# Numerical Analysis

Chapter # 2
Solution of Algebraic and Transcendental Equations
Notes:
(1)

Linear Equations: An equation in which the highest power of variable is “One”
is called linear equation. e.g.
 x+2=0
 2x + 10 = 0 etc

(2)

Non-Linear Equation: Equation involving higher powers of a variable is called
Non-Linear Equation.e.g.
 x3 + 4x2 + 10x + 3 = 0
 x4 + 9x2 + 20 = 0

(3) Transcendental Equation: Equation involving functions of variable
(e.g. Trigonometric, Exponential and logarithmic functions etc) is called
Transcendental Equation.e.g.
 Sinx = 6x + 2
 ex – lnx = 20
 e-x – Sinx = 0
(4) There are two methods of solving Non-Linear and Transcendental Equations.
 Numerical Method.
 Analytical Method
Types of Numerical Method
(i) Newton Raphson Method

(ii) Secant Method

(iii) False Position Method

(iv) Bisection Method

(v) Iterative Process
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Numerical Analysis

2

The process of finding Successive approximation to a quantity is called an iterative
process.
Type No # 1
Newton Raphson method
KEY
 .f(x) = 

(Given)

d
f ( x) and put x = xn in f(x) and f ′(x ) .
 Find f ′(x) i.e.
dx

 Interval or initial point x0 will be given if not, put x = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, ………….in f(x).
 If f(x) changes its sign for any two close values of x, the interval will be that one
and the small value of the interval will be x0.
 Finally put n = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, …………… in the formula:

x n +1 = x n −

f ( xn )
to get x1, x2, x3,………………
f ′( x n )

 If the two values of x are approximately equal then we stop the iteration, and the
last value of x will be a positive root of f(x).
Q.21/Page # 47
Apply any numerical method to calculate the square root of 3 up to six decimal places.
Ans:
Square root of 3 =
Let x =

3

3

Squaring both sides
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Numerical Analysis
X2 = 3 ⇒ x2 – 3 = 0
Let f(x) = x2 – 3 ⇒ f(xn) = xn2 - 3
d
d
f (x) =
( x2 – 3) ⇒ f ′(x ) = 2x ⇒ f ′( x n ) = 2 xn
dx
dx

Using Newton Raphson Method

x n +1 = x n −

f ( xn )
f ′( x n )
2

x n +1 = x n −

2

2

2

xn − 3 2xn − xn + 3 xn + 3
=
=
----------> (1)
2 xn
2 xn
2xn

To find x0
As f(x) = x2 – 3
For x = 0, f(0) = 0 – 3 = -3 (-ve)
For x = 1, f(1) = 1 – 3 = -2 (-ve)
For x = 2, f(2) = 22 – 3 = 4 – 3 = 1 (+ve)
Since f(x) changes its sign at x = 1 and x = 2
⇒ The root lies in the interval (1, 2) ⇒ x0 = 1
2

x0 + 3 1 + 3 4
=
= =2
For n = 0, equation (1) ⇒ x1 =
2 x0
2
2
2

For n = 1, equation (1) ⇒ x 2 =

x1 + 3 2 2 + 3 4 + 3 7
=
=
= = 1.75
2 x1
2(2)
4
4
2

x 2 + 3 (1.75) 2 + 3 6.0625
=
=
= 1.732149
For n = 2, equation (1) ⇒ x 3 =
2 x2
2(1.75)
3.5
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2

x 3 + 3 (1.732149) 2 + 3
=
= 1.7320508
For n = 3, equation (1) ⇒ x 4 =
2 x3
2 x3
We stop the iteration because the value of x3 and x4 are approximately equal. Hence
the root is x = 1.7320508.

Q.16/page # 47
Find the +ve real root of xex = 1, using Newton Raphson method.
Use x0=1.
Ans:
Given that: xex = 1 ==> xex – 1 = 0
Let f(x) = xex – 1 ==> f(xn) = xnexn – 1
d
( xe x −1) = xex + ex.1 – 0
dx

f ′(x ) =

f ′(x ) = xex + ex

f ′( x n ) =exn ( xn + 1)

Using Newton Raphson Method

x n +1

f ( xn )
x n e xn − 1
= xn −
=> x n +1 = x n − xn
f ′( x n )
e ( x n + 1)

x n +1 =

x n e xn ( x n + 1) − ( x n e xn − 1)
e xn ( x n + 1)
2

2

x n e xn + x/ n e xn − x/ n e xn + 1
x n e xn + 1
⇒ x n +1 =
⇒ x n +1 = xn
---------> (1)
e xn ( x n + 1)
e ( x n + 1)

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5

For n = 0, equation (1) =>
2

x0 e x0 + 1
x1 = x0
e ( x0 + 1)
x1 =

12.e1 +1 2.7183 +1 3.7183
=
=
= 0.6839
e1 (1 +1) 2.7183 × 2 5.4365

x1 = 0.6839

For n = 1, equation (1) =>

x1 e x1 + 1 ( 0.6839) e 0.6839 + 1 0.4677× 1.9816+ 1 1.9267
x2 = x1
=
=
=
= 0.5776
1.9816× 1.6839 3.3368
e ( x1 + 1) e 0.6839(0.6839+ 1)
2

2

For n = 2, equation (1) =>

x2 e x2 + 1 ( 0.5776) e 0.5776 + 1 0.3336× 1.7816+ 1 1.5944
x3 = x2
=
=
=
= 0.5672
1.7816× 1.5776 2.8109
e ( x2 + 1) e 0.5776(0.5776+ 1)
2

2

After 3 iterations the values of x2 and x3 coincide. Hence the root is x = 0.5672.

TYPE NUMBER 2
SECANT METHOD

Key
 The formula for Secant Method is:
x n +1 =

x n −1 f ( x n ) − x n f ( x n −1 )
f ( x n ) − f ( x n −1 )

 f(x) will be given.
 For f(xn) and f(xn-1) put x = xn and x = xn-1 in the given function f(x).

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 Interval (x0, x1) will be given or individually the values of x0 and x1 will be given,
if not then 1st we find the values of x0 and x1 by putting x = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4,
………….. to get the change in sign for f(x).
 Finally put n = 1, 2, 3, 4, …………….. in the formula. The root will be that for
which two values of x coincide.
(ii) To solve xx = 10 by Secant Method.
Let f(x) = xx – 10 ⇒ f(xn) = x n

xn

− 10 ⇒ f(xn-1) = xn−1

xn −1

− 10

Using Secant Method
x n +1 =

x n −1 f ( x n ) − x n f ( x n −1 )
--------> (1)
f ( x n ) − f ( x n −1 )

as root lies in the interval (2, 3) ⇒ x0 = 2 and x1 = 3
equation (1) ⇒
x

x n +1 =

x n −1 ( x n n − 10) − x n ( x n −1
xn

( x n − 10) − ( x n −1

xn −1

x

=

x n −1 ( x n n − 10) − x n ( x n −1
x

x n n − x n −1

xn −1

− 10)

− 10)
xn − 1

=

xn

x n − 10 − x n −1

xn −1

xn − 1

− 10)

+ 10

− 10)

xn −1

x

⇒ x n +1 =

x

x n −1 ( x n n − 10) − x n ( x n −1

x n −1 .x n n − 10x n −1 − x n .x n −1
x

x n n − x n −1

xn − 1

xn −1

+ 10x n

− −− > (1)

For n = 1, equation (1) ⇒
x

x2 =

x

x 0 .x1 1 − 10x 0 − x1 .x 0 0 + 10x1
x

x1 1 − x 0

x0

2( 3 )3 − 10( 2 ) − 3( 2 ) 2 + 10( 3 ) 54 − 20 − 12 + 30 52
=
=
= = 2.2609
27 − 4
23
33 − 2 2

For n = 2, equation (1) ⇒

x3 =
x3 =

x1 .x 2

x2

x

− 10 x1 − x 2 .x1 1 + 10 x 2
x2

x2

− x1

x1

=

3( 2.2609 ) 2.2609 − 10( 3 ) − 2.2609( 3 )3 + 10( 2.2609 )
( 2.2609 ) 2.2609 − 3 3

18.9721 − 30 − 61.0443 + 22.6090 − 49.4632
=
= 2.3923
6.3240 − 27
− 20.6760

For n = 3, equation (1) ⇒

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x 2 .x 3

x4 =
x4 =

x3

− 10 x 2 − x 3 .x 2
x3

x3

− x2

x2

+ 10 x 3

x2

=

7

2.2609( 2.3923 ) 2.3923 − 10( 2.2609 ) − 2.3923( 2.2609 ) 2.2609 + 10( 2.3923 )
( 2.3923 ) 2.3923 − ( 2.2609 ) 2.2609

182189 − 22.6090 − 15.1290 + 23.9230 4.4039
=
= 2.4546
8.0582 − 6.3240
1.7342

For n = 4, equation (1) ⇒

x5 =
x5 =

x 3 .x 4

x4

− 10 x 3 − x 4 .x 3
x4

x4

− x3

x3

+ 10 x 4

x3

2.3923( 2.4546 ) 2.4546 − 2.4546( 2.3923 ) 2.3923 − 10( 2.3923 ) + 10( 2.4546 )
=
( 2.4546 ) 2.4546 − ( 2.3923 ) 2.3923

21.6802 − 19.7798 − 23.9230 + 24.5460 2.5234
=
= 2.5126
9.0625 − 8.0582
1.0043

We stop the iteration because the values of x4 and x5 are approximately equal. Hence
the root is x = 2.5126

TYPE NO. 3
METHOD OF FALSE POSITION
OR
REGULA FALSI METHOD

KEY
(1)

Formula for False position is

xi = x L +

f ( xL )[ xR − xL ]
f ( xL ) − f ( xR )

Where

xL = Lower value of the interval
xR = Upper value of the interval

(2)

The function f(x) will be given.

(3)

The interval will be given, if not then put x = 0, 1, 2, 3,………….in f(x).
If f(x) changes its sign for any two consecutive values of x, the interval will be
that one.

(4)

We put all these values in the formula (1) to get xi.

(5)

Find f(xi), if f(xi) is nearly equal to ‘ZERO’ stop the iteration process otherwise
proceed by reducing the interval in the following ways:

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(6)

8

F(xL)

F(xR)

F(xi)

Replace xL or xR by xi

Positive

Negative

Positive

Replace xL by xi

Negative

Positive

Positive

Replace xR by xi

Positive

Negative

Negative

Replace xR by xi

Negative

Positive

Negative

Replace xL by xi

We stop the iteration process when the value of f(xi) is nearly equal to zero and
the root will be xi.

Q.14/Page # 46
To solve the question f(x) = sinx – 0.5x by using the False position Method.
From the previous question the root lies in the interval (1,2) ⇒ xL = 1, xR= 2
Now f(xL) = f(1) = sin1 – 0.5(1) = 0.8414 – 0.5 = 0.3414
And f(xR) = f(2) = sin2 – 0.5(2) = 0.9093 – 1 = -0.0907
Using the formula for Regula Falsi Method
f ( x L )[ x R − x L ]
xi = x L +
f ( x L ) − f ( x R ) --------->(1)

xi = 1 +

0.3414 [ 2 − 1]
0.3414
=1 +
= 1 + 0.7900 = 1.79
0.3414 + 0.0907
0.4321

now f(xi) = f(1.79) = sin(1.79) -0.5(1.79) = 0.9760-0.895=0.081
(Not nearly equal to zero. So we proceed)
We have the following situation
.f(xL)

= 0.3414

(+ve)

.f(xR) = - 0.0907 (-ve)
.f(xi)

= 0.081

(+ve)

⇒ xi = xL = 1.79, xR = 2
⇒ f(xi) = 0.081 = f(xL) [i.e. we replace xL by xi and f(xL) by f(xi) in (1)]
equation (1) ⇒
xi = 1.79 +

0.081[2 − 1.79 ]
0.0170
= 1.79 +
= 1.79 + 0.0990 = 1.8890
0.081 + 0.0907
0.1717

Now f(xi) = f(1.8890) = sin(1.8890) – 0.5(1.8890) = 0.0053
Since the value of f(xi) is nearly equal to Zero ⇒ the root is x = 1.8890 Answer
TYPE NO. 4
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9

BISECTION METHOD
OR
BOLZANO METHOD
KEY

The value of f(x) will be given.

Find those values of x for which f(x) changes its sign. The root will lie in that
interval.

Find the mid point of the interval and find f(x) for that value of x.

Reduce the interval for which f(x) changes its sign [Already discussed in Type #3]
and go on till the value of f(x) nearly equal to zero. This will be your root.

Q.11/Page # 46
Find a positive real root of f(x) = sinx – x/2, with x1 = π /2 and x2 = π using Bisection
Method. Do six iterations.
Ans: Given function is: f(x) = sinx – x/2 -------->(1)
1st we find the interval for which f(x) changes its sign.
Since x1 = π /2 and x2 = π
Therefore

f(x1) = f(π /2) = sinπ /2 -π /2/2 = 1 – π /4 = 1 – 0.785 = 0.215 (+ve)

And

f(x2) = f(π ) = sinπ - π /2 = 0 – 1.571 = -1.571(-ve)

As f(x) changes its sign for x1 = π /2 and x2 = π
⇒ the interval is (π /2, π ) or (1.571, 3.142)
Now we find the mid point of x1 and x2
Mid point = x =

x1 + x 2 1.571 + 3.142
=
= 2.356
2
2

Put this value of x in (1)
.f(x) = f(2.356) = sin(2.356) – 2.356/2 = -0.471
(not nearly equal to zero, so we proceed)
For the next step we have:
.f(x1) is +ve

f(x2) is – ve

f(x) is – ve

⇒ x1 = 1.571 and x2= x = 2.356
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[we choose x as x2 because f(x2) and f(x) have same sign]
And f(x1) = 0.215 (+ve), f(x2) = f(x) = - 0.471 (-ve)
Now mid point = x =

x1 + x 2 1.571 + 2.356
=
= 1.963
2
2

Put this value of x in equation (1)
.f(x) = f(1.963) = sin(1.963) – 1.963/2 = -0.058
(not nearly equal to zero, so we proceed)
For the next step, we have:
.f(x1) = 0.215 (+ve), f(x2) = - 0.471 (-ve), f(x) = -0.058 (-ve)
⇒ x1 is the same and x2 = x = 1.963
So, mid point = x =

x1 + x 2 1.571 + 1.963
=
= 1.767
2
2

Put in equation (1)
.f(x) = f(1.767) = sin(1.767) – 1.767/2 = 0.097
(Not nearly equal to zero, so we proceed)
For the next step, we have:
.f(x1) = 0.215 (+ve), f(x2) = - 0.058 (-ve), f(x) = 0.097 (+ve)
⇒ x1 = x = 1.767 and x2 = 1.963 (which is the same)
So, Mid point = x =

x1 + x2 1.767 + 1.963
=
= 1.865
2
2

Put in equation (1)
.f(x) = f(1.865) = sin(1.865) – 1.865/2 = 0.024
(Not nearly equal to zero, so we proceed)
For the next step, we have:
.f(x1) = 0.097 (+ve), f(x2) = - 0.058 (-ve), f(x) = 0.024 (+ve)
⇒ x1 = x = 1.865 (Changed)
So , Mid point = x =

and

x2 = 1.963 (Not changed)

x1 + x2 1.867 + 1.963
=
= 1.889
2
2

Put this value of x in equation (1)
.f(1.889) = sin(1.889) – 1.889/2 = 0.004
This value of f(x) is nearly equal to Zero. Hence the root is x = 1.889(ANSWER)

CHAPTER # 3
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Numerical Analysis

11

LINEAR EQUATIONS
Consider the system of equations.
2x1 – 3 x2 + 7x3 = 10
8x1 + 2 x2 + 5x3 = 12
4x1 – 3x2 – 9 x3 = 16
All the above equations involve three unknowns i.e. x1, x2, x3 with maximum power
“ONE”. So this system of equations is called system of linear equations. We can write
it in matrix form as:
2
8

4

−3
2
−3

i.e.

7  x1  10 
   
5 
x 2 = 12 
−9

x 3 
 
16 

Ax = c

2

Where A = 8

4

−3
2
−3

7 
5 
 and is called coefficient matrix
−9

10 
 
c = 12  which is called column matrix or column vector.

16 

Augmented Matrix is:
2

Ac = 8

4

−3
2
−3

10 
5 12 

−9 16 

7

The system of linear equations can be solved by two methods.

Direct Method.
Iterative Method.
Types of Direct Method

Crammer’s Rule
Gauss Elimination Method.
Gauss Jordan Method.
Method of Inversion.
Choleski’s Factorization Method.

TYPE NO. 1
CRAMMER’S RULE
KEY
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12

Write the system of equations in Matrix form i.e. Ax = c
Find |A|. If |A| ≠0, solution exists and if |A| = 0, then solution does not exit.
Find |A1|, |A2|, |A3|, where |A1|, |A2| and |A3| are the determinants obtained by
replacing the 1st , 2nd and 3rd column of A by c respectively.

The solution is: x1 =

The solution set will be written as: a = (x1, x2, x3) T
Where T stands for Transpose

A1
A

, x2 =

A2
A

, x3 =

A3
A

.

Q.3/Page # 84
Solve the system of equations by using Crammer’s Rule
2.16x1 + 3.75x2 + 0.98x3 = 8.68
4.12x1 + 1.67x2 + 7.21x3 = 0.25
3.14x1 + 4.02x2 + 2.16x3 = 9.16
Ans:
The system can be written in matrix form as:
2.16 3.75 0.98   x1  8.68 
4.12 1.67 7.21  x  = 0.25 

 2  

3.14 4.02 2.16   x 3  9.16 
i.e.

Ax = c

1st we find |A|
|A| =

2.16
4.12
3.14

3.75
1.67
4.02

0.98
7.21
2.16

Expanding by R1
|A| =
|A| =
|A| =
|A| =

2.16

1.67

7.21

4.02

2.16

−3.75

4.12

7.21

3.14

2.16

+0.98

4.12

1.67

3.14

4.02

2.16[ (1.67)(2.16) – (4.02)(7.21)]
- 3.75[(4.21)(2.16) – (7.21)(3.14)]
+ 0.98[(4.12)(4.02) – (3.14)(1.67)]
2.16(3.60 – 28.98) – 3.75(8.90 – 22.64) + 0.98(16.56 – 5.24)
- 54.82 + 51.52 + 11.09 = 7.79 ≠0

⇒ Solution exists.

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8.68
| A 1 |= 0.25
9.16

Now

3.75
1.67
4.02

Expanding
= 8.68

0.98
7.21
2.16

by R 1

1.67
4.02

7.21
2.16

−3.75

0.25
9.16

=8.68(3.60
- 28.98) - 3.75(0.54
= −220 .298 +245 .62 −13 .999
2.16
| A 2 |= 4.12
3.14

Also

Expanding

13

8.68
0.25
9.16

7.21
0.25
+0.98
2.16
9.16

- 66.04) +0.98(1.005
= 11 .32

1.67
4.02
- 15.29)

0.98
7.21
2.16

by R 1

=2.16(0.54
- 66.04) - 8.68(8.89
- 22.64)
=- 141.48 +119.35 +36.21 =14.08
2.16
And | A 3 |= 4.12
3.14
Expanding

3.75
1.67
4.02

+0.98(37.74

- 0.785)

8.68
0.25
9.16

by R 1

= 2.16(15.29 - 1.005) - 3.75(37.74 - 0.785) +8.68(16.56
=30.85 - 138.58 +98.257 = - 9.4724

- 5.24)

| A1 | 11.32
=
=1.44
|A|
7.79
| A 2 | 14 .08
=
=
=1.798
|A|
7.79
| A | −9.4724
= 3 =
= −1.209
| A|
7.79

So x 1 =
x

2

x

3

Hence the solution

is : x = ( x1 , x 2 , x3 ) T = (1.44 ,1.798 ,−1.209 ) T

Some important Hints
(i) Elementary Row Operation (ERO)
The operations over a matrix A are called elementary row operations if:
• Any two rows of A are interchanged i.e. Ri j
• Any row of A is multiplied by a non-zero element. i.e. KRi
• Any row of A is added to a scalar multiple of another row of A. i.e. Ri ± KRj
(ii) Echelon Form of a Matrix
A matrix is said to be echelon matrix if:
• The first non-zero element of each row is non – zero [as a special case 1]
• The number of zeros on L.H.S of “1” (one) increases row by row.
• Zero row is the last one
Example
1
0
A= 
0

0

2
1
0
0

3
5
1
0

4 
6 

−3

1 

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(iii) Reduced Echelon form
A matrix is called in reduced Echelon form if:
• It is in Echelon form.
• If “1” lies in any column, the remaining Entries in that column will be Zero.
Example:
1

A = 0
0

0
1
0

0 1
0 2

1 3

Type No. 2
Gauss Elimination Method
KEY
• Write the system of equations in matrix form.
• Write the matrix form in tabular form.
• Change the co-efficient matrix to Echelon form.
• Find the values of unknowns. i.e. x1, x2, x3,…………..
T
• Solution is: x = ( x1 , x2 , x3 )
Q.2/Page # 83
Solve by Gauss Elimination Method
2x1 – x2 + 3x3 – x4 = 7
x1 – x2 + 4x3 – 2x4 = 5
3x1 + 2x2 + x3 + 4x4 = 31
4x1 – 3x2 + 3x3 – 3x4 = -5
Ans:
Writing the system of equations in matrix form

 2 − 1 3 − 1  x1   7 
 1 − 1 4 − 2  x   5 

  2 =  
 3 2 1 4   x3   3  1

   
 4 − 3 3 − 3   x4   − 5
Ax = c
Using Gauss Elimination Method, We write the system in tabular form as:

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14

Numerical Analysis

R20

15

Rows

X1

X2

X3

X4

C

Row
Explanation

R1
R2
R3
R4

2
1
3
4

-1
-1
2
-3

3
4
1
3

-1
-2
4
-3

7
5
31
-5

Eq(1)
Eq(2)
Eq(3)
Eq(4)

R5
R6
R7
R8

1
0
0
0

-1/2
-1/2
7/2
-1

3/2
5/2
-7/2
-3

-1/2
-3/2
11/2
-1

7/2
3/2
41/2
-19

½ R1
R2 – R5
R3 – 3R5
R4 – 4R5

R9
R10
R11
R12

1
0
0
0

-1/2
1
0
0

3/2
-5
-14
-8

-1/2
3
5
2

7/2
-3
-31
-22

-2R6
R7 – 7/2R10
R8 + R10

R13
R14
R15
R16

1
0
0
0

-1/2
1
0
0

3/2
-5
1
0

-1/2
3
-5/14
-12/14

7/2
-3
31/14
-60/14

-1/14 R11
R12 + 8R15

R17
R18
R19
R20

1
0
0
0

-1/2
1
0
0

3/2
-5
1
0

-1/2
3
-5/14
1

7/2
-3
31/14
60/12

-14/12 R16

⇒ x4 = 60/12 = 5
⇒ x4 = 5
5
31
5
31
x4 =
⇒ x 3 − (5) =
14
14
14
14
31 25 31 + 25 56
⇒ x3 =
+
=
=
=4
14 14
14
14
R18 ⇒ x2 − 5 x3 + 3x 4 = −3 ⇒ x 2 − 5(4) + 3(5) = −3 ⇒ x2 − 20 + 15 = −3 ⇒ x 2 = −3 + 5 ⇒ x 2 = 2
R19 ⇒ x3 −

1
3
1
7
1
3
1
7
5 7
x2 + x3 − x 4 = ⇒ x1 − ( 2) + (4) − (5) = ⇒ x1 − 1 + 6 − =
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2 2
7 5
7 + 5 + 2 − 12 2
⇒ x1 = + + 1 − 6 ⇒ x1 =
= =1
2 2
2
2
T
T
x
=
(
x
,
x
,
x
,
x
)
=
(
1
,
2
,
4
,
5
)
Hence
1
2
3
4
R17 ⇒ x1 −

Q.1(ii)/Page # 83
X1 + x2 + x3 + x4 = 4
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Numerical Analysis

16

2x1 + 3x2 + 7x3 – x4 = 11
3x1 – 2x2 + 5x3 – 3x4 = 3
4x1 – 5x2 – 2x3 – 3x4 = -6
Ans:
Matrix form is
1
2

3

4

1
3
−2
−5

1  x1   4 
   
−1
x 2 =  11 
− 3 x3  3 
   
− 3x 4 − 6

1
7
5
−2

Ax = c
Using Gauss Jordon Method in tabular form:
Row
Explanation
Eq(1)
Eq(2)
Eq(3)
Eq(4)

Rows

X1

X2

X3

X4

C

R1
R2
R3
R4

1
2
3
4

1
3
-2
-5

1
7
5
-2

1
-1
-3
-3

4
11
3
-6

R5
R6
R7
R8

1
0
0
0

1
1
-5
-9

1
5
2
-6

1
-3
-6
-7

4
3
-9
-22

R9
R10
R11
R12

0
1
0
0

1
0
0
0

5
-4
27
39

-3
4
-21
-34

3
1
6
5

R6
R5 – R9
R7 + 5R9
R8 + 9R9

R13
R14
R15
R16

0
0
1
0

0
1
0
0

1
0
0
0

-7/9
8/9
8/9
-11/3

2/9
17/9
17/9
-11/3

1/27 R11
R9 – 5R13
R10 + 4R13
R12 – 39R13

R17
R18
R19
R20

0
0
0
1

0
0
1
0

0
1
0
0

0
0
0
1

1
1
1
1

-3/11 R16
R13+7/9R17
R14– 8/9R17
R15–8/9 R17

R21
R22
R23
R24

1
0
0
0

0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0

0
0
0
1

1
1
1
1

R20
R19
R18
R17

R1
R2 – 2R5
R3 – 3R5
R4 – 4R5

R24 ⇒ x4 = 1
R23 ⇒ x3 = 1
R22 ⇒ x2 = 1
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Numerical Analysis

17

R21 ⇒ x1 = 1
T
T
Hence the solution is: x = ( x1 , x 2 , x3 , x 4 ) = (1,1,1,1) Answer
Type No. 4
Method of Inversion
Key

Write the system of equation in matrix form.
Re-write it as x = A-1c
Find A-1 by Gauss Jordan Method.
Tabular form of this method contains co-efficient Matrix and the identity matrix.
Change the co-efficient Matrix to identity Matrix by ERO and get the values of
unknowns.
Identity Matrix is:
1

I = 0

0

0
1
0

0
0
 etc.
1

Q.4/Page # 84
Solve the system of equation by Inversion of the matrix.
4.65x1 + 1.98x2 – 4.62x3 = 11.25
0.79x1 – 2.54x2 + 3.16x3 = -4.91
4.02x1 – 8.17x2 + 2.93x3 = -6.90
Ans:
Matrix form of the system is
4.65
0.79

4.02

1.98
− 2.54
−8.17

− 4.62  x1  11 .25 
  

3.16 
x 2 = − 4.91 
2.93 

x3
 
−6.90 

Ax = c
x = A-1c -(1)
We 1st find A-1 by Gauss Jordan Method

Rows

X1

X2

X3

C1

C2

C3

Row
Explanation

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18

R1
R2
R3

4.65
0.79
4.02

1.98
-2.54
-8.17

-4.62
3.16
2.93

1
0
0

0
1
0

0
0
1

Eq(1)
Eq(2)
Eq(3)

R4
R5
R6

1
0
0

0.42
-2.88
-9.87

0.99
2.38
-1.04

0.25
-0.11
-1

0
1
0

0
0
1

1/4.65 R1
R2 – 0.79R4
R3 – 4.02R4

R7
R8
R9

0
1
0

1
0
0

-0.82
1.34
-9.20

0.07
0.22
-0.32

-0.34
0.14
-3.43

0
0
1

-1/2.88 R5
R4 – 0.42R7
R6 + 9.87R7

R10
R11
R12

0
0
1

0
1
0

1
0
0

0.34
0.36
-0.24

0.36
-0.04
-0.34

-0.11
-0.08
0.14

-1/9.20 R9
R7 + 0.82R10
R8 – 1.34R10

R13
R14
R15

1
0
0

0
1
0

0
0
1

-0.24
0.36
0.34

-0.34
-0.04
0.36

0.14
-0.08
-0.11

R12
R11
R10

Hence A

-1

−0.24

=  0.36

 0.34

Equation (1) ⇒
 x1  −0.24
x 2 =  0.36
  

x3
 
 0.34

−0.34
−0.04
0.36

−0.34
−0.04
0.36

0.14 
−0.08 

0.11 

0.14 11 .25 

−0.08 
 4.91 
0.11 

−6.90 

 x1  − 2.74 −1.70 −0.99  −5.40 
x 2 =  4.01 −0.24 + 0.61  =  4.38 
  
 

x3
 
 3.90 +1.78 + 0.74 
 
 6.43 

T
T
Hence the solution is: x = ( x1 , x2 , x3 ) = ( −5.40 ,4.38 ,6.43 )
NOTES
(i)
Square Matrix
Number of Rows = Number of Columns

(ii)
(iii)

Rectangular Matrix
Number of Rows ≠ Number of Columns
Diagonal Matrix
If in a Matrix, aij =0 for i ≠ j and atleast one aii ≠ 0
For example
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Numerical Analysis
2

A= 0
0

(iv)

6
0

Upper Triangular Matrix
If aij = o, for i > j and there exists at least one non-zero entry for i < j .
For example
3

U = 0

0

(v)

0
0
 where 2, 6, 3 are called diagonal elements.

3

0

2
7
0

5
9

6

Lower Triangular Matrix
If aij = 0, for i < j and there exists at least one non-zero entry for i > j
For example
4

L = −9

1

0
2
6

0
0

7

(vi)

Singular Matrix
If |A| = 0 ⇒ A is singular.
(vii) Non-singular Matrix
If |A| ≠ 0 ⇒ A is non-singular.
(viii) How to express a Matrix A in the product of L and U.
i.e.
A = LU
where L is the unit lower triangular and U is the upper triangular. i.e.
a11 a12 a13 

If A = a21 a22 a23  , then
a31 a32 a33 
a11 a12 a13   1 0 0 u11 u12 u13 
a
a22 a23  = l21 1 0 . 0 u 22 u 23 
 21
 


a31 a32 a33  l31 l32 1  0
0 u33 

TYPE NO. 5
CHOLESKI’S METHOD
KEY
• Given a system of equation: Ax = c
• Find L and U such that: LU = A
• Where L is the lower triangular matrix with diagonal elements “1” and U is upper
triangular Matrix.
• Let y = (y1, y2, y3,…………., yn)T
• Find y by using:
Ly = c
• Find x = (x1, x2, x3, ……..xn)T by using Ux = y which is the solution
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Numerical Analysis

20

Q.17/Page # 88
1

Decompose the Matrix A = 2

2

3
7
 in to the product of LU. Where L is the unit
12 

2
8
16

lower triangular and U is upper triangular. Hence solve the system of equations.
.x1 + 2x2 + 3x3 = 2
2x1 + 8x2 + 7x3 = 7
2x1 + 16x2 + 12x3 = 10
Ans:
1st we express the matrix in the LU form. i.e. A = LU
1
2

2

2
8
16

3  1

7
 = l 21
 l
12 

0
1
l 32

 31

⇒ u11 = 1
l21.u11 + 0 + 0 = 2
l21(1) = 2
⇒ l21= 2
l31.u11 + 0 = 2
l31(1) = 2
⇒ l31 = 2

1

hence L = 2

2

0
1
3

0 u11

0. 0
1  0


u12
u 22
0

u13 

u 23 
u 33 

u12 + 0 + 0 = 2
⇒u12 = 2
l21.u12 + u22 = 8
(2)(2) + u22 = 8
u22 = 8 – 4 = 4
⇒ u22 = 4
l31.u12 + l32.u22 + 0 = 16
2.2 + l32 (4) = 16
4l32 = 16 – 4 = 12
⇒ l32 = 3

0
1

0 and U = 
0

1

0

2
4
0

u13 + 0 + 0 = 3
⇒ u13 = 3
l21.u13 + u23 = 7
(2)(3) + u23 = 7
u23 = 7 – 6 = 1
l31.u13 + l32.u23 + u33 = 12
2.3 + 3.1 + u33 = 12
u33 = 12 – 6 – 3 = 3
⇒ u33 = 3

3
1

3

Now we find the solution set of the system
To find y such that:
L
y = c
1 0 0  y1   2 
2 1 0  y  =  7 

 2   
2 3 1   y  10 
 3
 y +0+0  2
1

  
 2 y1 + y 2 + 0  =  7 
2 y + 3 y + y  10 
 1
2
3   

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Numerical Analysis

21

⇒ y1 = 2
⇒ 2y1 + y2 = 7
⇒ (2)(2) + y2 = 7
⇒ y2 = 7 – 4 = 3
⇒ y2 = 3
R3
⇒ 2y1 + 3y2 + y3 = 10
⇒ (2)(2) + (3)(3) + y3 = 10
⇒ y3 = 10 – 4 – 9 = - 3
⇒ y3 = -3
Therefore y = (y1, y2, y3)T = (2, 3, -3)T
Now we find x= (x1, x2, x3)T such that:
U x = y
R1
R2

1
0

0

2
4
0

3 x1   2 
   
1
 x 2  =  3 
 −3
3


 x3  

x1 +2 x 2 +3 x3   2 

  
 0 + 4 x 2 + x3  =  3 
 0 +0 +3 x
 −3

3  

⇒ 3x3 = -3
⇒ x3 = -1
R2
⇒ 4x2 + x3 = 3
⇒ 4x2 + (-1) = 3
⇒ 4x2 = 3 + 1 = 4
⇒ x2 = 1
R3
⇒ x1 + 2x2 + 3x3 = 2
⇒ x1 + 2.1 + 3. -1 = 2
⇒ x1 + 2 – 3 = 3
⇒ x1 = 4
Hence the solution is: x = (x1, x2, x3)T = (4, 1, -1)T
R3

Diagonally Dominant Matrix
A square Matrix A whose elements are aij is said to be diagonally dominant if:
n
aii ≥ ∑ aij
, i = 1,2, ……………n
i=1
i≠ j
Example
a
 11
Let A = a 21
a
 31

a12
a 22
a32

a13  5
1
 
a 23  = 3 − 12
a33  1 − 4

−2
3 
− 20 

In the above matrix the Diagonal elements are 5, -12, -20. the absolute of these value are 5, 12, 20. These
values are greater than the absolute sum of the remaining elements two elements in that row. For example 5
is greater than |1| + |-2| = 1 + 2 = 3. Similar case for the other two rows.
TYPE NO. 2
ITERATIVE METHODS
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There are two types of Iterative Methods
• Jacobi Method
• Gauss Seidel Method.
Type # 1
Jacobi’s Method
KEY
• Write down the system in Diagonally Dominant form
• Write down the Diagonally Dominant form in Iterative form.
• Find 1st Iteration by Putting x0 = (0, 0, 0, 0,………)T
• We continue this process until we get the required accuracy.
Q.16/ Page # 87
Solve the system of equations
x1 + 0.1x2 = 1.0
0.1x1 + x2 + 0.1x3 = 2
0.1x2 + x3 = 3
Using (i) Jacobi’s Method.
(ii) Gauss Seidel Method.
Ans:
(i) 1st we will use the Jacobi’s Method
x1 + 0.1x2 = 1.0
0.1x1 + x2 + 0.1x3 = 2
0.1x2 + x3 = 3
The system is already in diagonally dominant form. So it can be written as:
. x1 = 1 – 0.1x2
. x2 = 2 – 0.1x2 – 0.1x3 -----------------> (A)
. x3 = 3 – 0.1x2
1st Iteration
Put x1 = x2 = x3 = 0 in (A)

x1 = 1 , x2 = 2 and x3 = 3
2nd Iteration
Put x1 = 1, x2 = 2 and x3 = 3 in (A)

x1 = 1 – (0.1)2 = 1 – 0.2 = 0.80
x2 = 2 – (0.1) 1 – (0.1) 3 = 2 – 0.1 – 0.3 = 1.6
x3 = 3 – (0.1)2 = 3 – 0.2 = 2.8
3rd Iteration
Put x1 = 0.80, x2 = 1.6 and x3 = 2.8 in (A)

x1 = 1 – (0.1) (1.60) = 0.84
.
x2 = 2 – (0.1)(0.80) – (0.1)(2.8) = 1.64
x3 = 3 – (0.1)(1.6) = 2.836
th
4 Iteration
Put x1 = 0.84, x2 = 1.64 and x3 = 2.836 in (A)
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Numerical Analysis

x1 = 1 – (0.1) (1.64) = 0.836
x2 = 2 – (0.1)(0.84) – (0.1)(2.846) = 1.6324
x3 = 3 – (0.1)(1.64) = 2.836
This converges to the exact solution. Hence the solution is:
x1 = 0.836, x2 = 1.6324 and x3 = 2.836
(ii) Now we will use Gauss Seidel Method to solve the system.
Since
. x1 = 1 – 0.1x2-----------------------> (1)
. x2 = 2 – 0.1x2 – 0.1x3-------------> (2)
. x3 = 3 – 0.1x2 ----------------------> (3)
1st Iteration
Put x2 = 0 in (1) ⇒ x1 = 1
Put x1 = 1 and x3 = 0 in (2)

x2 = 2 – (0.1)(1) – 0 = 1.99
Put x2 = 1.99 in (3)

x3 = 3 – (0.1)(1.99) = 2.801
nd
2 Iteration
Put x2 = 1.99 in (1)

x1 = 1 – (0.1)(1.99) = 0.801
Put x1 = 0.801 and x3 = 2.801 in (2)

x2 = 2 – (0.1)(0.801) – (0.1)(2.801) = 1.640
Put x2 = 1.640 in (3)

x3 = 3 – (0.1)(1.640) = 2.836
rd
3 Iteration
Put x2 = 1.640 in (1)

x1 = 1 – (0.1)(1.640) = 0.836
Put x1 = 0.836 and x3 = 2.836 in (2)

x2 = 2 – (0.1)(0.836) – (0.1)(2.836) = 1.632
Put x2 = 1.632 in (3)

x3 = 3 – (0.1)(1.632) = 2.836
This converges to the real solution. So the solution is:
x1 = 0.836, x2 = 1.632 and x3 = 2.836
Q.10/Page # 86
Solve the system of equations.
6x1 – 3x2 + x3 = 11
2x1 + x2 – 8x3 = -15
x1 – 7x2 + x3 = 10
Using Gauss Seidel method with initial vector x0 = (0, 0, 0)T
Ans:
1st we will write the system in Diagonally Dominant form by interchanging 2nd and 3rd equations.i.e.
6x1 – 3x2 + x3 = 11
x1 – 7x2 + x3 = 10
-----------> (A)
2x1 + x2 – 8x3 = -15
Writing the system (A) as:
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Numerical Analysis

24

x1 = 1/6(11 + 3x2 – x3)----------> (1)
x2 = 1/7(-10 + x1 + x3)----------> (2)
x3 = 1/8(15 + 2x1 + x2)---------> (3)
1st Iteration
Put x2 = x3 = 0 in (1)

x1 = 1/6(11+0 – 0) = 1.833
Put x1 = 1.833 and x3 = 0 in (2)

x2 = 1/7(- 10 + 1.833 + 0) = - 1.166
Put x1 = 1.833 and x2 = - 1.166 in (3)

x3 = 1/8(15 + 2(1.833) – 1.166) = 2.125
nd
2 Iteration
Equation (1) ⇒ x1 = 1/6[11 + 3(- 1.166) – 2.125] = 0.885
Equation (2) ⇒ x2 = 1/7[- 10 + 0.885 + 2.125] = - 0.989
Equation (3) ⇒ x3 = 1/8[15 + 2(0.885) – 0.989] = 1.972
3rd Iteration
Equation (1) ⇒ x1 = 1/6[11 + 3(- 0.989) – 1.972] = 1.001
Equation (2) ⇒ x2 = 1/7[- 10 + 1.001 + 1.972] = - 1.003
Equation (3) ⇒ x3 = 1/8[15 + 2(1.001) – 1.003] = 2.000
Which converges to the real solution. i.e x1 = 1, x2 = - 1 and x3 = 2
hence the solution is x = (x1, x2, x3)T = (1, -1, 2)T
Q.9/Page # 86
The pair of equations
.x1 + 2x2 = 3.0
.3x1 + x2 = 4.0
Can be re-arranged to give:
x1 = 3 – 2x2
x2 = 4 – 3x1
Apply Jacobi’s Method to this arrangement, beginning with x = (1.01, 1.01)T and notice the system diverges.
Now apply Gauss Seidel method to system and comment which method diverges more rapidly.
Ans: Given that:
x1 = 3 – 2x2
.x2 = 4 – 3x1
1st we use Jacobi’s Method
1st Iteration
put x1 = 1.01 and x2 = 1.01 in the above equations.
.x1 = 3 – 2(1.01) = 0.98
.x2 = 4 – 3(1.01) = 0.97
2nd Iteration
x1 = 3 – 2(0.97) = 1.06
x2 = 4 – 3(0.98) = 1.06
3rd Iteration
x1 = 3 – 2(1.06) = 0.88
x2 = 4 – 3(1.06) = 0.82
4th Iteration
x1 = 3 – 2(0.82) = 1.36
x2 = 4 – 3(0.88) = 1.36
5th Iteration
x1 = 3 – 2(1.36) = 0.28
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Numerical Analysis
x2 = 4 – 3(1.36) = - 0.08
6th Iteration
x1 = 3 – 2(- 0.08) = 3.16
x2 = 4 – 3(0.28) = 3.16
after 6th Iteration x1 = 3.16 and x2 = 3.16. i.e. x = (3.16, 3.16)T, which is diverging.
Now using Gauss Seidel Method
x1 = 3 – 2x2---------->(1)
x2 = 4 – 3x1---------->(2)
1st Iteration
put x2 = 1.01 in (1)

x1 = 3 – 2(1.01) = 0.98 put in (2) ⇒ x2 = 4 – 3(0.98) = 1.06
2nd Iteration
equation (1) ⇒ x1 = 3 – 2(1.06) = 0.88
equation (2) ⇒x2 = 4 – 3(0.88) = 1.36
3rd Iteration
equation (1) ⇒ x1 = 3 – 2(1.36) = 0.28
equation (2) ⇒ x2 = 4 – 3(0.28) = 3.16
4th Iteration
equation (1) ⇒ x1 = 3 – 2(3.16) = - 3.32
equation (2) ⇒ x2 = 4 – 3(- 3.32) = 13.96
5th Iteration
equation (1) ⇒ x1 = 3 – 2(13.96) = - 24.92
equation (2) ⇒ x2 = 4 – 3(- 24.92) = 78.76
6th Iteration
equation (1) ⇒ x1 = 3 – 2(78.76) = - 154.52
equation (2) ⇒ x2 = 4 – 3(- 154.52) = 467.56
After 6th Iteration x1 = - 154.52 and x2 = 467.56. i.e. x = (- 154.52, 467.56)T. which is diverging.
Comment: After six iterations we see that Gauss Seidel Method diverges rapidly than the Jacobi’s Method.
CHAPTER#4
Numerical Integration
1. Trapezoidal Rule or Trapezium Rule.

b

a

1
1

f ( x ) dx = h  f ( x 0 ) + f ( x1 ) + f ( x 2 ) + .......... .... + f ( x n )
2
2

Where

h=

b −a
n

2. Simpson’s Rule

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25

Numerical Analysis
b

a

f ( x) dx =

26

h
[ f ( x0 ) + 4 f ( x1 ) + 2 f ( x 2 ) + 4 f ( x3 ) + 2 f ( x 4 ) + 4 f ( x5 ) + .......... ....... + f ( x n )]
3
h=

Where

b −a
n

Error = Approximate value – True value
EXERCISE ON PAGE 112

Q #1
:∫
P − 112

b

a

3
1
f ( x ) dx = ∫ ( x + ) dx
2
x

f ( x) = x +

Here

h=

1
, a = 2, b = 3, n = 4
x

b−a 3−2 1
=
=
n
4
4

x

f ( x) = x +

x0 = 2

1
x
1
= 2.5
2

f ( x0 ) = f (2) = 2 +

f ( x1 ) = f ( 2.25 ) = 2.25 +

x1 = 2 +

1
= 2.25
4

x2 = 2 +

2
= 2.5
4

f ( x 2 ) = f (2.5) = 2.5 +

x3 = 2 +

3
= 2.75
4

f ( x3 ) = f ( 2.75 ) = 2.75 +

x4 = 2 +

4
=3
4

f ( x 4 ) = f (3) = 3 +

1
= 2.694
2.25

1
= 2.9
2.5

1
= 3.114
2.75

1
= 3.333
3

Apply Trapezoidal Rule

b

a

3

1
1

f ( x ) dx = h  f ( x 0 ) + f ( x1 ) + f ( x 2 ) + f ( x3 ) + f ( x 4 ) 
2
2

1

1  2.5
3.333 
+ 2.694 + 2.9 + 3.114 +
2
2 

∫ ( x + x )dx = 4 
2

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Numerical Analysis
=

1
(1.25 + 8.708 +1.667 )
4

=

1
×11 .625 = 2.9063
4

For true value
1

3

3

∫ ( x + x )dx = ∫
2

2

=

x2
2

3

xdx + ∫

2

1
dx
x

3

+ ln x

3
2

2

=

1 2
(3 − 2 2 ) + (ln 3 − ln 2)
2

=

1
(9 − 4) + (1.099 − 0.693 )
2

= 2.5 + 0.406 = 2.906

Error = Approximate value – True value = 2.9063 − 2.906 = 0.0003

(ii)

b

a

2

f ( x )dx = ∫

0

1
dx
e4x

f ( x) =

Here

h=

1
= e − 4 x , a = 0, b = 2, n = 4
e4x

b−a 2−0 2 1
=
= =
n
4
4 2

x

f ( x ) = e −4 x

x0 = 0

f ( x 0 ) = f (0) = e 0 = 1

x1 = 0 +

1
= 0.5
2

f ( x1 ) = f (0.5) = e −4( 0.5) = 0.135

x2 = 0 +

2
=1
2

f ( x 2 ) = f (1) = e −4 = 0.018

x3 = 0 +

3
= 1.5
2

f ( x3 ) f (1.5) = e −4 (1.5) = 0.002

x4 = 0 +

4
=2
2

f ( x 4 ) = f (2) = e −8 = 0.0003

Trapezoidal rule
b

a

1
1

f ( x )dx = h  f ( x 0 ) + f ( x1 ) + f ( x 2 ) + f ( x3 ) + f ( x 4 ) 
2
2

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27

Numerical Analysis
=

1 1
0.0003 
+ 0.135 + 0.018 + 0.002 +

2 2
2 

1
( 0.5 + 0.1550 + 0.0002
2
1
= × 0.6550 = 0.3275
2
=

)

For true value
2

0

e −4 x dx =

e −4 x
−4

2

=−
0

1 −4 x
e
4

2
0

1
= − (e −8 − e 0 )
4
1
= − (0.0003 −1)
4
1
= − (−0.9997 ) = 0.2499
4

Error = Approximate value – True value
=0.3275-0.2499=0.0776

Q #2
:
P − 112
Here

b

a

2

f ( x)dx = ∫ ( x 4 − x 2 +1) dx
1

f ( x) = x 4 − x 2 + 1, a = 1, b = 2, n = 2

h=

x

b − a 2 −1 1
=
=
n
2
2
f ( x ) = x 4 − x 2 +1

x0 =1

f ( x 0 ) = f (1) = 1 −1 +1 = 1

x1 = 1 +

x2 = 1 +

1
= 1.5
2

2
=2
2

f ( x1 ) = f (1.5) = (1.5) 4 − (1.5) 2 + 1 = 3.8125
f ( x 2 ) = f ( 2) = ( 2) 4 − ( 2) 2 + 1 = 13

Simpson’s Rule
h
[ f ( x0 ) + 4 f ( x1 ) + f ( x 2 )]
a
3
3
1
4
2
∫1 ( x − x +1)dx = 2 ×3 [1 + 4(3.8125 ) +13 ]
b

f ( x ) dx =

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28

Numerical Analysis
1
(1 +15 .2500 +13 )
6
1
= × 29 .2500 = 4.8760
6
=

(ii)

b

a

2

f ( x ) dx =∫ e x sin xdx
0

Here

f ( x) = e x sin x, a = 0, b = 2, n = 2

h=

b −a 2−0 2
=
= =1
n
2
2

x

f ( x) = e x sin x

x0 = 0

f ( x 0 ) = f (0) = e 0 sin 0 = 0

x1 = 0 + 1 = 1

f ( x1 ) = f (1) = 2.2874

x 2 0 +1(2) = 2

f ( x 2 ) = f ( 2) = 6.7188

Simpson’s Rule

h
[ f ( x0 ) + 4 f ( x1 ) + f ( x 2 )]
3
2
1
x
∫0 e sin xdx = 3 [0 + 4 × 2.2874 + 6.7188 ]
b

a

f ( x )dx =

1
×15 .8668
3
= 5.2886
=

Q #3
: ∫
P − 112

b

a

Here

1

f ( x ) dx = ∫ ydx
0

a = 0, b =1, h = 0.1

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29

Numerical Analysis
x

f ( x) = y
f ( x 0 ) =1

x 0 = 0. 2
x1 = 0.1

f ( x1 ) = 0.99

x 2 = 0.2

f ( x 2 ) = 0.961

x3 = 0.3

f ( x3 ) = 0.9141

x 4 = 0.4

f ( x 4 ) = 0.852

x 5 = 0. 5

f ( x5 ) = 0.779

x 6 = 0. 6

f ( x 6 ) = 0.697

x 7 = 0.7

f ( x 7 ) = 0.613

x8 = 0.8

f ( x8 ) = 0.527

x 9 = 0. 9

f ( x9 ) = 0.445

x10 = 1

f ( x10 ) = 0.369

Trapezoidal Rule

1

f (x0 ) + f (x1 ) + f (x2 ) + f (x3 ) + f (x4 ) + f (x5 ) + f (x6 ) + f (x7 ) + f (x8 ) + f (x9 )

b
2
f
(
x
)
d
=
x
h

∫ a  1

+ f (x1 )0
 2

1
0.3 5 9
1
∫ 0 y d= 0x.1 2 + 0.9 +90.9 +60.9 1+ 04.8 5+ 02.7 7+ 09.6 9+ 07.6 1+ 03.5 2+ 07.4 4+ 5 2 
0.1 × 6.7780 = 0.6678

Q #4
:
P − 112
Here

b

a

1

f ( x) =
h=

x

2

f ( x ) dx = ∫

dx
1+ x4

1
, a = 1, b = 2, n = 6
1+ x4

b − a 2 −1 1
=
=
n
6
6

f ( x) =

1
1+ x4

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30

Numerical Analysis
x0 =1

f ( x 0 ) = 0.5

x1 = 1 +

1
= 1 .2
6

f ( x1 ) = 0.325

x2 = 1 +

2
= 1.3
6

f ( x 2 ) = 0.259

x3 = 1 +

3
= 1.5
6

f ( x3 ) = 0.165

x4 = 1 +

4
= 1.7
6

f ( x 4 ) = 0.107

x5 = 1 +

5
= 1.8
6

f ( x5 ) = 0.087

x6 = 1 +

6
=2
6

f ( x 6 ) = 0.059

Trapezoidal Rule

1
1

f ( x )dx = h  f ( x 0 ) + f ( x1 ) + f ( x 2 ) + f ( x3 ) + f ( x 4 ) + f ( x5 ) + f ( x 6 ) 
a
2
2

2
1
1 0.5
0.059 
∫1 1 + x 4 dx = 6  2 + 0.325 + 0.259 + 0.165 + 0.107 + 0.087 + 2 
b

=

1
×1.223 + 0.205
6

= 0.4088