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The Nyquist theorem is one of the deciding factors in data communication. The fiber optics as well as the copper wires is communication mediums. Do you think the theorem is valid for the fiber optics or for the copper wires?

Ans. :The other name of the Nyquist theorem is the sampling theorem.it is used by the networking engineers. it is followed for recognization of the analog signals.For analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) to result in a faithful reproduction of the signal, slices, called samples, of the analog waveform must be taken frequently.in one second the numbers of samples is known as the sample rating. the sample rating is also known as sampling frequency.Harold Nyquist first give this result, known as the Sampling Theorem.he was , a Bell Laboratories engineer. It found no real application back then.

The sampling theorm is base of the fiber optics.fiber optics is the wore that is made by glass. The data is send in the light form via fiber optics. the fiber optics change the analog signals to the digital signals. Transfer rates of up to 10GB/s and a distance of up to 1000 meters. The copper wire is the twisted pair cable..this is of two types: • UTP • STP 1. Noise affects all the signals which are there in air. There are some communicating modulation techniques. Noise affects which of the modulation technique the most. ANS. THE MODULATION IS USED IN THE COMMUNICATION. It is the, process in which some characteristic of a wave is made to vary in accordance with an information-bearing signal wave.. with the modulation process we can change

the wave from one to the another form. demodulation is the process by which we can get back the converted signal to the past form.in other words the signal is recovered from the wave produced by modulation. A Process by which characteristics of Base band Signal is changed to suit the media is known as Modulation. There are many kind of modulation in the communication: • Analog modulation • Digital modulation Other modulation techniques are:• Phase modulation • Frequency modulation • Amplitude modulation The best modulation technique is that in which the following feature are must: • High Bandwidth efficiency • High Power efficiency • Low BER • Compact Power density Spectrum • Relatively constant envelope 1. An analog signal carries 4 bits in each signal element. If 10,000 signal elements are sent per sec, find the Baud Rate and Bit Rate? Ans . BIT RATE=4*baud rate And baud rate is the number of signal units per second Baud rate= 10000 bauds per second . Bit rate=10000*4=40000 bits per second 2. What are the reasons for the imperfection caused in transmission Medias? How these imperfections can be measured? Ans. The transmission media is also imperfect. The impairment is caused by the this imperfection. it means that the starting and the end of the signal is not same. There are many problems of the imperfection: • Attenuation • Distortion • Noise

When we loss our energy or data then it is called attenuation.and when the signal shape is change or when the form is changed of the signal then it is called the distortion. There is a another kind of problems that is called noise. When the signal make corrupt then it is called the noise.

1. There are numerous multiplexing techniques available. What in your opinion is the most appropriate multiplexing technique for the fiber optics as well as copper wires? Ans : Multiplexing is the way to make one of the many digital signals. 1. Frequency-Division Multiple Access (FDMA). 3. Code-division Multiple-Access (CDMA) 2. Time-Division Multiple Access (TDMA). The first part divide the communication chaennel into many part. The size of these parts are equal. It is a digital transmission technology that allows a number of users to access a single radio-frequency (RF) channel without interference by allocating unique time slots to each user within each channel. 2. While transferring the data from the transmission medium there are various aspects of your data getting tempered by other users? What in your opinion is the most secure and insecure transmission medium? Justify your answer with an example. Ans. When we transferring the data there are many risks. Hacker hack the data. So there are risk of the data hacking. Other user may hack the data.so the transmission media should be safe and secure. The data should not be such that it can be hacked. So we should use the such transmission medium.. the most secure data transmission medium should be noise less. So that we can get the data as the data was in the starting. If the data is distortion less then it is the more secure transmission medium.if the data transmission medium have not this feature then the medium is not safe. The medium should be not costly. The attenuation should not be available. If it is available then most of the energy will be waste. PART B

1. Assume a stream is made of ten 0s .Encode this stream using following encoding schemes .How many can you find for each scheme? • Uni polar • NRZ-L • NRZ-I • RZ • Manchester • Differential Manchester In NRZ-L encoding, the polarity of the signal changes only when the incoming signal changes from a one to a zero or from a zero to a one. NRZ-L method looks just like the NRZ method, except for the first input one data bit. This is because NRZ does not consider the first data bit to be a polarity change, where NRZ-L does. A '0' is encoded as no change in the level. However a '1' is encoded depending on the current state of the line. If the current state is '0' [low] the '1' will be encoded as a high, if the current state is '1' [high] the '1' will be encoded as a low. A '0' is encoded as no change in the level. However a '1' is encoded depending on the current state of the line. If the current state is '0' [low] the '1' will be encoded as a high, if the current state is '1' [high] the '1' will be encoded as a low.

In RZ the telecommunication is set to the zero.. it means the return to zero.this is the self clocking Differential Manchester is more efficient than standard Manchester encoding and makes fast ethernet over copper twisted pair wiring possible by reducing the amount of bandwidth required to transmit data. 1. Two channels, one with bit rate of 150kbps and another with a bit rate of 140kbps, are to be multiplexed using pulse stuffing TDM with no synchronization bits. Answer the following: • What is the size of frame in bits • What is the frame rate? • What is the duration of a frame? • What is the data rate? An:-

1. Contrast & compare sampling rate & received signal? Ans.:- . A key defining characteristic of any digital audio signal is its sampling rate, usually just called the sample rate. It means how many time the analog signal is measured during the process of the sampling. If you think about it, the reason why this is important is obvious: imagine that you had a recording of someone speaking, and you sampled the recording once per second. Signal:a. An indicator, such as a gesture or colored light, that serves as a means of communication.. b. A message communicated by such means. And receive signal means which are reciving by the user or at the destination. 2. Synchronization is the problem in data communication. Explain? Ans.:synchronization means adjustment of rhythms of self-sustained periodic oscillators due to their weak interaction; this adjustment can be described in terms of phase locking and frequency entrainment. Modern concept covers also such objects as rotators and chaotic systems. A device for synchronizing communication between a pair of data communication devices, comprising in each said data communication and detection means for detecting a reception arrival time from the other data communication device;

3. Can bit rate be less than the pulse rate? Why or why not? Ans. Bitrate means the rate at which bits are transferred from one location to another. In other words, it measures how much data is transmitted in a given amount of time. Bitrate is commonly measured in bits per second (bps), kilobits per second (Kbps), or megabits per second (Mbps). The net bitrate of the Ethernet 100Base-TX physical layer standard is 100 Mbit/s, while the gross bitrate is 125 Mbit/second, due to the 4B5B (four bit over five bit) encoding. In this case, the gross bit rate is equal to the symbol rate or pulse rate of 125 Mbaud, due to the NRZI line code. In communications technologies without forward error correction and other physical layer protocol overhead, there is no distinction between gross bit rate and

physical layer net bit rate. For example, the net as well as gross bit rate of Ethernet 10Base-T is 10 Mbit/s. Due to the Manchester line code, each bit is represented by two pulses, resulting in a pulse rate of 20 Mbaud.

4. A signal is sampled. Each sample represents one of four levels. How many bits are needed to represent each sample? If sampling rate is 8000 samples per second, what is the bit rate?