Part-A Q1. With the help of appropriate example enlist various methods of internet connectivity.

Ans: There are many ways to connect to internet: 1. Analog 2. Satellite 3. Cable 4. Wireless Internet Connections 5. ISDN 6. DSL Analog (up to 56k) Also called dial-up-access, it is both economical and slow. Using a modem connected to your PC, users connect to the Internet when the computer dials a phone number (which is provided by your ISP) and connects to the network. Dial-up is an analog connection because data is sent over an analog, public telephone network. The modem converts received analog data to digital and vise versa. Because dial-up access uses normal telephone lines the quality of the connection is not always good and data rates are limited. Typical Dial-up connection speeds range from 2400 bps to 56 Kbps. Satellite internet over satellite (IoS) allows a user to access the Internet via a satellite that orbits the earth. A satellite is placed at a static point above the earth's surface, in a fixed position. Because of the enormous distances signals must travel from the earth up to the

satellite and back again, IoS is slightly slower than high-speed terrestrial connections over copper or fiber optic cables Cable Through the use of a cable modem we can have a broadband Internet connection that is designed to operate over cable TV lines. Cable Internet works by using TV channel space for data transmission, with certain channels used for downstream transmission, and other channels for upstream transmission. Because the coaxial cable used by cable TV provides much greater bandwidth than telephone lines, a cable modem can be used to achieve extremely fast access. Cable speeds range from 512 Kbps to 20 Mbps. Wireless Internet Connections Wireless Internet or wireless broadband is one of the newest Internet connection types. Instead of using telephone or cable networks for your Internet connection, you use radio frequency bands. Wireless Internet provides an always-on connection which can be accessed from anywhere — as long as you geographically within a network coverage area. Wireless access is still considered to be relatively new, and it may be difficult to find a wireless service provider in some areas. It is typically more expensive and mainly available in metropolitan areas. ISDN Integrated services digital network (ISDN) is an international communications standard for sending voice, video, and data over digital telephone lines or normal telephone wires. Typical ISDN speeds range from 64 Kbps to 128 Kbps. Q2. With example illustrate the business use of internet. Ans: Internet has a wide range of customers, buyers, service providers, technical staff, etc. with the help of Internet business can run on a single website .Information system and technology

provide various channels to communication like E-mail, Instant messages, SMS servers, etc to all employees at any time all over the world. This type of software helps to saving time and cost of the company Software are very important for a company for instant Information of stocks, assets valuation, sales, purchases, and service. Decision making is very easy to the management after IT because its provide latest information to the management for employee, stocks, sales, purchase, and services, etc The management can make a decision after check IT reports. Information technology provides a platform for a company to connect the global world with Internet. Internet has a wide range of customers, buyers, service providers, technical staff, etc. with the help of Internet business can run on a single website Information system and technology provide various channels to communication like E-mail, Instant messages, SMS servers, etc to all employees at any time all over the world. This type of software helps to saving time and cost. Of the company Software are very important for a company for instant Information of stocks, assets valuation, sales, purchases, and service. Decision making is very easy to the management after IT because its provide latest information to the management for employee, stocks, sales, purchase, and services, etc The management can make a decision after check IT reports. Q3. Using appropriate example highlight the significance of DNS & IP addressing? Ans: Domain Name Service is used to change internet domain and computer names into IP addresses and vice versa. DNS works at the application layer and uses TCP and UDP for transport. TCP is only used if returned data is truncated. See the DNS section in the Networking Guide for information about DNS. DNS was originally based on HOSTS files that were maintained by a centralized Network Information Center. Today of is based on a

hierarchy of servers with a distributed hierarchical database throughout the network or internet. DNS Levels DNS is a hierarchical naming structure with the following levels:
• • •

Root designated by a dot (.). First level - This indicates country or type of organization such as "org", "com", and "net". Second level - Indicates the organization name and can be purchased for a yearly fee.

Notice that the highest level of the domain is listed last. An example of a domain name that you may be familiar with is comptechdoc.org. Internet Protocol (IP) address An Internet Protocol (IP) address is a numerical label that is assigned to devices participating in a computer network utilizing the Internet Protocol for communication between its nodes. An IP address serves two principal functions in networking: host identification and location addressing. The role of the IP address has also been characterized as follows: "A name indicates what we seek. An address indicates where it is. A route indicates how to get there." The original designers of TCP/IP defined an IP address as a 32-bit number and this system, now named Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4), is still in use today. However, due to the enormous growth of the Internet and the resulting depletion of the address space, a new addressing system (IPv6), using 128 bits for the address, was developed in 1995 and last standardized by RFC 2460 in 1998.Although IP addresses are stored as binary numbers, they are usually displayed in human-readable notations, such as 208.77.188.166 (for IPv4), and 2001:db8:0:1234:0:567:1:1 (for IPv6).

The Internet Protocol also has the task of routing data packets between networks, and IP addresses specify the locations of the source and destination nodes in the topology of the routing system. For this purpose, some of the bits in an IP address are used to designate a sub network. The number of these bits is indicated in CIDR notation, appended to the IP address, e.g., 208.77.188.166/24. With the development of private networks and the threat of IPv4 address exhaustion, a group of private address spaces was set aside by RFC 1918. These private addresses may be used by anyone on private networks. They are often used with network address translators to connect to the global public Internet Part-B Q4.How a telnet session can be established? Ans: There are 3 methods to telnet a computer: 1. Telnet IP address. E.g. 202.131.123.65 2. Telnet domain name. E.g. telnet lkcj.com 3. Telnet domain name and port no. E.g. telnet lkcj.com80 For example: Establishing a Telnet Session to the POP Server Telnet is a terminal emulation program supplied with Microsoft Windows. With Telnet, you can establish a host session to a server using one of several emulation types. To establish a Telnet session, follow these steps: 1. Use your Dial-up Networking connection to connect to the Internet through your ISP. 2. Click the Start button, point to Programs, and then click Command Prompt.

3. In the MS-DOS window, type the following: Telnet <POP server name or IP address> 110 4. Press the ENTER key. The Telnet window appears and displays a welcome message. This message will be preceded by +OK and will vary depending on the software installed on the POP Server Q5. Write the steps to create an FTP session. Enumerate the working of anonymous FTP Ans: FTP Session • • • • • • Connect to the Internet Open an FTP session Connect to the server Choose the transfer mode Transfer the file Check the pages

Anonymous FTP Anonymous FTP is a privilege granted by the organization that owns the computer to which you are connecting; be considerate in your usage. Don't transfer files you don't need or an excessive amount of material, and try to restrict your transfers to off-peak hours a method for allowing the public to download files using FTP (File Transfer Protocol) so that they don't have to identify themselves. Usually the username "anonymous" should be used, and either the password is provided by the FTP server or anything may be used as the password. Q6. What is the role of network protocols in Internet? Ans: NETWORK PROTOCOLS a network protocol defines rules and conventions for communication between network devices.

1)

Protocols for computer networking all generally use packet switching techniques to send and receive messages in the form of packets.

2) Network protocols include mechanisms for devices to identify and make connections with each other, as well as formatting rules that specify how data is packaged into messages sent and received. 3) Some protocols also support message acknowledgement and data compression designed for reliable and/or highperformance network communication.