C.A.C. D.C.A.C. D.C.A.C. D.C.A.C. D.C.A.C. D.C.A.C. Hansraj College Hansraj College Hansraj College Hansraj College Hansraj College Hansraj College Hansraj College Hansraj College Hansraj College Hansraj College SSC of Bus. Studies SSC of Bus. Studies SSC of Bus. Studies SSC of Bus. Studies SSC of Bus. Studies SSC of Bus. Studies SSC of Bus. Studies SSC of Bus. Studies SSC of Bus. Studies 64

20 20 20 21 19 20 21 19 21 20 21 19 21 20 20 20 20 19 21 20 19 21 21 20 19 20 20 21

sumegha.aqua@gmail.com nabeel.korn@gmail.com mail2udie@gmail.com aneena@gmail.com sandeepkathuria@rediffma il.com karan.oberoi@gmail.com paras@rediffmail.com hemantikaverma@hotmail.c om pranavsukhija@ahoo.co.in udrastogi@gmail.com ssr1989@gmail.com srishti.gupta@gmail.com sumati_arora@hotmail.com muggi@gmail.com ish.aggarwal@gmail.com dixie@gmail.com archit.striker@gmail.com sarthak@hotmail.com neha.nefertiti@gmail.com garima.v.rana@gmail.com asthana.abhishek@gmail.c om aneja_p@yahoo.com kartikeya.cbs@gmail.com sidhi.angeldivine@gmail. com hamid_guru@ahoo.co.in sawan.Goyal2011@gmail.co m abha.lse@gmail.com aditi.namesake@gmail.com

40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50.

Ankit Chambiyal Sonali Vij Parul Kaul Anchal Dhupar Molly Gambhir Pratiksha Khanduri Simi Natho Harshita Guha Mimansa SenGupta Priyanka Bhardwaj Ananya Pandit

SSC of Bus. Studies Kamla Nehru College Kamla Nehru College Kamla Nehru College Kamla Nehru College Kamla Nehru College Kamla Nehru College Kamla Nehru College Kamla Nehru College Kamla Nehru College Kamla Nehru

19 21 19 20 21 19 20 19 19 19 20

ankit_cham@yahoo.com sonalivij18@gmail.com parulkaul@gmail.com anchal.252@gmail.com molly.gambhir@gmail.com prateeksha@hotmail.com simi.journo@gmail.com harshita@hotmail.com mimansa@yahoo.com priya.bj@hotmail.com luvu_annie@hotmail.com

65