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Steel Design Guide Series

ExtendedMoment
End-Plate
Connections

Steel Design Guide Series

Extended End-Plate
Moment Connections
Design Guide for Extended End-Plate Moment Connections
Thomas M. Murray, PhD, RE.
Montague-Betts Professor of Structural Steel Design
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Blacksburg, Virginia

A M E R I C A N

I N S T I T U T E

OF

S T E E L

C O N S T R U C T I O N

2003 by American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc. All rights reserved.


This publication or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without permission of the publisher.

Copyright 1990
by
American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc.

All rights reserved. This book or any part thereof


must not be reproduced in any form without the
written permission of the publisher.
The information presented in this publication has been prepared in accordance with recognized engineering principles and is for general information only. While it is believed
to be accurate, this information should not be used or relied upon for any specific application without competent professional examination and verification of its accuracy,
suitablility, and applicability by a licensed professional engineer, designer, or architect.
The publication of the material contained herein is not intended as a representation
or warranty on the part of the American Institute of Steel Construction or of any other
person named herein, that this information is suitable for any general or particular use
or of freedom from infringement of any patent or patents. Anyone making use of this
information assumes all liability arising from such use.
Caution must be exercised when relying upon other specifications and codes developed
by other bodies and incorporated by reference herein since such material may be modified or amended from time to time subsequent to the printing of this edition. The
Institute bears no responsibility for such material other than to refer to it and incorporate
it by reference at the time of the initial publication of this edition.
Printed in the United States of America
Second Printing: October 2003

2003 by American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc. All rights reserved.


This publication or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without permission of the publisher.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. I N T R O D U C T I O N . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.1 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2 Overview of Design Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3 Brief Literature O v e r v i e w . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1
1

2
2

2. RECOMMENDED DESIGN PROCEDURES . . . 5


2.1 Basis of Design Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.2 Limit States Check L i s t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3. UNSTIFFENED, EXTENDED END-PLATE
CONNECTION D E S I G N . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1 The Four-Bolt Configuration Design
Procedures and E x a m p l e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.1 Design Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.2 Allowable Stress Design E x a m p l e s . . . . . . .
3.1.3 Load and Resistance Design Example . . . .
3.2 Eight-Bolt Design Procedures and Allowable
Stress Design Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7
7

8
11
14

4. STIFFENED, EXTENDED END-PLATE


CONNECTION DESIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
4.1 Design P r o c e d u r e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

4.2 Design Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18


4.2.1 Allowable Stress Design Examples . . . . . . 18
4.2.2 Load and Resistance Factor Design
Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
APPENDIX AASD NOMENCLATURE,
DESIGN AIDS AND QUICK REFERENCE
EXAMPLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A.1 ASD Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A.2 ASD Design Aids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A.3 ASD Quick Reference Examples . . . . . . . . . . . .

31

31
32
34

APPENDIX BLRFD NOMENCLATURE,


DESIGN AIDS AND QUICK REFERENCE
EXAMPLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
B.1 LRFD Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
B.2 LRFD Design Aids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
B.3 LRFD Quick Reference Examples . . . . . . . . . . . 41

2003 by American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc. All rights reserved.


This publication or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without permission of the publisher.

PREFACE

This booklet was prepared under the direction of the Committee on Research of the American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc. as part of a series of publications on special
topics related to fabricated structural steel. Its purpose is to
serve as a supplemental reference to the AISC Manual of
Steel Construction to assist practicing engineers engaged in
building design.
The design guidelines suggested by the authors that are outside the scope of the AISC Specifications or Code do not
represent an official position of the Institute and are not intended to exclude other design methods and procedures. It
is recognized that the design of structures is within the scope
of expertise of a competent licensed structural engineer, architect or other licensed professional for the application of
principles to a particular structure.
The sponsorship of this publication by the American Iron

and Steel Institute is gratefully acknowledged.

The information presented in this publication has been prepared in accordance with recognized engineering principles and is for general information only. While it is believed to be accurate, this information should
not be used or relied upon for any specific application without competent professional examination and verification of its accuracy, suitability, and applicability by a licensed professional engineer, designer or architect. The publication of the material contained herein is not intended as a representation or warranty on
the part of the American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc. or the American Iron and Steel Institute, or
of any other person named herein, that this information is suitable for any general or particular use or of
freedom infringement of any patent or patents. Anyone making use of this information assumes all liability
arising from such use.

2003 by American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc. All rights reserved.


This publication or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without permission of the publisher.

Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND

figuration are found in the 9th edition AISC Manual of Steel


Construction (1989a).
As with any connection, end-plate connections have certain advantages and disadvantages. The principal advantages
are:
(a) The connection is suitable for winter erection in that
only field bolting is required.
(b) All welding is done in the shop, eliminating field welding associated problems.
(c) Without the need for field welding, the erection process is relatively fast.
(d) If fabrication is accurate, it is easy to maintain plumbness of the frame.
(e) Lower total installed cost for many cases.
The principal disadvantages are:
(a) The fabrication techniques are somewhat more stringent because of the need for accurate beam length and
"squareness" of the beam end.
(b) Column out-of-squareness can cause erection difficulties but can be controlled by fabricating the beams
in. to in. short and providing "finger" shims.
(c) End plates often warp due to the heat of welding.

The use of moment end-plate connections in multi-story,


moment resistant frame construction is becoming more com-

mon because of advancements in design methods and fabrication techniques, both of which have resulted in decreased
costs. A typical moment end-plate connection is composed
of a steel plate welded to the end of a beam section with
attachment to an adjacent member using rows of fully tensioned high-strength bolts. The connection may be between
two beams (splice plate connection) or between a beam and
a column. End-plate moment connections are classified as
either flush or extended with or without stiffeners and further classified depending on the number of bolts at the tension flange. A flush connection is detailed such that the endplate does not appreciably extend beyond the beam flanges
and all bolts are located between the beam flanges. An
extended end-plate is one which extends beyond the tension
flange a sufficient distance to allow the location of bolts other
than between the beam flanges. Extended end-plates may
be used with or without a stiffener between the end-plate
and the beam flange in the plane of the beam web. Flush
end-plate connections are typically used in frames subject
to light lateral loadings or near inflection points of gable
frames. Extended end-plates are used for beam-to-column
moment connections. Only extended end-plates are considered in this design guide.
Four extended end-plate configurations are shown in Fig.
1.1. The four-bolt unstiffened configuration shown in Fig.
1.1(a) is probably the most commonly used in multi-story
frame construction. An allowable stress design (ASD) procedure for this connection is found in the 8th and 9th editions, American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) Manual of Steel Construction (1980, 1989a) and a load and
resistance factor design (LRFD) procedure is found in the
AISC Load and Resistance Factor Design Manual of Steel
Construction (1986a). Assuming the full beam moment
capacity is to be resisted, A325 bolts and a maximum bolt
diameter of 1 in. (maximum practical size because of tightening considerations), this connection is limited because of
bolt capacity to use with less than one-half of the available
beam sections. The connection strength can be increased by
adding a stiffener, Fig. 1.1(b), or increasing the number of
bolts per row to four, Fig. 1.1(c). Formal design procedures
are not available for the former, and the latter requires a wide
column flange. The stiffened A325 eight-bolt connection
shown in Fig. 1.1(d) is capable of developing the full moment
capacity of most of the available beam sections even if bolt
diameter is limited to 1 in. Design procedures for this con-

Fig. 1.1. Extended end-plate configurations.

2003 by American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc. All rights reserved.


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"tee-stub" analogy. All of these methods resulted in design


procedures which predict a high degree of "prying action"
resulting in large end-plate thicknesses and large bolt
diameters. One such method for the four-bolt, extended configuration (Fig. 1.1(a)) is found in the 7th edition of the AISC
Manual of Steel Construction (1969).
More recently, methods based on refined yield-line
analyses have been suggested. A number of configurations
have been studied in Europe (Zoetermeijer, 1974, 1981;
Packer and Morris, 1977; Mann and Morris, 1979) as well
as in the United States (Srouji, 1983; Hendrick et al., 1985;
Morrison, 1986). Most of this work has involved flush endplate configurations.
Finite element methodology for the analysis of end-plates
was first developed by Krishnamurthy (1978, 1981). His
exhaustive analytical study of four-bolt, unstiffened, extended
end plates (Fig. 1.1(a)), along with a series of experimental
investigations, led to the development of a design procedure
first published in the 8th edition of the AISC Manual of Steel
Construction.
More recently, Ahuja (1982) and Ghassemieh (1983) have
investigated the stiffened configuration with two rows of two
bolts on each side of the tension flange (Fig 1.1(d)). They
used regression analysis to develop design equations. Murray and Kukreti (1988) have developed a simplified design
procedure using their regression results which appears in the
9th edition AISC Manual of Steel Construction.
Bolt Design. Early end-plate design procedures (Douty and
McGuire, 1965; Nair et al., 1969; Kato and McGuire, 1973)
all involved the calculation of bolt prying forces based on
various assumptions. The assumed location of the prying
force was at or near the edge of the end-plate. Packer and
Morris (1977), Phillips and Packer (1981), Mann and Morris
(1979), and Zoetermeijer (1974, 1981) have all included prying action forces in their yield-line based design procedures.
The various recommendations range from rather complicated
analytical procedures to a simple increase in bolt force over
the applied tension (Mann and Morris, 1979).
Krishnamurthy (1978a) argues that even though prying
action is present, it is overly conservative to assume it to be
acting at the edge of the plate as this normally results in thicker
than necessary end-plates. His studies describe prying force
as a pressure bulb which is formed under the bolt head due
to the tensioning of the bolt and shifts towards the edge as
the beam flange force increases. For any given loading, the
pressure bulb is located somewhere between the edge of the
end plate and the bolt head. He states, for service load conditions when the beam flange loads are small, the pressure
bulb is closer to the bolt head than to the plate edge, and
the plate moments are much smaller than those predicted
by prying force formulas. Consequently, in his design procedure for four-bolt, extended, unstiffened end plates (Fig.
1.1(a)), prying forces are ignored, that is, the bolt size is determined directly from the force delivered by the beam flange.

(d) End-plates are subject to lamellar tearing in the region


of the top flange tension weld.
(e) The bolts are in tension, which can result in prying
forces.
A number of designers and fabricators in the United States
have successfully used moment end-plate connections for
building frames up to 30 stories in height. It is believed that,
in spite of the several disadvantages, moment end-plate connections can provide economic solutions for rigid frame construction. Because very little research has been conducted
on the low cycle fatigue strength of end-plate connections,
their use is not presently recommended in areas of high seismic activity.

1.2 OVERVIEW OF DESIGN GUIDE


The intent of this guide is to present complete design procedures and examples for extended moment end-plate connections suitable for fully restrained (or continuous frame) construction. Chapter 2 presents the basic design procedures for
the end-plate configurations shown in Figs, 1.1(a), (c) and
(d). Chapter 3 contains ASD and LRFD design examples
for the four-bolt unstiffened configuration shown in Fig. 1.1
(a) and the eight-bolt unstiffened configuration shown in Fig.
1.1(c). Chapter 4 contains ASD and LRFD examples for the
eight-bolt stiffened configuration shown in Fig. 1.1 (d).
Appendix A includes allowable stress design (ASD) nomenclature, several design aids and quick reference examples.
Appendix B is similar to Appendix A except it is for load
and resistance factor design (LRFD). The quick reference
examples serve as a guide for designers who are thoroughly
familiar with moment end-plate design. The following section is a brief review of available literature for background
purposes.

1.3 BRIEF LITERATURE OVERVIEW


End Plate Design. Research starting in the early 1950s and
continuing to the present has resulted in refined design procedures for both flush and extended end-plate connections.
The earlier design methods were based on statics and simple assumptions concerning prying forces. These methods
resulted in thick end-plates and large diameter bolts. Other
studies have been based on yield-line theory. The more recent
studies have used the finite element method and regression
analysis to develop design equations. Accurate solutions can
be developed using the latter technique; however, the procedure is time consuming and the resulting design equations
usually involve terms to odd powers which virtually
eliminates "structural feel" from the design.
Early attempts (prior to about 1975) to develop design
criteria for moment end-plate connections were based on the

2
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the beam flange through the column flange and fillet. If the
stress at this critical section exceeds the yield stress of the
column material, a column web stiffener is required opposite the beam tension and compression flanges.
For the case of end-plate moment connections, the width
of the stress pattern at the critical section may be considerably wider due to the insertion of the end plate into the load
path. Hendrick and Murray (1983) conducted a number of
column compression region tests using both stiffened and
unstiffened end plates and concluded that the slope of the
stress path through the end plate can be taken as 1:1 and that
in the column as 3:1. This recommendation is also found in
Hendrick and Murray (1984) and in the AISC LRFD manual (1986a). Hendrick's recommendations, except for the 3:1
slope, are also found in AISC Engineering for Steel Construction (1984), where 2:1 is used.
Newlin and Chen (1971) recommend that an interaction
equation be used to check combined web yielding strength
and web buckling. Possibly anticipating resistance to such
form, they also provided a simple check for web buckling.
This latter provision was adopted by AISC in their 1978 specification revision.

Kennedy et al. (1981) have presented a method for calculation of prying forces as a function of plate "thickness" relative to applied load. They identified three types of end-plate
behavior. The first type is characterized by the absence of
plastic hinges in the end plate. These end-plates are said to
be "thick." Under low loading conditions all end plates fall
into this category. The upper limit of this behavior occurs
at a load which causes flexural yielding in the end-plate at
the beam flange. Once this load is exceeded, a plastic hinge
is formed at the flange and the end-plate is said to be of
"intermediate" thickness. As the load is increased, a second plastic hinge forms at the bolt lines. At this load, the

end-plate is considered to be a "thin" plate. Further, they


consider bolt force to be the sum of a portion of the flange
force plus prying force and identify three stages of prying
action corresponding to the three phases of end-plate
behavior. For "thick" plates, the prying force is assumed
to be zero. When the end plate is considered as "thin," the
prying force is at its maximum. For "intermediate" plates,
the prying force is somewhere between zero and the maximum value. They suggest that for ideal design, the end-plate
should be "thick" under service loads, "intermediate" under
factored loads and function as a "thin" plate at ultimate
loads.
Srouji (1983), Hendrick et al. (1985) and Morrison (1986)
have modified the Kennedy et al. (1981) approach for use
with two- and four-bolt flush end plates; four-bolt, stiffened
extended end plates; and extended end plates with multiple
bolt rows below the tension flange. Each researcher has
presented experimental evidence to verify the prediction
equations.
Ahuja (1982) and Ghassemieh (1983) have presented finite
element/regression analysis equations to predict bolt forces
above the pretension level for eight-bolt, stiffened, extended
end plates. Ahuja's results are based on elastic material properties, but Ghassemieh's results include inelastic material
properties. Both authors limit the use of their results to A36
steel and A325 bolts.
Beam-to-End-Plate Weld Design. Griffiths (1984) suggests
that either full penetration welds or fillet welds sufficient
to develop the beam flange in tension be used to connect
the end plate to the beam. This recommendation holds even
if the full capacity of the beam is not being utilized because
of the large local deformations that occur along the end plate.
Column Side Design. Relative to end-plate research, the
amount of effort devoted to the column side of end-plate
moment connections is quite limited. Only a few papers have
been published which suggest design guidelines for the three
column side failure modes: column web yielding, column
web buckling and column flange bending failure.
The critical section for column web yielding is at the toe
of the column web fillet. For design of welded connections,
the present AISC Manual (1989a) criteria is based on a load
path which is assumed to vary linearly on a 2:1 slope from

Witteveen et al. (1982) found three modes of failure for


bending of the column flange. The first mode prevails when
the column flange is thick when compared with bolt diameter.
The second failure mode is when the stiffnesses of the bolts
and flange are such that prying forces can develop because
yield lines form in the flange near the fillet, causing both
the flange and the bolts to fail. The third failure mode occurs
when yield lines form in the flange near both the bolts and
the fillet. Design procedures for each failure mode are
presented as well as test results to verify the analytical work.

Mann and Morris (1979) present complete design procedures for the column side of end-plate connections. The
recommendations are based primarily on the work of Packer
and Morris (1977). However, only the case when the column flange is much less stiff than the end plate is considered. Three possible failure modes were found to exist. If
the flange is very stiff, there are no prying forces and the
failure occurs when the bolts rupture. The second failure
mode occurs when the column flange is less stiff, which
results in a combination of bolt fracture and flange yielding
near the column web. The third failure mode is characterized by yield lines forming and causing double curvature in
the flange plate. Provisions to estimate the column flange
capacity for each of the failure modes are provided. If the
first failure mode governs, the total bolt force is equal to
the applied flange force. For the second failure mode, prying forces are accounted for by limiting bolt capacity to 80%
of tensile capacity. Mann and Morris do not provide methods
to estimate prying forces if the third failure mode governs.
Granstrom (1980) extended tee-hanger results to include
column flanges. The procedure to determine the required column flange thickness is the same as that used for tee-hanger

3
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flange thickness except that an effective column flange length


is used. Granstrom does not consider prying action effects.
Hendrick and Murray (1983) conducted a limited series
of tests to evaluate the methods suggested by Mann and
Morris (1979), Granstrom (1980) and Witteveen et al. (1982)
for use with North American rolled sections. They concluded
that the method proposed by Mann and Morris (1979) is the
most suitable for the evaluation of unstiffened column flanges
in the tension region of four-bolt, unstiffened end-plate connections. They also modified the Krishnamurthy (1978a) procedure for end plates by introducing an effective column
flange length to obtain the same results as found with the
Mann and Morris equations. Finally, they developed the
"rule of thumb" found in the AISC Engineering for Steel
Construction manual (1984) which states that, under certain
limitations, the column flange is adequate if its thickness is
greater than the required bolt diameter from the Krishnamurthy end-plate design procedure. All of his work applies only
to A36 steel.
Curtis (1985) has proposed design rules for column flange
strength in the tension region of eight-bolt, stiffened endplate connections. His method is based on the Ghassemieh

(1983) end-plate design procedure with an effective column


flange length and is therefore limited to A36 steel.
Curtis and Murray (1989) have modified both the Hendrick and Murray (1983) and Curtis (1985) recommendations
to ensure adequate column flange stiffness for use in fully
restrained (continuous) construction.
Procedures for the design of column web stiffeners to prevent web yielding or buckling have been suggested by Hendrick and Murray (1984) and have the same form as for
welded beam-to-column connections in the 1989 AISC ASD
Specification.
Mann and Morris (1979) have presented methods to estimate the resistance of column flanges stiffened using standard web stiffeners. Zoetemeijer (1974) and Moore and Sims
(1986) have recommended the use of "flange washer plate
stiffeners." They have also provided design rules for the fourbolt unstiffened end-plate configuration. Curtis (1985)
reported extensive analytical (yield-line) and experimental
work on washer flange stiffening at both four-bolt unstiffened
and eight-bolt stiffened, extended end plates.
Some of the literature cited was used to develop the design
procedures presented in the following chapter.

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Chapter 2
RECOMMENDED DESIGN PROCEDURES
2.1 BASIS OF DESIGN RECOMMENDATIONS

(RCSC, 1985). This Commentary states: "Connections


of the type... in which some of the bolts lose a part
of their clamping force due to applied tension suffer
no overall loss of frictional resistance. The bolt tension produced by the moment is coupled with a compensating compressive force on the other side of the
axis of bending." Thus, the frictional resistance of the
connection remains unchanged.
If very high shear forces exist, a bearing type connection may be necessary. In this case, the tension
bolts must be designed with a shear-tension interaction equation.
It is noted that shear is rarely a major concern in
the design of moment end-plate connections.
6. It is assumed that the width of the end plate which
is effective in resisting the applied beam moment is
not greater than the beam flange width plus 1 in. This
assumption is based on engineering judgment and is
not part of any of the referenced end-plate design procedures. Further, the writer is unaware of any endplate connection tests conducted with end-plates substantially greater in width than the connected beam
flange.
7. The gage of the tension bolts (horizontal distance
between vertical bolt lines) should not exceed the beam
tension flange width, again based on engineering
judgment.
8. Beam web to end-plate welds in the vicinity of the tension bolts are designed to develop 0.6 of the beam
web. This weld strength is recommended even if the
full moment capacity of the beam is not required for
frame strength.
9. Only the web to end-plate weld between the mid-depth
of the beam and the inside side face of the beam compression flange or between the inner row of tension
bolts plus two bolt diameters and the inside face of
the beam compression flange, whichever is smaller,
may be used to resist the beam shear. This assumption is based on the author's opinion. Literature was
not found to substantiate or contradict this assumption.
Column web stiffeners are expensive to fabricate and can
interfere with weak axis column framing. Therefore, it is
recommended that they be avoided whenever possible. If the

The recommended design procedures in Chapter 3 for the


four- and eight-bolt unstiffened end-plate configurations,
Figs, 1.1(a) and (c), are based on the work of Krishnamurthy (1978a), "A Fresh Look at Bolted End-Plate Behavior and
Design," and the procedures in the ASD and LRFD AISC
manuals (1980, 1986a, 1989a). Column side design for the
four-bolt configuration is based on the work of Hendrick and
Murray (1984), "Column Web Compression Strength at EndPlate Connections," and Curtis and Murray (1989), "Column Flange Strength at Moment End-Plate Connections."
The eight-bolt stiffened end plate, Fig. 1.1(d), design procedures in Chapter 4 are based on the works of Ghassemeih
(1983), "Inelastic Finite Element Analysis of Stiffened EndPlate Moment Connections," and Murray and Kukreti (1988),
"Design of 8-bolt Stiffened Moment End Plates," and the
procedures in the 9th edition ASD AISC Manual of Steel
Construction (1989a). Column side design procedures for this
configuration are based on the previously cited works of Hendrick and Murray (1984) and Curtis and Murray (1989).
In addition, the following assumptions or conditions are
inherent to the design procedures:
1. All bolts are tightened to a tension not less than that
given in the AISC ASD and LRFD specifications.
2. The design procedures for the 8-bolt, stiffened configuration (Fig. 1.1(d)) are valid for use with A325
bolts. A490 bolts should not be used in this configuration.
3. Only static loading is permitted. Temperature, wind
and snow loadings are considered static loadings
(AISC, 1986, 1989). The design procedures should not
be used, pending further research, when seismic loading is a major design consideration.
4. The smallest possible bolt pitch (distance from face
of beam flange to centerline of nearer bolt) generally
results in the most economical connection. The recommended minimum pitch dimension is bolt diameter
plus in. However, many fabricators prefer to use
a standard pitch dimension, usually 2 in., for all bolt
diameters.
5. End-plate connections can be designed to resist shear
force at the interface of the end-plate and column
flange using either "slip critical" or "bearing" assumptions. If slip critical (type "SC") criteria are used, all
bolts at the interface can be assumed to resist the shear
force and shear/tension interaction can be ignored as
explained in the Commentary on "Specification for
Structural Joints Using ASTM A325 or A490 Bolts"

need for a stiffener is marginal, it may be more economical


to increase the column size rather than install stiffeners. If
column web stiffeners are required because of inadequate
column flange bending strength or stiffness, increasing the
effective length of the column flange may eliminate the need
for stiffening. This can be accomplished by increasing the

2003 by American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc. All rights reserved.


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tension bolt pitch or by switching from a two row configuration, Figs, 1.1(a), (b) or (c), to a four row configuration,
Fig. 1.1(d). Alternately, column flange washer plates (loose
plates with holes, placed on the column flange opposite the
end-plate and connected with the end-plate connection tension bolts) may be used. This approach is widely used in
Europe (Mann and Morris, 1979; Zoetemeijer, 1981; Moore
and Sims, 1986) and has been studied in the United States
(Curtis, 1985), but final design recommendations have not
been formulated at this writing.

4. Failure of bolt, or slip of bolt in slip critical connections, due to shear at the interface between the end

plate and column flange.


5. Plate bearing failure of end-plate or column flange
at bolts.
6. Rupture of beam tension flange to end-plate welds or
beam web tension region to end-plate welds.
7. Shear yielding of beam web to end-plate weld or of
beam web base metal.
8. Column web yielding opposite either the tension or
compression flanges of the connected beam.
9. Column web buckling opposite the compression flange
of the connected beam.
10. Column flange yielding in the vicinity of the tension
bolts. As with flexural yielding of the end plate, this
state in itself is not limiting but results in rapid
increases in tension bolt forces and excessive rotation.
11. Column web stiffener failure due to yielding, local
buckling or weld failure.
12. Column flange stiffener failure due to yielding or weld
failure.
13. Excessive rotation (flexibility) at the connection due
to end-plate and/or flange bending.
14. Column panel zone failure due to yielding or web plate
buckling.

2.2 LIMIT STATES CHECK LIST


Limit states (or failure modes) for moment end-plate beamto-column connections are:
1. Flexural yielding of the end-plate material near the
tension flange bolts. This state in itself is not limiting, but yielding results in rapid increases in tension
bolt forces and excessive rotation.
2. Shear yielding of the end-plate material. This limit
state is not usually observed, but shear in combination with bending can result in reduced flexural capacity and stiffness.
3. Bolt rupture because of direct load and prying force
effects. This limit state is obviously a brittle failure
mode and is the most critical limit state in an endplate connection.

2003 by American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc. All rights reserved.


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Chapter 3
UNSTIFFENED, EXTENDED END-PLATE CONNECTION DESIGN
3.1 THE FOUR-BOLT CONFIGURATION
DESIGN PROCEDURES AND EXAMPLES

The term
was originally defined and values tabulated
in the AISC ASD manual. The same values were printed in
the AISC LRFD manual. However, to account for the differences in weak axis bending strength between the AISC ASD
and LRFD specifications, the original values of must be
increased by (0.90/0.75) = 1.20 for use in LRFD. Further,
the values printed in both manuals are for cases where the
end-plate and beam material have the same yield strengths,
which is generally not the case except for A36 steel. Values
of
for various combinations of beam and end-plate
material are found in Tables A.2 and A.3 for ASD use and
in Tables B.2 and B.3 for LRFD use. Tables A.2 and B.2
are for A325 bolts and Tables A.3 and B.3 are for A490 bolts.
Values of
for hot-rolled beam sections are found in
Table A.4.

3.1.1 Design procedures


The following design recommendations for the extended,
four-bolt, unstiffened, beam-to-column, end-plate connection shown in Fig. 3.1 are based on the works of Krishnamurthy (1978a), "A Fresh Look at Bolted End-Plate Behavior and
Design"; Hendrick and Murray (1984), "Column Web Compression Strength at End-Plate Connections"; and Curtis and
Murray (1989), "Column Flange Strength at Moment EndPlate Connections." The basic procedures for end-plate and
bolt design are also found in the AISC ASD Manual of Steel
Construction (1989a) and the LRFD Manual of Steel Construction (1986a).
In Krishnamurthy's design procedure, prying action forces
are considered negligible and the tension flange force is considered to be distributed equally to the four tension bolts.
Possible local yielding of the tension flange and tension area
of the web is neglected. The required end-plate thickness
is determined using the tee-stub analogy with the effective
critical moment in the end plate given by

in ASD

(3.1a)

in LRFD

(3.1b)

or

with
unfactored beam flange force, kips
factored beam flange force, kips
a constant depending on the plate material yield
stress, the bolt material and the design method
(ASD or LRFD)
beam flange width, in.
effective end-plate width, in. (not more than

1 in.)
2
area of beam tension flange, in.
2
web area, clear of flanges, in.
effective pitch, in.

distance from center line of bolt to nearer surface


of the tension flange, in.
+ in. is generally
enough to provide wrench clearance; 2 in. is a common fabricator standard)
fillet weld throat size or reinforcement of groove
weld, in.
nominal bolt diameter, in.

Fig. 3.1. Four-bolt unstiffened end-plate connection geometry.

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The required end-plate thickness,


from

, is then determined
in ASD

with
column flange thickness, in.
required column flange thickness, in.

(3.2a)

or
in LRFD

The required column flange thickness is determined using


Equation 3.2 modified as follows:

(3.2b)

with

in ASD
the allowable bending stress for the end-plate material (0.75 times the specified yield stress), ksi
specified yield stress of the end-plate material, ksi

in LRFD

(3.5b)

with

The column side limit states are to be checked as follows:


1. To prevent column web yielding at either the beam tension or compression flanges
in ASD

(3.5a)

or

effective column flange length, in.


2.5c
vertical spacing between rows of tension bolts, in.

(3.3a)

or
in LRFD (3.3b)
and
or
3.1b with
1.0;

with
factored beam flange force equal to times the
beam flange force when the flange force is due to
live and dead loads only, or by when the flange
force is due to live and dead loads in conjunction
with wind force, kips
specified yield stress of column material, ksi
column web thickness, in.
beam flange thickness, in.
distance from outer face of flange to web toe of
column fillet, in.
end-plate thickness, in.
leg size of fillet weld or reinforcement weld, in.
1.0

with
the column section

If the selected criterion is not satisfied, standard colstiffeners can be used to increase the flexural strength of
the column flanges.
4. To prevent column web shear yielding within the connection, column web reinforcement is required if
in ASD (3.6a)

or
in LRFD (3.6b)
with

connected beam end moments, ft-kips,

connected beam factored end moments, ftkips, and


planar area of the column connection,
in.2 In the above equations, the effect of column shear
has been conservatively ignored.
The following examples illustrate the above design procedures for four-bolt, unstiffened extended end-plate connections. Examples 3.1 and 3.2 use the ASD format and Example 3.3 uses the LRFD format. For these examples, the beam
top flange is in tension and moment reversal is not a
consideration.

(3.4a)

or

in LRFD

distance, in.

umn flange to web stiffeners or flange washer plate

If inequality 3.3 is not satisfied, column web stiffeners,


capable of resisting a force equal to the difference between
the left and right sides of the inequality, must be provided.
2. To prevent column web buckling at the beam compression flange
in ASD

are calculated using Equations 3.1a or


for ASD and 1.36 for LRFD;
and

(3.4b)

with
column web depth clear of fillets, in.
0.90
If inequality 3.4 is not satisfied, column web stiffeners
are required at the beam compression flange.
3. To prevent column flange yielding in the tension region
of the connection, the following must be satisfied assuming A36 material even if the column material yield stress
is higher:

3.1.2 Allowable stress design examples


EXAMPLE 3.1. Use ASD procedures to design a beam-tocolumn end-plate connection for a moment of 200 ft-kips
and a shear of 40 kips. The beam is a W24x55 and the column is a W14x159. A36 steel is used for all members and

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plates. Bolts are ASTM A325. The end plate is to be shop

welded to the beam using E70XX electrodes.


W24x55

Check bolt bearing on end plate since it is less thick than


the column flange. Assume, conservatively, that the compression side bolts resist all of the shear.

W14x159

A. Bolt design, A325-SC bolts


The beam tension flange force,

Check end-plate shear

is

End-Plate Selection
The tension force per bolt, B, is then

From Table A.1, try


diameter bolts (allowable capacity is 26.5 kips). Assuming A325-SC bolts, the single shear

C. Weld design, E70XX electrode

capacity from Table A.1 is 10.5 kips. The number of bolts

i. Beam flanges to end-plate welds:


The flange weld must develop the force in the beam flange.

required to resist the applied shear is then

For E70XX electrodes the capacity of a


fillet weld is

1-in. long

Bolt Selection
Use
A325-SC bolts
fully tightened, 4 at the tension beam flange and 2 at
the compression beam flange.

Use -in. fillet welds at both beam flanges. Note minimum


weld size from the AISC ASD Specification is in., which

could be used at the beam compression flange if desired.


B. End-plate design, A36 steel
Try edge distance = 1 in.
gage, g = 5 in.
pitch,
Required end-plate width is 1 + 5 + 1 = 8 in. Effective end-plate width must be less than beam flange width
plus 1 in.

Determine

ii. Beam web to end-plate weld:


Minimum size fillet weld is in.
Required weld to develop the bending stress in the beam
web near the tension bolts is

Use
fillet weld both sides of beam web from inside
face of beam flange to centerline of inside bolt holes plus
two bolt diameters.
The applied shear (40 kips) is to be resisted by weld

from Equation 3.1a:

between mid-depth of the beam and the inside face of the


compression flange or between the inner row of tension bolts
plus two bolt diameters and the inside face of the compression flange, whichever is minimum. By inspection the former
governs for this example.

Determine

from Equation 3.2a:

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Use -in. fillet weld (minimum size for -in thick plate)
both sides of beam web below tension bolt region.

column is a W14x90 A572 Gr50 steel. Only the column side


limit states need to be checked. ASD procedures apply.

iii. Check beam web yielding

D. Check column side limit states and design stiffeners if necessary, A36 steel.

i. Check column web yielding using inequality 3.3a,


50 ksi:

i. Check column web yielding using inequality 3.3a:

Therefore, stiffeners are not required to prevent column web


yielding.
Therefore, stiffeners are not required opposite the beam tension and compression flanges to prevent column web
yielding.

ii. Check column web buckling using inequality 3.4a:

Therefore, web stiffeners are not required opposite the beam


compression flange to prevent column web buckling.

iii. Check column flange bending:


The required column flange thickness is determined using
Equation 3.2(a) with the previously discussed modifications.

Therefore, neither column web or column flange stiffeners


are required for this design.

iv. Check column web yielding using inequality 3.6a,


50 ksi:

Therefore, column web reinforcement is not required.


Final design details are shown in Fig. 3.2.
EXAMPLE 3.2. Using the data, bolt design and end plate
from Example 3.1, determine if stiffeners are required if the

Fig. 3.2. Final design details, Example 3.1.

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ii. Check column web buckling using inequality 3.4a,

Try 2PL x 4 x 0'-7

50 ksi:

Use -in. x -in. clips to clear column web fillets.

Column flange to stiffener weld:


Therefore, stiffeners are not required to prevent column web
buckling.

Minimum weld is in. Use


Column web to stiffener weld:

iii. Check column flange bending:


From Example 3.1,
= 8.14 in., and from similar calculations
= 1.66 in.,
=1.326,
= 57.29 in.-kips and
= 1.25 in. Note that this check is made assuming the
column material is A36 steel. Since is greater than
0.710 in., a stiffener is required opposite the beam tension
flange. Because of the expense and possibility of interference with weak axis framing, the use of column web stiffeners is not recommended. Possible solutions for this
example are: (1) to use an 8-bolt stiffened connection (Chapter 4) which increases the effective column flange length,
(2) to increase the column flange thickness by using a heavier column or (3) to increase the bolt pitch which also
increases the effective column flange length. If the third
change is made, a thicker end-plate may be required. Obviously, the suggested changes require additional expense; however, the resulting connection may be more economical
because column web stiffeners are eliminated. If changes are
not practical, the following procedure can be used to determine stiffener size.
Curtis and Murray (1989) do not provide recommendations
for designing stiffeners when the column flange is inadequate.
Assuming that only force in excess of what the unstiffened
column flange can resist need be resisted by the stiffener,
the capacity of the unstiffened column flange is first computed by rearranging Equation 3.2a and then 3.1a:

fillet weld both sides.

Minimum weld is
To simplify detailing, use
let weld both sides.
Check shear stress in stiffener base metal.

fil-

Stiffener Selection
Use 2PL x4x0'-7 with
fillet welds all around.
iv. Check column web yielding using inequality 3.6a,
50 ksi:

Therefore, column web reinforcement is not required.


Final design details are shown in Fig. 3.3.

3.1.3 Load and resistance factor design example


EXAMPLE 3.3. Using LRFD procedures, design a beamto-column end-plate connection for a factored moment of
260 ft-kips, an unfactored shear of 40 kips and a factored
shear of 52 kips. The beam is a W24x55 and the column
is a W14x90. A36 steel is to be used for all members and
plates. Bolts are A325. The end plate is to be shop welded
to the beam using E70XX electrodes.

Thus, the stiffeners will be designed for the unfactored beam


flange force less the capacity of the column flange:
With an allowable stress of
Stiffeners do not need to be full depth of the column web if
only one beam is connected to the column at a given elevation.
Since the stiffener is in tension, local buckling is not a limit
state and AISC ASD Specification width and thickness rules
do not apply; however, good engineering practice requires
the stiffener to be proportioned to match the beam flange.

A. Bolt design, A325-SC bolts


The factored beam tension flange force,

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is

The factored tension force per bolt,

B. End-plate design, A36 steel


Try edge distance = 1 in.
gage = 5 in.
pitch,

is then

From Table B.1, try


diameter bolts (design strength is
40.6 kips). Assuming A325-SC bolts, the single shear design
strength from Table B.1 is 10.2 kips. The number of bolts
required to resist the applied shear (unfactored) is then

Required end-plate width is 1 + 5 + 1 = 8 in. Effective end-plate width must be less than beam flange width
plus 1 in.

Bolt Selection

Determine

from Equation 3.1b:

Use
A325-SC bolts
fully tightened, 4 at the tension beam flange and 2 at
the compression beam flange.

Determine

from Equation 3.2b:

Check bolt bearing on end-plate (note column flange thickness is larger and, conservatively, only the compression side
bolts are considered).

in. Check end-plate shear:

End-Plate Selection

C. Weld design, E70XX electrode


i. Beam flanges to end-plate welds:
Flange weld must develop the force in beam flange. For
E70XX electrodes the capacity of a
1-in. long fillet
weld is

Use
fillet welds at beam tension flange and minimum
weld size at beam compression flange. From the AISC LRFD
Specification minimum weld size is in.

Fig. 3.3. Final design details, Example 3.2.

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ii. Beam web to end-plate weld:


Minimum size fillet weld is in.
Required weld to develop maximum bending stress
in web near tension bolts is

Use
fillet weld both sides of beam web from inside
face of beam flange to centerline of inside bolt holes plus
two bolt diameters.
The factored shear (52 kips) is to be resisted by weld
between mid-depth of the beam and the inside face of the
compression flange or between the inner row of tension bolts
plus two bolt diameters and the inside face of compression
flange, whichever is minimum. By inspection the former governs for this example.

Therefore, a stiffener is required opposite the beam tension


flange. As was previously discussed, because of the expense
and possibility of interference with weak axis framing, the

use of column web stiffeners is not recommended. Possible


solutions for this example are: (1) to use an 8-bolt, stiffened
end-plate (Chapter 4) which increases the effective column
flange length, (2) to increase the column flange thickness
by using a heavier column or (3) to increase the bolt pitch
which increases the effective column flange length and
decreases the required column flange thickness. If the third
change is made, a thicker end-plate may be required. Obviously, any change requires additional expense; however, the
resulting connection may be more economical if the column
web stiffeners are eliminated. If changes are not practical,
the following procedure can be used to determine stiffener
size.
Assuming only force in excess of what the unstiffened column flange can resist need be resisted by the stiffener, the
capacity of the unstiffened column flange is first computed.

Use -in. fillet weld (minimum size for -in. thick plate)
both sides of beam web below tension bolt region.

iii. Check beam web yielding:

D. Check column side limit states and design stiffeners if necessary, A36 steel
i. Check column web yielding using Inequality 3.3b:
Thus, the stiffener will be designed for
Therefore, stiffeners are not required opposite the beam tension and compression flanges to prevent column web
yielding.

The required stiffener area is then

ii. Check column web buckling using Inequality 3.4b:

Stiffeners do not need to be full depth of the column web


if only one beam is connected to the column at a given
elevation.
Since the stiffener is in tension, local buckling is not a limit

Therefore, web stiffeners are not required opposite the beam


compression flange to prevent column web buckling.

do not apply; however, good engineering practice requires


the stiffener to be proportioned to be compatible with the
beam flange. Assume -in. "clip" to clear column web
fillets.

state and AISC LRFD specification width and thickness rules

iii. Check column flange bending:


The required column flange thickness is determined using
Equation 3.2b with the modifications that resulted in Equation 3.5b.

Column flange to stiffener weld:

Minimum weld is in. Use

fillet weld both sides.

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Column web to stiffener weld:


By inspection 8 bolts are required. The force per bolt, B,
is then

Minimum weld is
To simplify detailing, use
fillet weld both sides.
Check shear force in stiffener base metal using AISC specification Equation J5-3 (length along flange governs).

From Table A.1, try 1-in. diameter bolts (allowable capacity is 34.6 kips). Assuming A325-SC bolts, the single shear
capacity from Table A.1 is 13.7 kips. The number of bolts
required to resist the applied shear is then

Stiffener Selection
Use 2PL x4x0'-7 with
fillet welds.

Bolt Selection
Use 12 1-in. diameter

iv. Check column web yielding using inequality 3.6b:

A325-SC bolts fully tightened, 8 at beam tension

flange and 4 at beam compression flange.


Therefore, column web reinforcement is not required.
Final design details are shown in Fig. 3.4.

3.2 EIGHT-BOLT DESIGN PROCEDURES

AND ALLOWABLE STRESS DESIGN


EXAMPLE
The design procedures for unstiffened extended end-plates
in the AISC Manuals imply that the end-plate configuration
shown in Fig. 1.1(c) can be designed using the work of Krishnamurthy (1978a). The work of Hendrick and Murray (1984)
can be used to evaluate column web yielding and buckling.
Column flange bending strength requires special consideration. A suggested approach is given in the following ASD
example. Only slight modifications are required for LRFD
design (see Example 3.3).
EXAMPLE 3.4. Design a beam-to-column end-plate connection for a moment of 700 ft-kips and a shear of 90 kips using
ASD procedures. The beam is a W33x118 and the column
is a W14x311. All material is A36. Bolts are A325 and are

limited to 1-in. diameter. E70XX electrodes will be used for


all welding. The beam top flange is in tension and moment
reversal is not a consideration.

A. Bolt design, A325-SC bolts


The beam tension flange force,

is

Fig. 3.4. Final design details, Example 3.3.

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Use

B. End-plate design, A36 steel


Try edge distance = 1 in.

gages = 6 in. and 12 in. (inside and outside bolts)


pitch,

flange or between the inner row of tension bolts plus two


bolt diameters and the inside face compression flange, whichever is minimum. By inspection the former governs for this
example.

Required end-plate width is 1 + 3 + 6 + 3 + 1 = 14


in. (Note column flange width is 16 in.) Effective end-plate
width must be less than beam flange width plus 1 in.

Determine

fillet weld both sides of beam web from inside

of beam flange to centerline of bolt holes plus two bolt


diameters.
The applied shear is to be resisted by weld between middepth of the beam and the inside face of the compression

from Equation 3.1a:

Use
fillet weld (minimum size for
thick plate)
both sides of beam web below tension bolt region.

iii. Check beam web yielding

D. Check column side limit states and design stiffeners if necessary, A36 steel
i. Check column web yielding using inequality 3.3a:

Check bolt bearing on end-plate (note column flange thickness is larger and, conservatively, only the compression side
bolts are considered).

Therefore, stiffeners are not required opposite the beam tension and compression flanges to prevent column web yielding.

ii. Check column web buckling using inequality 3.4a:

End-Plate Selection

iii. Check column flange bending


Design procedures are not available to assess the column
flange bending strength for this bolt pattern. However, the
strength can be evaluated if a small triangular stiffener
between the column flange and the column web is used since
this pattern is similar to that of the eight-bolt stiffened endplate discussed in Chapter 4. When this approach is used

C. Weld design, E70XX electrode


i. Beam flanges to end-plate welds:
By inspection, fillet welds will be impractical; therefore, use
full penetration groove weld with
reinforcement at
beam tension flange. Use minimum weld
at beam
compression flange.

the column web is equivalent to the beam flange and the column flange is equivalent to the end-plate. Since test data is
not available, it is recommended that the effective column

ii. Beam web to end-plate weld


Minimum size of fillet weld is
The required weld to develop the bending stress in the
beam web near the tension bolts is

flange length (equivalent to the end-plate width) be taken


as that recommended for the four-bolt configuration (Curtis
and Murray, 1989), e.g., 2.5c. With reference to Chapter 4,
for details of the design procedure, the column flange for
this example is now checked. (See ASD nomenclature for
definition of terms.) Details are shown in Fig. 3.5.

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The equivalent gage and pitch are

From Equation 4.4a


and the equivalent beam flange and end-plate thicknesses are

and from Equation 4.5a


The effective end-plate width is equal to 2.5c or

The column flange-to-web stiffener should be approximately


equal to the beam flange thickness (0.740 in.) and extend
beyond the outside row of bolts, thus use a rectangular plate
in. x 7 in. x 7 in. Since all limitations given in Chapter

Since only 6 bolts are assumed effective, the capacity of the


stiffened flange is 6 x 106.4 = 638.4 kips which is greater
than the applied beam flange force of 261.5 kips and the
stiffened column flange is adequate.
Conservatively, the stiffener to flange and web welds will
be designed for the applied beam flange force. Assuming a
1 in. "clip" to clear the column fillet, the required fillet
weld size is

4 are satisfied, the simplified method, Equation 4.4a, can


be used to determine the adequacy of the stiffened column
flange. From Equation 4.7a
with

Use
fillet welds both sides of stiffener. (Full penetration groove welds are not practical at this location.)

Stiffener Selection
Use 2PL x 7 x 0'-7
with
fillet welds.

iv. Check column web yielding using inequality 3.6a:

Therefore, column web reinforcement is not required.


Final design details are shown in Fig. 3.5.

Fig. 3.5. Final design details, Example 3.4.

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Chapter 4
STIFFENED, EXTENDED END-PLATE CONNECTION DESIGN
4.1 DESIGN PROCEDURES
The following ASD design recommendations for the
extended, four-bolt, stiffened, beam-to-column, end-plate
connection shown in Fig. 4.1 are based on the works of Murray and Kukreti (1988), "End-Plate Moment Connections
Their Use and Misuse," Hendrick and Murray (1984), "Column Web Compression Strength at End-Plate Connections,"
and Curtis and Murray (1989), "Column Flange Strength at
Moment End-Plate Connections." The basic procedures for
end-plate and bolt design are also found in the 9th ed. AISC
ASD Manual of Steel Construction.
Murray and Kukreti (1988) present two methods for determining end-plate thickness and bolt diameter. Both methods
are limited to use for A36 end-plate steel and A325 bolts
and both include bolt prying action effects. The first method
is a series of equations developed from regression analyses
of data generated by the finite element method. The finite
element model included both second order geometry effects
and inelastic plate and bolt material properties. With this
method, the required end-plate thickness is the larger of
and
determined from (see Fig. 4.1 for definition of
terms):
in ASD

(4.1a)

in ASD

(4.2a)

in LRFD

(4.1b)

in LRFD

(4.2b)

with
= minimum bolt tension as given in AISC specifications and reproduced here for A325 bolts in Tables A.1
and B.1. Equation 4.3a includes a factor of safety of 2.0.
Equation 4.3b does not include a resistance factor, thus the
specified minimum tensile strength of the bolt material must
be used to determine the required bolt diameter.
In the application of Equations 4.1, 4.2 and 4.3, a preliminary bolt diameter is selected assuming that 6.8 of the 8 tension bolts are effective. This ratio must often be decreased

or

The regression-based Equations 4.1 are stiffness criteria


which control end-plate flexibility for use in Type I construction. Equations 4.2 are strength criteria which limit maximum strain on the end-plate. Both ASD equations include
a factor of safety of 1.67 and both LRFD equations include
a resistance factor of 0.9.
Ultimate bolt force including prying action effects is estimated from

Fig. 4.1. Eight-bolt stiffened end-plate connection geometry.

17

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if Equation 4.3 shows the selected bolt diameter to be


inadequate.
The second method is a simplified approach which was
formulated because of the difficulty in using Equations 4.1,
4.2 and 4.3, except for completely computerized designs. The

The following limitations, in addition to those given in


Chapter 2, apply to the simplified method:
1. The connected beam section must be hot-rolled and
included in the "Allowable Stress Design Selection
Table" in the AISC ASD Manual.
2. The vertical pitch,
from the face of the beam tension flange to the first row of bolts must not exceed
2 in. The recommended minimum pitch is bolt
diameter plus in.
3. The vertical spacing between bolt rows,
must not
exceed
4. The horizontal gage, g, must be between 5 and 7 in.
5. Bolt diameter must not be less than in. nor greater
than 1 in.

method was developed by first generating end-plate and bolt


sizes using the above equations for all hot-rolled A36 steel
beam sections at various moment levels. An effective number of bolts was then determined for each connection and
a conservative lower bound of six bolts established. Next,
it was assumed that plate thickness could be established from
tee-stub analogy bending (see Fig. 4.2), that is,
in ASD

(4.4a)

in LRFD

(4.4b)

or

with
force per bolt based on six effective bolts
and
an effective pitch. From the generated designs
it was determined that
in ASD

(4.5a)

in LRFD

(4.5b)

The recommendations of Hendrick and Murray (1984) can


be used to check column web yielding at either the beam
tension or compression flanges (inequality 3.3) and column
web buckling at the beam compression flange (inequality 3.4).
Since Type I construction is assumed for this connection,
a stiff column flange is required. Thus, unless the column

or

flange is considerably thicker than the end-plate, flange to


web stiffeners are required. If effective flange length effects
are neglected, the behavior of the column flange is identical
to that of the end-plate and, therefore, the column flange
must be at least as thick as the end-plate, and the column
stiffener must be as thick as the beam flange. Further, the
stiffener to flange weld must be sufficient to develop the
strength of the full thickness of the stiffener plate.
If the column flange is substantially thicker than the endplate (1.5-2 times), stiffeners may not be necessary. Based
on the work of Curtis and Murray (1989), such an unstiffened
flange can be evaluated using Equation 3.5 with

The required end-plate thickness is then determined from


in ASD

(4.6a)

in LRFD

(4.6b)

or

with

in ASD

(4.7a)

(4.8)

The referenced work included only A36 steel. Therefore, it


is recommended that if the column material yield strength
is greater than 36 ksi, the column flange strength be checked
assuming A36 steel is being used.
Column web shear strength should be checked using inequality 3.6.

4.2 DESIGN EXAMPLES


4.2.1 Allowable stress design examples
The following three examples demonstrate the use of the
above ASD procedures. Example 4.1 uses the simplified
design method, Equation 4.6a. Example 4.2 uses the more
exact design method, Equations 4.1a, 4.2a and 4.3a. Example 4.3 demonstrates the ASD procedures for checking the
column side of the connection. For all examples, the beam
top flange is in tension and moment reversal does not occur.

Fig. 4.2. Tee-stub analogy moments.

18
2003 by American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc. All rights reserved.
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and the equivalent tee-stub analogy moment from Equation


4.4a

EXAMPLE 4.1. Using the ASD procedures, design a beamto-column end-plate connection for a moment of 700 ft-kips
and a shear force of 90 kips. The beam is a W33x118 and
the column is a W14x311. All material is A36 steel. Bolts
are A325. E70XX electrodes will be used for all welding.
Use Equation 4.6a to determine end-plate thickness and

The required section modulus is then

assume only 6 bolts are effective.


And the required end-plate thickness from Equation 4.6a is
A. Bolt design, A325-SC bolts
The beam tension flange force,
Check bolt bearing on end-plate (note that (1) column flange
thickness is larger and (2) conservatively only the compression side bolts are considered).

Assuming 6 bolts effective, the force per bolt is


From Table A.1, try
diameter bolts (allowable capacity is 43.7 kips).
Assuming A325-SC bolts, the single shear capacity from
Table A.1 is 17.4 kips. The number of bolts required to resist
the applied shear is then

End-Plate Selection

C. Weld design, E70XX electrodes


i. Beam flanges to end-plate welds:
By inspection, the fillet welds will be impractical. Use full
penetration groove weld with
reinforcement at beam
tension flange and
fillet weld (minimum for.1-in.
plate at beam compression flange).

Bolt Selection
Use

diameter

A325-SC bolts fully tightened, 8 at beam tension


flange and 2 at compression
flange.

ii. Beam web to end-plate weld:


Minimum size fillet weld is
Conservatively, the
required weld to develop the bending stress in the beam web
near the tension bolts is

(Note if the four bolt unstiffened configuration shown in Fig.


1.1(a) is used, the required bolt diameter is

B. End-plate design, A36 steel


Try edge distance = 1 in.
gage g = 6 in.
pitch
pitch between bolt rows
stiffener thickness

Use

fillet weld both sides of beam web from inside

face of beam flange to centerline of innermost bolt holes plus


two bolt diameters.
The applied shear is to be resisted by weld between the
minimum of the mid-depth of the beam and the compression flange or the inner row of tension bolts plus two bolt
diameters and the compression flange. By inspection the
former governs for this example.

Note that all of the specified limitations for the simplified


method are satisfied.
Minimum end-plate width is

Effective end-plate width must be less than or equal to the


beam flange width plus 1 in., e.g.

12.48 in. Use 12 in. end-plate width and


Determine effective pitch from Equation 4.5a,
Use
fillet weld (minimum size for 1-in. thick plate)
both sides of beam web below tension bolt region.

19
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iii. Check beam web shear yielding:

Thus,
diameter A325-SC bolts are satisfactory. Since
the end-plate thickness and bolt diameter are the same as
in Example 4.1, the number of bolts required to resist the
shear force is the same and bolt bearing is adequate. Hence,
the final design using the regression based Equations 4.1a,
4.2a and 4.3a is identical to that obtained using the split-tee
analogy method, Equation 4.6a. Column side limit states are
checked in Example 4.3.

Column side limit states are checked in Example 4.3.


EXAMPLE 4.2. For the conditions of Example 4.1, determine required end-plate thickness and bolt diameter using
Equations 4.1a, 4.2a and 4.3a. ASD procedures apply.
A. Trial bolt size, A325-SC bolts
From Example 4.1, the flange force is 261.5 kips. A trial bolt
size is selected assuming 6.8 bolts are effective.

From Table A.1, try


ity is 43.7 kips).

EXAMPLE 4.3. Using the data, bolt design and end-plate


from Example 4.1, determine if stiffeners are required if the
column is a W14x311 A36 steel. Only the column side limit
states need to be checked. ASD procedures apply.

diameter bolts (allowable capac-

B. End-plate design, A36 steel


Try: edge distance = 1 in.
gage g = 6 in.
pitch
pitch between bolt rows
stiffener thickness

i. Check column web yielding using inequality 3.3a, A36 steel:

From Example 4.1, use 12-in. wide end-plate with


=
12.48 in.
Determine the required end-plate thickness from the stiffness criterion, Equation 4.1a.

Therefore, stiffeners are not required opposite the beam tension and compression flanges to prevent column web
yielding.
ii. Check column web buckling using inequality 3.4a, A36
steel:

Determine the required end-plate thickness from the strength


criterion, Equation 4.2a.

Therefore column web stiffeners are not required to prevent


column web buckling.

Check adequacy of
4.3a.

iii. Check column flange bending,


A36 steel:
Since the column flange is significantly thicker than the endplate, column flange stiffeners may not be required. The
unstiffened column flange can be investigated using Equation 3.2a with appropriate modifications. From Curtis and
Murray (1989), the effective column flange length, which
is equivalent to the end-plate width in Equation 3.2, is

diameter bolts using Equation

The ultimate bolt force must be less than the tensile strength
of the bolt which is twice the allowable capacity given in
Table A.1, that is

20
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iv. Check column web yielding using inequality 3.6a, A36


steel:

Therefore, column web reinforcement is not required.


Final design details are shown in Fig. 4.3.

The required flange thickness from Equation 3.2 is

4.2.2 Load and resistance factor design examples


The following three examples demonstrate the use of the
LRFD procedures. Example 4.4 uses the simplified design
method, Equation 4.6b. Example 4.5 uses the more exact
method, Equations 4.1b, 4.2b and 4.3b. Example 4.6 demonstrates the LRFD procedures for checking the column side
of the connection. For all examples, the beam top flange is
in tension and moment reversal does not occur.

Therefore, column web stiffeners are not required for this


example.

EXAMPLE 4.4. Using the LRFD procedures, design a beamto-column end-plate connection for a factored moment of
1050 ft-kips, an unfactored shear force of 90 kips and a factored shear force of 135 kips. The beam is a W33x118 and
the column is a W14x311. All material is A36 steel. Bolts
are A325. E70XX electrodes will be used for all welding.
Use Equation 4.6b to determine end-plate thickness and
assume only 6 bolts are effective.

A. Bolt design, A325-SC bolts


The beam tension flange force,

is

Assuming 6 bolts effective, the force per bolt is

From Table B.1, try


diameter bolts (design tension load
is 67.1 kips).
Assuming A325-SC bolts, the single shear capacity from
Table B.1 is 16.9 kips. The number of bolts required to resist
the applied shear is then 90 / 16.9 = 5.3.

Bolt Selection
Use
diameter
A325-SC bolts fully tightened,
8 at beam tension flange
and 2 at beam compression
flange.

(Note if the four bolt unstiffened configuration shown in Fig.


1.1(a) is used, the required bolt diameter is

Fig. 4.3. Final design details for eight-bolt stiffened end-plate


examples.

21
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The applied shear is to be resisted by weld between the


minimum of the mid-depth of the beam and the compression flange or the inner row of tension bolts plus two bolt
diameters and the compression flange. By inspection the
former governs for this example.

B. End-plate design, A36 steel


From Example 4.1 use:

gage g = 6 in.
pitch
pitch between bolt rows
stiffener thickness
end-plate width = 12 in.
effective end-plate width
Note that all of the specified limitations for the simplified
method are satisfied.
Determine effective pitch from Equation 4.5b.

Use
fillet weld (minimum size for 1-in. thick plate)
both sides of beam web below tension bolt region.

iii. Check beam web yielding:

Column side limit states are checked in Example 4.6.

and the equivalent tee-stub analogy moment from Equation


4.4b

The required section modulus is then

EXAMPLE 4.5. For the conditions of Example 4.4, determine required end-plate thicknesses and bolt diameter using
Equations 4.1b, 4.2b and 4.3b. LRFD procedures apply.

And the required end-plate thickness from Equation 4.6b is

A. Trial bolt size, A325-SC bolts


From Example 4.4, the factored flange force is 392.3 kips.
A trial bolt size is selected assuming 6.8 bolts are effective.

From Table B.1, try


ity is 67.1 kips).

Check bolt bearing on end-plate (note column flange thickness is larger and conservatively only the compression side
bolts are considered).

diameter bolts (allowable capac-

B. End-plate design, A36 steel


From Example 4.1 use:

End-Plate Selection

C. Weld design, E70XX electrode


i. Beam flanges to end-plate welds:
By inspection, fillet welds will be impractical. Use full
penetration groove weld with
reinforcement at beam
tension flange and
fillet weld (minimum for 1-in.
plate at beam compression flange).

Determine the required end-plate thickness from the stiffness criterion, Equation 4.1b.

ii. Beam web to end-plate weld:


Minimum size fillet weld is
Required weld to develop
maximum bending stress
in web near tension bolts is
Determine the required end-plate thickness from the strength
criterion, Equation 4.2b.
Use
fillet weld both sides of beam web from inside
face of beam flange to centerline of innermost bolt holes plus
two bolt diameters.

22
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ii. Check column web buckling using inequality 3.4b, A36


steel:

Check adequacy of
4.3b.

diameter bolts using Equation


Therefore column web stiffeners are not required to prevent
column web buckling.

iii. Check column flange bending,


, A36 steel:
Since the column flange is significantly thicker than the endplate, column flange stiffeners may not be required. The
unstiffened column flange can be investigated using Equation 3.2b with appropriate modifications. From Curtis and
Murray (1989), the effective column flange length, which
is equivalent to the end-plate width in Equation 3.2b, is

The ultimate bolt force must be less than the tensile strength
of the bolt which is the design tension capacity given in Table
B.1, that is

Thus,
diameter A325-SC bolts are satisfactory. Since
the end-plate thickness and bolt diameter are the same as
in Example 4.4, the number of bolts required to resist the
shear force is the same and bolt bearing is adequate. Hence,
the final design using the regression based Equations 4.1b,
4.2b and 4.3b is identical to that obtained using the split-tee
analogy method, Equation 4.6b. Column side limit states are

checked in Example 4.6.


EXAMPLE 4.6. Using the data, bolt design and end-plate
from Example 4.4, determine if stiffeners are required if the
column is a W14x311 A36 steel. Only the column side limit
states need to be checked. LRFD procedures apply.

The required flange thickness from Equation 3.2b is

Therefore, column web stiffeners are not required for this


example.

iv. Check column web yielding using inequality 3.6b, A36


steel:

i. Check column web yielding using inequality 3.3b, A36 steel:

Therefore, stiffeners are not required opposite the beam tension and compression flanges to prevent column web
yielding.

Therefore, column web reinforcement is not required.


Final design details are the same as for the ASD Example
4.3 and are shown in Fig. 4.3.

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27
2003 by American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc. All rights reserved.
This publication or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without permission of the publisher.

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28
2003 by American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc. All rights reserved.
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29
2003 by American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc. All rights reserved.
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30

2003 by American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc. All rights reserved.


This publication or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without permission of the publisher.

Appendix A
ASD NOMENCLATURE, DESIGN AIDS,
AND QUICK REFERENCE EXAMPLES
A.1 ASD NOMENCLATURE
planar area of column connection, in.2
area of beam tension flange, in. 2
gross area of plate, in.2
2
column stiffener area, in.
2
area of beam web, in.
beam or column flange width, in.
effective end-plate width, in. (not more than
+ 1 in.)
effective column flange length, in.
unfactored tension force per bolt, kip s
allowable tension load in bolt, kips
ultimate bolt force including prying action effects,
kips
vertical spacing between rows of tension bolts, in.
a constant depending on the plate material yield
stress, the bolt material and the design method

specified yield stress of the end-plate material, ksi


specified yield stress of column material, ksi
horizontal spacing between vertical bolt lines, in.
distance from outer face of flange to web toe of
fillet, in.
the column section
distance, in.
unfactored effective end-plate moment, in.-kips
connected beam end moments, ft-kips
required number of bolts to resist beam shear
effective pitch, in.
pitch, distance from center line of bolt to nearer
surface of the tension flange, in.
+ in. is
generally enough to provide wrench clearance)
factored beam flange force equal to times the
beam flange force when the flange force is due
to live and dead loads only, or by when the
flange force is due to live and dead loads in conjunction with wind or earthquake forces, kips
effective pitch, in.
minimum bolt tension, kips
required end-plate elastic section modulus, in.3
beam flange thickness, in.
column flange thickness, in.
required column flange thickness, in.
end-plate thickness, in.
required end-plate thickness from stiffness
criterion, in.
required end-plate thickness from strength
criterion, in.
end-plate to beam tension flange stiffener thickness (approximately equal in thickness to that of
the beam web), in.
beam web thickness, in.
column web thickness, in.
column web depth clear of fillets, in.
single shear capacity of bolt, kips
leg size of fillet weld or reinforcement weld, in.

depth of beam or column section, in.


nominal bolt diameter, in.
column web depth clear of fillets, in.
required fillet weld throat size, sixteenths
edge distance, in.
computed bearing stress, ksi
computed shear stress, ksi
average yield stress for beam and end-plate materials, ksi
allowable bending stress for the end-plate material (0.75 times the specified yield stress), ksi
allowable bending stress for column flange material (0.75 times the specified yield stress), ksi
allowable tensile stress for bolt material, ksi
specified minimum tensile strength for bolt material, ksi
capacity of unstiffened column flange to resist
applied force, kips
unfactored beam flange force, kips
allowable bearing stress, ksi
specified minimum tensile strength, ksi
allowable shear stress, ksi

31
2003 by American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc. All rights reserved.
This publication or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without permission of the publisher.

A.2 ASD DESIGN AIDS


Table A.1.
Allowable Tension and Single Shear Loads for A325 and A490 Bolts
(ASD Method)
a) A325 Bolts

Diameter (in.)
Tension (kips)

26.5

34.6

43.7

54.0

65.3

77.7

Shear A325-SC (kips)

5.4

7.7

10.5

13.7

17.4

21.5

26.0

30.9

Shear A325-N (kips)

6.4

9.3

12.6

16.5

20.9

25.8

31.2

37.1

Shear A325-X (kips)

9.2

13.3

18.0

23.6

29.8

36.8

44.5

53.0

28

39

51

56

71

85

32.5

42.4

53.7

66.3

80.2

95.4

13.2

17.3

21.9

27.0

32.7

38.9

12.4

16.8

22.0

27.8

34.4

41.6

49.5

13.5

Minimum Bolt Tension (kips)

19

19.4

103

b) A490 Bolts

Diameter (in.)
Tension (kips)

16.6

Shear A490-SC (kips)

6.7

Shear A490-N (kips)

8.6

23.9
9.7

Shear A490-X (kips)

12.3

17.7

24.1

31.4

39.8

Minimum Bolt Tension (kips)

24

35

49

64

80

49.1
102

59.4

121

70.7
148

All values from AISC ASD Manual (1980, 1989).

Table A.2.
ASD Values of
for A325 Bolts

Table A.3.
ASD Values of
for A490 Bolts

32
2003 by American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc. All rights reserved.
This publication or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without permission of the publisher.

Table A.4.
Values of
Section

Section

W36 x 359
x328
x300
x280
x260
x245
x230
x256
x 232
x210
x194
x182
x170
x160
x150
x135

0.899
0.903
0.887
0.882
0.850
0.835
0.818
0.648
0.644
0.588
0.587
0.579
0.573
0.554
0.530
0.463

W33x354
x318
x291
x 263
x 241
x 221
x 201
x169
x152
x141
x130
x118

0.925
0.926
0.913
0.909
0.853
0.829
0.807
0.667
0.612
0.583
0.541
0.492

W30 x 235
x211
x191
x173
x148
x132
x124
x116
x108
x 99

0.961
0.905
0.887
0.861
0.672
0.606
0.590
0.558
0.516
0.476

Section

W27x217
x194
x178
x161
x146
x129
x114
x102
x 94
x 84

1.003
0.986
0.909
0.902
0.885
0.710
0.646
0.635
0.597
0.545

W24 x 176
x162
x146
x131
x117
x104
x103
x 94
x 84
x 76
x 68
x 62
x 55

1.021
0.994
0.959
0.904
0.877
0.848
0.711
0.683
0.655
0.616
0.560
0.428
0.397

W21 x 166
x147
x132
x122
x111
x101
x 93
x 83
x 73
x 68
x 62
x 57
x 50
x 44

1.140
1.011
1.002
1.003
0.994
0.995
0.683
0.686
0.683
0.667
0.641
0.532
0.465
0.423

Section

W18x143
x130
x119
x106
x 97
x 86
x 76
x 71
x 65
x 60
x 55
x 50
x 46
x 40
x 35

1.204
1.186
1.082
1.059
1.076
1.056
1.048
0.741
0.751
0.751
0.722
0.714
0.604
0.595
0.504

W16x100
x 89
x 77
x 67
x 57
x 50
x 45
x 40
x 36
x 31
x 26

1.170
1.152
1.146
1.149
0.789
0.781
0.768
0.772
0.679
0.589
0.506

W14x120
x109
x 99
x 90
x 82
x 74
x 68
x 61
x 53
x 48
x 43
x 38
x 34
x 30
x 26
x 22

1.855
1.899
1.859
1.860
1.348
1.394
1.382
1.364
1.141
1.115
1.103
0.861
0.824
0.734
0.633
0.557

W12x87
x79
x72
x65
x58
x53
x50
x45
x 40
x35
x30
x26
x22
x19
x16
x14

1.748
1.732
1.720
1.706
1.631
1.527
1.281
1.266
1.281
0.992
0.963
0.936
0.575
0.520
0.419
0.390

W10x60
x 54
x49
x45
x39
x33
x 30
x 26
x22
x19
x17
x15
x12

1.842
1.882
1.859
1.603
1.516
1.348
1.045
1.033
0.913
0.672
0.583
0.497
0.463

W 8x35
x31
x 28
x 24
x21
x18
x15
x13
x10

1.796
1.711
1.495
1.487
1.127
1.007
0.690
0.593
0.635

W 6x25 1.580
x20
x15

1.545
1.238

x16 1.148
x12 0.890
x 9 0.911
W 5x19
x16

1.867
1.748

W 4x13

1.442

33
2003 by American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc. All rights reserved.
This publication or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without permission of the publisher.

A.3 ASD QUICK REFERENCE EXAMPLES


EXAMPLE A.1 (Same as Example 3.1)
4-bolt Unstiffened End-Plate

ii. Check bolt bearing, end-plate controls, compression bolts:

Beam W24x55 A36 steel

iii. Check end-plate shear:

Column W14x159 A36 steel

C. End-plate weld design, E70XX electrodes

i. Beam flanges to end-plate weld:

A. Bolt design, A325-SC bolts


i. Tension:
ii. Beam web to end-plate weld:

ii. Shear,

B. End-plate design, A36 steel

iii. Check beam web yielding

i. Bending, Equation 3.1a:

D. Column side, A36 steel and E70XX electrodes

i. Check column web yielding, inequality 3.3a,

34
2003 by American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc. All rights reserved.
This publication or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without permission of the publisher.

ii. Check column web buckling, inequality 3.4a,

A. Column side
i. Check column web yielding, inequality 3.3a:

iii. Check column flange bending,

ii. Check column web buckling, inequality 3.4a:

iii. Check column flange bending,

Calculations to be made with


Column web stiffeners are not required.
iv. Check column web yielding, inequality 3.6a:

Column web reinforcement is not required.


E. Final details:
Design stiffeners and welds for

Column flange to stiffener weld, E70XX electrodes:

Column web to stiffener weld, E70XX electrodes:

Check shear stress in stiffener base metal, A36 steel:

EXAMPLE A.2 (Same as Example 3.2)


Data is same as Example A.1, except
Column W14x90 A572 Gr 50 steel

iv. Check column web yielding inequality 3.6(a),

35
2003 by American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc. All rights reserved.
This publication or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without permission of the publisher.

B. Final details:

ii. Shear,

B. End-plate design, A36 steel

i. Bending, Equation 4.4a:

ii. Check bolt bearing, end-plate controls, compression bolts:

C. End-plate weld design, E70XX electrodes

EXAMPLE A.3 (Same as Examples 4.1 and 4.3)


8-Bolt Stiffened End-Plate
Simplified procedure

i. Beam flanges to end-plate weld:


Use full penetration groove weld with

reinforcement.

ii. Beam web to end-plate weld:

Beam W33x118 A36 steel

Column W14x311 A36 steel

iii. Check beam web shear yielding:


A. Bolt design, A325-SC bolts
i. Tension:

D. Column side, A36 steel and E70XX electrodes

i. Check column web yielding, inequality 3.3a,

36

2003 by American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc. All rights reserved.


This publication or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without permission of the publisher.

Column web reinforcement is not required.

ii. Check column web buckling, inequality 3.4a,

D. Final details:

iii. Check column flange bending,

Column web stiffeners are not required.


iv. Check column web yielding, inequality 3.6a:

37
2003 by American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc. All rights reserved.
This publication or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without permission of the publisher.

Appendix B
LRFD NOMENCLATURE, DESIGN AIDS,
AND QUICK REFERENCE EXAMPLES
B.1 LRFD NOMENCLATURE
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

planar area of the column connection, in.2


area of beam tension flange, in.2
gross area of plate, in. 2
column stiffener area, in.2
area of beam web, in.2
beam or column flange width, in.
effective end-plate width, in. (not more than
+ 1 in.)
effective column flange length, in.
design tension capacity of bolt, kips
factored tension force per bolt; ultimate bolt
force including prying action effects, kips
vertical spacing between rows of tension bolts, in.
a constant depending on the plate material yield
stress, the bolt material and the design method.

= horizontal spacing between vertical bolt lines, in.


= distance from outer face of flange to web toe of
fillet, in.
= the column section
distance, in.
= factored effective end-plate moment, in.-kips
= factored beam moment, in.-kips
= connected beam factored end moments, ft-kips
= required number of bolts to resist beam shear
= effective pitch, in.
= pitch, distance from center line of bolt to nearer
surface of the tension flange, in.
+ in.
is generally enough to provide wrench clearance.)
= effective pitch, in.
= minimum bolt tension, kips
= beam flange thickness, in.
= column flange thickness, in.
= required column flange thickness, in.

= depth of beam or column section, in.


= nominal bolt diameter, in.
= column web depth clear of fillets, in.

= end-plate thickness, in.


= required end-plate thickness from stiffness
criterion, in.
= required end-plate thickness from strength
criterion, in.
= end-plate to beam tension flange stiffener thickness, in.
= beam web thickness, in.
= column web thickness, in.
= column web depth clear of fillets, in.
= single shear bolt design strength, kips
= factored shear force, kips
= leg size of fillet weld or reinforcement weld, in.
= required end-plate plastic section modulus, in.3

= required fillet weld throat size, sixteenths


= edge distance, in.
= average yield stress for beam and end-plate materials, ksi
= 0.75 of end-plate material), ksi
= ASD allowable tensile stress for bolt material, ksi
= specified minimum tensile strength for bolt material, ksi
= capacity of unstiffened column flange to resist
applied force, kips
= factored beam flange force, kips
= specified minimum tensile strength, ksi
= specified yield stress of the end-plate material,
ksi
= specified yield stress of column material, ksi

= resistance factor

39
2003 by American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc. All rights reserved.
This publication or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without permission of the publisher.

B.2 LRFD DESIGN AIDS


Table B.1.
Design Tension and Single Shear Strengths for A325 and A490 Bolts
(LRFD Method)
a) A325 Bolts

Diameter (in.)
Tension (kips)

29.8

20.7

5.22

53.0

67.1

82.8

100.2

119.3

10.2

13.4

16.9

20.9

25.2

30.0

Shear A325-N (kips)

10.8

15.5

21.1

27.6

34.9

43.1

52.1

62.0

Shear A325-X (kips)

14.4

20.7

28.1

36.8

46.5

57.4

69.5

82.7

Minimum Bolt Tension (kips)

19

28

39

51

56

71

85

66.3

83.9

103.5

125.3

149.1
37.1

Shear A325-SC (kips)

7.51

40.6

103

b) A490 Bolts

Diameter (in.)
Tension (kips)

25.9
6.44

37.3

50.7
12.6

16.5

20.9

25.8

31.2

Shear A490-N (kips)

13.5

19.4

26.4

34.5

43.6

53.8

65.1

77.5

Shear A490-X (kips)

17.9

25.8

35.2

45.9

58.2

71.8

86.9

103.4

Minimum Bolt Tension (kips)

24

35

49

64

80

Shear A490-SC (kips)

9.28

102

121

148

All values from AISC LRFD Manual (1986).

Table B.2.
LRFD Values of
for A325 Bolts

Table B.3.
LRFD Values of
for A490 Bolts

40

2003 by American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc. All rights reserved.


This publication or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without permission of the publisher.

B.3 LRFD QUICK REFERENCE EXAMPLES


EXAMPLE B.1 (Same as Example 3.3)
4-bolt Unstiffened End-Plate

ii. Check bolt bearing, end-plate controls, compression bolts:

Beam W24x55 A36 steel


in. Check end-plate shear:

Column W14x90 A36 steel


C. End-plate weld design, E70XX electrodes
i. Beam flanges to end-plate weld:

A. Bolt design, A325-SC bolts

ii. Beam web to end-plate weld:

i. Tension:

ii. Shear,

B. End-plate design, A36 steel


iii. Check beam web yielding

i. Bending, Equation 3.1b:

D. Column side, A36 steel and E70XX electrodes


i. Check column web yielding, inequality 3.3b,

ii. Check column web buckling, inequality 3.4b,

41
2003 by American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc. All rights reserved.
This publication or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without permission of the publisher.

EXAMPLE B.2 (Same as Examples 4.4 and 4.6)


8-Bolt Stiffened End-Plate
Simplified procedure

iii. Check column flange bending,

Beam W33x118 A36 steel

Column W14x311 A36 steel

Design stiffeners and welds for

Column flange to stiffener weld, E70XX electrodes:

A. Bolt design, A325-SC bolts


i. Tension:

Column web to stiffener weld, E70XX electrodes:

Check shear force in stiffener base metal, A36 steel:

ii. Shear,

iv. Check column web yielding, inequality 3.6(b):

B. End-plate design, A36 steel

E. Final details:
i. Bending, Equation 4.4b:

ii. Check bolt bearing, end-plate controls, compression bolts:

42
2003 by American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc. All rights reserved.
This publication or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without permission of the publisher.

C. End-plate weld design, E70XX electrodes


i. Beam flanges to end-plate weld:
Use full penetration groove weld with

reinforcement.

ii. Beam web to end-plate weld:

Column web stiffeners are not required.

iv. Check column web yielding, inequality 3.6b:

Column web reinforcement is not required.

D. Final details:

iii. Check beam web shear yielding:

D. Column side, A36 steel and E70XX electrodes


i. Check column web yielding, inequality 3.3b,

ii. Check column web buckling, inequality 3.4b,

iii. Check column flange bending,

43
2003 by American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc. All rights reserved.
This publication or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without permission of the publisher.

DESIGN GUIDE SERIES


American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc.
One East Wacker Drive, Suite 3100
Chicago, Illinois 60601-2001

Pub. No. D 8 0 4 (5M194)


2003 by American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc. All rights reserved.
This publication or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without permission of the publisher.