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ExtendedMoment

End-Plate

Connections

Extended End-Plate

Moment Connections

Design Guide for Extended End-Plate Moment Connections

Thomas M. Murray, PhD, RE.

Montague-Betts Professor of Structural Steel Design

Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Blacksburg, Virginia

A M E R I C A N

I N S T I T U T E

OF

S T E E L

C O N S T R U C T I O N

This publication or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without permission of the publisher.

Copyright 1990

by

American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc.

must not be reproduced in any form without the

written permission of the publisher.

The information presented in this publication has been prepared in accordance with recognized engineering principles and is for general information only. While it is believed

to be accurate, this information should not be used or relied upon for any specific application without competent professional examination and verification of its accuracy,

suitablility, and applicability by a licensed professional engineer, designer, or architect.

The publication of the material contained herein is not intended as a representation

or warranty on the part of the American Institute of Steel Construction or of any other

person named herein, that this information is suitable for any general or particular use

or of freedom from infringement of any patent or patents. Anyone making use of this

information assumes all liability arising from such use.

Caution must be exercised when relying upon other specifications and codes developed

by other bodies and incorporated by reference herein since such material may be modified or amended from time to time subsequent to the printing of this edition. The

Institute bears no responsibility for such material other than to refer to it and incorporate

it by reference at the time of the initial publication of this edition.

Printed in the United States of America

Second Printing: October 2003

This publication or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without permission of the publisher.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. I N T R O D U C T I O N . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.1 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.2 Overview of Design Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.3 Brief Literature O v e r v i e w . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1

1

2

2

2.1 Basis of Design Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . 5

2.2 Limit States Check L i s t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

3. UNSTIFFENED, EXTENDED END-PLATE

CONNECTION D E S I G N . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.1 The Four-Bolt Configuration Design

Procedures and E x a m p l e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.1.1 Design Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.1.2 Allowable Stress Design E x a m p l e s . . . . . . .

3.1.3 Load and Resistance Design Example . . . .

3.2 Eight-Bolt Design Procedures and Allowable

Stress Design Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7

7

8

11

14

CONNECTION DESIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

4.1 Design P r o c e d u r e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

4.2.1 Allowable Stress Design Examples . . . . . . 18

4.2.2 Load and Resistance Factor Design

Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

APPENDIX AASD NOMENCLATURE,

DESIGN AIDS AND QUICK REFERENCE

EXAMPLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

A.1 ASD Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

A.2 ASD Design Aids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

A.3 ASD Quick Reference Examples . . . . . . . . . . . .

31

31

32

34

DESIGN AIDS AND QUICK REFERENCE

EXAMPLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

B.1 LRFD Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

B.2 LRFD Design Aids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

B.3 LRFD Quick Reference Examples . . . . . . . . . . . 41

This publication or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without permission of the publisher.

PREFACE

This booklet was prepared under the direction of the Committee on Research of the American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc. as part of a series of publications on special

topics related to fabricated structural steel. Its purpose is to

serve as a supplemental reference to the AISC Manual of

Steel Construction to assist practicing engineers engaged in

building design.

The design guidelines suggested by the authors that are outside the scope of the AISC Specifications or Code do not

represent an official position of the Institute and are not intended to exclude other design methods and procedures. It

is recognized that the design of structures is within the scope

of expertise of a competent licensed structural engineer, architect or other licensed professional for the application of

principles to a particular structure.

The sponsorship of this publication by the American Iron

The information presented in this publication has been prepared in accordance with recognized engineering principles and is for general information only. While it is believed to be accurate, this information should

not be used or relied upon for any specific application without competent professional examination and verification of its accuracy, suitability, and applicability by a licensed professional engineer, designer or architect. The publication of the material contained herein is not intended as a representation or warranty on

the part of the American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc. or the American Iron and Steel Institute, or

of any other person named herein, that this information is suitable for any general or particular use or of

freedom infringement of any patent or patents. Anyone making use of this information assumes all liability

arising from such use.

This publication or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without permission of the publisher.

Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND

Construction (1989a).

As with any connection, end-plate connections have certain advantages and disadvantages. The principal advantages

are:

(a) The connection is suitable for winter erection in that

only field bolting is required.

(b) All welding is done in the shop, eliminating field welding associated problems.

(c) Without the need for field welding, the erection process is relatively fast.

(d) If fabrication is accurate, it is easy to maintain plumbness of the frame.

(e) Lower total installed cost for many cases.

The principal disadvantages are:

(a) The fabrication techniques are somewhat more stringent because of the need for accurate beam length and

"squareness" of the beam end.

(b) Column out-of-squareness can cause erection difficulties but can be controlled by fabricating the beams

in. to in. short and providing "finger" shims.

(c) End plates often warp due to the heat of welding.

moment resistant frame construction is becoming more com-

mon because of advancements in design methods and fabrication techniques, both of which have resulted in decreased

costs. A typical moment end-plate connection is composed

of a steel plate welded to the end of a beam section with

attachment to an adjacent member using rows of fully tensioned high-strength bolts. The connection may be between

two beams (splice plate connection) or between a beam and

a column. End-plate moment connections are classified as

either flush or extended with or without stiffeners and further classified depending on the number of bolts at the tension flange. A flush connection is detailed such that the endplate does not appreciably extend beyond the beam flanges

and all bolts are located between the beam flanges. An

extended end-plate is one which extends beyond the tension

flange a sufficient distance to allow the location of bolts other

than between the beam flanges. Extended end-plates may

be used with or without a stiffener between the end-plate

and the beam flange in the plane of the beam web. Flush

end-plate connections are typically used in frames subject

to light lateral loadings or near inflection points of gable

frames. Extended end-plates are used for beam-to-column

moment connections. Only extended end-plates are considered in this design guide.

Four extended end-plate configurations are shown in Fig.

1.1. The four-bolt unstiffened configuration shown in Fig.

1.1(a) is probably the most commonly used in multi-story

frame construction. An allowable stress design (ASD) procedure for this connection is found in the 8th and 9th editions, American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) Manual of Steel Construction (1980, 1989a) and a load and

resistance factor design (LRFD) procedure is found in the

AISC Load and Resistance Factor Design Manual of Steel

Construction (1986a). Assuming the full beam moment

capacity is to be resisted, A325 bolts and a maximum bolt

diameter of 1 in. (maximum practical size because of tightening considerations), this connection is limited because of

bolt capacity to use with less than one-half of the available

beam sections. The connection strength can be increased by

adding a stiffener, Fig. 1.1(b), or increasing the number of

bolts per row to four, Fig. 1.1(c). Formal design procedures

are not available for the former, and the latter requires a wide

column flange. The stiffened A325 eight-bolt connection

shown in Fig. 1.1(d) is capable of developing the full moment

capacity of most of the available beam sections even if bolt

diameter is limited to 1 in. Design procedures for this con-

This publication or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without permission of the publisher.

procedures which predict a high degree of "prying action"

resulting in large end-plate thicknesses and large bolt

diameters. One such method for the four-bolt, extended configuration (Fig. 1.1(a)) is found in the 7th edition of the AISC

Manual of Steel Construction (1969).

More recently, methods based on refined yield-line

analyses have been suggested. A number of configurations

have been studied in Europe (Zoetermeijer, 1974, 1981;

Packer and Morris, 1977; Mann and Morris, 1979) as well

as in the United States (Srouji, 1983; Hendrick et al., 1985;

Morrison, 1986). Most of this work has involved flush endplate configurations.

Finite element methodology for the analysis of end-plates

was first developed by Krishnamurthy (1978, 1981). His

exhaustive analytical study of four-bolt, unstiffened, extended

end plates (Fig. 1.1(a)), along with a series of experimental

investigations, led to the development of a design procedure

first published in the 8th edition of the AISC Manual of Steel

Construction.

More recently, Ahuja (1982) and Ghassemieh (1983) have

investigated the stiffened configuration with two rows of two

bolts on each side of the tension flange (Fig 1.1(d)). They

used regression analysis to develop design equations. Murray and Kukreti (1988) have developed a simplified design

procedure using their regression results which appears in the

9th edition AISC Manual of Steel Construction.

Bolt Design. Early end-plate design procedures (Douty and

McGuire, 1965; Nair et al., 1969; Kato and McGuire, 1973)

all involved the calculation of bolt prying forces based on

various assumptions. The assumed location of the prying

force was at or near the edge of the end-plate. Packer and

Morris (1977), Phillips and Packer (1981), Mann and Morris

(1979), and Zoetermeijer (1974, 1981) have all included prying action forces in their yield-line based design procedures.

The various recommendations range from rather complicated

analytical procedures to a simple increase in bolt force over

the applied tension (Mann and Morris, 1979).

Krishnamurthy (1978a) argues that even though prying

action is present, it is overly conservative to assume it to be

acting at the edge of the plate as this normally results in thicker

than necessary end-plates. His studies describe prying force

as a pressure bulb which is formed under the bolt head due

to the tensioning of the bolt and shifts towards the edge as

the beam flange force increases. For any given loading, the

pressure bulb is located somewhere between the edge of the

end plate and the bolt head. He states, for service load conditions when the beam flange loads are small, the pressure

bulb is closer to the bolt head than to the plate edge, and

the plate moments are much smaller than those predicted

by prying force formulas. Consequently, in his design procedure for four-bolt, extended, unstiffened end plates (Fig.

1.1(a)), prying forces are ignored, that is, the bolt size is determined directly from the force delivered by the beam flange.

of the top flange tension weld.

(e) The bolts are in tension, which can result in prying

forces.

A number of designers and fabricators in the United States

have successfully used moment end-plate connections for

building frames up to 30 stories in height. It is believed that,

in spite of the several disadvantages, moment end-plate connections can provide economic solutions for rigid frame construction. Because very little research has been conducted

on the low cycle fatigue strength of end-plate connections,

their use is not presently recommended in areas of high seismic activity.

The intent of this guide is to present complete design procedures and examples for extended moment end-plate connections suitable for fully restrained (or continuous frame) construction. Chapter 2 presents the basic design procedures for

the end-plate configurations shown in Figs, 1.1(a), (c) and

(d). Chapter 3 contains ASD and LRFD design examples

for the four-bolt unstiffened configuration shown in Fig. 1.1

(a) and the eight-bolt unstiffened configuration shown in Fig.

1.1(c). Chapter 4 contains ASD and LRFD examples for the

eight-bolt stiffened configuration shown in Fig. 1.1 (d).

Appendix A includes allowable stress design (ASD) nomenclature, several design aids and quick reference examples.

Appendix B is similar to Appendix A except it is for load

and resistance factor design (LRFD). The quick reference

examples serve as a guide for designers who are thoroughly

familiar with moment end-plate design. The following section is a brief review of available literature for background

purposes.

End Plate Design. Research starting in the early 1950s and

continuing to the present has resulted in refined design procedures for both flush and extended end-plate connections.

The earlier design methods were based on statics and simple assumptions concerning prying forces. These methods

resulted in thick end-plates and large diameter bolts. Other

studies have been based on yield-line theory. The more recent

studies have used the finite element method and regression

analysis to develop design equations. Accurate solutions can

be developed using the latter technique; however, the procedure is time consuming and the resulting design equations

usually involve terms to odd powers which virtually

eliminates "structural feel" from the design.

Early attempts (prior to about 1975) to develop design

criteria for moment end-plate connections were based on the

2

2003 by American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc. All rights reserved.

This publication or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without permission of the publisher.

the beam flange through the column flange and fillet. If the

stress at this critical section exceeds the yield stress of the

column material, a column web stiffener is required opposite the beam tension and compression flanges.

For the case of end-plate moment connections, the width

of the stress pattern at the critical section may be considerably wider due to the insertion of the end plate into the load

path. Hendrick and Murray (1983) conducted a number of

column compression region tests using both stiffened and

unstiffened end plates and concluded that the slope of the

stress path through the end plate can be taken as 1:1 and that

in the column as 3:1. This recommendation is also found in

Hendrick and Murray (1984) and in the AISC LRFD manual (1986a). Hendrick's recommendations, except for the 3:1

slope, are also found in AISC Engineering for Steel Construction (1984), where 2:1 is used.

Newlin and Chen (1971) recommend that an interaction

equation be used to check combined web yielding strength

and web buckling. Possibly anticipating resistance to such

form, they also provided a simple check for web buckling.

This latter provision was adopted by AISC in their 1978 specification revision.

Kennedy et al. (1981) have presented a method for calculation of prying forces as a function of plate "thickness" relative to applied load. They identified three types of end-plate

behavior. The first type is characterized by the absence of

plastic hinges in the end plate. These end-plates are said to

be "thick." Under low loading conditions all end plates fall

into this category. The upper limit of this behavior occurs

at a load which causes flexural yielding in the end-plate at

the beam flange. Once this load is exceeded, a plastic hinge

is formed at the flange and the end-plate is said to be of

"intermediate" thickness. As the load is increased, a second plastic hinge forms at the bolt lines. At this load, the

consider bolt force to be the sum of a portion of the flange

force plus prying force and identify three stages of prying

action corresponding to the three phases of end-plate

behavior. For "thick" plates, the prying force is assumed

to be zero. When the end plate is considered as "thin," the

prying force is at its maximum. For "intermediate" plates,

the prying force is somewhere between zero and the maximum value. They suggest that for ideal design, the end-plate

should be "thick" under service loads, "intermediate" under

factored loads and function as a "thin" plate at ultimate

loads.

Srouji (1983), Hendrick et al. (1985) and Morrison (1986)

have modified the Kennedy et al. (1981) approach for use

with two- and four-bolt flush end plates; four-bolt, stiffened

extended end plates; and extended end plates with multiple

bolt rows below the tension flange. Each researcher has

presented experimental evidence to verify the prediction

equations.

Ahuja (1982) and Ghassemieh (1983) have presented finite

element/regression analysis equations to predict bolt forces

above the pretension level for eight-bolt, stiffened, extended

end plates. Ahuja's results are based on elastic material properties, but Ghassemieh's results include inelastic material

properties. Both authors limit the use of their results to A36

steel and A325 bolts.

Beam-to-End-Plate Weld Design. Griffiths (1984) suggests

that either full penetration welds or fillet welds sufficient

to develop the beam flange in tension be used to connect

the end plate to the beam. This recommendation holds even

if the full capacity of the beam is not being utilized because

of the large local deformations that occur along the end plate.

Column Side Design. Relative to end-plate research, the

amount of effort devoted to the column side of end-plate

moment connections is quite limited. Only a few papers have

been published which suggest design guidelines for the three

column side failure modes: column web yielding, column

web buckling and column flange bending failure.

The critical section for column web yielding is at the toe

of the column web fillet. For design of welded connections,

the present AISC Manual (1989a) criteria is based on a load

path which is assumed to vary linearly on a 2:1 slope from

bending of the column flange. The first mode prevails when

the column flange is thick when compared with bolt diameter.

The second failure mode is when the stiffnesses of the bolts

and flange are such that prying forces can develop because

yield lines form in the flange near the fillet, causing both

the flange and the bolts to fail. The third failure mode occurs

when yield lines form in the flange near both the bolts and

the fillet. Design procedures for each failure mode are

presented as well as test results to verify the analytical work.

Mann and Morris (1979) present complete design procedures for the column side of end-plate connections. The

recommendations are based primarily on the work of Packer

and Morris (1977). However, only the case when the column flange is much less stiff than the end plate is considered. Three possible failure modes were found to exist. If

the flange is very stiff, there are no prying forces and the

failure occurs when the bolts rupture. The second failure

mode occurs when the column flange is less stiff, which

results in a combination of bolt fracture and flange yielding

near the column web. The third failure mode is characterized by yield lines forming and causing double curvature in

the flange plate. Provisions to estimate the column flange

capacity for each of the failure modes are provided. If the

first failure mode governs, the total bolt force is equal to

the applied flange force. For the second failure mode, prying forces are accounted for by limiting bolt capacity to 80%

of tensile capacity. Mann and Morris do not provide methods

to estimate prying forces if the third failure mode governs.

Granstrom (1980) extended tee-hanger results to include

column flanges. The procedure to determine the required column flange thickness is the same as that used for tee-hanger

3

2003 by American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc. All rights reserved.

This publication or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without permission of the publisher.

is used. Granstrom does not consider prying action effects.

Hendrick and Murray (1983) conducted a limited series

of tests to evaluate the methods suggested by Mann and

Morris (1979), Granstrom (1980) and Witteveen et al. (1982)

for use with North American rolled sections. They concluded

that the method proposed by Mann and Morris (1979) is the

most suitable for the evaluation of unstiffened column flanges

in the tension region of four-bolt, unstiffened end-plate connections. They also modified the Krishnamurthy (1978a) procedure for end plates by introducing an effective column

flange length to obtain the same results as found with the

Mann and Morris equations. Finally, they developed the

"rule of thumb" found in the AISC Engineering for Steel

Construction manual (1984) which states that, under certain

limitations, the column flange is adequate if its thickness is

greater than the required bolt diameter from the Krishnamurthy end-plate design procedure. All of his work applies only

to A36 steel.

Curtis (1985) has proposed design rules for column flange

strength in the tension region of eight-bolt, stiffened endplate connections. His method is based on the Ghassemieh

flange length and is therefore limited to A36 steel.

Curtis and Murray (1989) have modified both the Hendrick and Murray (1983) and Curtis (1985) recommendations

to ensure adequate column flange stiffness for use in fully

restrained (continuous) construction.

Procedures for the design of column web stiffeners to prevent web yielding or buckling have been suggested by Hendrick and Murray (1984) and have the same form as for

welded beam-to-column connections in the 1989 AISC ASD

Specification.

Mann and Morris (1979) have presented methods to estimate the resistance of column flanges stiffened using standard web stiffeners. Zoetemeijer (1974) and Moore and Sims

(1986) have recommended the use of "flange washer plate

stiffeners." They have also provided design rules for the fourbolt unstiffened end-plate configuration. Curtis (1985)

reported extensive analytical (yield-line) and experimental

work on washer flange stiffening at both four-bolt unstiffened

and eight-bolt stiffened, extended end plates.

Some of the literature cited was used to develop the design

procedures presented in the following chapter.

This publication or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without permission of the publisher.

Chapter 2

RECOMMENDED DESIGN PROCEDURES

2.1 BASIS OF DESIGN RECOMMENDATIONS

of the type... in which some of the bolts lose a part

of their clamping force due to applied tension suffer

no overall loss of frictional resistance. The bolt tension produced by the moment is coupled with a compensating compressive force on the other side of the

axis of bending." Thus, the frictional resistance of the

connection remains unchanged.

If very high shear forces exist, a bearing type connection may be necessary. In this case, the tension

bolts must be designed with a shear-tension interaction equation.

It is noted that shear is rarely a major concern in

the design of moment end-plate connections.

6. It is assumed that the width of the end plate which

is effective in resisting the applied beam moment is

not greater than the beam flange width plus 1 in. This

assumption is based on engineering judgment and is

not part of any of the referenced end-plate design procedures. Further, the writer is unaware of any endplate connection tests conducted with end-plates substantially greater in width than the connected beam

flange.

7. The gage of the tension bolts (horizontal distance

between vertical bolt lines) should not exceed the beam

tension flange width, again based on engineering

judgment.

8. Beam web to end-plate welds in the vicinity of the tension bolts are designed to develop 0.6 of the beam

web. This weld strength is recommended even if the

full moment capacity of the beam is not required for

frame strength.

9. Only the web to end-plate weld between the mid-depth

of the beam and the inside side face of the beam compression flange or between the inner row of tension

bolts plus two bolt diameters and the inside face of

the beam compression flange, whichever is smaller,

may be used to resist the beam shear. This assumption is based on the author's opinion. Literature was

not found to substantiate or contradict this assumption.

Column web stiffeners are expensive to fabricate and can

interfere with weak axis column framing. Therefore, it is

recommended that they be avoided whenever possible. If the

four- and eight-bolt unstiffened end-plate configurations,

Figs, 1.1(a) and (c), are based on the work of Krishnamurthy (1978a), "A Fresh Look at Bolted End-Plate Behavior and

Design," and the procedures in the ASD and LRFD AISC

manuals (1980, 1986a, 1989a). Column side design for the

four-bolt configuration is based on the work of Hendrick and

Murray (1984), "Column Web Compression Strength at EndPlate Connections," and Curtis and Murray (1989), "Column Flange Strength at Moment End-Plate Connections."

The eight-bolt stiffened end plate, Fig. 1.1(d), design procedures in Chapter 4 are based on the works of Ghassemeih

(1983), "Inelastic Finite Element Analysis of Stiffened EndPlate Moment Connections," and Murray and Kukreti (1988),

"Design of 8-bolt Stiffened Moment End Plates," and the

procedures in the 9th edition ASD AISC Manual of Steel

Construction (1989a). Column side design procedures for this

configuration are based on the previously cited works of Hendrick and Murray (1984) and Curtis and Murray (1989).

In addition, the following assumptions or conditions are

inherent to the design procedures:

1. All bolts are tightened to a tension not less than that

given in the AISC ASD and LRFD specifications.

2. The design procedures for the 8-bolt, stiffened configuration (Fig. 1.1(d)) are valid for use with A325

bolts. A490 bolts should not be used in this configuration.

3. Only static loading is permitted. Temperature, wind

and snow loadings are considered static loadings

(AISC, 1986, 1989). The design procedures should not

be used, pending further research, when seismic loading is a major design consideration.

4. The smallest possible bolt pitch (distance from face

of beam flange to centerline of nearer bolt) generally

results in the most economical connection. The recommended minimum pitch dimension is bolt diameter

plus in. However, many fabricators prefer to use

a standard pitch dimension, usually 2 in., for all bolt

diameters.

5. End-plate connections can be designed to resist shear

force at the interface of the end-plate and column

flange using either "slip critical" or "bearing" assumptions. If slip critical (type "SC") criteria are used, all

bolts at the interface can be assumed to resist the shear

force and shear/tension interaction can be ignored as

explained in the Commentary on "Specification for

Structural Joints Using ASTM A325 or A490 Bolts"

to increase the column size rather than install stiffeners. If

column web stiffeners are required because of inadequate

column flange bending strength or stiffness, increasing the

effective length of the column flange may eliminate the need

for stiffening. This can be accomplished by increasing the

This publication or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without permission of the publisher.

tension bolt pitch or by switching from a two row configuration, Figs, 1.1(a), (b) or (c), to a four row configuration,

Fig. 1.1(d). Alternately, column flange washer plates (loose

plates with holes, placed on the column flange opposite the

end-plate and connected with the end-plate connection tension bolts) may be used. This approach is widely used in

Europe (Mann and Morris, 1979; Zoetemeijer, 1981; Moore

and Sims, 1986) and has been studied in the United States

(Curtis, 1985), but final design recommendations have not

been formulated at this writing.

4. Failure of bolt, or slip of bolt in slip critical connections, due to shear at the interface between the end

5. Plate bearing failure of end-plate or column flange

at bolts.

6. Rupture of beam tension flange to end-plate welds or

beam web tension region to end-plate welds.

7. Shear yielding of beam web to end-plate weld or of

beam web base metal.

8. Column web yielding opposite either the tension or

compression flanges of the connected beam.

9. Column web buckling opposite the compression flange

of the connected beam.

10. Column flange yielding in the vicinity of the tension

bolts. As with flexural yielding of the end plate, this

state in itself is not limiting but results in rapid

increases in tension bolt forces and excessive rotation.

11. Column web stiffener failure due to yielding, local

buckling or weld failure.

12. Column flange stiffener failure due to yielding or weld

failure.

13. Excessive rotation (flexibility) at the connection due

to end-plate and/or flange bending.

14. Column panel zone failure due to yielding or web plate

buckling.

Limit states (or failure modes) for moment end-plate beamto-column connections are:

1. Flexural yielding of the end-plate material near the

tension flange bolts. This state in itself is not limiting, but yielding results in rapid increases in tension

bolt forces and excessive rotation.

2. Shear yielding of the end-plate material. This limit

state is not usually observed, but shear in combination with bending can result in reduced flexural capacity and stiffness.

3. Bolt rupture because of direct load and prying force

effects. This limit state is obviously a brittle failure

mode and is the most critical limit state in an endplate connection.

This publication or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without permission of the publisher.

Chapter 3

UNSTIFFENED, EXTENDED END-PLATE CONNECTION DESIGN

3.1 THE FOUR-BOLT CONFIGURATION

DESIGN PROCEDURES AND EXAMPLES

The term

was originally defined and values tabulated

in the AISC ASD manual. The same values were printed in

the AISC LRFD manual. However, to account for the differences in weak axis bending strength between the AISC ASD

and LRFD specifications, the original values of must be

increased by (0.90/0.75) = 1.20 for use in LRFD. Further,

the values printed in both manuals are for cases where the

end-plate and beam material have the same yield strengths,

which is generally not the case except for A36 steel. Values

of

for various combinations of beam and end-plate

material are found in Tables A.2 and A.3 for ASD use and

in Tables B.2 and B.3 for LRFD use. Tables A.2 and B.2

are for A325 bolts and Tables A.3 and B.3 are for A490 bolts.

Values of

for hot-rolled beam sections are found in

Table A.4.

The following design recommendations for the extended,

four-bolt, unstiffened, beam-to-column, end-plate connection shown in Fig. 3.1 are based on the works of Krishnamurthy (1978a), "A Fresh Look at Bolted End-Plate Behavior and

Design"; Hendrick and Murray (1984), "Column Web Compression Strength at End-Plate Connections"; and Curtis and

Murray (1989), "Column Flange Strength at Moment EndPlate Connections." The basic procedures for end-plate and

bolt design are also found in the AISC ASD Manual of Steel

Construction (1989a) and the LRFD Manual of Steel Construction (1986a).

In Krishnamurthy's design procedure, prying action forces

are considered negligible and the tension flange force is considered to be distributed equally to the four tension bolts.

Possible local yielding of the tension flange and tension area

of the web is neglected. The required end-plate thickness

is determined using the tee-stub analogy with the effective

critical moment in the end plate given by

in ASD

(3.1a)

in LRFD

(3.1b)

or

with

unfactored beam flange force, kips

factored beam flange force, kips

a constant depending on the plate material yield

stress, the bolt material and the design method

(ASD or LRFD)

beam flange width, in.

effective end-plate width, in. (not more than

1 in.)

2

area of beam tension flange, in.

2

web area, clear of flanges, in.

effective pitch, in.

of the tension flange, in.

+ in. is generally

enough to provide wrench clearance; 2 in. is a common fabricator standard)

fillet weld throat size or reinforcement of groove

weld, in.

nominal bolt diameter, in.

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from

, is then determined

in ASD

with

column flange thickness, in.

required column flange thickness, in.

(3.2a)

or

in LRFD

Equation 3.2 modified as follows:

(3.2b)

with

in ASD

the allowable bending stress for the end-plate material (0.75 times the specified yield stress), ksi

specified yield stress of the end-plate material, ksi

in LRFD

(3.5b)

with

1. To prevent column web yielding at either the beam tension or compression flanges

in ASD

(3.5a)

or

2.5c

vertical spacing between rows of tension bolts, in.

(3.3a)

or

in LRFD (3.3b)

and

or

3.1b with

1.0;

with

factored beam flange force equal to times the

beam flange force when the flange force is due to

live and dead loads only, or by when the flange

force is due to live and dead loads in conjunction

with wind force, kips

specified yield stress of column material, ksi

column web thickness, in.

beam flange thickness, in.

distance from outer face of flange to web toe of

column fillet, in.

end-plate thickness, in.

leg size of fillet weld or reinforcement weld, in.

1.0

with

the column section

If the selected criterion is not satisfied, standard colstiffeners can be used to increase the flexural strength of

the column flanges.

4. To prevent column web shear yielding within the connection, column web reinforcement is required if

in ASD (3.6a)

or

in LRFD (3.6b)

with

planar area of the column connection,

in.2 In the above equations, the effect of column shear

has been conservatively ignored.

The following examples illustrate the above design procedures for four-bolt, unstiffened extended end-plate connections. Examples 3.1 and 3.2 use the ASD format and Example 3.3 uses the LRFD format. For these examples, the beam

top flange is in tension and moment reversal is not a

consideration.

(3.4a)

or

in LRFD

distance, in.

capable of resisting a force equal to the difference between

the left and right sides of the inequality, must be provided.

2. To prevent column web buckling at the beam compression flange

in ASD

for ASD and 1.36 for LRFD;

and

(3.4b)

with

column web depth clear of fillets, in.

0.90

If inequality 3.4 is not satisfied, column web stiffeners

are required at the beam compression flange.

3. To prevent column flange yielding in the tension region

of the connection, the following must be satisfied assuming A36 material even if the column material yield stress

is higher:

EXAMPLE 3.1. Use ASD procedures to design a beam-tocolumn end-plate connection for a moment of 200 ft-kips

and a shear of 40 kips. The beam is a W24x55 and the column is a W14x159. A36 steel is used for all members and

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W24x55

the column flange. Assume, conservatively, that the compression side bolts resist all of the shear.

W14x159

The beam tension flange force,

is

End-Plate Selection

The tension force per bolt, B, is then

diameter bolts (allowable capacity is 26.5 kips). Assuming A325-SC bolts, the single shear

The flange weld must develop the force in the beam flange.

fillet weld is

1-in. long

Bolt Selection

Use

A325-SC bolts

fully tightened, 4 at the tension beam flange and 2 at

the compression beam flange.

weld size from the AISC ASD Specification is in., which

B. End-plate design, A36 steel

Try edge distance = 1 in.

gage, g = 5 in.

pitch,

Required end-plate width is 1 + 5 + 1 = 8 in. Effective end-plate width must be less than beam flange width

plus 1 in.

Determine

Minimum size fillet weld is in.

Required weld to develop the bending stress in the beam

web near the tension bolts is

Use

fillet weld both sides of beam web from inside

face of beam flange to centerline of inside bolt holes plus

two bolt diameters.

The applied shear (40 kips) is to be resisted by weld

compression flange or between the inner row of tension bolts

plus two bolt diameters and the inside face of the compression flange, whichever is minimum. By inspection the former

governs for this example.

Determine

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Use -in. fillet weld (minimum size for -in thick plate)

both sides of beam web below tension bolt region.

limit states need to be checked. ASD procedures apply.

D. Check column side limit states and design stiffeners if necessary, A36 steel.

50 ksi:

yielding.

Therefore, stiffeners are not required opposite the beam tension and compression flanges to prevent column web

yielding.

compression flange to prevent column web buckling.

The required column flange thickness is determined using

Equation 3.2(a) with the previously discussed modifications.

are required for this design.

50 ksi:

Final design details are shown in Fig. 3.2.

EXAMPLE 3.2. Using the data, bolt design and end plate

from Example 3.1, determine if stiffeners are required if the

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50 ksi:

Therefore, stiffeners are not required to prevent column web

buckling.

Column web to stiffener weld:

From Example 3.1,

= 8.14 in., and from similar calculations

= 1.66 in.,

=1.326,

= 57.29 in.-kips and

= 1.25 in. Note that this check is made assuming the

column material is A36 steel. Since is greater than

0.710 in., a stiffener is required opposite the beam tension

flange. Because of the expense and possibility of interference with weak axis framing, the use of column web stiffeners is not recommended. Possible solutions for this

example are: (1) to use an 8-bolt stiffened connection (Chapter 4) which increases the effective column flange length,

(2) to increase the column flange thickness by using a heavier column or (3) to increase the bolt pitch which also

increases the effective column flange length. If the third

change is made, a thicker end-plate may be required. Obviously, the suggested changes require additional expense; however, the resulting connection may be more economical

because column web stiffeners are eliminated. If changes are

not practical, the following procedure can be used to determine stiffener size.

Curtis and Murray (1989) do not provide recommendations

for designing stiffeners when the column flange is inadequate.

Assuming that only force in excess of what the unstiffened

column flange can resist need be resisted by the stiffener,

the capacity of the unstiffened column flange is first computed by rearranging Equation 3.2a and then 3.1a:

Minimum weld is

To simplify detailing, use

let weld both sides.

Check shear stress in stiffener base metal.

fil-

Stiffener Selection

Use 2PL x4x0'-7 with

fillet welds all around.

iv. Check column web yielding using inequality 3.6a,

50 ksi:

Final design details are shown in Fig. 3.3.

EXAMPLE 3.3. Using LRFD procedures, design a beamto-column end-plate connection for a factored moment of

260 ft-kips, an unfactored shear of 40 kips and a factored

shear of 52 kips. The beam is a W24x55 and the column

is a W14x90. A36 steel is to be used for all members and

plates. Bolts are A325. The end plate is to be shop welded

to the beam using E70XX electrodes.

flange force less the capacity of the column flange:

With an allowable stress of

Stiffeners do not need to be full depth of the column web if

only one beam is connected to the column at a given elevation.

Since the stiffener is in tension, local buckling is not a limit

state and AISC ASD Specification width and thickness rules

do not apply; however, good engineering practice requires

the stiffener to be proportioned to match the beam flange.

The factored beam tension flange force,

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is

Try edge distance = 1 in.

gage = 5 in.

pitch,

is then

diameter bolts (design strength is

40.6 kips). Assuming A325-SC bolts, the single shear design

strength from Table B.1 is 10.2 kips. The number of bolts

required to resist the applied shear (unfactored) is then

Required end-plate width is 1 + 5 + 1 = 8 in. Effective end-plate width must be less than beam flange width

plus 1 in.

Bolt Selection

Determine

Use

A325-SC bolts

fully tightened, 4 at the tension beam flange and 2 at

the compression beam flange.

Determine

Check bolt bearing on end-plate (note column flange thickness is larger and, conservatively, only the compression side

bolts are considered).

End-Plate Selection

i. Beam flanges to end-plate welds:

Flange weld must develop the force in beam flange. For

E70XX electrodes the capacity of a

1-in. long fillet

weld is

Use

fillet welds at beam tension flange and minimum

weld size at beam compression flange. From the AISC LRFD

Specification minimum weld size is in.

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Minimum size fillet weld is in.

Required weld to develop maximum bending stress

in web near tension bolts is

Use

fillet weld both sides of beam web from inside

face of beam flange to centerline of inside bolt holes plus

two bolt diameters.

The factored shear (52 kips) is to be resisted by weld

between mid-depth of the beam and the inside face of the

compression flange or between the inner row of tension bolts

plus two bolt diameters and the inside face of compression

flange, whichever is minimum. By inspection the former governs for this example.

flange. As was previously discussed, because of the expense

and possibility of interference with weak axis framing, the

solutions for this example are: (1) to use an 8-bolt, stiffened

end-plate (Chapter 4) which increases the effective column

flange length, (2) to increase the column flange thickness

by using a heavier column or (3) to increase the bolt pitch

which increases the effective column flange length and

decreases the required column flange thickness. If the third

change is made, a thicker end-plate may be required. Obviously, any change requires additional expense; however, the

resulting connection may be more economical if the column

web stiffeners are eliminated. If changes are not practical,

the following procedure can be used to determine stiffener

size.

Assuming only force in excess of what the unstiffened column flange can resist need be resisted by the stiffener, the

capacity of the unstiffened column flange is first computed.

Use -in. fillet weld (minimum size for -in. thick plate)

both sides of beam web below tension bolt region.

D. Check column side limit states and design stiffeners if necessary, A36 steel

i. Check column web yielding using Inequality 3.3b:

Thus, the stiffener will be designed for

Therefore, stiffeners are not required opposite the beam tension and compression flanges to prevent column web

yielding.

if only one beam is connected to the column at a given

elevation.

Since the stiffener is in tension, local buckling is not a limit

compression flange to prevent column web buckling.

the stiffener to be proportioned to be compatible with the

beam flange. Assume -in. "clip" to clear column web

fillets.

The required column flange thickness is determined using

Equation 3.2b with the modifications that resulted in Equation 3.5b.

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By inspection 8 bolts are required. The force per bolt, B,

is then

Minimum weld is

To simplify detailing, use

fillet weld both sides.

Check shear force in stiffener base metal using AISC specification Equation J5-3 (length along flange governs).

From Table A.1, try 1-in. diameter bolts (allowable capacity is 34.6 kips). Assuming A325-SC bolts, the single shear

capacity from Table A.1 is 13.7 kips. The number of bolts

required to resist the applied shear is then

Stiffener Selection

Use 2PL x4x0'-7 with

fillet welds.

Bolt Selection

Use 12 1-in. diameter

Therefore, column web reinforcement is not required.

Final design details are shown in Fig. 3.4.

EXAMPLE

The design procedures for unstiffened extended end-plates

in the AISC Manuals imply that the end-plate configuration

shown in Fig. 1.1(c) can be designed using the work of Krishnamurthy (1978a). The work of Hendrick and Murray (1984)

can be used to evaluate column web yielding and buckling.

Column flange bending strength requires special consideration. A suggested approach is given in the following ASD

example. Only slight modifications are required for LRFD

design (see Example 3.3).

EXAMPLE 3.4. Design a beam-to-column end-plate connection for a moment of 700 ft-kips and a shear of 90 kips using

ASD procedures. The beam is a W33x118 and the column

is a W14x311. All material is A36. Bolts are A325 and are

all welding. The beam top flange is in tension and moment

reversal is not a consideration.

The beam tension flange force,

is

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Use

Try edge distance = 1 in.

pitch,

bolt diameters and the inside face compression flange, whichever is minimum. By inspection the former governs for this

example.

in. (Note column flange width is 16 in.) Effective end-plate

width must be less than beam flange width plus 1 in.

Determine

diameters.

The applied shear is to be resisted by weld between middepth of the beam and the inside face of the compression

Use

fillet weld (minimum size for

thick plate)

both sides of beam web below tension bolt region.

D. Check column side limit states and design stiffeners if necessary, A36 steel

i. Check column web yielding using inequality 3.3a:

Check bolt bearing on end-plate (note column flange thickness is larger and, conservatively, only the compression side

bolts are considered).

Therefore, stiffeners are not required opposite the beam tension and compression flanges to prevent column web yielding.

End-Plate Selection

Design procedures are not available to assess the column

flange bending strength for this bolt pattern. However, the

strength can be evaluated if a small triangular stiffener

between the column flange and the column web is used since

this pattern is similar to that of the eight-bolt stiffened endplate discussed in Chapter 4. When this approach is used

i. Beam flanges to end-plate welds:

By inspection, fillet welds will be impractical; therefore, use

full penetration groove weld with

reinforcement at

beam tension flange. Use minimum weld

at beam

compression flange.

the column web is equivalent to the beam flange and the column flange is equivalent to the end-plate. Since test data is

not available, it is recommended that the effective column

Minimum size of fillet weld is

The required weld to develop the bending stress in the

beam web near the tension bolts is

as that recommended for the four-bolt configuration (Curtis

and Murray, 1989), e.g., 2.5c. With reference to Chapter 4,

for details of the design procedure, the column flange for

this example is now checked. (See ASD nomenclature for

definition of terms.) Details are shown in Fig. 3.5.

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and the equivalent beam flange and end-plate thicknesses are

The effective end-plate width is equal to 2.5c or

equal to the beam flange thickness (0.740 in.) and extend

beyond the outside row of bolts, thus use a rectangular plate

in. x 7 in. x 7 in. Since all limitations given in Chapter

stiffened flange is 6 x 106.4 = 638.4 kips which is greater

than the applied beam flange force of 261.5 kips and the

stiffened column flange is adequate.

Conservatively, the stiffener to flange and web welds will

be designed for the applied beam flange force. Assuming a

1 in. "clip" to clear the column fillet, the required fillet

weld size is

be used to determine the adequacy of the stiffened column

flange. From Equation 4.7a

with

Use

fillet welds both sides of stiffener. (Full penetration groove welds are not practical at this location.)

Stiffener Selection

Use 2PL x 7 x 0'-7

with

fillet welds.

Final design details are shown in Fig. 3.5.

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Chapter 4

STIFFENED, EXTENDED END-PLATE CONNECTION DESIGN

4.1 DESIGN PROCEDURES

The following ASD design recommendations for the

extended, four-bolt, stiffened, beam-to-column, end-plate

connection shown in Fig. 4.1 are based on the works of Murray and Kukreti (1988), "End-Plate Moment Connections

Their Use and Misuse," Hendrick and Murray (1984), "Column Web Compression Strength at End-Plate Connections,"

and Curtis and Murray (1989), "Column Flange Strength at

Moment End-Plate Connections." The basic procedures for

end-plate and bolt design are also found in the 9th ed. AISC

ASD Manual of Steel Construction.

Murray and Kukreti (1988) present two methods for determining end-plate thickness and bolt diameter. Both methods

are limited to use for A36 end-plate steel and A325 bolts

and both include bolt prying action effects. The first method

is a series of equations developed from regression analyses

of data generated by the finite element method. The finite

element model included both second order geometry effects

and inelastic plate and bolt material properties. With this

method, the required end-plate thickness is the larger of

and

determined from (see Fig. 4.1 for definition of

terms):

in ASD

(4.1a)

in ASD

(4.2a)

in LRFD

(4.1b)

in LRFD

(4.2b)

with

= minimum bolt tension as given in AISC specifications and reproduced here for A325 bolts in Tables A.1

and B.1. Equation 4.3a includes a factor of safety of 2.0.

Equation 4.3b does not include a resistance factor, thus the

specified minimum tensile strength of the bolt material must

be used to determine the required bolt diameter.

In the application of Equations 4.1, 4.2 and 4.3, a preliminary bolt diameter is selected assuming that 6.8 of the 8 tension bolts are effective. This ratio must often be decreased

or

which control end-plate flexibility for use in Type I construction. Equations 4.2 are strength criteria which limit maximum strain on the end-plate. Both ASD equations include

a factor of safety of 1.67 and both LRFD equations include

a resistance factor of 0.9.

Ultimate bolt force including prying action effects is estimated from

17

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inadequate.

The second method is a simplified approach which was

formulated because of the difficulty in using Equations 4.1,

4.2 and 4.3, except for completely computerized designs. The

Chapter 2, apply to the simplified method:

1. The connected beam section must be hot-rolled and

included in the "Allowable Stress Design Selection

Table" in the AISC ASD Manual.

2. The vertical pitch,

from the face of the beam tension flange to the first row of bolts must not exceed

2 in. The recommended minimum pitch is bolt

diameter plus in.

3. The vertical spacing between bolt rows,

must not

exceed

4. The horizontal gage, g, must be between 5 and 7 in.

5. Bolt diameter must not be less than in. nor greater

than 1 in.

sizes using the above equations for all hot-rolled A36 steel

beam sections at various moment levels. An effective number of bolts was then determined for each connection and

a conservative lower bound of six bolts established. Next,

it was assumed that plate thickness could be established from

tee-stub analogy bending (see Fig. 4.2), that is,

in ASD

(4.4a)

in LRFD

(4.4b)

or

with

force per bolt based on six effective bolts

and

an effective pitch. From the generated designs

it was determined that

in ASD

(4.5a)

in LRFD

(4.5b)

be used to check column web yielding at either the beam

tension or compression flanges (inequality 3.3) and column

web buckling at the beam compression flange (inequality 3.4).

Since Type I construction is assumed for this connection,

a stiff column flange is required. Thus, unless the column

or

web stiffeners are required. If effective flange length effects

are neglected, the behavior of the column flange is identical

to that of the end-plate and, therefore, the column flange

must be at least as thick as the end-plate, and the column

stiffener must be as thick as the beam flange. Further, the

stiffener to flange weld must be sufficient to develop the

strength of the full thickness of the stiffener plate.

If the column flange is substantially thicker than the endplate (1.5-2 times), stiffeners may not be necessary. Based

on the work of Curtis and Murray (1989), such an unstiffened

flange can be evaluated using Equation 3.5 with

in ASD

(4.6a)

in LRFD

(4.6b)

or

with

in ASD

(4.7a)

(4.8)

is recommended that if the column material yield strength

is greater than 36 ksi, the column flange strength be checked

assuming A36 steel is being used.

Column web shear strength should be checked using inequality 3.6.

4.2.1 Allowable stress design examples

The following three examples demonstrate the use of the

above ASD procedures. Example 4.1 uses the simplified

design method, Equation 4.6a. Example 4.2 uses the more

exact design method, Equations 4.1a, 4.2a and 4.3a. Example 4.3 demonstrates the ASD procedures for checking the

column side of the connection. For all examples, the beam

top flange is in tension and moment reversal does not occur.

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4.4a

EXAMPLE 4.1. Using the ASD procedures, design a beamto-column end-plate connection for a moment of 700 ft-kips

and a shear force of 90 kips. The beam is a W33x118 and

the column is a W14x311. All material is A36 steel. Bolts

are A325. E70XX electrodes will be used for all welding.

Use Equation 4.6a to determine end-plate thickness and

And the required end-plate thickness from Equation 4.6a is

A. Bolt design, A325-SC bolts

The beam tension flange force,

Check bolt bearing on end-plate (note that (1) column flange

thickness is larger and (2) conservatively only the compression side bolts are considered).

From Table A.1, try

diameter bolts (allowable capacity is 43.7 kips).

Assuming A325-SC bolts, the single shear capacity from

Table A.1 is 17.4 kips. The number of bolts required to resist

the applied shear is then

End-Plate Selection

i. Beam flanges to end-plate welds:

By inspection, the fillet welds will be impractical. Use full

penetration groove weld with

reinforcement at beam

tension flange and

fillet weld (minimum for.1-in.

plate at beam compression flange).

Bolt Selection

Use

diameter

flange and 2 at compression

flange.

Minimum size fillet weld is

Conservatively, the

required weld to develop the bending stress in the beam web

near the tension bolts is

1.1(a) is used, the required bolt diameter is

Try edge distance = 1 in.

gage g = 6 in.

pitch

pitch between bolt rows

stiffener thickness

Use

two bolt diameters.

The applied shear is to be resisted by weld between the

minimum of the mid-depth of the beam and the compression flange or the inner row of tension bolts plus two bolt

diameters and the compression flange. By inspection the

former governs for this example.

method are satisfied.

Minimum end-plate width is

beam flange width plus 1 in., e.g.

Determine effective pitch from Equation 4.5a,

Use

fillet weld (minimum size for 1-in. thick plate)

both sides of beam web below tension bolt region.

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Thus,

diameter A325-SC bolts are satisfactory. Since

the end-plate thickness and bolt diameter are the same as

in Example 4.1, the number of bolts required to resist the

shear force is the same and bolt bearing is adequate. Hence,

the final design using the regression based Equations 4.1a,

4.2a and 4.3a is identical to that obtained using the split-tee

analogy method, Equation 4.6a. Column side limit states are

checked in Example 4.3.

EXAMPLE 4.2. For the conditions of Example 4.1, determine required end-plate thickness and bolt diameter using

Equations 4.1a, 4.2a and 4.3a. ASD procedures apply.

A. Trial bolt size, A325-SC bolts

From Example 4.1, the flange force is 261.5 kips. A trial bolt

size is selected assuming 6.8 bolts are effective.

ity is 43.7 kips).

from Example 4.1, determine if stiffeners are required if the

column is a W14x311 A36 steel. Only the column side limit

states need to be checked. ASD procedures apply.

Try: edge distance = 1 in.

gage g = 6 in.

pitch

pitch between bolt rows

stiffener thickness

=

12.48 in.

Determine the required end-plate thickness from the stiffness criterion, Equation 4.1a.

Therefore, stiffeners are not required opposite the beam tension and compression flanges to prevent column web

yielding.

ii. Check column web buckling using inequality 3.4a, A36

steel:

criterion, Equation 4.2a.

column web buckling.

Check adequacy of

4.3a.

A36 steel:

Since the column flange is significantly thicker than the endplate, column flange stiffeners may not be required. The

unstiffened column flange can be investigated using Equation 3.2a with appropriate modifications. From Curtis and

Murray (1989), the effective column flange length, which

is equivalent to the end-plate width in Equation 3.2, is

The ultimate bolt force must be less than the tensile strength

of the bolt which is twice the allowable capacity given in

Table A.1, that is

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steel:

Final design details are shown in Fig. 4.3.

The following three examples demonstrate the use of the

LRFD procedures. Example 4.4 uses the simplified design

method, Equation 4.6b. Example 4.5 uses the more exact

method, Equations 4.1b, 4.2b and 4.3b. Example 4.6 demonstrates the LRFD procedures for checking the column side

of the connection. For all examples, the beam top flange is

in tension and moment reversal does not occur.

example.

EXAMPLE 4.4. Using the LRFD procedures, design a beamto-column end-plate connection for a factored moment of

1050 ft-kips, an unfactored shear force of 90 kips and a factored shear force of 135 kips. The beam is a W33x118 and

the column is a W14x311. All material is A36 steel. Bolts

are A325. E70XX electrodes will be used for all welding.

Use Equation 4.6b to determine end-plate thickness and

assume only 6 bolts are effective.

The beam tension flange force,

is

diameter bolts (design tension load

is 67.1 kips).

Assuming A325-SC bolts, the single shear capacity from

Table B.1 is 16.9 kips. The number of bolts required to resist

the applied shear is then 90 / 16.9 = 5.3.

Bolt Selection

Use

diameter

A325-SC bolts fully tightened,

8 at beam tension flange

and 2 at beam compression

flange.

1.1(a) is used, the required bolt diameter is

examples.

21

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minimum of the mid-depth of the beam and the compression flange or the inner row of tension bolts plus two bolt

diameters and the compression flange. By inspection the

former governs for this example.

From Example 4.1 use:

gage g = 6 in.

pitch

pitch between bolt rows

stiffener thickness

end-plate width = 12 in.

effective end-plate width

Note that all of the specified limitations for the simplified

method are satisfied.

Determine effective pitch from Equation 4.5b.

Use

fillet weld (minimum size for 1-in. thick plate)

both sides of beam web below tension bolt region.

4.4b

EXAMPLE 4.5. For the conditions of Example 4.4, determine required end-plate thicknesses and bolt diameter using

Equations 4.1b, 4.2b and 4.3b. LRFD procedures apply.

From Example 4.4, the factored flange force is 392.3 kips.

A trial bolt size is selected assuming 6.8 bolts are effective.

ity is 67.1 kips).

Check bolt bearing on end-plate (note column flange thickness is larger and conservatively only the compression side

bolts are considered).

From Example 4.1 use:

End-Plate Selection

i. Beam flanges to end-plate welds:

By inspection, fillet welds will be impractical. Use full

penetration groove weld with

reinforcement at beam

tension flange and

fillet weld (minimum for 1-in.

plate at beam compression flange).

Determine the required end-plate thickness from the stiffness criterion, Equation 4.1b.

Minimum size fillet weld is

Required weld to develop

maximum bending stress

in web near tension bolts is

Determine the required end-plate thickness from the strength

criterion, Equation 4.2b.

Use

fillet weld both sides of beam web from inside

face of beam flange to centerline of innermost bolt holes plus

two bolt diameters.

22

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steel:

Check adequacy of

4.3b.

Therefore column web stiffeners are not required to prevent

column web buckling.

, A36 steel:

Since the column flange is significantly thicker than the endplate, column flange stiffeners may not be required. The

unstiffened column flange can be investigated using Equation 3.2b with appropriate modifications. From Curtis and

Murray (1989), the effective column flange length, which

is equivalent to the end-plate width in Equation 3.2b, is

The ultimate bolt force must be less than the tensile strength

of the bolt which is the design tension capacity given in Table

B.1, that is

Thus,

diameter A325-SC bolts are satisfactory. Since

the end-plate thickness and bolt diameter are the same as

in Example 4.4, the number of bolts required to resist the

shear force is the same and bolt bearing is adequate. Hence,

the final design using the regression based Equations 4.1b,

4.2b and 4.3b is identical to that obtained using the split-tee

analogy method, Equation 4.6b. Column side limit states are

EXAMPLE 4.6. Using the data, bolt design and end-plate

from Example 4.4, determine if stiffeners are required if the

column is a W14x311 A36 steel. Only the column side limit

states need to be checked. LRFD procedures apply.

example.

steel:

Therefore, stiffeners are not required opposite the beam tension and compression flanges to prevent column web

yielding.

Final design details are the same as for the ASD Example

4.3 and are shown in Fig. 4.3.

23

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Sterling, G. H. and J. W. Fisher (1966), "A440 Steel Joints

Connected by A490 Bolts," Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE, Proc. Paper 4845, No. ST3 (1966).

Zoetemeijer, P. and M. H. Kolstein (1975), "Bolted Beamto-Column Connections with Flush End-Plates, Tests and

Computation Methods" (in Dutch), Report 6-75-20, Stevin

Laboratory, Delft University of Technology, 1975.

Struik, J. H. A. and J. DeBack (1969), "Tests on Bolted TStubs with Respect to Bolted Beam-to-Column Connections,"

30

This publication or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without permission of the publisher.

Appendix A

ASD NOMENCLATURE, DESIGN AIDS,

AND QUICK REFERENCE EXAMPLES

A.1 ASD NOMENCLATURE

planar area of column connection, in.2

area of beam tension flange, in. 2

gross area of plate, in.2

2

column stiffener area, in.

2

area of beam web, in.

beam or column flange width, in.

effective end-plate width, in. (not more than

+ 1 in.)

effective column flange length, in.

unfactored tension force per bolt, kip s

allowable tension load in bolt, kips

ultimate bolt force including prying action effects,

kips

vertical spacing between rows of tension bolts, in.

a constant depending on the plate material yield

stress, the bolt material and the design method

specified yield stress of column material, ksi

horizontal spacing between vertical bolt lines, in.

distance from outer face of flange to web toe of

fillet, in.

the column section

distance, in.

unfactored effective end-plate moment, in.-kips

connected beam end moments, ft-kips

required number of bolts to resist beam shear

effective pitch, in.

pitch, distance from center line of bolt to nearer

surface of the tension flange, in.

+ in. is

generally enough to provide wrench clearance)

factored beam flange force equal to times the

beam flange force when the flange force is due

to live and dead loads only, or by when the

flange force is due to live and dead loads in conjunction with wind or earthquake forces, kips

effective pitch, in.

minimum bolt tension, kips

required end-plate elastic section modulus, in.3

beam flange thickness, in.

column flange thickness, in.

required column flange thickness, in.

end-plate thickness, in.

required end-plate thickness from stiffness

criterion, in.

required end-plate thickness from strength

criterion, in.

end-plate to beam tension flange stiffener thickness (approximately equal in thickness to that of

the beam web), in.

beam web thickness, in.

column web thickness, in.

column web depth clear of fillets, in.

single shear capacity of bolt, kips

leg size of fillet weld or reinforcement weld, in.

nominal bolt diameter, in.

column web depth clear of fillets, in.

required fillet weld throat size, sixteenths

edge distance, in.

computed bearing stress, ksi

computed shear stress, ksi

average yield stress for beam and end-plate materials, ksi

allowable bending stress for the end-plate material (0.75 times the specified yield stress), ksi

allowable bending stress for column flange material (0.75 times the specified yield stress), ksi

allowable tensile stress for bolt material, ksi

specified minimum tensile strength for bolt material, ksi

capacity of unstiffened column flange to resist

applied force, kips

unfactored beam flange force, kips

allowable bearing stress, ksi

specified minimum tensile strength, ksi

allowable shear stress, ksi

31

2003 by American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc. All rights reserved.

This publication or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without permission of the publisher.

Table A.1.

Allowable Tension and Single Shear Loads for A325 and A490 Bolts

(ASD Method)

a) A325 Bolts

Diameter (in.)

Tension (kips)

26.5

34.6

43.7

54.0

65.3

77.7

5.4

7.7

10.5

13.7

17.4

21.5

26.0

30.9

6.4

9.3

12.6

16.5

20.9

25.8

31.2

37.1

9.2

13.3

18.0

23.6

29.8

36.8

44.5

53.0

28

39

51

56

71

85

32.5

42.4

53.7

66.3

80.2

95.4

13.2

17.3

21.9

27.0

32.7

38.9

12.4

16.8

22.0

27.8

34.4

41.6

49.5

13.5

19

19.4

103

b) A490 Bolts

Diameter (in.)

Tension (kips)

16.6

6.7

8.6

23.9

9.7

12.3

17.7

24.1

31.4

39.8

24

35

49

64

80

49.1

102

59.4

121

70.7

148

Table A.2.

ASD Values of

for A325 Bolts

Table A.3.

ASD Values of

for A490 Bolts

32

2003 by American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc. All rights reserved.

This publication or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without permission of the publisher.

Table A.4.

Values of

Section

Section

W36 x 359

x328

x300

x280

x260

x245

x230

x256

x 232

x210

x194

x182

x170

x160

x150

x135

0.899

0.903

0.887

0.882

0.850

0.835

0.818

0.648

0.644

0.588

0.587

0.579

0.573

0.554

0.530

0.463

W33x354

x318

x291

x 263

x 241

x 221

x 201

x169

x152

x141

x130

x118

0.925

0.926

0.913

0.909

0.853

0.829

0.807

0.667

0.612

0.583

0.541

0.492

W30 x 235

x211

x191

x173

x148

x132

x124

x116

x108

x 99

0.961

0.905

0.887

0.861

0.672

0.606

0.590

0.558

0.516

0.476

Section

W27x217

x194

x178

x161

x146

x129

x114

x102

x 94

x 84

1.003

0.986

0.909

0.902

0.885

0.710

0.646

0.635

0.597

0.545

W24 x 176

x162

x146

x131

x117

x104

x103

x 94

x 84

x 76

x 68

x 62

x 55

1.021

0.994

0.959

0.904

0.877

0.848

0.711

0.683

0.655

0.616

0.560

0.428

0.397

W21 x 166

x147

x132

x122

x111

x101

x 93

x 83

x 73

x 68

x 62

x 57

x 50

x 44

1.140

1.011

1.002

1.003

0.994

0.995

0.683

0.686

0.683

0.667

0.641

0.532

0.465

0.423

Section

W18x143

x130

x119

x106

x 97

x 86

x 76

x 71

x 65

x 60

x 55

x 50

x 46

x 40

x 35

1.204

1.186

1.082

1.059

1.076

1.056

1.048

0.741

0.751

0.751

0.722

0.714

0.604

0.595

0.504

W16x100

x 89

x 77

x 67

x 57

x 50

x 45

x 40

x 36

x 31

x 26

1.170

1.152

1.146

1.149

0.789

0.781

0.768

0.772

0.679

0.589

0.506

W14x120

x109

x 99

x 90

x 82

x 74

x 68

x 61

x 53

x 48

x 43

x 38

x 34

x 30

x 26

x 22

1.855

1.899

1.859

1.860

1.348

1.394

1.382

1.364

1.141

1.115

1.103

0.861

0.824

0.734

0.633

0.557

W12x87

x79

x72

x65

x58

x53

x50

x45

x 40

x35

x30

x26

x22

x19

x16

x14

1.748

1.732

1.720

1.706

1.631

1.527

1.281

1.266

1.281

0.992

0.963

0.936

0.575

0.520

0.419

0.390

W10x60

x 54

x49

x45

x39

x33

x 30

x 26

x22

x19

x17

x15

x12

1.842

1.882

1.859

1.603

1.516

1.348

1.045

1.033

0.913

0.672

0.583

0.497

0.463

W 8x35

x31

x 28

x 24

x21

x18

x15

x13

x10

1.796

1.711

1.495

1.487

1.127

1.007

0.690

0.593

0.635

W 6x25 1.580

x20

x15

1.545

1.238

x16 1.148

x12 0.890

x 9 0.911

W 5x19

x16

1.867

1.748

W 4x13

1.442

33

2003 by American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc. All rights reserved.

This publication or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without permission of the publisher.

EXAMPLE A.1 (Same as Example 3.1)

4-bolt Unstiffened End-Plate

i. Tension:

ii. Beam web to end-plate weld:

ii. Shear,

34

2003 by American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc. All rights reserved.

This publication or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without permission of the publisher.

A. Column side

i. Check column web yielding, inequality 3.3a:

Column web stiffeners are not required.

iv. Check column web yielding, inequality 3.6a:

E. Final details:

Design stiffeners and welds for

Data is same as Example A.1, except

Column W14x90 A572 Gr 50 steel

35

2003 by American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc. All rights reserved.

This publication or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without permission of the publisher.

B. Final details:

ii. Shear,

8-Bolt Stiffened End-Plate

Simplified procedure

Use full penetration groove weld with

reinforcement.

A. Bolt design, A325-SC bolts

i. Tension:

36

This publication or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without permission of the publisher.

D. Final details:

iv. Check column web yielding, inequality 3.6a:

37

2003 by American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc. All rights reserved.

This publication or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without permission of the publisher.

Appendix B

LRFD NOMENCLATURE, DESIGN AIDS,

AND QUICK REFERENCE EXAMPLES

B.1 LRFD NOMENCLATURE

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

area of beam tension flange, in.2

gross area of plate, in. 2

column stiffener area, in.2

area of beam web, in.2

beam or column flange width, in.

effective end-plate width, in. (not more than

+ 1 in.)

effective column flange length, in.

design tension capacity of bolt, kips

factored tension force per bolt; ultimate bolt

force including prying action effects, kips

vertical spacing between rows of tension bolts, in.

a constant depending on the plate material yield

stress, the bolt material and the design method.

= distance from outer face of flange to web toe of

fillet, in.

= the column section

distance, in.

= factored effective end-plate moment, in.-kips

= factored beam moment, in.-kips

= connected beam factored end moments, ft-kips

= required number of bolts to resist beam shear

= effective pitch, in.

= pitch, distance from center line of bolt to nearer

surface of the tension flange, in.

+ in.

is generally enough to provide wrench clearance.)

= effective pitch, in.

= minimum bolt tension, kips

= beam flange thickness, in.

= column flange thickness, in.

= required column flange thickness, in.

= nominal bolt diameter, in.

= column web depth clear of fillets, in.

= required end-plate thickness from stiffness

criterion, in.

= required end-plate thickness from strength

criterion, in.

= end-plate to beam tension flange stiffener thickness, in.

= beam web thickness, in.

= column web thickness, in.

= column web depth clear of fillets, in.

= single shear bolt design strength, kips

= factored shear force, kips

= leg size of fillet weld or reinforcement weld, in.

= required end-plate plastic section modulus, in.3

= edge distance, in.

= average yield stress for beam and end-plate materials, ksi

= 0.75 of end-plate material), ksi

= ASD allowable tensile stress for bolt material, ksi

= specified minimum tensile strength for bolt material, ksi

= capacity of unstiffened column flange to resist

applied force, kips

= factored beam flange force, kips

= specified minimum tensile strength, ksi

= specified yield stress of the end-plate material,

ksi

= specified yield stress of column material, ksi

= resistance factor

39

2003 by American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc. All rights reserved.

This publication or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without permission of the publisher.

Table B.1.

Design Tension and Single Shear Strengths for A325 and A490 Bolts

(LRFD Method)

a) A325 Bolts

Diameter (in.)

Tension (kips)

29.8

20.7

5.22

53.0

67.1

82.8

100.2

119.3

10.2

13.4

16.9

20.9

25.2

30.0

10.8

15.5

21.1

27.6

34.9

43.1

52.1

62.0

14.4

20.7

28.1

36.8

46.5

57.4

69.5

82.7

19

28

39

51

56

71

85

66.3

83.9

103.5

125.3

149.1

37.1

7.51

40.6

103

b) A490 Bolts

Diameter (in.)

Tension (kips)

25.9

6.44

37.3

50.7

12.6

16.5

20.9

25.8

31.2

13.5

19.4

26.4

34.5

43.6

53.8

65.1

77.5

17.9

25.8

35.2

45.9

58.2

71.8

86.9

103.4

24

35

49

64

80

9.28

102

121

148

Table B.2.

LRFD Values of

for A325 Bolts

Table B.3.

LRFD Values of

for A490 Bolts

40

This publication or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without permission of the publisher.

EXAMPLE B.1 (Same as Example 3.3)

4-bolt Unstiffened End-Plate

in. Check end-plate shear:

C. End-plate weld design, E70XX electrodes

i. Beam flanges to end-plate weld:

i. Tension:

ii. Shear,

iii. Check beam web yielding

i. Check column web yielding, inequality 3.3b,

41

2003 by American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc. All rights reserved.

This publication or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without permission of the publisher.

8-Bolt Stiffened End-Plate

Simplified procedure

i. Tension:

ii. Shear,

E. Final details:

i. Bending, Equation 4.4b:

42

2003 by American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc. All rights reserved.

This publication or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without permission of the publisher.

i. Beam flanges to end-plate weld:

Use full penetration groove weld with

reinforcement.

D. Final details:

i. Check column web yielding, inequality 3.3b,

43

2003 by American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc. All rights reserved.

This publication or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without permission of the publisher.

American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc.

One East Wacker Drive, Suite 3100

Chicago, Illinois 60601-2001

2003 by American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc. All rights reserved.

This publication or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without permission of the publisher.

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