Ques1. The Nyquist theorem is one of the deciding factors in data communication. The fiber optics as well as the copper wires are communication mediums. Do you think the theorem is valid for the fiber optics or for the copper wires? Ans: - The Nyquist theorem is not applicable to copper wire. Because it is applicable to noiseless channel. The bandwidth of a copper wire depends on the cable quality, length, and signal to noise ratio of data transmitted. As we see copper bandwidth is directly depends upon the signal to noise ration which concept is given by shannonn’s in case of noisy channels. The concept behind digitizing sound. Working at Bell Labs, Harry Nyquist discovered that it was not necessary to capture the entire analog waveform; rather samples of the wave could be taken at various points. He also found that in order to have enough information in the sample pool to reconstruct the original waveform, the sampling rate must be at least twice the signal bandwidth. Nyquist theorem is a sampling theory, doesn't matter what the media is, as long as the transmission is on a TDM system.

Ques2. Noise affects all the signals which are there in air. There are some communicating modulation techniques. Noise affects which of the modulation technique the most. Ans: Techniques of modulation: 1. Pulse amplitude modulation 2. Pulse code modulation Frequency modulation:


Noise exclusion at the listeners' end of the line is also important because, for optimal intelligibility under difficult conditions, it is necessary for the noise reaching the ear through or under the earphone cushions to be at least 10 decibels less intense than the noise coming through the earphones from the receiver. The deleterious effect of electrical interference was found to depend greatly upon the relation between certain characteristics of the noise and corresponding characteristics of the receiver circuits. In general, interferences with continuous spectra are more

detrimental than those with line spectra, and non-impulsive types more detrimental than impulsive types. Noise-reducing circuits were ineffective against random fluctuation noise, but in the presence of certain types of impulse interference, limiters and canceling circuits provided such great improvement in performance that it was possible to maintain satisfactory communication despite a 35-decibel reduction in carrier intensity. As a general principle, it appears that, whenever there is a characteristic difference between the wave forms or the spectra of the signal and the interference, the impairment of intelligibility by electrical interference may be reduced by employing amplitude-selective or frequency-selective circuits in the radio receiver. 2nd analogy is that PCM produces a quantization values and the quantization is produced in the concept of light and again the light is generated when no of molecules collide with each other . due to such collision a noise is produced.Ques3. An analog signal carries 4 bits in each signal element. If 10,000 signal elements are sent per sec, find the Baud Rate and Bit Rate? Ans: Given: Number of bits in each signal element= 4 Number of signal elements sent each second= 10000 Now, baud rate= number of signal elements, and Bit rate= baud rate × number of bits per signal element. So baud rate= 10000 bauds per second Bit rate= 10000 × 4= 40000 bps Ques4. What are the reasons for the imperfection caused in transmission media? How the perfection can be measured? Ans: The electrical signal is conveyed in an electrical cable of an electrical installation. The device further includes impedance matching operative in a band of frequencies of the high-frequency signal component, the impedance matching being determined as a function of one or more characteristics of the electrical cable. Such a device can be integrated into a socket outlet or an electrical device or take the form of a socket adaptor. Imperfection means the main limitation comes in the transmission media. Imperfection in transmission is: 1. Interference or noise 2. Due to higher data rate errors are more generated 3. Receiving unwanted signal at receiver side Signals travel through the transmission media, which are not perfect. The imperfections cause impairment in signal. This means that the signal at the beginning and end of the medium are not same. What is sent in and what is received. There are three types of impairment usually occur. These are attenuation, distortion and noise. Attenuation means the loss of energy. When a signal, simple or composite, travels through a medium, it loses some of its energy so that it can overcome the resistance of the medium. That is why a wire carrying electrical signals gets worm,

if not hot, after a while. Some of the electrical energy in signal is converted to heat. To compensate for this loss, the amplifiers are used to amplify the signal. Distortion means that signal changes its form or shape. Distortion occurs in a composite signal that is made of different frequencies. Each signal component has its own propagation speed through a medium and, therefore its own delay in arriving at the final destination. Noise is another problem occurred during the transmission of data. Several types of noise like thermal noise, induced noise, crosstalk, and impulse noise may corrupt the signal. Thermal noise is the random motion of electrons in a wire which creates an extra signal not originally sent by the transmitter. Induced noise comes from the sources such as motors and appliances. These devices act as a sending antenna and transmission medium acts as the receiving antenna. Crosstalk is the effect of one wire on other. Ques5. There are numerous multiplexing techniques available. What in your opinion is the most appropriate multiplexing technique for the fibre optics as well as copper wires? Ans: - Multiplexing Techniques Techniques of multiplexing are: • • • • Time division multiplexing Statistical division multiplexing Frequency division multiplexing Wave division multiplexing.

Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM) In FDM, multiple channels are combined onto a single aggregate signal for transmission. The channels are separated in the aggregate by their FREQUENCY. FDM was the first multiplexing scheme to enjoy wide scale network deployment, and such systems are still in use today. However, Time Division Multiplexing is the preferred approach today, due to its ability to support native data I/O (Input/Output) channels. Time Division Multiplexing Timeplex is probably the best in the business (IMHO) at Time Division Multiplexing, In Time Division Multiplexing, channels "share" the common aggregate based upon time

Ques6. While transferring the data from the transmission medium there are various aspects of your data getting tempered by other users? What in your opinion is the most secure and insecure transmission medium? Justify your answer with an example. Ans: - There are three broad categories of media: Wire, fiber and wireless. On a very high level, it could be said that fiber is the most secure as it is the hardest to tap. Cable is a little more secure, as physical access is not hard to tap and sniff the passing traffic. Then there is wireless, it broadcasts point-to-point or well beyond the facility in all possible directions. Anyone that can pick up the signal may be able to sniff sensitive information. Although there is a second item we must consider, and that is the physical and technical controls that have been implemented. Wireless can be made more secure by using WPA, encryption or 802.1x. A cabled network can be fully switched, use encryption and have implemented VLANS. So the point would be that even seemingly weaker systems can have controls implemented to make their security more robust. PART B Ques1. Assume a stream is made of ten 0s .Encode this stream, using following encoding schemes .How many can you find for each scheme? • Unipolar • NRZ-L • NRZ-I • RZ • Manchester • Differential Manchester Ans: Unipolar: -

NRZ-L: -

0 0

NRZ-I: -

Ques3. Contrast & compare sampling rate & received signal? Ans: - sampling rate: The sampling rate, sample rate, or sampling frequency defines the number of samples per second (or per other unit) taken from a continuous signal to make a discrete signal. For time-domain signals, it can be measured in samples per second (S/s), or hertz (Hz). The inverse of the sampling frequency is the sampling period or sampling interval, which is the time between samples.

0 0

Sampling theorem

If a signal has an upper band limit of 100 Hz, a sampling frequency greater than 200 Hz will avoid aliasing and allow theoretically perfect reconstruction.

0 0 0 0 0 0

Also called a sample rate. Typically expressed in samples per second, or hertz (Hz), the rate at which samples of an analog signal are taken in order to be converted into digital form. The Nyquist–Shannon sampling theorem states that perfect reconstruction of a signal is possible when the sampling frequency is greater than twice the maximum frequency of the signal being sampled, or equivalently, when the Nyquist frequency (half the sample rate) exceeds the highest frequency of the signal being sampled. If lower sampling rates are used, the original signal's information may not be completely recoverable from the sampled signal. In telecommunications, received signal strength indication (RSSI) is a measurement of the power present in a received radio signal.

RSSI is generic radio receiver technology metric, which is usually invisible to the user of device containing the receiver, but is directly known to users of wireless networking of IEEE 802.11 protocol family. Ques4. Synchronization is the problem in data communication. Explain? Ans: - synchronization between the multiplexer and demultiplexer is a major issue in data transmission. if the multiplexer and demultiplexer are out of synchronization a bit belonging to one channel may be received by the wrong channel. 1. 2. 3. There is no gap between bits in the frames. Decode the separate frame is the headache of receiver not of sender In this we send the bits one after the another without any start and stop bits.

Checksum mechanism has not been used which tells the begning and ending of bits For this reason, one or more synchronization bits are usually added to the beginning of each frame. These bits, called framing bit, follow a pattern, frame to frame, that allow the demultiplexer to synchronize with the incoming steam so that it can separate the time slots accurately. in most cases, this synchronization information consists of one bit Ques5. Can bit rate be less than the pulse rate? Why or why not? Ans: - In telecommunications and computing, bitrate (sometimes written bit rate, data rate or as a variable R or fb) is the number of bits that are conveyed or processed per unit of time. Bit rate= sampling rate X no of bits per second In less formal contexts the abbreviations "b/s" or "bps" are often used, though this risks confusion with "bytes per second" ("B/s", "Bps"). A pulse generating system generating a series of relatively low-speed or low-frequency pulses from a high-speed stable crystal oscillator, utilizes a 66-stage MOS shift register as a divisor. A second source of very high-frequency clock pulses provides a control of the pulse width of the several pulses within the pulse generating system. Disclosed herein are two systems which function in a similar manner and each are provided with suitable control members to control the generation of the lower frequency output pulses from the pulse generating system. Examples: A signal has 4 data levels with duration of 1 ms. Calculate pulse rate and bit rate. Pulse rate=1/1* 10 -3=1000 pulses/sec. Bit rate=1000* log24==2000bps. Thus we can say that bit rate> pulse rate

Ques6. A signal is sampled. Each sample represents one of four levels. How many bits are needed to represent each sample? If sampling rate is 8000 samples per second, what is the bit rate? Ans: - first of all, we need to calculate number of bits per sample. Actually, we need 2 bits. One bit for the sign and 1 bit for the value. A 3-bit value can represent 23=8 levels, which is more than what we need. Therefore, number of bits per sample= 2 Sampling rate= 8000 samples per second [given] Now, bit rate= sampling rate × number of bits per second Therefore, bit rate= 80000 × 2 = 160000 kbps