Q1) Write the steps of enabling the FTP service? How FTP is used? Enumerate Anonymous FTP? ANS:Creating or Modifying an Pure-FTP User Account
To create the anonymous FTP account on your system, follow these steps: 1.From the Administration utility Main menu, choose Manage Components. 2.From the Manage Components menu, choose Pure-FTP Server. 3.From the Pure-FTP Server Administration menu, choose Create/Modify Pure-FTP User Account.

4.On the Create Pure-FTP User Account form, enter the following information:

Minimum UID – The Administration utility searches for the specified UID and, if it is available, assigns it to the account. If that UID number is not available, the utility assigns the next highest available UID. FTP Group Name — Name of the group to which you want to assign the Pure-FTP account. If the group you specify does not exist, the Administration utility creates it. And after that it will ask you to enter the password if you are not using anonymous FTP. FTP Home Directory –The home directory is the root of the directory structure that you want to make visible to FTP users. It contains the pub directory, which is the repository for all publicly available documents. It also contains the bin directory, which is the repository for all programs you want to make available to the public. Make sure that the pub and bin directories have enough space for the files you plan to make available to remote systems, and for the files you expect users to copy there from remote systems. The default home directory of the anonymous FTP account is /data/ftp.

5.When the form is complete, click on Submit to create the anonymous FTP account. To restore the form's default settings, click on Reset.

Enabling or Disabling Anonymous PureFTP Access
To enable or disable the anonymous login for Pure-FTP, follow these steps: 1.From the Administration utility Main menu, choose Manage Components. 2.From the Manage Components menu, choose Pure-FTP Server. 3.From the Pure-FTP Server Administration menu, choose Enable/Disable Anonymous Pure-FTP Access. The current status of the account is displayed (either enabled or disabled).

4.If access is enabled, click on Disable to disable access. If access is disabled, click on Enable to enable access. File upload is disabled by default for anonymous FTP access. If you wish to enable upload for anonymous FTP, you need to edit /usr/local/etc/ftpaccess and add a line similar to the following: upload /data/ftp /pub yes ftp daemon 0666 In the example, the anonymous FTP user (ftp) with home directory /data/ftp is allowed to upload files into the /data/ftp/pub directory and the resulting files have owner set toftp, group set to daemon, and permissions set to 0666. FTP [File Transfer Protocol] is one of the oldest and most popular services found on the on the internet today. Serving as an easy and effective method by which to transfer files over a network, FTP has become a standard that is both accepted and widely accessible to users across almost every network and operating system in use today. Windows 2000 comes with an FTP server as a part of IIS 5.0. Installed as a stand alone service, it is very rich in features. When combined with the other resources available inside Windows 2000 server, administrators are empowered with different options that can help make an FTP site more secure.

Having said that, we will examine 10 options available native in Windows 2000 that can be used to secure an FTP site. Some are pretty obvious but some are creative approaches that aren’t readily thought of by administrators. In addition to the tips below, add-on services such as VPNs or SSH are things to consider since there is the pesky issue of sending passwords clear text over the wire. ANONYMOUS FTP:-

What is Anonymous FTP?
Many computer systems throughout the Internet offer files through anonymous FTP. This means that you can access a machine without having to have an account on that machine (i.e. you don’t have to be an official user of the system). These anonymous FTP servers contain software, documents of various sorts, files for configuring networks, graphic images, song lyrics and all sorts of other information. Archives for electronic mailing lists are often stored on and are available through anonymous FTP. An enormous amount of information is stored on these machines and is ready for anyone who's seeking it.

Note that all this is subject to change, it is a privilege and the person responsible for the machine can shut it down at any time without you being able to do anything about it.

Q2) Write the steps to configure Microsoft outlook express to send, receive, read, compose, reply and delete an e-mail.
Setting up new email accounts in Outlook Express - 10 Steps

Start Outlook Express. Click on Tools in the menu bar and then go to Accounts

This brings up the Internet Accounts pop-up window. Click on the Mail tab, to bring it to the front if it is not already so. If you are starting Outlook Express for the first time, there would not be any email






To add a new mail account, click on the Add button and then on Mail as shown in the image below.

This brings up the Internet Connection Wizard pop-up window. Enter your name in the Display Name field and click on the Next button.

The wizard now asks for your email address. Enter the full email address and click on the Next button.

In the next window, you need to feed in three important bits of information - theincoming and outgoing email servers and the type of the incoming email server. It is likely that the incoming email server is POP3. The incoming and outgoing email servers can be yourdomain.com, mail.yourdomain.com or any other value depending on how the email server has been configured.

If you are a beginner, you might not know what the incoming and outgoing servers mean. It is not important at this stage to know the meaning; you simply need to know their values. Call up your I.S.P. and ask them to provide the information. I know that the email accounts at my domain www.BiotechDesk.com are all POP3. Additionally, the incoming and outgoing email servers are the same biotechdesk.com.

The last information that you need to enter to complete the setup of the new account is the username and password for that email account.

These login details would have been given to you by your ISP or you would have set these online using a control panel. After completing the fields for Account Name and Password, click on the Nextbutton.

In the following window, click on the Finish button to complete the process of setting up a new email account in Outlook Express.

You will now see the new email account has been added to the Accounts list. The account is referred by its server name.

To compose a new email click on the Create Mail button or click on Messages - New Message. This opens a blank email for you. Enter the senders email address, subject and the matter. When you have composed your email, click on the File - Send Message. The email will be sent and a copy stored in the Sent Items folder.

You can create several email accounts in Outlook Express. So if you have 6 email accounts on your web site, you can set up all these. As I mentioned in point #9 (above), Outlook Express will refer to an email account by its server name. So if you have several email accounts on your domain, they would be referred to

as yourdomain.com(1), yourdomain.com(2) etc. (or something similar). To make this more user friendly, Outlook Express gives you the option of changing these values. Open the Internet Accounts pop-up once again by clicking on Tools and then Accounts. Make sure the Mail tab is in the front. Double-click on the account name. This brings up theProperties window of that account. Enter

any descriptive name in the first field, as shown in the image below.

Q3) Highlight the role of internet in computer field? Enumerate the universal language of Internet. ANS:- Without computer internet is nil but without internet
computer can work! This sentence makes a very good relationship between internet and computers. Internet is the network of networks. The network is made up of large no of computers for performing some specific tasks. Internet is the place where large amount of information is placed and we can access that information using the computer devices for our use
UNIVERSAL LANGUAGE:In general, the universal language on the Internet is English, or more exactly a vague collection of languages called "English" because their common origin is the national language spoken in England by the English. That national language has spread over the world, and several variants such as American (US) English, Australian English, etc exist. A great number of

people whose native language is none of the variants know English as a foreign language. They typically use a more or less simplified variant, e.g. excluding most of the idioms of British, American, Australian etc English. Of course, they make mistakes, and sometimes the "English" used by people as a foreign language on the Internet is almost incomprehensible to anyone else. In addition, people who use English as their native language do not know how to spell difficult words, since they basically know English as a spoken language. Thus, roughly speaking, the universal language of the Internet is clumsy, coarse and misspelled "English".

Q4) Write the steps of enabling the TELNET service? How TELNET is used? Enlist various telnet commands. ANS:=

Starting the Telnet Service Manually
You can manually start the Telnet service by using any of the following methods:
 

 

At a command prompt, type net starts telnet. Click Start, point to Programs, point to Administrative Tools, and then click Telnet Server Administration. At the command prompt, type 4 to start the Telnet service. Click Start, point to Programs, point to Administrative Tools, click Services, right-click the Telnet service, and then click Start. Click Start, point to Programs, point to Administrative Tools, click Services, right-click the Telnet service, click Properties, and then click Start.

Starting the Telnet Service Automatically
You can set the Telnet service to start automatically by following these steps:
 

Click Start, point to Programs, point to Administrative Tools, and then clickServices. Right-click the Telnet service, and then click Properties.

 

In the Startup type box, click Automatic. Click OK.

Using the Telnet Service
To begin using the Telnet service, type the following command to connect to a remote server telnet ip_address/server_name where ip_address is the server's IP address and server_name is the server's name. Comman d Description open close display Use open hostname portnumber to establish a Telnet connection to a host. Use the close command to close an existing Telnet connection. Use the display command to view the current settings for the Telnet client. The display command lists the current operating parameters. If you are in a Telnet session (connected to a Telnet server), to modify the parameters, press CTRL+]. This escapes from the

Telnet session. (To return to the Telnet session, press ENTER.) The following operating parameters are available: • WILL AUTH (NTLM Authentication) • WONT AUTH • WILL TERM TYPE • WONT TERM TYPE • LOCALECHO off • LOCALECHO on quit set Use the quit command to exit from Telnet. Use the set command to set the terminal type for the connection, turn on local echo, set authentication to NTLM, set the escape character, and set up logging. SET NTLM turns on NTLM. While you are using NTLM Authentication, you are not prompted for a logon name and password when connecting from a remote computer. • SET LOCALECHO turns on local echoing. • SET TERM {ANSI|VT100|VT52|VTNT} sets the terminal type to the appropriate terminal type. Use the VT100 terminal type if you are running normal

command-line applications. Use the VTNT terminal type if you are running advanced command-line applications, such as edit. • ESCAPE Character sets the key sequence to use for switching from session to command mode. For example, to set CTRL+P as your escape character, type set escape, press CTRL+P, and then press ENTER. • LOGFILE FileName sets the file to be used for logging Telnet activity. The log file must be on your local computer. Logging begins automatically when you set this option. • LOGGING turns on logging. If no log file is set, an error message is displayed. unset Use unset to turn off local echo or to set authentication to logon/password prompt. • UNSET NLM turns off NLM. • UNSET LOCALECHO turns off local echoing. Use the status command to determine whether the Telnet client is connected. Press CTRL+] to move to the Telnet command prompt from a connected session.

status CTRL+]

enter ?/help

Use the enter command from the command prompt to go to the connected session (if it exists). Prints Help information.

Q5) Enlist different services offered by WWW? Elaborate the structure, origin and weakness of WWW ANS:-. What is the World-Wide Web?

People have dreamt of a universal information database since late nineteen forties. In this database, not only would the data be accessible to people around the world, but it would also "easily link to other pieces of information, so that only the most important data would be quickly found by a user. Only recently has the technology caught up to make such systems possible. The most popular system currently in use is the World-Wide Web. The official description defines the WWW as a "wide-area hypermedia information retrieval initiative aiming to give universal access to a large universe of documents. In simpler terms, the Web is an Internet-based computer network that allows users on one computer to access information stored on another through the world-wide network.

Structure of the WWW
The WWW project is based on the principle of universal readership: "if information is available, then any (authorized) person should be able to access it from anywhere in the world." The Web's implementation follows a standard client-server model. In this model, a user relies on a program to connect to a remote machine, where the data is stored. The architecture of the WWW (see Figure 1) is the one of clients, which know how to

present data but not what its origin is, and servers, which know how to extract data", but are ignorant of how it will be presented to the user.

Figure 1: Architecture of the WWW One of the main hypertext structure. features of the WWW documents is their

Origins of the WWW
The World-Wide Web began in March 1989 at CERN. (CERN was originally named after its founding body the "Conceal European pour la Recherché Nucleaire," and is now called "European Laboratory for Particle Physics.") "CERN is a meeting place for physicists from all over the world, who collaborate on complex physics, engineering and information handling projects. Thus, the need for the WWW system arose "from the geographical dispersion of large collaborations, and the fast turnover of fellows, students, and visiting scientists," who had to get "up to speed on projects and leave a lasting contribution before leaving.

Some weaknesses of the WWW
The World-Wide Web began as a set of simple protocols and formats. As time passed, the Web "began to be used as a testbed for various sophisticated hypermedia and information retrieval concepts. Unfortunately, these concepts were quickly absorbed by the general WWW community. "This

means that experimental extensions of dubious use are now established parts of the Web. Another flaw in the current structure of the WWW is the presence of many hypertext links that point to no longer existent documents. These occur when authors rename or delete their works from the Web. Since the system has no way of registering links to one's document, an author cannot notify his readers of the reorganization. The Xanadu system, on the other hand, does not have this problem since it does not allow users to delete documents from the system.

Q6) why we require Gopher? Highlight the various tasks that you can perform using Gopher? ANS:Gopher is an info server which can deliver text, graphics, audio, and multimedia to clients. Keeping documents "link clean", making linking a function of the server info-tree and not in the doc, layout is kept to its most frugal minimum, and is standard across all docs. No graphic design means

it’s the ideal navigable interface, a hypertext Eden. It gives simplified usage for sight-impaired users, same contents for wired/wired less, and requires no capital investments in layout and "design". Gopher is real -- and it was fully functional in 1992, even without advertisements! But once the Internet became commercialized, this ideal hypertext interface was forgotten, and the gopher dream was scrapped.

What is Gopher and its various tasks?
* Developed in 1991 at the University of Minnesota. Its protocol is documented in RFC 1436 and uses client-server architecture. * Gopher servers can identify documents of different types, and typically store general information about their sites, links to other servers and services elsewhere and documents such as books, electronic journals and articles. * It is a finding aid to resources on Internet that lets you prowl through by selecting resources from menus, without having to worry about domain names, IP addresses, changing programs.

* Each gopher follows the same menu mechanisms. Many contain unique collection of Internet resources, but menus may be organized differently. Choose the gopher system that best suits your needs. * The system enforces licensing restrictions wherever it is applicable

Search Options for Gopher:

* Gopher menus provide a list of options from which to choose. These options can lead to another menu, a database, a document or make a Telnet connection to yet another computer.

* After each gopher menu option is a special symbol which indicates the type of information available. The major symbols are:

/ . (or blank) ? (tel)

leads to another menu leads to a document searchable index makes a telnet connection to another computer

* Some common commands used in gopher search:

m: go to main menu u: go up a menu ?: for help /: directory search q: exit b: go back a screen space bar: go forward a screen

Q7) Enlist various network protocols and their use in Internet. ANS:The Internet Protocol Suite Application Layer BGP · DHCP · DNS · FTP · GTP · HTTP ·IMAP · IRC · Megaco · MGCP · NNTP · NTP ·POP · RI P · RPC · RTP · RTSP · SDP · SIP ·SMTP · SNMP · SOAP · SSH · Telnet ·TLS/SSL · XMPP · (m ore) Transport Layer TCP · UDP · DCCP · SCTP · RSVP · ECN ·(more)

Internet Layer IP (IPv4, IPv6) · ICMP · ICMPv6 · IGMP ·IPsec · (more) Link Layer ARP · RARP · NDP · OSPF ·Tunnels (L2TP) · PPP · Media Access Control (Ethernet, MPLS, DSL, ISDN, FDDI) ·(more)

The Internet Protocol (IP):

It is a protocol used for communicating data across a packetswitched internetwork using the Internet Protocol Suite, also referred to as TCP/IP.

IP is the primary protocol in the Internet Layer of the Internet Protocol Suite and has the task of delivering distinguished protocol packets from the source host to the destination host based on their addresses. For this purpose the Internet Protocol defines addressing methods and structures for datagram encapsulation. The first major version of addressing structure, now referred to as Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4) is still the dominant protocol of the Internet, although the successor, Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) is being deployed actively worldwide.

Network Protocols
Network protocols like HTTP, TCP/IP, and SMTP provide a foundation that much of the Internet is built on. Find out more about these protocols and how they work. A network protocol defines a language of rules and conventions for communication between network devices. What Is Packet Switching? Packet switching is a method used by network protocols including IP and

Frame Relay to deliver data across a computer network connection in individually delivered small pieces.


PPPoE (Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet) is a network protocol sometimes used by broadband modems for connecting to DSL Internet service.  ARP:Address Resolution Protocol ARP converts an IP address to its corresponding physical network address. ARP is a low-level protocol usually implemented in the device drivers of network operating systems. ARP is most commonly utilized on Ethernet networks.  HTTP:Hyper Text Transfer Protocol The Hypertext Transfer Protocol - HTTP - provides a standard for Web browsers and servers to communicate. HTTP is an application layer network protocol built on top of TCP. ATM Protocol - Asynchronous Transfer Mode Networking ATM is a high-speed networking standard designed to support both voice and data communications. ATM operates at the data link layer (OSI Layer 2) over either fiber or twisted-pair cable.

Spanning NTP

The Spanning Tree Protocol implements a standard algorithm to prevent redundant transmission of data along intermediate hops between a source and destination host. Network Time Protocol Network Time Protocol is a server based system to synchronize time of day clocks computer across the Internet.





SOCKS is an Internet protocol designed to allow clients to communicate with proxy servers (or VPN servers) through network firewalls.

SS7:: -Signaling
System 7) The SS7 protocol provides mechanisms for exchanging special-purpose messages on public telephone networks.


Stream Control Transmission Protocol SCTP is an alternative transport protocol to TCP and UDP. Some higher level network protocols like SIP and SS7 use SCTP.



Ethereal is a high quality utility program commonly used by students, researchers and some companies to monitor network traffic. "Internet Core Protocols - The Definitive Guide" This book features in-depth technical background on fundamental network protocols such as TCP, ICMP and ARP




Q8) Wide area information services are based on which protocol / standards and highlight the features of WAIS client software? ANS:
Wide Area Information Servers or WAIS is a client-server text searching system that uses the ANSI Standard Z39.50 Information Retrieval

Service Definition and Protocol Specifications for Library Applications" (Z39.50:1988) to search index databases on remote computers. It was developed in the late 1980s as a project of Thinking Machines, Apple Computer, Dow Jones, and KPMG Peat Marwick.

What is WAIS?
WAIS, Wide Area Information Server, are databases containing mostly textbased documents, (although WAIS documents may contain sound, pictures or video as well). WAIS databases are referred to as sources. The databases may be organized in different ways, using various database systems, but the user is not required to learn the query languages of the different databases. The WAIS client uses natural language queries to find relevant documents and the result of a query is a set of documents which contain the words of the query. WAIS databases are available on topics ranging from Agriculture to Social Science.

Figure 13.28: WinWAIS User Preferences dialog.

Using WAIS
There are many freely available WAIS client programs for various operating systems (Unix, VMS, MVS, MS-DOS, OS/2 and Macintosh) and for specific

environments (e.g. X-Windows, Openlook, NeXT, and MS-Windows). See the list of freely available client software in Appendix A. The client interface differs slightly on different platforms, but the queries are performed in the same way whatever interface is in use.
• •

Step 1: The user selects a set of databases to be searched. Step 2: The user formulates a query consisting of keywords to be searched for. Step 3: When the query is run, WAIS asks for information from each selected database. Step 4: Headlines of documents satisfying the query are displayed. The selected documents contain the requested words and phrases. Selected documents are ranked according to the number of matches. Step 5: To retrieve a document, the user simply selects it from the resulting list. The WAIS client retrieves the document and displays its contents on the screen. Step 6: If not enough documents are found, the user can state the question differently or can select a set of documents. Step 7: A further search will look for documents which have a large number of words in common with the selected documents.