Lab Activity No.

7 WATER HARDNESS, SOAP and DETERGENT OBJECTIVE: In this experiment, you will devise procedures and perform tests that will allow you to answer the following questions: 1. What is the difference among soap, detergent, and shampoo in hard water and in soft water? 2. What is the effect of bar soap, shampoo, or detergent to a mixture of oil and distilled water? 3. Which ions cause water hardness? 4. Is our tap water at home hard or soft? 5. How can hard water be softened? MATERIALS: 400 ppm hard water, MgCl2, NaCl, Na2SO4, CaSO4, Na2CO3, test tubes, stoppers, beakers, distilled water, (tap water, bath soap, shampoo, detergent) PROCEDURE: For the first three objectives, follow the procedure designed by the class. For objective number 4, make your own group procedure. For objective number 5 follow the instructions below: 1. Obtain about 0.125 g sample of sodium carbonate, Na2CO3. Add it to the 25 ml of hard water in a beaker and stir thoroughly. 2. Boil the contents of the beaker over an alcohol lamp for 10 minutes. 3. Allow the contents of the beaker to cool and settle and then filter through filter paper in a funnel. Collect the filtrate (liquid portion). 4. Half-fill a clean test tube with the filtrate. Add a pea-sized sample of solid hand soap to the test tube, stopper, and shake. 5. Record your observations. QUESTIONS: 1. Tabulate your results for the effect of hard and soft water on soap, detergent and shampoo. Based on your data A. Does soap work better in soft or hard water? B. Which works best in hard water – soap, detergent or shampoo? C. Would you conclude that shampoo is more like a soap or a detergent? Explain your answer. 2. Tabulate your results for the effect of bath soap, shampoo and detergent on a mixture of oil and distilled water. Which cleaning agent worked best to disperse (emulsify) the oil in the hard water? Justify your answer. 3. Which ion is responsible for creating hardness in water in this activity? Support your answer with observations you recorded throughout the activity. 4. Is the water in your homes hard or soft? How did you come to this conclusion? 5. Based on your results, how can hard water be softened? Explain. 1

Group No. _____ Names: _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________

Date: _______

WATER HARDNESS, SOAP and DETERGENT 1. What is the difference among soap, detergent, and shampoo in hard water and in soft water?

A. Does soap work better in soft or hard water?

B. Which works best in hard water – soap, detergent or shampoo?

C. Would you conclude that shampoo is more like a soap or a detergent? Explain your answer.

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2. What is the effect of bar soap, shampoo, or detergent to a mixture of oil and distilled water?

Which cleaning agent worked best to disperse (emulsify) the oil in the hard water? Justify your answer.

3. Which ion is responsible for creating hardness in water in this activity? Support your answer with observations you recorded throughout the activity.

4. Is the water in your homes hard or soft? How did you come to this conclusion?

5. Based on your results, how can hard water be softened? Explain.

ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS: 1. Did the hard water look different from the soft water?

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2. What advantage do detergents have over soaps as cleaning agents?

3. Why don't soaps create suds in hard water?

4. How do you think a water softener works?

5. List two questions about something you observed during this laboratory activity you did not understand or would like to be explained by your teacher.

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