Classical Maintenance Thinking

Conditional probability of failure

Bath Tub Curve
Infant mortality
Design, Reliability and manufacturing

Useful life period
Preventive and Condition based maintenance

Phase out period
RLA

Age

COST OF MAINTENANCE

Types of Faults Random
Non-observable

Time Induced
observable Non-observable

Maintenance Strategies for combating the Above Fault Types
• Accept breakdowns • Readiness to repair • Improve reliability • Design out maintenance Condition Monitoring • Continuous monitoring • Periodic monitoring • Periodic overhauls • Periodic replacements • Reconditioning

MAINTENANCE TERMINOLOGIES

Swedish Standard SS-EN 13306, 2001

Figure-1: Impact of maintenance philosophy on failure rate

• Predictive maintenance – modern technique – consisting of tests done using special equipments • • •

a.Break down maintenance – though not best – inevitable. b. Periodical/preventive maintenance – based on periodical tests. c. Proactive maintenance – The very cause which affects the transformer is anticipated and avoided.

The process of checking and taking corrective action is known as maintenance. Types of maintenance:

No single test can confirm the fault in the transformer. Hence integrated approach is required taking into account results of various tests. Expertise and experience required to interpret the test results.

These tests can be termed as condition monitoring tests.

BREAKDOWN MAINTENANCE
• Equipment Productivity
– High downtime – Frequent failures – Poor quality – Reduced safety

• Employee Productivity
– High work time – High waiting time – Low morale

PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE
• Planned Maintenance periodicity • Advantages
– Reduction in failures – Enables planning

based

on

• Disadvantages
– Over maintenance – Human intervention technology in equipment

PREDICTIVE MAINTENANCE
• Maintenance condition • Advantages based on machine

– Better availability – Reduced maintenance costs – Safety and quality – Operation and maintenance planning – Design Improvements

CONDITION MONITORING
CONDITION MONITORING

SUBJECTIVE (70%)

OBJECTIVE (30%)

SIMPLE AIDS

INSTRUMENTAL TECHNIQUES

CBM and RCM concepts
1. Almost all utilities in India carry out Time Based Maintenance (Preventive Maintenance) 2. Need for increased Maintenance use of Condition Based

3. Implementation of Off line and Online diagnostic techniques for assessing deteriorating performance or condition of the Equipment for necessary correction / rectifications before forced outage / failure. 4. CBM and RCM emphasizes need to identify the reasons of forced outages for initiating preventive measures in advance

Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM)
1. Preventive / Routine Maintenance may be over 2. But anything less than required maintenance may lead to unplanned outages doing Equipment maintenance.

3. Many utilities have stopped doing Time Based Maintenance and introduced Focused Maintenance

4. RCM and CBM – both rely on knowledge of reliability & condition to indicate what to do and when.

Benefits of Condition Monitoring

1. Economic Adaptive Maintenance Reduction of Maintenance personnel Minimum period of outage Minimum cost of outage

2. Safety Reduction of risk by early warning Timely technical input Less stress on service personnel

3. Technical Optimum use of operation Optimum use of systems Registration of system problems for future action Better correlation of testing & symptoms Upgradation of standards for tests Life extension & planned replacement

Driving Mechanism

400kV CB

INTERRUPTER DESIGN

Internal Details of Interrupter

Contact Configuration

PIR ASSEMBLY FAILURES
• MECHANICAL BREAKAGE OF PTFE ROD

• BLASTING OF CB DUE TO PIR PROBLEM

Types

Ratings

Accptable Norms

A

Reasons of CB Failures
MECHANICAL 74% (OPERATING COMPONENTS FAILURES) ELECTRICAL (DIELECTRIC FAILURE) DRIVEs etc. 16%

10%

Maintenance Philosophies
1. Preventive or Time Based Maintenance (TBM) 2. Corrective Maintenance 3. Condition Based Maintenance (CBM) or Predictive Maintenance 4. Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM)

Condition based maintenance (CBM)
1. CBM is based on Failure Mode and Effects analysis (FMEA) 2. FMEA gives a structured and systematic analysis of critical failure modes. 3. CBM applies diagnostic techniques that link to FEMA like DCRM, DGA, Capacitance and Tan Delta 4. Some utilities claim considerable reduction in O&M costs after implementation of CBM.

CBM and RCM concepts
1. Almost all utilities in India carry out Time Based Maintenance (Preventive Maintenance) 2. Need for increased use of Condition Based Maintenance 3. Implementation of Off line and Online diagnostic techniques for assessing deteriorating performance or condition of the Equipments for necessary correction/ rectifications before forced outage/ failure.

NEED FOR DCRM
During normal contact resistance measurement, healthiness of main contacts is evaluated
Req = R*r/(R+r)= r/(1+r/R), r = Main contact R = Arcing contacts

DCRM signatures/finger prints indicate true condition of CB arcing contacts. Arcing contact play vital role during CB operation

DYNAMIC CONTACT RESISTANCE MEASUREMENT (DCRM)
CONTACT RESISTANCE MEASUREMENT DURING CLOSING AND TRIPPING OPERATION. C-O DELAY TIME ABOUT 300MS. 100 AMP CURRENT IS INJECTED THROUGH CB CONTACTS. VOLTAGE DROP AND CURRENT IS MEASURED TO COMPUTE CONTACT RESISTANCE. VARIATION IN FINGER PRINT OF DCRM INDICATE PROBLEM IN ARCING AND MAIN CONTACTS.

Basic connection arrangement for DCRM Measurement

DCRM CONNECTION ARRANGEMENT

Typical DCRM Signature

DCRM can detect…
• • • • Erosion of Arcing Contact Erosion of main contact Contact misalignments Contact wipe of main and arcing contact • Main & arcing contact resistance • Healthiness of damping system • Contact travel & speed

Precautions to be taken while carrying out DCRM test
• DCRM kit with sampling frequency of 10kHz(atleast) to be used. • DCRM to be taken for CO operation. • CO delay time to be atleast 300ms hence requiring plot length of about 450ms. • CB flanges where Current and Voltage cables are to be connected, should be thoroughly cleaned by CTC etc. • Connection should be done only on Interrupter flanges and not on PIR or grading Capacitor flanges. • Current leads to be connected outside whereas Voltage leads to be connected inside.

CONDITION ASSESSMENT TECHNIQUES
1.

ON LINE CONDITION MONITORING TECHNIQUES

2. OFF LINE CONDITION ASSESSMENT TECHNIQUES

ON LINE CONDITION MONITORING TECHNIQUES
1. SF6 GAS PRESSURE MONITORING 2. TRIP COIL SUPERVISON 3. AUXILIARY CONTACTS OPERATING TIMINGS 4. CONTACT SPEED MEASUREMENT BY INSTALLING TRANSDUCERS 5. LINE CURRENT AND CUMULATIVE FAULT CURRENT USING EXTERNAL CTUNDER EVALUATION

OFF LINE CONDITION ASSESSMENT TECHNIQUES
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. OPERATING TIMINGS OF MAIN AND AUXILIARY CONTACTS-1 Y TRIP/CLOSE COIL CURRENTS MEASUREMENT-1Y STATIC CONTACT RESISTANCE MEASUREMENT-2Y VIBRATION MEASUREMENT UNDER EVALUATION STAGE CONTACT TRAVEL MEASUREMENT-3Y DEW POINT MEASUREMENT OF SF6 GAS-2Y DYNAMIC CONTACT RESISTANCE MEASUREMENT-3Y TAN DELTA MEASUREMENT OF GRADING CAPACITORS- 3Y

CB Overhaul decisions
• Based on DCRM Tests, many CBs have been taken up for Internal inspection and following defects were observed: Damage of Main Contacts Pitting marks of Fixed Contact tube Damage of Blast cylinders

1. 2. 3.

DEW POINT MEASUREMENT • IF SF6 GAS CONTAINS MOISTURE, IT IS EASILY HYDRATED TO PRODUCE HIGHLY REACTIVE H2SO3 AND HF(HYDROGEN FLUORIDES). AS THESE CHEMICALS CAUSE DEGRADATION OF INSULATION AND CORROSION IN THE INTERRUPTING CHAMBER, MONITORING OF MOISTURE CONTENT IN SF6 GAS IS VERY IMPORTANT.

SOURCES OF MOISTURE IN CB • GAS HANDLING – FILLING AND EMPTYING THE CB. AIR MAY BE LEFT DURING EVACUATION WHICH SHALL ADD TO IMPURITIES IN SF6 GAS. EVACUATION TO BE DONE UPTO 1 mbar (CIGRE-WG23) • EXUDATION OF MOISTURE CONTAINED IN ORGANIC INSULATING MATERIALS. • PERMEATION THROUGH SEALED SECTIONS

DECOMPOSITION OF SF6 GAS
ARCS DURING TRIPPING OPERATION LEADS TO A SUBSTANTIAL EROSION OF THE CONTACT AND INSULATION MATERIALS BY THE HOT ARC. THE MAIN CAUSE FOR SF6 GAS DECOMPOSITION IS THE REACTION OF THESE EROSION PRODUCTS WITH FRAGMENTS OF THERMALLY DISSOCIATED SF6 AND OTHER TRACE GASSES SUCH AS OXYGEN AND WATER VAPOUR. (A) Cu + SF6 = CuF2 + SF4 – COPPER POWDER (B) W + 3SF6 = WF6 + 3 SF4 - TUNGSTEN (C) CF2 + SF6 = CF4 + SF4 - ERODED PTFE ( A CF2 POLYMER)

EFFECTS OF CONTAMINATION
1. DECOMPOSITION PRODUCTS ARE CORROSIVE AND MAY AFFECT THE SURFACE INSULATION BY THE FORMATION OF CONDUCTIVE LAYERS ALONG THE INSULATORS. HUMIDITY/MOISTURE IS VERY DANGEROUS WHEN IT CONDENSES ON THEM IN LIQUID FORM CAUSING REDUCED INSULATION STRENGTH CUF2, WO3, WO2F2 ORIGINATE FROM CONTACT EROSION. HEALTH RISK DUE TO BYTOXIC PRODUCTS LIKE SO2 ETC.

2.

3. 4.