PGPM – 13 Introduction Leading is the process of influencing people so that they will contribute to organizational and group goals. There are different views and assumption about human nature like McGregor theory X and theory Y, Maslow’s theory of human needs which explains the hierarchy ranging from lowest order needs (physiological needs) to the highest order needs (the need for self actualization) theory etc. Although there is no turnkey solution to any particular problem, but these theories help in finding solutions to part of the problems.

Solutions contain motivational techniques adopted by transactional leaders, they clarify roles and tasks, setup a structure and help followers to achieve objectives.

The assignment includes the responsibility of a Project Manager on a site of construction of 3 Km long tunnel. The site is in the coastal region of Orissa and one of such remotest places where it takes 2 long days to travel

by bus to the nearest town. The working conditions are very risky and hazardous. The task is to complete the work within scheduled time period.

Working conditions The tunnel work is a highly technical job where coordination is required at its optimum level. Coastal region in Orissa has very unique climate. During summers, the heat is scorching and the temperature rises sometimes as high as 480C. With such temperature combined with humidity level as high as 95% and beyond the conditions there are quite tough. During rainy season, the incessant rain and cyclonic weather conditions make it worse to work. Thus, total working months in a year is not more than six months.

Construction work needs to continue for at least 16 hrs in a day as there are two shifts of working every day. The labourers have been hired from local people. As the scope of work includes cutting of rocks and other associated works, which requires high skill and proper supervision, some of skilled workers have been hired from other states with a few from Orissa. A proper blend of people have been put together into work to have maximum output.

Introduction and reasons to problems Being a tough site and hazardous work, almost 95% of the unskilled as well as skilled personnel, staff and labourers working at site are male. Female have been avoided during recruitment as safety and security of such personnel will amount to a big task apart from assigned job for the firm.

The personnel working for long hours have no source of entertainment. Regular work and the hazardous working conditions are so tiresome that it has increased absenteeism due to sickness, quarrel, drinking etc.

The people working at the site are usually married and away from their homes. personnel. Thus, home sickness is another big problem with the

There is not even single shop in the nearby area. The mundane requirement has to be taken care of with the stock available with the manamegment only. Having no market place in the area, it is also difficult to retain people even with minor sickness at the site. They complain about

every small thing and want to move frequently to the town which is situated quite faraway.


Solutions to all these problems can only be found out when the root cause of the problems is recognized as the solutions and problems always have same roots. The roots/factors of the problems mentioned above can be summarized a follows :-

(a) (b) (c ) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h)

Safety of the personnel Lack of basic infrastructure such as market place, hospital etc. No source of entertainment Monotonicity of work Home sickness Hygienic conditions at site Climatic conditions Heterogeneous mixture of people at the site from different

states (their cultural habits etc.)

Basically, the target is to achieve the scheduled date of completion amidst all the problems. For providing solutions to all the problems, it is certainly required to work on the motivation techniques. As management is keen that Project Manager should take corrective actions, management is ready to spend some money towards them as the company also believes in over all gain rather than immediate profits. Following suggestions can be proposed to the management in such sites to reduce chances of any unwanted as well as unwarranted happenings:1. All safety regulations shall be strictly followed to avoid accidents at the site. 2. A small shop (pan gumti) kind of place can be set up in the vicinity of the working place, where people can sit during evenings. 3. Sporting events can be organized without hampering the working hours where there is large number of participation, and which can be played easily viz. cricket, football, volleyball etc.

4. There is a requirement to setup religious place in the area, where people can go during non working hours and let loose of them, there by reducing the homesickness. 5. Project Manager and other officials shall make a regular check on the personnel who are increasing regionalism or racism and shall be punished. 6. Proper rewards for work performance shall be decided by the Project Manager and shall be given to suitable candidates without any kind of partiality. 7. Project Manager shall himself keep a check on the hygienic living conditions of all personnel and sometimes may sit and have food with them or play with them to boost their morale. 8. There shall be no committee or community formed within the work premises based on caste, creed, gender or region. 9. Leave shall be granted to the personnel on a rotation basis so that there shall be no hindrances in the progress of the work. 10.A small MI room can be constructed for the personnel to attend any kind of health hazards or accidents etc.

11.There can be a small set up of recreation room where people can watch TV and enjoy. 12.It will be ensured that the food people are having, is hygienic as well as according to their habits.

RECOMMENDATION TO THE MANAGEMENT:1. Setting up of a small shop, MI room and recreation room with TV and some sports facilities and a Mandir. 2. There shall be regular visit of doctors. 3. Arrangements for emergency vehicles shall be made for any unwarranted incidents. 4. Provision of rewards be made based on performance, behavior, cultural events etc. 5. Immediate action be taken against any individual involved in anti social activities. 6. Safety of women employees shall be ensured with provisioning of separate accommodation etc for them.



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