# CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION HISTORY BIODATA GEOMETRY AND MEASUREMENT REFERENCES

2 3 4 5-18 19

1

INTRODUCTION
Geometry (Ancient Greek geo- "earth", -metria "measurement") "Earth-Measuring" is a part of mathematics concerned with questions of size, shape, relative position of figures, and the properties of space. Geometry is one of the oldest sciences. Initially a body of practical knowledge concerning lengths, areas, and volumes, in the 3rd century BC geometry was put into an axiomatic form by Euclid, whose treatment—Euclidean geometry—set a standard for many centuries to follow. The field of astronomy, especially mapping the positions of the stars and planets on the celestial sphere, served as an important source of geometric problems during the next one and a half millennia. A mathematician who works in the field of geometry is called a geometer. Introduction of coordinates by René Descartes and the concurrent development of algebra marked a new stage for geometry, since geometric figures, such as plane curves, could now be represented analytically, i.e., with functions and equations. This played a key role in the emergence of calculus in the 17th century. Furthermore, the theory of perspective showed that there is more to geometry than just the metric properties of figures. The subject of geometry was further enriched by the study of intrinsic structure of geometric objects that originated with Euler and Gauss and led to the creation of topology and differential geometry. Since the 19th-century discovery of non-Euclidean geometry, the concept of space has undergone a radical transformation. Contemporary geometry considers manifolds, spaces that are considerably more abstract than the familiar Euclidean space, which they only approximately resemble at small scales. These spaces may be endowed with additional structure, allowing one to speak about length. Modern geometry has multiple strong bonds with physics, exemplified by the ties between Riemannian geometry and general relativity. One of the youngest physical theories, string theory, is also very geometric in flavor. The visual nature of geometry makes it initially more accessible than other parts of mathematics, such as algebra or number theory. However, the geometric language is also used in contexts that are far removed from its traditional, Euclidean provenance, for example, in fractal geometry, and especially in algebraic geometry.

2

HISTORY
The earliest recorded beginnings of geometry can be traced to ancient Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus Valley from around 3000 BCE. Early geometry was a collection of empirically discovered principles concerning lengths, angles, areas, and volumes, which were developed to meet some practical need in surveying, construction, astronomy, and various crafts. The earliest known texts on geometry are the Egyptian Rhind Papyrus and Moscow Papyrus, the Babylonian clay tablets, and the Indian Shulba Sutras, while the Chinese had the work of Mozi, Zhang Heng, and the Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art, edited by Liu Hui. Euclid's Elements (c. 300 BCE) was one of the most important early texts on geometry, in which he presented geometry in an ideal axiomatic form, which came to be known as Euclidean geometry. The treatise is not, as is sometimes thought, a compendium of all that Hellenistic mathematicians knew about geometry at that time; rather, it is an elementary introduction to it; Euclid himself wrote eight more advanced books on geometry In the Middle Ages, mathematics in medieval Islam contributed to the development of geometry, especially algebraic geometry and geometric algebra Al-Mahani (b. 853) conceived the idea of reducing geometrical problems such as duplicating the cube to problems in algebra Thābit ibn Qurra (known as Thebit in Latin) (836-901) dealt with arithmetical operations applied to ratios of geometrical quantities, and contributed to the development of analytic geometry. Omar Khayyám (1048-1131) found geometric solutions to cubic equations, and his extensive studies of the parallel postulate contributed to the development of non-Euclidian geometry. The theorems of Ibn alHaytham (Alhazen), Omar Khayyam and Nasir al-Din al-Tusi on quadrilaterals, including the Lambert quadrilateral and Saccheri quadrilateral, were the first theorems on elliptical geometry and hyperbolic geometry, and along with their alternative postulates, such as Playfair's axiom, these works had a considerable influence on the development of non-Euclidean geometry among later European geometers, including Witelo, Levi ben Gerson, Alfonso, John Wallis, and Giovanni Girolamo Saccheri. In the early 17th century, there were two important developments in geometry. The first, and most important, was the creation of analytic geometry, or geometry with coordinates and equations, by René Descartes (1596–1650) and Pierre de Fermat (1601–1665). This was a necessary precursor to the development of calculus and a precise quantitative science of physics. The second geometric development of this period was the systematic study of projective geometry by Girard Desargues (1591–1661). Projective geometry is the study of geometry without measurement, just the study of how points align with each other.

3

BIODATA
Omar Khayyám (Persian: ‫( ,)عمر خیام‬born 1048 AD, Neyshapur, Iran—1131 AD, Neyshapur, Iran), was a Persian polymath, mathematician, philosopher, astronomer, physician, and poet. He also wrote treatises on mechanics, geography, and music. He has also become established as one of the major mathematicians and astronomers of the medieval period. Recognized as the author of the most important treatise on algebra before modern times as reflected in his Treatise on Demonstration of Problems of Algebra giving a geometric method for solving cubic equations by intersecting a hyperbola with a circle. He also contributed to the calendar reform and may have proposed a heliocentric theory well before Copernicus. His significance as a philosopher and teacher, and his few remaining philosophical works, have not received the same attention as his scientific and poetic writings. Zamakhshari referred to him as “the philosopher of the world”. Many sources have also testified that he taught for decades the philosophy of Ibn Sina in Nishapur where Khayyám lived most of his life, died, and was buried and where his mausoleum remains today a masterpiece of Iranian architecture visited by many people every year. Outside Iran and Persian speaking countries, Khayyám has had impact on literature and societies through translation and works of scholars. The greatest such impact was in English-speaking countries; the English scholar Thomas Hyde (1636–1703) was the first non-Persian to study him. However the most influential of all was Edward FitzGerald (1809–83) who made Khayyám the most famous poet of the East in the West through his celebrated translation and adaptations of Khayyám's rather small number of quatrains (rubaiyaas) in Rubáiyát of Omar Khayyám.

Khayyám's full name was Ghiyath al-Din Abu'l-Fath Umar ibn Ibrahim Al-Nishapuri alKhayyami (Persian: ‫ )غیاث الدین ابو الفتح عمر بن ابراهیم خیام نیشاپوری‬and was born in Nishapur, Iran, then a Seljuk capital in Khorasan (present Northeast Iran), rivaling Cairo or Baghdad. He is thought to have been born into a family of tent makers (literally, al-khayyami in Arabic means "tent-maker"); later in life he would make this into a play on words: Khayyám, who stitched the tents of science, Has fallen in grief's furnace and been suddenly burned, The shears of Fate have cut the tent ropes of his life, And the broker of Hope has sold him for nothing! – Omar Khayyám 4

GEOMETRY AND MEASUREMENT
Measuring angles

The angle θ is the quotient of s and r. In order to measure an angle θ, a circular arc centered at the vertex of the angle is drawn, e.g. with a pair of compasses. The length of the arc s is then divided by the radius of the circle r, and possibly multiplied by a scaling constant k (which depends on the units of measurement that are chosen):

The value of θ thus defined is independent of the size of the circle: if the length of the radius is changed then the arc length changes in the same proportion, so the ratio s/r is unaltered. In many geometrical situations, angles that differ by an exact multiple of a full circle are effectively equivalent (it makes no difference how many times a line is rotated through a full circle because it always ends up in the same place). However, this is not always the case. For example, when tracing a curve such as a spiral using polar coordinates, an extra full turn gives rise to a quite different point on the curve.

Units
Angles are considered dimensionless, since they are defined as the ratio of lengths. There are, however, several units used to measure angles, depending on the choice of the constant k in the formula above. Of these units, treated in more detail below, the degree and the radian are by far the most common. With the notable exception of the radian, most units of angular measurement are defined such that one full circle (i.e. one revolution) is equal to n units, for some whole number n. For example, in the case of degrees, n = 360. A full circle of n units is obtained by setting k = n/(2π) in the formula above. (Proof. The formula above can be rewritten as k = θr/s. One full circle, for which θ = n units, corresponds to an arc equal in length to the circle's circumference, which is 2πr, so s = 2πr. Substituting n for θ and 2πr for s in the formula, results in k = nr/(2πr) = n/(2π).) 5

The degree, denoted by a small superscript circle (°) is 1/360 of a full circle, so one full circle is 360°. One advantage of this old sexagesimal subunit is that many angles common in simple geometry are measured as a whole number of degrees. Fractions of a degree may be written in normal decimal notation (e.g. 3.5° for three and a half degrees), but the following sexagesimal subunits of the "degreeminute-second" system are also in use, especially for geographical coordinates and in astronomy and ballistics: o The minute of arc (or MOA, arcminute, or just minute) is 1/60 of a degree. It is denoted by a single prime ( ′ ). For example, 3° 30′ is equal to 3 + 30/60 degrees, or 3.5 degrees. A mixed format with decimal fractions is also sometimes used, e.g. 3° 5.72′ = 3 + 5.72/60 degrees. A nautical mile was historically defined as a minute of arc along a great circle of the Earth. o The second of arc (or arcsecond, or just second) is 1/60 of a minute of arc and 1/3600 of a degree. It is denoted by a double prime ( ″ ). For example, 3° 7′ 30″ is equal to 3 + 7/60 + 30/3600 degrees, or 3.125 degrees.

• •

Types of angles

Right angle.

Reflex angle. The Acute (a), obtuse (b), and straight complementary (c) angles. Here, a and b are angles a and b (b is supplementary angles. the complement of a, and a is the complement of b).

7

An angle of 90° (π/2 radians, or one-quarter of the full circle) is called a right angle. Two lines that form a right angle are said to be perpendicular or orthogonal.

• • • • • •

• •

Angles that are not right angles or a multiple of a right angle are called oblique angles. Angles smaller than a right angle (less than 90°) are called acute angles ("acute" meaning "sharp"). Angles larger than a right angle and smaller than two right angles (between 90° and 180°) are called obtuse angles ("obtuse" meaning "blunt"). Angles equal to two right angles (180°) are called straight angles. Angles larger than two right angles but less than a full circle (between 180° and 360°) are called reflex angles. Angles that have the same measure (i.e. the same magnitude) are sometimes said to be congruent. Following this definition for congruent angles, an angle is defined by its measure and is not dependent upon the lengths of the sides of the angle (e.g. all right angles are congruent). Two angles opposite each other, formed by two intersecting straight lines that form an "X"-like shape, are called vertical angles or opposite angles. These angles are equal in size. Angles that share a common vertex and edge but do not share any interior points are called adjacent angles. Two angles that sum to one right angle (90°) are called complementary angles. The difference between an angle and a right angle is termed the complement of the angle.

Two angles that sum to a straight angle (180°) are called supplementary angles. The difference between an angle and a straight angle is termed the supplement of the angle.

• •

Two angles that sum to one full circle (360°) are called explementary angles or conjugate angles. An angle that is part of a simple polygon is called an interior angle if it lies on the inside of that simple polygon. A concave simple polygon has at least one interior angle that exceeds 180°. In Euclidean geometry, the measures of the interior angles of a triangle add up to π radians, or 180°; the measures of the interior angles of a simple quadrilateral add up to 2π radians, or 360°. In general, the measures of the interior angles of a simple polygon with n sides add up to [(n − 2) × π] radians, or [(n − 2) × 180]°.

The angle supplementary to the interior angle is called the exterior angle. It measures the amount of "turn" one has to make at this vertex to trace out the 8

polygon. If the corresponding interior angle exceeds 180°, the exterior angle should be considered negative. Even in a non-simple polygon it may be possible to define the exterior angle, but one will have to pick an orientation of the plane (or surface) to decide the sign of the exterior angle measure. In Euclidean geometry, the sum of the exterior angles of a simple polygon will be 360°, one full turn.

Some authors use the name exterior angle of a simple polygon to simply mean the explementary (not supplementary!) of the interior angle.[1] This conflicts with the above usage. The angle between two planes (such as two adjacent faces of a polyhedron) is called a dihedral angle. It may be defined as the acute angle between two lines normal to the planes. The angle between a plane and an intersecting straight line is equal to ninety degrees minus the angle between the intersecting line and the line that goes through the point of intersection and is normal to the plane. If a straight transversal line intersects two parallel lines, corresponding (alternate) angles at the two points of intersection are equal in size; adjacent angles are supplementary (that is, their measures add to π radians, or 180°).

A formal definition
Using trigonometric functions
A Euclidean angle is completely determined by the corresponding right triangle. In particular, if θ is a Euclidean angle, it is true that

and

for two numbers x and y. So an angle in the Euclidean plane can be legitimately given by two numbers x and y. To the ratio y/x there correspond two angles in the geometric range 0 < θ < 2π, since

9

Using rotations
Suppose we have two unit vectors and in the euclidean plane . Then there exists one positive isometry (a rotation), and one only, from to that maps u onto v. Let r be such a rotation. Then the relation defined by is an equivalence relation and we call angle of the rotation r the equivalence class , where denotes the unit circle of . The angle between two vectors will simply be the angle of the rotation that maps one onto the other. We have no numerical way of determining an angle yet. To do this, we choose the vector (1,0), then for any point M on at distance θ from (1,0) (on the circle), let . If we call rθ the rotation that transforms (1,0) into , then is a bijection, which means we can identify any angle with a number between 0 and .

Angles between curves

The angle between the two curves is defined as the angle between the tangents A and B at P The angle between a line and a curve (mixed angle) or between two intersecting curves (curvilinear angle) is defined to be the angle between the tangents at the point of intersection.

The dot product and generalisation
In the Euclidean plane, the angle θ between two vectors u and v is related to their dot product and their lengths by the formula

This allows one to define angles in any real inner product space, replacing the Euclidean dot product · by the Hilbert space inner product .

10

Angles in Riemannian geometry
In Riemannian geometry, the metric tensor is used to define the angle between two tangents. Where U and V are tangent vectors and gij are the components of the metric tensor G,

Angles in geography and astronomy
In geometry a polygon is traditionally a plane figure that is bounded by a closed path or circuit, composed of a finite sequence of straight line segments (i.e., by a closed polygonal chain). These segments are called its edges or sides, and the points where two edges meet are the polygon's vertices or corners. The interior of the polygon is sometimes called its body. A polygon is a 2-dimensional example of the more general polytope in any number of dimensions. Usually two edges meeting at a corner are required to form an angle that is not straight (180°); otherwise, the line segments will be considered parts of a single edge. The basic geometrical notion has been adapted in various ways to suit particular purposes. For example in the computer graphics (image generation) field, the term polygon has taken on a slightly altered meaning, more related to the way the shape is stored and manipulated within the computer.

Classification
Number of sides
Polygons are primarily classified by the number of sides, see naming polygons below.

Convexity
Polygons may be characterised by their degree of convexity:
• • • •

Convex: any line drawn through the polygon (and not tangent to an edge or corner) meets its boundary exactly twice. Non-convex: a line may be found which meets its boundary more than twice. Simple: the boundary of the polygon does not cross itself. All convex polygons are simple. Concave: Non-convex and simple. 11

• •

Star-shaped: the whole interior is visible from a single point, without crossing any edge. The polygon must be simple, and may be convex or concave. Self-intersecting: the boundary of the polygon crosses itself. Branko Grünbaum calls these coptic, though this term does not seem to be widely used. The term complex is sometimes used in contrast to simple, but this risks confusion with the idea of a complex polygon as one which exists in the complex Hilbert plane consisting of two complex dimensions. Star polygon: a polygon which self-intersects in a regular way.

Symmetry
• • • • • •

Equiangular: all its corner angles are equal. Cyclic: all corners lie on a single circle. Isogonal or vertex-transitive: all corners lie within the same symmetry orbit. The polygon is also cyclic and equiangular. Equilateral: all edges are of the same length. (A polygon with 5 or more sides can be equilateral without being convex.) (Williams 1979, pp. 31-32) Isotoxal or edge-transitive: all sides lie within the same symmetry orbit. The polygon is also equilateral. Regular. A polygon is regular if it is both cyclic and equilateral. A non-convex regular polygon is called a regular star polygon.

Miscellaneous
• •

Rectilinear: a polygon whose sides meet at right angles, i.e., all its interior angles are 90 or 270 degrees. Monotone with respect to a given line L, if every line orthogonal to L intersects the polygon not more than twice.

Angles
Any polygon, regular or irregular, self-intersecting or simple, has as many corners as it has sides. Each corner has several angles. The two most important ones are:

Interior angle – The sum of the interior angles of a simple n-gon is (n − 2)π radians or (n − 2)180 degrees. This is because any simple n-gon can be considered to be made up of (n − 2) triangles, each of which has an angle sum of π radians or 180 degrees. The measure of any interior angle of a convex regular n-gon is (n − 2)π/n radians or (n − 2)180/n degrees. The interior angles of regular star polygons were first studied by Poinsot, in the same paper in which he describes the four regular star polyhedra. Exterior angle – Imagine walking around a simple n-gon marked on the floor. The amount you "turn" at a corner is the exterior or external angle. Walking all the way round the polygon, you make one full turn, so the sum of the exterior angles must be 360°. Moving around an n-gon in general, the sum of the exterior angles (the total amount one "turns" at the vertices) can be any integer multiple d 12

of 360°, e.g. 720° for a pentagram and 0° for an angular "eight", where d is the density or starriness of the polygon. See also orbit (dynamics). The exterior angle is the supplementary angle to the interior angle. From this the sum of the interior angles can be easily confirmed, even if some interior angles are more than 180°: going clockwise around, it means that one sometime turns left instead of right, which is counted as turning a negative amount. (Thus we consider something like the winding number of the orientation of the sides, where at every vertex the contribution is between −½ and ½ winding.)

Area and centroid

Nomenclature of a 2D polygon. The area of a polygon is the measurement of the 2-dimensional region enclosed by the polygon. For a non-self-intersecting (simple) polygon with n vertices, the area and centroid are given by:

To close the polygon, the first and last vertices are the same, i.e., xn,yn = x0,y0. The vertices must be ordered clockwise or counterclockwise; if they are ordered clockwise, the area will be negative but correct in absolute value. This is commonly called the Surveyor's Formula. The formula was described by Meister in 1769 and by Gauss in 1795. It can be verified by dividing the polygon into triangles, but it can also be seen as a special case of Green's theorem. The area A of a simple polygon can also be computed if the lengths of the sides, a1,a2, ..., an and the exterior angles, are known. The formula is

13

The formula was described by Lopshits in 1963. If the polygon can be drawn on an equally-spaced grid such that all its vertices are grid points, Pick's theorem gives a simple formula for the polygon's area based on the numbers of interior and boundary grid points. If any two simple polygons of equal area are given, then the first can be cut into polygonal pieces which can be reassembled to form the second polygon. This is the Bolyai-Gerwien theorem. For a regular polygon with n sides of length s, the area is given by:

Self-intersecting polygons
The area of a self-intersecting polygon can be defined in two different ways, each of which gives a different answer:

Using the above methods for simple polygons, we discover that particular regions within the polygon may have their area multiplied by a factor which we call the density of the region. For example the central convex pentagon in the centre of a pentagram has density 2. The two triangular regions of a cross-quadrilateral (like a figure 8) have opposite-signed densities, and adding their areas together can give a total area of zero for the whole figure. Considering the enclosed regions as point sets, we can find the area of the enclosed point set. This corresponds to the area of the plane covered by the polygon, or to the area of a simple polygon having the same outline as the selfintersecting one (or, in the case of the cross-quadrilateral, the two simple triangles).

Degrees of freedom
An n-gon has 2n degrees of freedom, including 2 for position, 1 for rotational orientation, and 1 for over-all size, so 2n − 4 for shape. In the case of a line of symmetry the latter reduces to n − 2.

14

Let k ≥ 2. For an nk-gon with k-fold rotational symmetry (Ck), there are 2n − 2 degrees of freedom for the shape. With additional mirror-image symmetry (Dk) there are n − 1 degrees of freedom. A geometric polygon is understood to be a "realization" of the associated abstract polygon; this involves some "mapping" of elements from the abstract to the geometric. Such a polygon does not have to lie in a plane, or have straight sides, or enclose an area, and individual elements can overlap or even coincide. For example a spherical polygon is drawn on the surface of a sphere, and its sides are arcs of great circles. So when we talk about "polygons" we must be careful to explain what kind we are talking about.

Further

Chord, secant, tangent, and diameter.Arc, sector, and segment

terminology
The diameter of a circle is the length of a line segment whose endpoints lie on the circle and which passes through the centre of the circle. This is the largest distance between any two points on the circle. The diameter of a circle is twice its radius. The term " radius" can also refer to a line segment from the centre of a circle to its perimeter, and similarly the term "diameter" can refer to a line segment between two points on the perimeter which passes through the centre. In this sense, the midpoint of a diameter is the centre and so it is composed of two radii. A chord of a circle is a line segment whose two endpoints lie on the circle. The diameter, passing through the circle's centre, is the largest chord in a circle. A tangent to a circle is a straight line that touches the circle at a single point. A secant is an extended chord: a straight line cutting the circle at two points. An arc of a circle is any connected part of the circle's circumference. A sector is a region bounded by two radii and an arc lying between the radii, and a segment is a region bounded by a chord and an arc lying between the chord's endpoints.

Length of circumference
For more details on this topic, see Pi. 15

The ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter is π (pi), a constant that takes the same value (approximately 3.141592654) for all circles. Thus the length of the circumference (c) is related to the radius (r) by

or equivalently to the diameter (d) by

Area enclosed

Area of the circle = π × area of the shaded square Main article: Area of a disk The area enclosed by a circle is π multiplied by the radius squared:

Equivalently, denoting diameter by d,

that is, approximately 79% of the circumscribing square (whose side is of length d). The circle is the plane curve enclosing the maximum area for a given arc length. This relates the circle to a problem in the calculus of variations, namely the isoperimetric inequality.

16

Equations

Cartesian coordinates

Circle of radius r = 1, center (a, b) = (1.2, -0.5) In an x-y Cartesian coordinate system, the circle with center (h, k) and radius r is the set of all points (x, y) such that

This equation of the circle follows from the Pythagorean theorem applied to any point on the circle: as shown in the diagram to the right, the radius is the hypotenuse of a rightangled triangle whose other sides are of length x − a and y − b. If the circle is centered at the origin (0, 0), then the equation simplifies to

The equation can be written in parametric form using the trigonometric functions sine and cosine as

where t is a parametric variable, interpreted geometrically as the angle that the ray from the origin to (x, y) makes with the x-axis. Alternatively, a rational parametrization of the circle is:

In homogeneous coordinates each conic section with equation of a circle is of the form 17

It can be proven that a conic section is a circle if and only if the point I(1: i: 0) and J(1: −i: 0) lie on the conic section. These points are called the circular points at infinity. (x1 − a)x + (y1 − b)y = (x1 − a)x1 + (y1 − b)y1 or (x1 − a)(x − a) + (y1 − b)(y − b) = r2. If y1≠b then slope of this line is

. This can also be found using implicit differentiation. When the center of the circle is at the origin then the equation of the tangent line becomes x1x + y1y = r2, and its slope is

.

18

REFERENCES

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Circle http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geometry http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angle http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polygon

01/02/10 01/02/10 01/02/10 01/02/10

19