QUALITY CONTROL TECHNIQUES

Project Made By – Rahil Parkar- Roll No. 30 Mihir Thakkar- Roll No. 45 Sub: - Productivity and quality management

Std- S.y.b.m.s IVth Semester Submitted to: Prof. Mili Sharma

Acknowledgement
We are happy and very satisfied at this moment to represent this project. This was not just due to the efforts made by us but also due to the proper guidance and advice by our professor Ms.Mili Sharma. The completion of this project would not be possible without the help and guidance given to us by Ms.Mili Sharma. We also express our hearted thanks to our college librarian for her support and co-operation. Thanks and Regards, Rahil M. Parkar Mihir P. Thakkar

Contents

1. 2.

3. 4.

Introduction Types Of quality control techniques 2.1 Kanban 2.2 Poka Yoke 2.3 Jidoka 2.4 Kaizen Conclusion Bibliography

INTRODUCTION
Everyone is being exposed to the "zero defects" philosophy that establishes zero as a goal. This will not be achieved overnight but approached over time by continually striving to reduce targets. What kinds of techniques are needed to

assure zero defects? What constitutes an out-of-control situation? An attributes control chart conveys little information at or near zero defects. Assuring zero defects through sampling inspection leads to infinite samples or 100 percent inspection, assuming 100 percent inspection efficiency (the latter rarely exists, and efficiency probably gets worse at lower defect levels). Obviously, some new approaches to quality control (QC) techniques will be necessary at zero defects. Total Quality Control is the most important inspection control of all in cases where, despite statistical quality control techniques or quality improvements implemented, sales decrease. If the original specification does not reflect the correct quality requirements, quality cannot be inspected or manufactured into the product. For instance, the parameters for a pressure vessel should include not only the material and dimensions, but also operating, environmental, safety, reliability, and maintainability requirements. The company-wide quality approach places an emphasis on three aspects: 1. Elements such as controls, job management, defined and well managed processes, performance and integrity criteria, and identification of records 2. Competence, such as knowledge, skills, experience, and qualifications 3. Soft elements, such as personnel integrity, confidence, organizational culture, motivation, team spirit, and quality relationships. The quality of the outputs is at risk if any of these three aspects is deficient in any way. There are four types of quality control techniques, they are as follows:-

1. Kanban 2. Poka Yoke 3. Jidoka 4. Kaizen

Types of Quality Control Techniques: - The types of
quality control techniques are as follows.

➢ Kanban
Kanban is a concept related to lean and just in time (JIT) production. According to Taiichi

Ohno, the man credited with developing JIT, Kanban is a means through which JIT is achieved. The Japanese word Kanban is a common term meaning "signboard" or "billboard.”

➢ E-Kanban systems
Many manufacturers have implemented electronic kanban systems. Electronic kanban systems, or E-Kanban systems, help to eliminate common problems such as manual entry errors and lost cards. E-Kanban systems can be integrated into enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems. Integrating EKanban systems into ERP systems allows for real-time demand signaling across the supply chain and improved visibility. Data pulled from E-Kanban systems can be used to optimize inventory levels by better tracking supplier lead and replenishment times. ➢

Poka Yoke
Poka yoke is a Japanese term that means mistake proofing. A Poka yoke device is one that prevents incorrect parts from being made or assembled, or easily identifies a flaw or error.

Poka-yoke - 'mistake-proofing', a means of providing a visual or other signal to indicate a characteristic state. Often referred to as 'error-proofing', poke-yoke is actually the first step in truly error proofing a system. Error proofing is a manufacturing technique of preventing errors by designing the manufacturing process, equipment, and tools so that an operation literally cannot be performed incorrectly.

➢ Jidoka

Autonomation describes a feature of machine design to affect the principle of jidoka used in the Toyota Production System (TPS) and Lean manufacturing. It may be described as "intelligent automation" or "automation with a human touch.” This type of automation implements some supervisory functions rather than production functions. At Toyota, this usually means that if an abnormal situation arises the machine stops and the worker will stop the production line. Autonomation prevents the production of defective products, eliminates overproduction, and focuses attention on understanding the problem and ensuring that it never recurs. A quality control process applies the following four principles: 1. Detect the abnormality. 2. Stop. 3. Fix or correct the immediate condition. 4. Investigate the root cause and install a countermeasure.

➢ Relationship with "just-in-time"
Taiichi Ohno and Sakichi Toyoda, originators of the TPS and practices in the manufacturing of textiles, machinery, and automobiles considered JIT & Autonomation the pillars upon which TPS is built. Jeffrey Liker and David Meier indicate that Jidoka or "the decision to stop and fix problems as they occur rather than pushing them down the line to be resolved later" is a large part of the difference between the effectiveness of Toyota and other companies who have tried to adopt Lean Manufacturing. Autonomation therefore can be said to be a key element in successful Lean Manufacturing implementations. For

"just-in-time" (JIT) systems, it is vital to produce with zero defects, or else these defects can disrupt the production process - or the orderly flow of work.

Kaizen

Kaizen is a Japanese term that has been adopted into English. Kaizen refers to a philosophy or practices that focus upon continuous improvement in manufacturing activities, business activities in general, and even life in general, depending on interpretation and usage. By improving standardized activities and processes, kaizen aims to eliminate waste. Kaizen was first implemented in several Japanese businesses during the Japanese post-war economic miracle and has since spread to businesses throughout the world.

Implementation
The Toyota Production System is known for kaizen, where all line personnel are expected to stop their moving production line in case of any abnormality and, along with their supervisor, suggest an improvement to resolve the abnormality, which may initiate a kaizen.

The cycle of kaizen activity can be defined as: • Standardize an operation

Measure the standardized operation (Gauge measurements against requirements).

• Innovate to meet requirements and increase productivity • Standardize the new, improved operations

Continue cycle ad infinitum

This is also known as the Shewhart cycle, Deming cycle, or PDCA. Key elements of kaizen are quality, effort, and involvement of all employees, willingness to change, and communication.

The five main elements of kaizen:• Teamwork • Personal discipline • Improved morale • Quality circles • Suggestions for improvement

Major results:• Elimination of waste (muda) and incorporation of efficiency

The kaizen 5S framework for a well organized shop floor ○ Seiri - tidiness ○ Seiton - orderliness ○ Seiso - cleanliness ○ Seiketsu - standardization

Shitsuke - sustaining the discipline.

Conclusion
Quality Control techniques are in much more detail than the above document has illustrated. If used effectively and efficiently these techniques can help an organization or business to achieve a six-sigma performance with zero defects, elimination of waste or waste management, building up of team work and new innovation techniques. With the help of these quality control techniques such as kanban, poka yoke, jidoka, and kaizen a total quality management (TQM) can be achieved.

Bibliography

Websites
✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ Wikipedia.org Scribd.com Deming.org Managementwisdom.com

Books

Shewhart, Walter A (1930). Economic Control of Quality of Manufactured Product/50th Anniversary Commemorative Issue December 1980. Deming, W. Edwards (1966). Some Theory of Sampling. Dover Publications. Productivity and Quality Management (2009).Vipul Prakashan. Productivity and Quality Management (2009). Himalaya Publishing House.