The Nyquist theorem is one of the deciding factor in data communication. The fibre optics as well as the copper wires are communication mediums. Do you think the theorem is valid for the fiber optics or for the copper wires.

ANS: The Nyquist theorem is not applicable to copper wire. Because it is applicable to noiseless channel. The bandwidth of a copper wire depends on the cable quality, length, and signal to noise ratio of data transmitted. As we see copper bandwidth is directly depends upon the signal to noise ration which concept is given by shannonn’s in case of noisy channels. Also it is not applicable to fibre optic cable: in fiber optic cable we transmit the pulse of light and the light is produced due to the motion of molecules throughout the system that creates much noise. To calculate the noise created per signal we uses the concept of signal to noise ratio that is given by shanon;s not by nyquiest.

2. Noise affects all the signals which are there in air. There are some communicating modulation techniques. Noise affects which of the modulation technique the most. ANS: Techniques of modulation:
1. Pulse amplitude modulation 2. Pulse code modulation 3. Frequency modulation: Noise affects mostly the pulse code modulation technique. As we much of noise is created by the molecules travel in air. In pulse code modulation voice signal are digitized and combine into a single outgoing digital trunk. AS we know the molecules of voice traveling in air . An analogy is that suppose sender says something to receiver and they are standing upto 10 cm away from each other. the voice signal transmitted by sender travels in air and after that it is received by the receiver. 2nd analogy is that PCM produces a quantization values and the quantization is produced in the concept of light and again the light is generated when no of molecules collide with each other . due to such collision a noise is produced.

3. An analog signal carries 4 bits in each signal element. If 10,000 signal elements are sent per sec, find the Baud Rate and Bit Rate?
ANS:BAUD Rate: it is signal rate or pulse rate: it is denoted by is no of bits a signal carry. Hence baud rate=10000: No of signal sent / sec= 10,000 Bit rate: s=N*1/r=>N=S*r=10000*4=4000bps

4.What are the reasons for the imperfection caused in tramsmission medias ? how the perfection can be measured?
ANS: Transmission media is defined as the media anything that can carry signals from sender to receiver. It generally operates at the physical layer where a bits of stream is transferred from sender to receiver. Imperfection means the main limitation comes in the transmission media. Imperfection in transmission is: • Interference or noise • Due to higher data rate errors are more generated • Receiving unwanted signal at receiver side How perfection can be measured: measuring the perfection of the transmission media means seeing the reliability of a particular transmission media and reliability is measured for checking performance of each transmission media. The performance of transmission media is determined from attenuation whose units are decibels.

5.There are numerous multiplexing techniques available. What in your opinion is the most appropriate multiplexing technique for the fibre optics as well as copper wires? ANS: Techniques of multiplexing are:
Time division multiplexing Statistical division multiplexing Frequency division multiplexing Wave division multiplexing. In fiber optics we generally used WDM that is wave division multiplexing. As we now in fiber optic cable data is transferred in the form of waves. Therefore we use wave division multiplexing. While in copper wire we use time division multiplexing. In circuit switched networks such as the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) there exists the need to transmit multiple subscribers’ calls along the same transmission medium. To accomplish this, network designers make use of TDM. TDM allows switches to create channels, also known as tributaries, within a transmission stream A standard DS0 voice signal has a data bit rate of 64 kbit/s, determined using Nyquist’s sampling criterion.. TDM takes frames of the voice signals and multiplexes them

into a TDM frame which runs at a higher bandwidth. So if the TDM frame consists of n voice times, the bandwidth will be n*64 kbit/s

While transferring the data from the transmission medium there are various aspects of your data getting tempered by other users? What in your opinion is the most secure and insecure transmission medium. Justify your answer with an example.
fiber optic transmission media is more secure because Due to the degree of

In my opinion

difficulty in “tapping” fiber optic transmission lines without being detected, fiber optic transmission media offers a far more secure medium than copper-based or wireless technologies. The result is that fiber optic transmission media are the media of choice when it comes to “long haul” applications such as intercontinental, cross-continental and oceanic (marine) backbone links. It is also the preferred medium for tier one ISP backbone links.. In other side wireless media is less secure because in this transmission and reception is received by antennas or satellite . for example when sender sends data to receiver the message is broken into packets And acc to internet layer of tcp/ip packets are travelling in air.. from these packet some of packet get lost and receiver cannot find the accurate message.

Directional Point-to-point focused beams employing high frequencies.

Omnidirectional Waves propagating in all directions using signals of lower frequencies.

1. Assume a stream is made of ten 0s .Encode this stream , using following encoding schemes .How many can you find for each scheme ?

Unipolar: in unipolor scheme , all the signal levels are on the one side of the time axis either above or below. • NRZ-L • NRZ-I • RZ • Manchester • Differential Manchester 2. Two channels ,one with bit rate of 150kbps and another with a bit rate of 140kbps,are to be multiplexed using pulse stuffing TDM with no synchronization bits.Answere the following: • What is the size of frame in bits

• What is the frame rate ? Frame rate for ist channel=150,000 bps Frame rate for 2nd channel=140,000 bps • What is the duration of a frame? Duration of frame for ist channel=1/150,000 Duration of frame for 2nd channel=1/140,000 • What is the data rate?

3. Contrast & compare sampling rate & received signal? Sampling rate: acc to the nyquiest theorm, the sampling rate must be at

least two times the highest frequency.

4. Synchronization is the problem in data communication. Explain? Ans:
i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. There is no built in mechanism to help the receiving device adjust bit synchronization midstream The accuracy of received information depends upon the ability of receiving device. There is no gap between bits in the frames. Decode the separate frame is the headache of receiver not of sender In this we send the bits one after the another without any start and stop bits. Checksum mechanism has not been used which tells the begning and ending of bits.

5. Can bit rate be less than the pulse rate? Why or why not? ANS:
Bit rate is the no of bits to be transmitted in each sample. It depends upon the level of precession depends. The no of bits chooses such that the original signal can be reproduced with the desired precession in the amplitude.. Bit rate= sampling rate X no of bits per second Pulse rate: defines no of pulses per seconds. Bit rate=pulse rate X log2 L If pulse rate =1 then bit rate is also one but if pulse rate>=1 the bit rate is greater than 1 because bit rate is multiple of no of data levels used in the signals Examples: A signal has 4 data levels with duration of 1 ms. Calculate pulse rate and bit rate.

Pulse rate=1/1* 10 -3=1000 pulses/sec. Bit rate=1000* log24==2000bps. Thus we can say that bit rate> pulse rate
6. A

signal is sampled. Each sample represents one of four levels. How many bits are needed to represent each sample ?If sampling rate is 8000 samples per second, what is the bit rate
Bit per second=4 that is 4 bits are needed for each sample Bit rate= sampling rate X no of bits per second =8000 X12=96,000=96kbps