Autodesk® Civil Design

Getting Started

19204-010000-5000A

April, 2003

Copyright © 2003 Autodesk, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
AUTODESK, INC. MAKES NO WARRANTY, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, REGARDING THESE MATERIALS AND MAKES SUCH MATERIALS AVAILABLE SOLELY ON AN “AS-IS” BASIS. IN NO EVENT SHALL AUTODESK, INC. BE LIABLE TO ANYONE FOR SPECIAL, COLLATERAL, INCIDENTAL, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES IN CONNECTION WITH OR ARISING OUT OF PURCHASE OR USE OF THESE MATERIALS. THE SOLE AND EXCLUSIVE LIABILITY TO AUTODESK, INC., REGARDLESS OF THE FORM OF ACTION, SHALL NOT EXCEED THE PURCHASE PRICE OF THE MATERIALS DESCRIBED HEREIN. Autodesk, Inc. reserves the right to revise and improve its products as it sees fit. This publication describes the state of this product at the time of its publication, and may not reflect the product at all times in the future.

Autodesk Trademarks
The following are registered trademarks of Autodesk, Inc., in the USA and/or other countries: 3D Props, 3D Studio, 3D Studio MAX, 3D Studio VIZ, 3DSurfer, ActiveShapes, ActiveShapes (logo), Actrix, ADI, AEC Authority (logo), AEC-X, Animator Pro, Animator Studio, ATC, AUGI, AutoCAD, AutoCAD LT, AutoCAD Map, Autodesk, Autodesk Inventor, Autodesk (logo), Autodesk MapGuide, Autodesk University (logo), Autodesk View, Autodesk WalkThrough, Autodesk World, AutoLISP, AutoSketch, Biped, bringing information down to earth, CAD Overlay, Character Studio, Cinepak, Cinepak (logo), Codec Central, Combustion, Design Your World, Design Your World (logo), Discreet, EditDV, Education by Design, gmax, Heidi, HOOPS, Hyperwire, i-drop, Inside Track, Kinetix, MaterialSpec, Mechanical Desktop, NAAUG, ObjectARX, PeopleTracker, Physique, Planix, Powered with Autodesk Technology (logo), RadioRay, Revit, Softdesk, Texture Universe, The AEC Authority, The Auto Architect, VISION, Visual, Visual Construction, Visual Drainage, Visual Hydro, Visual Landscape, Visual Roads, Visual Survey, Visual Toolbox, Visual TugBoat, Visual LISP, Volo, WHIP!, and WHIP! (logo). The following are trademarks of Autodesk, Inc., in the USA and/or other countries: 3ds max, AutoCAD Architectural Desktop, AutoCAD Learning Assistance, AutoCAD LT Learning Assistance, AutoCAD Simulator, AutoCAD SQL Extension, AutoCAD SQL Interface, Autodesk Map, Autodesk Streamline, AutoSnap, AutoTrack, Built with ObjectARX (logo), Burn, Buzzsaw, Buzzsaw.com, Cinestream, Cleaner, Cleaner Central, ClearScale, Colour Warper, Content Explorer, Dancing Baby (image), DesignCenter, Design Doctor, Designer’s Toolkit, DesignProf, DesignServer, Design Web Format, DWF, DWG Linking, DXF, Extending the Design Team, GDX Driver, gmax (logo), gmax ready (logo),Heads-up Design, IntroDV, jobnet, ObjectDBX, onscreen onair online, Plans & Specs, Plasma, PolarSnap, ProjectPoint, Reactor, Real-time Roto, Render Queue, Visual Bridge, Visual Syllabus, and Where Design Connects. Autodesk Canada Inc. Trademarks The following are registered trademarks of Autodesk Canada Inc. in the USA and/or Canada, and/or other countries: discreet, fire, flame, flint, flint RT, frost, glass, inferno, MountStone, riot, river, smoke, sparks, stone, stream, vapour, wire. The following are trademarks of Autodesk Canada Inc., in the USA, Canada, and/or other countries: backburner, backdraft, MultiMaster Editing.

Third Party Trademarks
All other brand names, product names or trademarks belong to their respective holders.

Third Party Software Program Credits
ACIS ® Copyright © 1994, 1997, 1999 Spatial Corp. Portions Copyright © 2002 Autodesk, Inc. All rights reserved. Copyright © 1997 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Flexlm™ Copyright © 2002 Macrovision Corp. All rights reserved. International CorrectSpell™ Spelling Correction System © 1995 by Lernout & Hauspie Speech Products, N.V. All rights reserved. Portions Copyright © 2001 Carlson Software. All rights reserved Portions Copyright © 1991-1996 Arthur D. Applegate. All rights reserved. Portions of this software are based on the work of the Independent JPEG Group. SafeCast® Copyright © 2002 Macrovision Corp. All rights reserved. Typefaces from the Bitstream ® typeface library copyright 1992. Typefaces from Payne Loving Trust © 1996. All rights reserved. StormCAD, SewerCAD © 2001 Haestad Methods, Inc. All rights reserved. WexTech AnswerWorks © 2000 WexTech Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

GOVERNMENT USE
Use, duplication, or disclosure by the U. S. Government is subject to restrictions as set forth in FAR 12.212 (Commercial Computer Software-Restricted Rights) and DFAR 227.7202 (Rights in Technical Data and Computer Software), as applicable.

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Contents

Chapter 1

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Autodesk Civil Design 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Installing Autodesk Civil Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Sample Civil Design Projects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Completing a Transportation Engineering Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Developing a Proposed Grading Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Analyzing Existing Surface Water Conditions and Design of Proposed Storm Water Conveyance System . . . . . . . . . . 4 Starting Autodesk Civil Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Menus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 What’s New in Autodesk Civil Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 New Features in Release 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Features in Release 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Features in Release 2i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Features in Release 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 How to Use the Documentation Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Recommendations for New Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Path Naming Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Finding Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Accessing Help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Help Navigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Concepts, Procedures, and Reference Information in Help . . . . . . . 13 Using the Tutorial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Using this Getting Started Guide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

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Chapter 2

Autodesk Civil Design 2004 Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
About the Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 Autodesk Civil Design CD Browser. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 Side-by-Side Installations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 Check for Microsoft Internet Explorer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 Documentation Available Before You Install . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 System Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 Prepare for Installation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 Install Autodesk Civil Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 Register and Authorize Autodesk Civil Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 Add or Remove Features. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 Reinstall or Repair Autodesk Civil Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 Uninstall Autodesk Civil Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25

Chapter 3

Using Grading Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Overview of Grading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 Finished Ground Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 Accessing the Grading Commands. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 Using Grading Objects and Daylighting Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 Grading Object Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 Daylighting Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 Creating a Grading Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 Grading Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 Configuring the Targets Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 Configuring the Slopes Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 Configuring the Grading Corners Settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40 Editing a Grading Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 Editing Grading Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 Using Grips to Edit Grading Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 Creating Contours and Surface Data from a Grading Object . . . . . . . . . . .45 Calculating and Balancing Volumes for a Grading Object . . . . . . . . . . . . .48 Grading Object Usage Tips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50 Creating a Grading Plan Using Daylighting Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51 Selecting the Daylight Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52 Adding Vertices to a Polyline for Daylighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53 Calculating Daylight Points Based on Multiple Slopes . . . . . . . . . . .53 Calculating Daylight Points Based on a Single Slope . . . . . . . . . . . . .54 Inserting Daylight Points in the Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55 Creating Breaklines Between Vertices and Daylight Points . . . . . . . .55 Drawing a Daylight Polyline. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56 Inserting Daylight Points, Breaklines, and Polylines into a Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56 Creating a Random Daylight Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57

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Modifying Point Elevations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Using a Hinge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Working with a Stratum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Working with Ponds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Changing the Pond Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Creating Pond Perimeters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Defining Ponds. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Defining Pond Slopes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Shaping Ponds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

Chapter 4

Hydrology and Hydraulics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Hydrology and Hydraulics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Sample Hydrology Files Included with Autodesk Civil Design . . . . . 71 Gathering Data for Hydrologic Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Using the Hydrology Calculators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Calculating Runoff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Calculating Time of Concentration and Time of Travel . . . . . . . . . . 82 Using the Hydraulic Structure Calculators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Pipe Calculators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Channel Calculators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Orifice Calculator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Weir Calculators. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Riser Calculator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 Culvert Calculator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Routing Ponds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Estimating TR-55 Detention Basin Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Creating a Hydrograph with the Storage Indication Method . . . . . 103 Adding and Editing Outlet Structures for Ponds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Adding and Editing Outlet Structures to a Pond . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Outputting Pond Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 Reporting the Pond Contour Data By Selecting the Pond Perimeter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 Reporting the Pond Contour Data By Selecting the Pond Contours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Generating a Stage-Storage Curve for the Pond . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114

Chapter 5

Working with the Layout Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Using the Layout Menu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 Creating Intersections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 Creating Cul-de-Sacs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 Creating Parking Stalls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Creating Sports Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 Creating Walks and Patios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130

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Chapter 6

Viewing and Editing Roads in Profile View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
Overview of Viewing and Editing Roads in Profile View. . . . . . . . . . . . . .134 Storage Location of Alignment and Profile Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .134 Accessing the Profile Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .135 Changing the Profile Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .136 Sampling Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .136 Existing Ground Layer Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .138 Finished Ground Layer Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .139 Labels and Prefix Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .140 Values Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .141 Sampling the Existing Ground to Create Profile Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .141 Sampling the Existing Ground Profile Data from a Surface . . . . . . .141 Creating Existing Ground Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .142 Creating Finished Ground Road Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .145 Profile Layer Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .146 Drawing Vertical Tangents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .146 Drawing Vertical Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .148 Defining Vertical Alignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .149 Defining a Finished Ground Centerline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .149 Defining a Ditch or Transition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .150 Superimposing Vertical Alignment Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .153 Editing Vertical Alignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .155 Vertical Curve Calculator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .155 Editing Vertical Curves Graphically . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .156 Generating Reports From Vertical Alignment Data . . . . . . . . . . . . .157 Calculating Vertical Curve Length. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .158 Listing and Labeling Vertical Alignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .160 Labeling the Vertical Curves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .160 Labeling the Finished Ground Tangents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .161 Creating ASCII Output Files of Profile Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .162

Chapter 7

Viewing and Editing Roads in Section View. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
Overview of Viewing and Editing Roads in Section View . . . . . . . . . . . . .164 Cross Section Database Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .165 Accessing the Cross Section Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .166 Creating Existing Ground Cross Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .166 Working with Templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .170 Drawing Templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .170 Defining Templates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .174 Editing Templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .176 Working with Subassemblies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .177 Using Material Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .180 Using Template Point Codes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .180

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Creating Finished Ground Cross Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 Prerequisites for Applying Templates to Existing Ground Cross Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 Using Design Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 Modifying Roadway Slope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 Viewing and Editing Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 Transitioning a Roadway. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 Defining the Template Transition Regions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 Superelevating a Roadway. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 Using Roadway Data for Finished Ground Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 Placing Road Design Points into a Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 Creating Surfaces and 3D Data from Road Design Data . . . . . . . . . 200 Usage Tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201

Chapter 8

Designing Pipe Runs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
Overview of Designing Pipe Runs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 Drawing and Defining Conceptual Pipe Runs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 Importing Conceptual Pipe Runs Into a Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 Drafting Conceptual Pipe Runs in Profile View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210 Editing Pipe Runs Graphically . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212 Working with the Pipes Run Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 Drafting Finished Pipe Runs in Plan View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215 Drafting Finished Pipe Runs in Profile View. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217

Chapter 9

Creating Plan, Profile, and Cross Section Sheets . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
Creating Plan, Profile, and Cross Section Sheets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 Accessing the Sheet Manager Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 Getting Started with Plan/Profile Sheets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221 Sheet Manager Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 Setting Up a Plan/Profile Sheet Style. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 Text Label Styles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 Frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 Creating a Plan/Profile Sheet Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229 Creating a Section Sheet Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231

Glossary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247

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Contents

Introduction

1
In this chapter
■ Autodesk Civil Design 2004 ■ Sample Civil Design projects ■ Starting Autodesk Civil Design ■ What’s new in Autodesk

Using Autodesk® Civil Design 2004 with Autodesk® Land Desktop 2004, you can complete site grading plans, hydrologic analysis, and roadway design. Autodesk Land Desktop 2004 includes two features that were previously released as extensions: the Road Output commands for creating surfaces and 3D geometry from road design data, and an updated Vertical Alignment Editor.

Civil Design
■ How to use the

documentation set
■ Finding information

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Autodesk Civil Design 2004
Autodesk Civil Design is part of the Autodesk Land Solutions suite of products. Autodesk Civil Design requires Autodesk Land Desktop 2004 and uses all the project data created in Autodesk Land Desktop, including points, terrain models, alignments, and so on. For more information, see Chapter 1, ”Introduction,” and Chapter 3, “Getting Started,” in Autodesk Land Desktop Getting Started. The programs work together seamlessly. To access Civil Design commands, start Land Desktop and select the Civil Design menu palette. Autodesk Civil Design is for people who need advanced civil engineering commands for site grading, hydrological studies, road design, sheet plotting, and pipe design. Autodesk Civil Design simplifies the creation of
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Grading plans Proposed site plans Watershed analysis Culvert, weir, and riser design Existing ground profile extraction and drafting Proposed vertical alignment design Roadway sectional design Subdivision layout plans Proposed roadway plans Septic design plans Roadway plan, profile, and cross section sheets Pipe design plans

Installing Autodesk Civil Design
Instructions for installing a stand-alone version of Autodesk Civil Design are provided in Chapter 2 of this guide. Network installation instructions are available during installation.

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Sample Civil Design Projects
You can use Autodesk Civil Design with Autodesk Land Desktop to complete civil engineering projects as described in the following examples.

Completing a Transportation Engineering Project
You can use Autodesk Civil Design to complete all types and scale of alignment-based transportation projects (road, rail, runway, channel, and so on). For example, use the alignment creation commands in Autodesk Land Desktop to design a base alignment, and then use Autodesk Civil Design to extract and plot a profile in the drawing. Use this profile as the basis of your vertical alignment design. Use the tangent and vertical curve commands to design the vertical alignment finished ground centerline and offsets. After you design the finished ground vertical alignment, you can extract sections along the alignment and apply a typical design template and various engineering rules to a range of sections. You can also apply more advanced engineering rules, such as superelevation controls, advanced slope controls, and plan or profile transitions for stretching a template to meet plan/profile layout geometry. To complete the process, you can cut plan, profile, and cross section sheets from the combination of design data (project-based data) and AutoCAD® entities in your drawing.

Developing a Proposed Grading Plan
You can use the broad set of grading tools in Autodesk Civil Design to design proposed grading plans. Some of these grading methods are similar to manual methods that you may have used in the past, and other methods are highly automated, offering visual and engineering results instantly as you fine-tune your design. Each grading plan presents different challenges. Based on the different design techniques, existing conditions, and site limitations, you can define a proposed grade using grading objects, design points, contours, 3D polylines, and daylighting.

Sample Civil Design Projects

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Analyzing Existing Surface Water Conditions and Design of Proposed Storm Water Conveyance System
You can use Autodesk Civil Design to analyze existing surface water conditions across a site, and then lay out and analyze a proposed storm water collection system (pipes, structures, ponds). Autodesk Civil Design includes various runoff analysis methods which you can use to meet your regional or project needs. You can retrieve data such as slope or elevations from a terrain model, and query areas and distances from entities or graphical selections. Autodesk Civil Design includes libraries, such as soil type and coefficient factors, which you can use to look up values. After you enter all the data, you can generate reports and charts for plotting, and then use the results to design a storm water collection system. When you lay out pipes across a site or along a road, each vertex is automatically defined as a structure (manhole, catch basin, and so on) and pipe lengths and rim elevations are extracted automatically. After you define the pipe run, you can begin the analysis and editing process, and then plot the finished draft pipes in plan, profile, and cross section view. To complete the process, you can design retention and detention ponds using a variety of design options. You can then create a surface out of the pond, and integrate the stage-storage results can into the overall storm water system.

Starting Autodesk Civil Design
Autodesk Civil Design runs within Autodesk Land Desktop. When you install Autodesk Civil Design, all Autodesk Land Desktop commands continue to function as they did before. After installation, start Autodesk Civil Design by selecting the Autodesk Land Desktop 2004 icon in the Autodesk program group. All Autodesk Civil Design menus and commands are available when you load the Autodesk Civil Design menu palette.

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To start Autodesk Civil Design
Steps 1 Select the Autodesk Land Desktop 2004 icon from the Autodesk program group, or select the Autodesk Land Desktop 2004 icon from your Windows desktop. Autodesk Civil Design is combined with Autodesk Land Desktop when you install Autodesk Civil Design. 2 From the Projects menu, choose Menu Palettes. 3 Select the Civil Design 2004 palette. 4 Click Load. 5 Click OK. Selecting a Menu Palette Use to locate

Menus
Autodesk Civil Design adds the following menus to Autodesk Land Desktop: Pull-down menus included in Autodesk Civil Design
Menu Grading Functionality Perform site grading using grading objects, points, and daylighting; create grading plans for detention ponds Create intersections, cul-de-sacs, parking stalls, and sports fields Create existing ground and finished ground profiles Create existing ground and finished ground sections Perform hydrologic site studies using runoff, pipe, channel, culvert, weir, and orifice calculators Create pipes and pipe nodes Set up plan, profile, and section sheets for plotting

Layout

Profiles Cross Sections Hydrology

Pipes Sheet Manager

Starting Autodesk Civil Design

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You can use the Menu Palettes command from the Projects menu to save a pre-configured group of menus. Use MENULOAD to change the location and display of pull-down menus so that they meet your needs. You can then use the Menu Palette Manager to save the changes as a custom menu palette. This palette can then be recalled at any time so that you can restore the menus that are necessary for your project or current task. For more information about starting new drawings and projects, see Autodesk Land Desktop Getting Started.

What’s New in Autodesk Civil Design
New Features in Release 2004
Version Changes

The default project folder is now \Land Projects 2004.

Documentation

When you start up Civil Design online Help, a new opening screen is displayed that you can use to quickly navigate to areas of interest, such as Civil Design topics, Help-related topics, AutoCAD topics, and Autodesk Map topics. You can also enter a question on the opening screen to quickly locate Help information about a specific subject. Civil Design online Help now includes a new tab called Ask Me. The Ask Me tab can help you to quickly locate information using a natural language query and to limit your search to specific parts of the help, such as the Autodesk Land Desktop features or the AutoCAD or Autodesk Map features.

Enhanced Vertical Alignment Editor
The Vertical Alignment Editor updates that were released as an extension are part of Autodesk Civil Design 2004. These updates include:

Using the new graphical preview options, you can preview a vertical alignment as you edit it. The preview updates instantly whenever you make changes to the data in the Vertical Alignment Editor.

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Using the new commands in the shortcut menu, you can edit a vertical alignment directly in the drawing by selecting points on the profile. You can insert and move PVIs, create vertical curves passing through a point, zoom to a PVI, or zoom to an entire profile. A current PVI marker is displayed on the profile as well as the horizontal alignment if it is visible in the drawing, so you can easily see the correspondence between plan and profile PVI locations. Using the new options available in the Vertical Alignment Editor Options dialog box, you can control the display of the profile preview, the colors of the graphics, and the size of the current PVI marker. In the Vertical Alignment Editor, you can easily see which offsets have data defined for them. To distinguish them from empty offsets, each offset that contains data is shown in bold text in the drop-down lists. You can resize the Vertical Alignment Editor dialog box to control how many rows of data are displayed. Vertical curve reports display the vertical curve options settings that are specified in the Vertical Alignment Editor Options dialog box. Two new speed tables are included: US AASHTO 2001 Metric and US AASHTO 2001 Imperial.

Creating Surface Data and Polylines from a Road Design
The Road Output commands that were released as an extension are included in Autodesk Civil Design 2004. The commands simplify the process of creating surfaces and other 3D data from a finished ground road design.

Use the Create Road Surface command to create surface data from a road design. You can either create a new surface from the data or add the data to an existing surface. The surface data is created from top surface points, and can be created as breaklines, a point file, or both. Use the Draw 3D Polylines From Point Codes command to create 3D polylines that connect points with the same point code along an alignment. You can use this command to create 3D polylines from your road design data to use with Autodesk Civil Design commands that operate on 3D polylines, such as the Daylighting commands or the Slope Grading commands on the Grading menu. You can also use this command in conjunction with the Draw Daylight 3D Polyline command to create a surface. Use the Draw Daylight 3D Polyline command to create a closed 3D polyline that represents the locations where the road top surface matches into the existing ground surface.

What’s New in Autodesk Civil Design

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Features in Release 3
If you are upgrading from Release 1.0, 2.0, or 2i of Autodesk Civil Design, the following list describes some key features added to Autodesk Civil Design 3.

The new Vertical Alignment Editor simplifies selecting, editing, designing, and reporting vertical alignment data. The new Vertical Alignment editor features a speed table lookup system and a geometric curve calculator. The Superimpose Profiles command plots the elevations from one alignment onto the profile of another adjacent alignment. This is useful for controlling template transitions and comparing profiles. The new Superelevation Section Sampling dialog box, which is accessible from the Superelevation Parameters command, samples additional cross sections at key superelevation stations.

Features in Release 2i
If you are upgrading from Release 1.0 or 2.0 of Autodesk Civil Design, the following list describes some key features added to Autodesk Civil Design 2i.

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The Balance Volumes command uses the composite volume method to calculate volume results, eliminates repetitive cut and fill volume balance calculations, and compares the grading object with the grading target(s) to determine the volumes. The ActiveX Object Model supports vertical alignments, parcels, and profiles in read and write mode, and cross sections and superelevations in read-only mode. The Pipe Setting Display Length command controls whether 2D or 3D distances are labeled for finished draft plan and profile pipes. The Pipes Rename Run command renames a pipe run.

Features in Release 2
If you are upgrading from Release 1.0 of Autodesk Civil Design, the following list describes some key features added to Autodesk Civil Design Release 2.0.
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The Slope Grading commands graphically add/edit/delete grading object vertices, slope tags, and target regions. Visual display of current vertex, slope tag, and target region while editing grading properties. Ability to set footprint elevations based on a fixed elevation or from the average/actual elevations of a surface model. Streamlined editing options that are available via shortcut menu. Create contours directly from a grading object.

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.dbx foundation enables easy drawing sharing with other applications. Multiple Layouts. Minor menu modifications to remove unnecessary commands for switching between model and paper space. Design Control has left and right bench control. Design Control uses match slopes for left and right side of template. Menu reorganization in Sheet Manager. SCS Method renamed TR-20 Method. Defect fixes for use of metric units in Sheet Manager. Run Editor Settings on the Pipes menu now includes option to turn off Automatic Pipe Resizing. Haestad® Data Transfer, Haestad SewerCADTM , and StormCAD® products can read and save in the Civil Design pipes.mdb format.

How to Use the Documentation Set
The documentation set for Autodesk Civil Design includes both Help files and printed documentation, providing help with commands in the Grading, Ponds, Profiles, Cross Sections, Hydrology, Pipes, and Sheet Manager menus. The Autodesk Civil Design documentation set includes the following documents:
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Autodesk Civil Design Getting Started (printed and in Adobe® PDF format) Autodesk Civil Design User’s Guide (online) Autodesk Civil Design Tutorial (online)

Recommendations for New Users
Learning Autodesk Civil Design
Use this guide and the Autodesk Civil Design tutorial to learn the main concepts and functionality of the program. For more in-depth information, go to the Civil Design online Help. For more information about accessing the tutorial, see “Using the Tutorial” on page 14.

Path Naming Conventions
When referring to the Autodesk Civil Design program folder, the documentation uses the following convention to represent the program path: c:\Program Files\Land Desktop 2004

How to Use the Documentation Set

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If you installed the program on another drive or if you used another folder name, please substitute that path for the path described in the documentation. When you install the program, a folder for storing the project data is also created. The documentation uses the following convention for the project path: c:\Land Projects 2004 If you installed the program on another drive, or if you renamed the project folder, please substitute that path for the path described in the documentation.

Finding Information
The following sections describe how to access the online Help, how to find information in Help, how to use the online tutorial, and how to use this Getting Started guide.

Accessing Help
The Autodesk Civil Design help files are automatically integrated into the Autodesk Land Desktop interface when you install the program. You can access help files for Autodesk Civil Design by using the following methods: Accessing Help files
Method From within Autodesk Land Desktop, choose Autodesk Land Desktop Help from the Help menu, type Help on the command line, or press F1. Result Displays an introductory topic in the online Help. Includes links to AutoCAD Help and Autodesk Map Help. Benefits This Help file displays a combined index and table of contents, as well as two search mechanisms so you can find the Help topics you need. This topic has links to specific Help topics for the commands in the menu.

Move the pointer over a command in a menu using the up and down keyboard arrows and press F1. From a dialog box, click a Help button.

Displays the Help topic that describes the commands in the menu.

Displays the Help topic that describes how to use the dialog box.

This topic provides the information you need without having to search for it.

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Key Concepts

Within a Help topic, you can move to other relevant topics or definitions by selecting the blue underlined text. Click on the navigation bar to move to the previous topics that you viewed. Only those topics that you have already viewed in the current instance of online Help are included in this Back button sequence. Click to hide the navigation pane of the Help system. Click redisplay the navigation pane. to

Help Navigation
The Help system has a variety of methods that you can use to locate information about Autodesk Civil Design commands, including the table of contents, index, search, and a natural language query tool. There is also a Favorites tab to which you can add frequently-used topics. Each of these methods has its own tab in the left pane of the Help system, as shown in the following illustration:

Finding Information

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The Contents tab has books with topic pages listed below each book. To view a topic, click a book or a page. The Index tab lists words organized numerically and alphabetically. Enter a keyword to display the index entries, select a topic to view, and then click Display. If more than one topic shares the same index entry, you can choose the topic that you want to view. Only those topics that are indexed are listed on the Index tab. The Search tab can locate keywords in the Help system regardless of whether the topic is indexed. You can use options such as AND and NEAR to help narrow down the search.

The Favorites tab is a location where you can store frequently accessed Help topics. When you are viewing a Help topic you want to add to your favorites, click the Favorites tab, and then click Add. The Ask Me tab can help you locate information using a natural language query. Matching topics are ranked by percentages that reflect how likely they are to answer your questions. In addition, you can limit the search to specific parts of the help, such as just the Autodesk Land Desktop features or the AutoCAD or Autodesk Map features. For more information on using this tab, click Query Tips on the Ask Me tab.

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Concepts, Procedures, and Reference Information in Help
Many of the topics in Help are organized into concept, procedure, and reference information, making it easier to find relevant information. When such a topic is open, you can switch between concept, procedure, and reference information by clicking the tabs in the right pane of the Help window.
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Concept tabs contain overview information and links to subtopics. Procedure tabs contain step-by-step procedures or contain links to subtopics. Reference tabs contain information about how to access Autodesk Civil Design commands and what the commands do. If there is more than one command listed on the Reference tab, move your mouse over the command name to dynamically update the information.

The following illustration shows how the information on the Reference tab changes as you move your mouse over a different command name.

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Using the Tutorial
Autodesk Civil Design has an online tutorial that you can use to learn the basic program concepts. The tutorial is an excellent way to become familiar with the program. The tutorial is set up in lessons that you can perform sequentially or non-sequentially. Access the online tutorial by choosing the Autodesk Land Desktop Tutorials command from the Help menu.

Using this Getting Started Guide
This guide introduces you to Autodesk Civil Design. Each chapter focuses on one or two areas of the civil design process, and each topic describes how you can use one or more commands to complete a project task. In many sections of this guide, you are referred to topics in the Help for more information. For example,

Search Help for …
Calculate Routing Values for Detention Basins Overview of Routing

To find the topics mentioned, use the Search tab in Help. Some sections in this guide have numbered steps that you can perform to complete a task, such as changing the profile settings. To the right of certain steps in a task are titles of relevant Help topics. For example, To change the sampling settings
Step 1 From the Profiles menu, choose Profile Settings ➤ Sampling to display the Profile Sampling Settings dialog box. Use to locate

Changing the Settings for Sampling Existing Ground Data for Profiles

The above example shows that you can use the Search tab in the Help to locate the topic, “Changing the Settings for Sampling Existing Ground Data for Profiles.” For more information about locating topics in Help, see Autodesk Land Desktop Getting Started.

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Autodesk Civil Design 2004 Installation

2
In this chapter
■ About the installation ■ System requirements ■ Prepare for installation ■ Install Autodesk Civil Design ■ Register and authorize

This section provides instructions for installing and authorizing Autodesk® Civil Design 2004 on a standalone computer. If you are installing Autodesk Civil Design 2004 for a network, see the Network Administrator’s Guide located in the \netsetup\ support\Adlm\docs folder on the Autodesk Civil Design 2004 CD.
NOTE Installation instructions are provided in this chapter for
both unlocked and soft-locked versions of Autodesk Civil Design 2004. Where appropriate, notes have been added to distinguish the two types of installation.

Autodesk Civil Design
■ Add or remove features ■ Reinstall or repair Autodesk

Civil Design
■ Uninstall Autodesk Civil Design

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About the Installation
With Autodesk Civil Design 2004, several features and enhancements make your installation of the stand-alone version of Autodesk Civil Design easier and more convenient.
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Autodesk Civil Design CD Browser Side-by-side installations Check for Microsoft® Internet Explorer Documentation available before you install

Autodesk Civil Design CD Browser
With the introduction of the Autodesk Civil Design CD Browser, you can now find all installation-related material in one place. The CD Browser also allows you to view information about new and enhanced product features, access user documentation, view support solutions, and learn about deploying Autodesk Civil Design on a network. Tour the CD Browser to see all that it has to offer. The following topics in the CD Browser help you to install Autodesk Civil Design.

Review installation documentation before you install. You can access system requirements, the Autodesk Land Desktop Stand-Alone Installation Guide, and the Readme.hlp file before you install Autodesk Civil Design. Click the document file name to view the file.

NOTE To view or print any files with an extension of .pdf, Adobe® Acrobat
Reader 5.0 must be installed on your computer. If you do not have Acrobat Reader 5.0, you can install it when you attempt to open a PDF file on the CD Browser.
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Learn how to obtain a serial number. Click Details under Retrieve Serial Number to find out how to get your serial number. Install Autodesk Civil Design 2004. Click Install under Install Autodesk Civil Design to launch the Autodesk Civil Design Installation wizard. For specific instructions about installing Autodesk Civil Design, see “Install Autodesk Civil Design” on page 20. Learn how to register and authorize your product. Click Details under Learn About Product Registration to find out how to register and authorize Autodesk Civil Design.

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Side-by-Side Installations
You can now install Autodesk Civil Design 2004 and keep previous versions of Autodesk Civil Design and other Autodesk products on the same system. If you’ve purchased an upgrade version of Autodesk Civil Design, you are required to uninstall the previous version of Autodesk Civil Design within sixty days of installing Autodesk Civil Design 2004. See your license agreement for more information.

Check for Microsoft Internet Explorer
In previous releases of Autodesk Civil Design, the latest version of Microsoft Internet Explorer was installed automatically when you installed Autodesk Civil Design. The installation program in Autodesk Civil Design now checks to see whether Microsoft Internet Explorer 6.0 is already installed on your system. On the Windows® XP Professional and Windows XP ® Home operating systems, Internet Explorer 6.0 is already installed, so you can proceed directly to the Autodesk Civil Design installation. On Windows 2000 and Windows NT 4.0 operating systems, you will need to install Microsoft Internet Explorer 6.0 if it is not already installed. If you do not install Microsoft Internet Explorer 6.0, you cannot install Autodesk Civil Design. To install Microsoft Internet Explorer 6.0, follow the on-screen instructions.

NOTE After you install Microsoft Internet Explorer 6.0, you must restart your
computer. You can then install Autodesk Civil Design.

Documentation Available Before You Install
With the Autodesk Civil Design 2004 CD Browser, you now have easy access to your product documentation before you install Autodesk Civil Design. You can now view the Autodesk Civil Design 2004 Readme file. Before you install Autodesk Civil Design, you should read through the Readme for latebreaking information and known software limitations. You can also view or print the following user documents in PDF format:

Autodesk Land Desktop 2004 Stand-Alone Installation Guide. This guide provides instructions for installing and authorizing Autodesk Civil Design on an individual computer.

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Stand-Alone Licensing Guide. This guide provides information and instructions for managing an Autodesk stand-alone license on a singleuser workstation. Autodesk Civil Design 2004 Getting Started Guide. This guide explains Autodesk Civil Design concepts and includes a glossary with definitions of Autodesk Civil Design terms.

NOTE If Acrobat Reader 5.0 is not installed and you click a PDF file to view it, the Acrobat Reader 5.0 Installation wizard is launched. To install Adobe Acrobat Reader 5.0, follow the on-screen instructions.

System Requirements
Before you install Autodesk Civil Design on a stand-alone computer, make sure that your computer meets the minimum requirements. See the following table for hardware and software requirements. Hardware and software requirements
Hardware/Software Operating system Requirements
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Notes It is recommended that you install and run Autodesk Civil Design on an operating system in the same language as your version of Autodesk Civil Design or on an English version of the operating system. You must have Administrator permissions to install Autodesk Civil Design.

Windows XP Professional Windows XP Home Windows 2000 Windows NT 4.0 with Service Pack 6a or later

Web browser Processor

Microsoft Internet Explorer 6.0 Pentium III or later 500 Mhz (minimum) 800 Mhz (recommended) 256 MB (recommended)
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RAM Video

1024 x 768 VGA with True Color (minimum) 1280 x 1024 (recommended)

Requires a Windows-supported display adapter.

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Hardware and software requirements (continued)
Hardware/Software Hard disk Requirements Installation 55 MB Notes An additional 10 MB of space might be required for files installed in the System folder. This space does not need to be on the same drive as the program folder where you install Autodesk Civil Design.

Pointing device CD-ROM Optional hardware

Mouse, trackball, or other device Any speed (for installation only)
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Open GL-compatible 3D video card Printer or plotter Digitizer Modem or access to an Internet connection Network interface card

The OpenGL driver that comes with the 3D graphics card must have the following:
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Full support of OpenGL or later. An OpenGL Installable Client Driver (ICD). The graphics card must have an ICD in its OpenGL driver software. The "miniGL" driver provided with some cards is not sufficient for use with AutoCAD.

Prepare for Installation
There are several preparatory steps you can take to ensure that your installation of Autodesk Civil Design is successful. To prepare for installation 1 Obtain your serial number from your Autodesk Civil Design 2004 product packaging. 2 Make sure you have administrator permissions to the local machine where Autodesk Civil Design will be installed. You do not need to have domain administrator permissions. 3 Close all running applications. 4 Turn off virus-checking software. Please refer to your virus software documentation for instructions.

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Install Autodesk Civil Design
This section includes information for installing Autodesk Civil Design on a stand-alone computer. To install Autodesk Civil Design on a stand-alone computer 1 Insert the Autodesk Civil Design CD into your computer’s CD-ROM drive. 2 In the Autodesk Civil Design CD Browser, click the Install tab. 3 On the Install tab, under step 3, Install Autodesk Civil Design 2004, click Install to start the Autodesk Civil Design 2004 Installation wizard. 4 On the Welcome to the Autodesk Civil Design 2004 Installation Wizard page, click Next. 5 Review the Autodesk software license agreement for your country. You must accept this agreement to complete the installation. To accept, click I Accept, and then click Next.

NOTE If you do not agree to the terms of the license, click Cancel to cancel
the installation. 6 On the Serial Number page, enter the serial number, located on the Autodesk Civil Design product package. Click Next. 7 On the Select Installation Type page, specify the type of installation you want, and then click Next. Full installs all application features. This option is recommended for the best performance. Custom installs only the application features you select. 8 On the Start Installation page, click Next to start the installation. The Updating System page is displayed, showing the progress of the installation. When the installation is complete, the Setup Complete page is displayed. 9 On the Setup Complete page, click Finish. The Readme file is opened from this page when you click Finish. This file contains information that was unavailable when the Autodesk Civil Design 2004 documentation was prepared. If you do not want to view the Readme file now, clear the check box next to Readme.

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NOTE You can also view the Readme file after you have installed Autodesk Civil
Design. 10 If prompted, restart your system. Congratulations! You have successfully installed Autodesk Civil Design. You are now ready to register your product and start using the program. To register the product, start Autodesk Civil Design and follow the on-screen instructions.

Register and Authorize Autodesk Civil Design
The first time you select an Autodesk Civil Design command, the Authorization wizard is displayed. You can either authorize Autodesk Civil Design at that time, or run Autodesk Civil Design and authorize it later. If you do not authorize Autodesk Civil Design right away, the Authorization wizard is displayed for 30 days from the first time that you run the program. Until you enter a valid authorization code, you are prompted for one each time you launch the program. If after 30 days of running Autodesk Civil Design you have not provided a valid authorization, you must enter an authorization code in order to run Autodesk Civil Design. Once you authorize Autodesk Civil Design, the Authorization wizard is no longer displayed. The fastest and most reliable way for you to register and authorize your product is by using the Internet. Simply enter your registration information and send it to Autodesk over the Internet. Once you submit your information, registration and authorization occur almost instantly. If you do not have Internet access or you want to use another method of registration, you can register and authorize Autodesk Civil Design in one of the following ways:
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Email. Create an email message with your registration information, which you can send to Autodesk. Fax or Post/Mail. Enter your registration information, and fax or mail the information to Autodesk.

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To authorize Autodesk Civil Design 1 Do one of the following:

For Windows® XP. On the Start menu, click All Programs ➤ Autodesk ➤ Autodesk Land Desktop 2004 ➤ Autodesk Land Desktop 2004. For Windows® 2000 or Windows NT® 4.0. On the Start menu, click Programs ➤ Autodesk ➤ Autodesk Land Desktop 2004 ➤ Autodesk Land Desktop 2004.

2 To display the Authorization wizard, select any Autodesk Civil Design command. 3 In the Authorization wizard, select Authorize Autodesk Civil Design, and then click Next. 4 Do one of the following:
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Select Register and Authorize, which will guide you through the electronic registration process. Select Enter Authorization Code (if you’ve already registered your product and received your authorization code).

5 Click Next and follow the on-screen instructions.

Add or Remove Features
You can add features to or remove features from your Autodesk Civil Design product at any time. For example, you may have chosen a Custom installation option when you first installed Autodesk Civil Design, and now you want to add features that are not part of the Custom installation. Or you may have chosen a Full installation option initially and you no longer need to use all of the features that were installed with that option. You can add or remove features by using the Add/Remove Programs dialog box. To add or remove features 1 Insert the Autodesk Civil Design CD into your computer’s CD-ROM drive if you are going to add features.

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2 Do one of the following:
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For Windows XP. On the Start menu, click Control Panel. For Windows 2000 or Windows NT 4.0. On the Start menu, click Settings ➤ Control Panel.

3 In the Control Panel, double-click Add/Remove Programs. 4 In the Add/Remove Programs dialog box, click Autodesk Civil Design 2004, and then click Change. 5 On the Autodesk Civil Design Application Maintenance page, select the Modify, Repair, or Remove option, and then click Next. 6 On the next page, select a feature and click the drop-down arrow. Depending on the feature you choose, one or more of the following options are displayed:
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Will Be Installed on Local Hard Drive. Installs a feature or component of a feature on your hard drive. Entire Feature Will Be Installed on Local Hard Drive. Installs a feature and its components on your hard drive. Entire Feature Will Be Unavailable. Makes the feature unavailable.

7 Select the option for the feature, and then click Next.

NOTE If you need to revert to the Autodesk Civil Design features you selected
in your original installation, click Reset. 8 On the Ready to Modify the Application page, click Next. 9 In the Autodesk Civil Design 2004 dialog box, when the components have been added or removed, click Finish. 10 If prompted, restart your computer.

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Reinstall or Repair Autodesk Civil Design
If you accidentally delete or alter files that are required by Autodesk Civil Design, Autodesk Civil Design might not perform correctly, and you might receive error messages when you try to execute a command or find a file. You can attempt to fix this problem by reinstalling or repairing Autodesk Civil Design. The reinstallation or repair uses the features that were part of the installation type you chose when you initially installed the program. To reinstall or repair Autodesk Civil Design 1 Insert the Autodesk Civil Design CD into your computer’s CD-ROM drive. 2 Do one of the following:
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For Windows XP. On the Start menu, click Control Panel. For Windows 2000 or Windows NT 4.0. On the Start menu, click Settings ➤ Control Panel.

3 In the Control Panel, double-click Add/Remove Programs. 4 In the Add/Remove Programs window, select Autodesk Civil Design 2004 in the list, and then click Change. 5 On the Application Maintenance page, select Modify, Repair, or Remove, and then click Next. 6 On the next page, select a feature to reinstall or repair and click the dropdown arrow. Depending on the feature you choose, one or more of the following options are displayed:
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Will Be Installed on Local Hard Drive. Installs a feature or component of a feature on your hard drive. Entire Feature Will Be Installed on Local Hard Drive. Installs a feature and its components on your hard drive. Entire Feature Will Be Unavailable. Makes the feature unavailable.

7 Select the option for the feature, and then click Next.

NOTE If you need to revert to the Autodesk Civil Design features you selected
in your original installation, click Reset. 8 On the Ready to Modify the Application page, click Next. 9 In the Autodesk Civil Design 2004 dialog box, when the components have been added, click Finish. 10 If prompted, restart your computer.

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Uninstall Autodesk Civil Design
When you uninstall Autodesk Civil Design, all components are removed in the process. This means that even if you’ve previously added or removed components, or if you’ve reinstalled or repaired Autodesk Civil Design, the uninstall removes all Autodesk Civil Design installation files from your system. To uninstall Autodesk Civil Design 1 Do one of the following:
■ ■

For Windows XP. On the Start menu, click Control Panel. For Windows 2000 or Windows NT 4.0. On the Start menu, click Settings ➤ Control Panel.

2 In the Control Panel, click Add/Remove Programs. 3 In the Add/Remove Programs window, select Autodesk Civil Design 2004, and then click Remove. 4 In the message box that is displayed, click Yes to remove Autodesk Civil Design. 5 If prompted, restart your computer.

Uninstall Autodesk Civil Design

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Using Grading Commands

3
In this chapter
■ Overview of grading ■ Using grading objects and

Use the commands on the Grading menu to create finished ground surfaces for a site. You can create and edit grading objects, calculate daylighting information, calculate volumes, and create and shape detention pond definitions.

daylighting commands
■ Creating a grading object ■ Grading settings ■ Editing a grading object ■ Creating contours and surface

data from a grading object
■ Calculating and balancing

volumes for a grading object
■ Grading object usage tips ■ Creating a grading plan using

Daylighting commands
■ Modifying point elevations ■ Working with ponds

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Overview of Grading
When you add or remove soil, rock, and other materials to shape the land for a project, you generally develop a grading plan to indicate how the finished surface appears. The grading tools in Civil Design enable you to model the existing and proposed ground surfaces and analyze the design. After you develop a grading plan, you can then create a proposed surface model. You can use the surface model to analyze a site efficiently and accurately and to create reports, graphics, and 3D presentation materials that are necessary for the completion of the project. When you use the finished ground model, you can do the following:
■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Calculate cut and fill volumes. Determine grading limits. Generate proposed grade and cut and fill contours. Calculate the watershed areas for the surface. Create post-development runoff models.

Finished Ground Data
An existing ground surface is generally based on surveyed points and existing contours, whereas a finished ground surface is based on grading data that you create. One goal is to create enough grading data, such as points, 3D polylines, contours, pond models, daylight lines, and breaklines, so that the finished ground surface is as accurate as possible. Autodesk Land Desktop includes several commands that you can use to create grading data, including points, contours, and 3D polylines. Autodesk Civil Design adds the ability to create the following grading data:

Grading objects: Provides a fast, efficient 3D modeling tool that accurately represents such design elements as roadways, embankments, parking areas, excavations, or ponds. For more information about grading objects, see “Creating a Grading Object” on page 30. Daylight points, lines, and breaklines: Elevational points and breaklines can be generated to represent daylight slopes. You can draw a resultant daylight polyline to connect the daylight points. The daylight polyline is a 3D polyline that represents the match line of the slopes to the surface. It can be used as a breakline and a border in surface definition. It can also be used to represent a work limit line.

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■ ■ ■

Finished grade labels: Labels surface elevations. Stratum: Defines a group of two surfaces where the differences between the two surfaces can be used to calculate volumes and elevation. Pond models: Used in planning stormwater management and in hydrology calculations.

After you have created all finished ground grading data, you can then create a finished ground surface.

NOTE It is recommended that you create new layers for the finished ground data. Before you define the surface data when creating the new surface, you can freeze or turn off all unnecessary layers. By using separate layers, it is easy to select only the information for a specific surface. You can create separate layers for finished ground points, contours, and breaklines, or place them all on the same layer.

Accessing the Grading Commands
Search Help for…
Using the Grading Commands

The Civil Design grading commands are accessed from the Grading menu. The commands are grouped into two sections.

The upper section contains commands for working with grading objects and daylight lines and contains commands for labeling grades and modifying point elevations. The lower section contains commands for working with ponds.

Overview of Grading

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Using Grading Objects and Daylighting Commands
You can create grading plans using either the Grading Object commands or the Daylighting commands.

Grading Object Commands
Use Grading Object commands to
■ ■ ■

Direct water ways between grading pads for a subdivision. Add and update curb islands. Facilitate “what-if” designing by creating interactive projects that are easily updated.

Daylighting Commands
Daylighting commands provide a backward compatibility that may be familiar to many users. You may also want to use Daylighting commands to
■ ■ ■

Design a parking lot that has a ditch. Add step slopes to a design. Provide updating flexibility to a large and complex design.

Creating a Grading Object
A grading object is a three-dimensional object that represents finished ground grading schemes. It is designed specifically to provide a fast, efficient 3D-modeling tool that accurately represents such design elements as roadways, embankments, parking areas, excavations, and ponds. You can create a grading object by drawing a footprint, defining slopes, and defining grading targets, which are elevations, distances, or a surface that you want to grade to. After you’ve generated a grading object, you can create contours, breaklines, and surfaces from the 3D information. The first step in creating a grading object is to draw a footprint, which represents the outline of the object you want to grade from. It can be a 2D or 3D polyline, line, or arc. You can also grade from the daylight of an existing grading object.

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The footprint stores elevational information at the vertices and interpolates elevations along the segments between the vertices. As you build a design, you can modify vertex elevations. When you use a 2D polyline with embedded arc segments as a grading footprint, the geometry of the arcs is stored within the grading object. The elevations of the arc endpoints can be changed to represent curbs, or fillets, in 3D, and still maintain the true 2D geometry of the original arc.

NOTE After you create the footprint, it is recommended that you station it.
Grading commands use stations to represent the location of footprint vertices. By creating stations on the footprint, you can see where to place target regions and slope tags. After you draw a footprint, you can use the Grading Wizard to define footprint elevations, and then you can select the target you want to grade to. You can also define target regions, which are sections along the footprint that establish the target to which the slope projects. With multiple target regions, you have the option to grade to various targets, such as a surface, an elevation, and a distance, as described in “Defining Target Regions” on page 38. Grading objects also include slope tags, which define a location along the footprint where a specific slope is applied. When you use slope tags, you can create slopes that transition smoothly from one grade to another. You can edit slope tag characteristics by using grips, or small boxes on an object similar to handles that you select to manipulate the object. Use grips as well to modify the footprint vertices of a grading object.

Creating a Grading Object

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The following illustration shows the grading object grip points.

Key Concepts
■ ■

■ ■ ■

Grading objects can be created from open or closed footprints. You can create a grading object using one of two methods. The Grading Wizard steps you through every setting you need to establish, and then creates the grading object. Or, you can use the two-step process of changing the settings, and then applying grading. After you create a grading object, you can make changes in the grading properties, or you can use grips to modify the grading object. You can create surfaces and breaklines from a grading object. You can calculate general volume statistics and balance volumes for a grading object when its grading target is a terrain surface or an absolute elevation.

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To create a grading object using the Grading Wizard
Steps 1 From the Grading menu, choose Slope Grading ➤ Grading Wizard. Click Next and Back to move through the pages. Use to locate

Creating a Grading Object Using the Grading Wizard

2 On the Footprint page, enter a Grading Scheme Name and Description for the footprint. Select Inside or Outside or, when the footprint is open, select Right or Left for the direction you want to grade from the footprint. Change the Base Elevation of the footprint and edit vertex elevations as necessary. 3 On the Targets page, select the target you want to grade to, a surface, an elevation, or a distance. You can add and delete target regions as necessary.

Configuring the Grading Footprint Settings

Configuring the Grading Targets Settings

Creating a Grading Object

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To create a grading object using the Grading Wizard (continued)
Steps 4 On the Slopes page, enter the Cut Slope and Fill Slope. You can add and delete slope tags and edit stations. 5 On the Corners page, choose a corner treatment for all corners, or enter corner treatments for individual corners. 6 On the Accuracy page, select a method for spacing, and enter increment values for the projection lines. 7 On the Appearance page, select the color, visibility, and linetype for the grading object components, and then select the grips you want visible in the drawing. Click Finish to complete the process. Use to locate

Configuring the Grading Slopes Settings Configuring the Grading Corners Settings

Configuring the Grading Accuracy Settings Configuring the Grading Appearance Settings

NOTE The pages in the Grading Wizard correspond to the tabs in the Grading
Properties and Settings dialog boxes.

To create a grading object using menu commands
Steps 1 From the Grading menu, choose Slope Grading ➤ Settings. 2 Using the tabs in the dialog box, enter settings for the footprint, targets, slopes, corner treatments, accuracy, and appearance. 3 From the Grading menu, choose Slope Grading ➤ Apply Grading to apply the settings and create a grading object. Use to locate

Creating Grading Objects

Grading Settings

Creating Grading Objects

Calculating General Statistics About a Grading Object
Search Help for…
Calculating General Statistics About a Grading Object Calculating Volume Data for a Grading Object

You can calculate statistics for each grading object that list station information, such as start and end locations of the footprint and start and end locations of the grading applied to that footprint. You can also calculate general reference volume statistics for the grading object, which include cut, fill, and net volumes.

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If the grading object you created does not meet certain requirements, then the Calculate Volume command and the Statistics property page cannot generate volumes. In this case, or to verify volume calculations, you can create a surface from the grading object and add surface information to the interior of the footprint, such as points, contours, or 3D polylines as needed. After you create a surface from the grading object, you can choose the Volume commands from the Terrain menu to calculate volumes. Volumes are only calculated under the following conditions:

The target is a surface and the grading direction is to the outside of a closed footprint. Volumes are calculated between the object and the surface. The target is an absolute elevation. Volumes are calculated between the object and the elevation.

Volumes are not calculated under the following conditions:
■ ■ ■ ■

The grading object has multiple targets. The grading object has a single relative elevation target. The footprint is closed and graded to the inside using a surface target. Daylight lines cross, and the condition is detected by the program.

Grading Settings
Search Help for…
Grading Settings Configuring the Grading Targets Settings

Grading objects are created using the settings you specify for the footprint, targets, slopes, corners, accuracy, and appearance. There are three different methods of establishing these settings:
■ ■

Grading Wizard: Prompts you for the required settings and can be used to create new grading objects. Apply Grading command: Creates new grading objects. Before you use the Apply Grading command, use the Settings command to set up the initial settings. Grading Properties command: Changes the settings when you are editing a grading object.

The grading settings, grading properties, and the Grading Wizard all contain the same settings. Some areas of the grading settings dialog box, however, display information only after you have created a grading object.

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Configuring the Targets Settings
Target settings control what the projection lines from the footprint intercept. A slope target can be an existing surface (one surface per grading object), an elevation, or an offset distance. You can also use multiple targets by defining target regions. For more information, see “Defining Target Regions” on page 38.

NOTE To create a grading object that grades to a terrain model surface, you must have an existing terrain model surface. You can only grade to one surface per grading object. If there are no surfaces in the current project, then you are prompted to select a target elevation or a target distance when entering the initial grading settings or using the Grading Wizard.

Surface Targets
To grade to a surface, select an existing surface from the Surface list. The projection lines of the grading object are extended until they intersect with the surface. If the footprint is below the surface target you are grading to, then the projection lines go up at the cut slope value you specify in the slopes settings. If the footprint is above the surface target you are grading to, then the projection lines go down at the fill slope value you specify in the slopes settings. You can only select one target surface per grading object.

NOTE When you grade to a surface target you get different results depending on whether the grading object is contained entirely on the surface or whether the grading object is partially off the surface. If the projection lines from the grading object, either originating from a footprint segment or a corner, extend beyond the edge of a surface, then no projection lines are created along the entire segment.
The following illustration shows a surface as a grading target.

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Elevation Targets
To grade to an elevation, enter an elevation to which the grading object projection lines are extended. If the footprint is below the elevation target you are grading to, then the projection lines go up at the cut slope value you specify in the slopes settings. If the footprint is above the elevation target you are grading to, then the projection lines go down at the fill slope value you specify in the slopes settings. Select Absolute when you want all vertices on the daylight line to be created at the same elevation. When you select Absolute, the projection line stops at an elevation relative to the elevation zero. Select Relative when you want all vertices on the daylight line to be created the same vertical distance from any location on the grading object. By selecting Relative, the elevation is relative to the footprint at any point where a projection line is calculated. The following illustration shows an absolute elevation as a grading target.

The following illustration shows a relative depth as a grading target.

Distance Targets
To grade out to a specified distance, enter the horizontal distance that the slopes project to. This forces all vertices on the daylight line to be located at this horizontal distance from the footprint, using the defined slope at any point within that target region. Select Cut when you want the footprint to match up toward the target distance. (The footprint is at a lower elevation than the target.) Select Fill when you want the footprint to match down

Grading Settings

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toward the target distance. (The footprint is at a higher elevation than the target.) The following illustration shows a distance as a grading target.

NOTE You can specify the slopes that are used in cut and fill situations in the
slope settings.

Defining Target Regions
A target region defines an area of the footprint that daylights to a specified target. By using multiple target regions you can daylight to different targets using the same grading object. For example, part of a footprint (target region 1) could grade to a surface. The other part of the footprint (target region 2) could grade to an elevation. The following illustration shows slope grading target regions.

Each region has a start station, an end station, and a target. When you create a grading object, one target region encompasses the entire footprint. The start station of this target region is at the beginning of the footprint and the end station is at the end of the footprint.

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You can add multiple targets and multiple target regions to a grading object, but for each target region there is only one target. Target regions are absolute; there is no transition from one target to the next. You can change the location of target regions in the spreadsheet section on the Targets tab. Or, you can edit the target regions by using grips to drag the target region.

NOTE Target regions are independent of slope tags. When you add a region, the new region has a slope that is interpolated from the previous slope tag and the next slope tag. Slope tags can co-exist with target region boundaries, yet they remain independent.

Configuring the Slopes Settings
Search Help for…
Changing Slope Settings

To define the cut and fill slopes for the grading object, change the grading slopes settings. A grading object can have several different slopes defined for it. Each slope is controlled by its own slope tag. Each slope tag has station, elevation, and cut and fill slope values defined for it. A slope tag controls the slope between one slope tag station and the next slope tag station based on station progression. You can choose to represent the slope as a standard ratio, a % grade, horizontal (no slope), or vertical (a wall). By default, a slope tag is inserted at the start point and endpoint of the footprint. After you create a grading object, you can add slope tags. You can change the location and value of the slope tags in the spreadsheet section on the Slopes tab, or you can edit the slope tags using the slope tag and slope value grips. Slope tags affect the slope of the projection lines between tags by transitioning. When you transition from one slope tag to the next, the change in the slope always remains linear to the footprint. The following illustration shows slopes that transition from 2:1 to 1:1 based on slope tag value.

Grading Settings

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Slopes around corners are created at a constant slope as shown in the following illustration.

NOTE You cannot edit the start station of the first slope tag or the end station of the last slope tag. The first and last slope tags always have the same cut and fill values.

Configuring the Grading Corners Settings
Search Help for…
Configuring the Grading Corners Settings

To control how the slopes are projected from the footprint when there is a convex (outside) angle in the footprint, change the grading corners settings. In the Convex (Outside) Corner Treatment section, you can choose from miter, radial, chamfer, and no cleanup corners settings to specify the global corner treatment setting. This setting is initially applied to all corners on the footprint. In the Local Overrides on Convex (Outside) Corner Treatment section, you can specify the corner treatment setting on a corner-by-corner basis.

NOTE Corner treatments do not apply to convex or concave arcs along the
footprint. You can establish the increments of the radial projection lines of concave and convex arcs in the accuracy settings.

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NOTE Corner cleanup is not applied when a slope tag or target region boundary lies within the corner cleanup area. You must move the target region or slope tag out of the corner cleanup area.
The following illustration shows the corner treatments.

NOTE The miter corner cleanup method is automatically applied to any
concave corners on the footprint. This cannot be edited.

Editing a Grading Object
Search Help for…
Editing Grading Objects Object Locking

After you create a grading object, you can modify it in the following ways:
■ ■ ■

Change the grading properties. Use grips to edit the grading object. Edit the grading object by right-clicking the object, and choosing commands from a shortcut menu.

To edit a grading object, it must be unlocked to update automatically. If the grading object is locked, you can make changes, but they do not take effect until you unlock the grading object.

Editing a Grading Object

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Editing Grading Properties
You can edit the grading properties of a grading object by using the Grading Properties command, and then selecting a grading object.

Key Concepts
■ ■

A grading object is updated after you exit the Grading Properties dialog box. You can access the Grading Properties dialog box by right-clicking a grading object, and then selecting Grading Properties from the shortcut menu.

To edit a grading object’s properties using menu commands
Steps 1 From the Grading menu, choose Slope Grading ➤ Grading Properties. 2 Select a grading object. The Grading Properties dialog box is displayed. 3 Modify the properties as needed. When you exit the Grading Properties dialog box, the grading object is updated with the changes. Grading Settings Use to locate

Using Grips to Edit Grading Objects
You can select an unlocked grading object in the drawing and change the footprint vertices, target regions, and slope tag location and slope tag value. These changes are reflected in the Grading Properties dialog box.

Key Concepts
■ ■

To edit a grading object, you can change the grading properties, use the grading object grips, or choose commands from a shortcut menu. You can choose the grips you want visible by changing the appearance settings in the Grading Properties.

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■ ■

Certain grips on a grading object, such as the first and last station for a target region and the first slope tag location, cannot be edited. Slope tag location grips cannot be moved past a target region grip or past another slope tag location grip. The distance between grips is determined by the Minimum Region Length in the targets settings.

To grip-edit a grading object
Steps 1 Select a grading object in the drawing. Use to locate

Using Grips to Edit Grading Objects

2 Select the grip you want to edit. The following illustration shows the location of grading object grips.

TIP You can choose the grips to be displayed on a grading object by changing the appearance settings in the Grading Properties. 3 Move the grip to edit the grading object. The spreadsheet sections in the Grading Properties dialog box reflect the changes you made using grips.

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Using the Shortcut Menu
You can use the commands from the Slope Grading shortcut menu to edit the grading object vertices, slope tags, and target regions. The changes you make are immediately reflected in the drawing. To make edits to the grading object, it must be unlocked. To edit a grading object using the shortcut menu
Steps 1 Select a grading object in the drawing. Use to locate

Editing a Grading Object using the Shortcut Menu

2 Right-click to display the grading object shortcut menu.

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Creating Contours and Surface Data from a Grading Object
To use the 3D information for a grading object in a terrain model surface, you have the following options:
■ ■ ■

You can create a new surface from the grading object. You can create contours. You can create breakline data from the grading object for any new or existing surface.

Surfaces are created using 3D information from the grading object footprint, daylight lines, and projection lines. The footprint and projection lines are treated as breaklines. The daylight line is treated as a boundary. After you have created the surface it has the same functions as other surfaces. You can then manage the surface from within the Terrain Model Explorer. By using the Create Contours command, you can create contours directly from a grading object without having to first create a terrain model surface. When you use the Create Contours command, a temporary surface is created using the daylight line as the surface boundary. Breaklines can be created from a grading object and added to the current surface, to a new surface, or to any existing surface. When you create breaklines from a grading object, the breakline information is determined from the grading object footprint, daylight lines, and projection line.

Key Concepts

To use 3D information for grading objects in a terrain model surface, create a new surface from the grading object, create contours, or create breakline data. Surfaces are created using the 3D information from the footprint, daylight lines, and projection lines. Footprint information is gathered from its vertices and along arc segments of the footprint. On arc segments, a point is created at the location of each projection line. Daylight line information is gathered from points at each vertex of the daylight line. The daylight line also becomes the TIN boundary. Projection line information is gathered from a point at the beginning and a point at the end of each projection line.

Creating Contours and Surface Data from a Grading Object

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■ ■

■ ■

When you use the Create Contours command, the contours are generated from a temporary surface, and then the surface is discarded. A breakline is created from a footprint, using each vertex on the footprint and a vertex at each projection line location. On arc segments, the breakline vertices correspond to the locations where the projection lines intersect the arc. Arcs become a series of straight line segments. A breakline is created from each cut and fill segment of the daylight line. A breakline is created from each projection line.

To create a surface from a grading object
Steps 1 Create a grading object. 2 From the Grading menu, choose Slope Grading ➤ Create Surface to display the New Surface dialog box. 3 Enter a name and an optional description for the surface, and click OK. The surface is created and built. 4 To view the surface details, use the Terrain Model Explorer. From the Terrain menu, choose Terrain Model Explorer. 5 To see the surface details, in the left pane of the Terrain Model Explorer, open the folder of the surface you created from the grading object. Use to locate

Creating Grading Objects Creating a Surface from a Grading Object

To create contours from a grading object
Steps 1 Create a grading object. 2 From the Grading menu, choose Slope Grading ➤ Create Contours. Use to locate

Creating Grading Objects Creating Contours from a Grading Object

3 In the Create Contours dialog box, change the settings as Creating Contours from a needed and click OK to create the contours. The Create Surface Contours dialog box is used to create contours from a surface as well as from a grading object.

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To create breaklines from a grading object
Steps 1 Create a grading object. 2 From the Grading menu, choose Slope Grading ➤ Create Breaklines. 3 Do one of the following:

Use

to locate

Creating Grading Objects Creating Breaklines from a Grading Object

Type Current to add breaklines to the current surface. Select the grading object and enter a description for the breaklines. Type New to add the breaklines to a new surface. The New Surface dialog box is displayed. Enter a name and a description for the new surface, and click OK. Type Select to add the breaklines to an existing surface. The Select Surface dialog box is displayed. Select the surface you want the breaklines to be added to and click OK.

4 Rebuild the surface to incorporate the breakline data.

The following illustration shows footprint and daylight line locations.

Creating Contours and Surface Data from a Grading Object

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Calculating and Balancing Volumes for a Grading Object
You can calculate general volume statistics for a grading object by using the statistics tab of the Grading Properties dialog box or by using the Calculate Volumes command. The composite volume method is used to calculate the volume results. This method compares the grading object with the grading targets to determine the volumes. You can use the Balance Volumes command to eliminate the time-consuming task of repetitive cut and fill volume balance calculations. The grading object must meet certain requirements for the Calculate Volumes command and the Balance Volumes command to work properly. In instances where these commands do not generate volumes, or when you want to verify volume calculations, you can create a surface from the grading object and add surface information to the interior of the footprint, such as points, contours, or 3D polylines as needed. Then, choose the Volume commands from the Terrain menu to calculate volumes.

Key Concepts

The Calculate Volumes and Balance Volumes commands require that the grading object has one target. The target can be either a surface or an absolute elevation. If the target is a surface, then the grading object must have a closed footprint that is graded to the outside. The volumes are calculated between the grading object and the surface. If the target is an absolute elevation, then the volumes are calculated between the grading object and the elevation. The Calculate Volumes and Balance Volumes commands cannot calculate volumes when the grading object has the following conditions:
■ ■ ■ ■

The grading object has multiple targets. The grading object has a single relative elevation target. The footprint is closed and graded to the inside using a surface target. The daylight lines cross.

■ ■

To calculate volumes accurately, specify smaller line and arc increments on the Accuracy tab of the Grading Properties dialog box. Calculate final volumes by using the Volume commands from the Terrain menu.

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To calculate volumes
Steps 1 Create a grading object. 2 Create a surface from the grading object. Use to locate

Creating a Grading Object Creating a Surface from a Grading Object Calculating Volume Data for a Grading Object

3 From the Grading menu, choose Slope Grading ➤ Calculate Volumes. 4 From the Grading menu, choose Grading Properties and select the Statistics tab. The volume statistics are automatically generated. If you are satisfied with the results, you may want to stop here. To balance cut and fill volumes, proceed to the next step.

Calculating and Balancing Volumes for a Grading Object

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To calculate volumes (continued)
Steps Use to locate

Balancing Grading Object 5 From the Grading menu, choose Slope Grading ➤ Balance Volumes. Click Calculate to initiate the Volumes balancing process.

Grading Object Usage Tips
Search Help for…
AutoCAD Editing Commands and the Grading Object

The grading object automates most slope calculations where the starting elevation and slope are known, but the resultant daylight, matched with existing ground or elevation, is not known. In most cases, the grading object solves these unknowns and provides treatment for exterior and interior corners. In some cases, however, a design solution is impossible to calculate. A few key concepts can be followed to improve grading object performance.

Key Concepts

Keep the grading footprint as simple as possible. Complex 3D polylines created while using the commands in the Daylighting menu can have more vertices than are needed to define a grading object, and can lead to longer processing time. Complex combinations of numerous vertices, slopes, or targets may also create situations that are too difficult to resolve.

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■ ■

Some situations require manual editing. In these cases, you can explode the grading object and edit the entities by using Daylighting or AutoCAD commands, and then you can use the entities as surface information in the Terrain Model Explorer. The grading object does not grade to itself. When two slope lines cross, it is usually because the target at that slope is either too high or too low to solve. Volumes from a grading object are only for quick reference. You should verify critical volumes by creating a TIN from the object and verify volumes by using methods in the Terrain menu. To define a collection of grading objects as a group, use the AutoCAD Group command. Use AutoCAD commands to edit a group of grading objects. You can also use CTRL + and CTRL – to adjust the footprint elevations of a group of grading objects. You cannot edit the properties of grouped grading objects; you can change properties of only one grading object at a time. Verify TIN results when creating a surface from the grading object. You may need to clean up the TIN before you use it for analysis or design. If you grade to a relative elevation, it may cause jumps in the daylight line. It may be necessary to edit the daylight line and projections manually.

Creating a Grading Plan Using Daylighting Commands
Search Help for…
Daylighting

To create grading plans, you can use the Daylighting commands, which determine slope daylighting from a polyline footprint to a surface based on slope criteria. These commands calculate the daylight match line, which is drawn as a 3D polyline. Elevational points and breaklines, representing the daylight slopes, can also be generated. Use all these elements to generate a surface. To represent a footprint, use a 2D or 3D polyline with elevational information. Assign cut and fill slope information to each vertex on the polyline. You can add more vertices to the polyline for increased daylight line sampling. Based on the polyline footprint elevations and the assigned slope information, the daylight line is calculated at each vertex of the footprint polyline for a selected daylight target surface.

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Key Concepts
■ ■ ■

To use the Daylighting commands, an existing ground surface model is required. You can use either lightweight, 2D, or 3D polylines to draw the footprint outline. A match line is projected perpendicularly from each vertex on the polyline to the surface model. The more vertices, the better the proposed daylight match line.

Selecting the Daylight Surface
To calculate daylight lines, select a daylight surface into which you want the slopes to match. From the Grading menu, choose Daylighting ➤ Select Daylight Surface to display the Select Surface dialog box.

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Adding Vertices to a Polyline for Daylighting
You can add vertices to the polyline footprint to calculate an accurate daylight line. The daylight match line is generated by calculating the match point from each vertex on the polyline. Each daylight line bisects the angle formed by the segments before and after the vertex. If the vertices are close together, then a more accurate daylight line can be generated. Vertices are added by specifying the horizontal distance between the vertices around the polyline. The polyline can have a constant elevation, or it can have varying elevations at its vertices. It can be an opened or closed polyline. The following illustration is an example of the Add Vertices command:

Calculating Daylight Points Based on Multiple Slopes
The Create Multiple command from the Daylighting submenu uses the footprint polyline to calculate daylight information based on the slopes and the specified daylight surface. You can specify the fill slope and cut slope at each individual vertex of a selected entity, and you can transition from one slope to another over multiple vertices on the entity. When the command calculates the daylight information, it does not add anything to the drawing. Rather, it stores the calculated daylight data within the entity you selected. For a more accurate daylight line definition, you can add vertices to the polyline footprint with the Add Vertices command. Daylight points are calculated from each vertex; therefore, the closer the vertices, the more accurate the definition.

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The following illustration shows an example of how daylight points are located by the Create Multiple command:

Calculating Daylight Points Based on a Single Slope
The Create Single command from the Daylighting submenu uses the X, Y, and Z coordinates of the footprint polyline to calculate daylight information based on the slopes and daylight surface that you have specified. This command applies a single-fill slope and a single-cut slope at every vertex on the selected entity. When the command calculates the daylight information, it does not add anything to the drawing. Rather, it stores the calculated daylight data within the entity you select. For a more accurate daylight line definition, you can add vertices to the polyline footprint with the Add Vertices command. Daylight points are calculated from each vertex; therefore, the closer the vertices, the more accurate the definition. The following illustration is an example of how daylight points are located by the Create Single command:

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Inserting Daylight Points in the Drawing
After you have applied Single or Multiple slope criteria, you can use the Daylight Points command to create COGO points with elevations that are added to the drawing and point database. These points are inserted at each vertex on the polyline and at each daylight point, using the current point settings. You are also prompted to place intermediate points between the polyline vertices and their associated daylight points. After the points are created, you can add them to a point group and use them in Terrain Model Explorer to generate a surface. You can add more points, as necessary, to better define the area within the polyline footprint. The following illustration shows how points are added between polyline vertices and daylight points:

Creating Breaklines Between Vertices and Daylight Points
To create a more accurate surface with the daylight information, you can use the Daylight Breaklines command to create breaklines that project from the polyline vertices to their associated daylight points for a selected surface. This command creates a breakline for each vertex that has a calculated daylight point. The surface for which the breakline data is defined must already be created, yet does not have to be built.

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The following illustration shows how breaklines are created between the polyline vertices and their daylight points:

Drawing a Daylight Polyline
You can use the Daylight Polyline command to draw the resultant daylight polyline that connects the daylight points. This is a 3D polyline that represents the match line of the slopes to the surface. It can be used as a breakline or a border in surface definition. It can also be used to represent a work limit line.

Inserting Daylight Points, Breaklines, and Polylines into a Drawing
You can insert daylight points, breaklines, and polylines into a drawing simultaneously. The Daylight All command is a combination of the Daylight Points, Daylight Breaklines, and Daylight Polyline commands. The following illustration indicates the daylight features that can be brought into a drawing by using the Daylight All command:

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Creating a Random Daylight Point
You can create a single daylight point from any location in the drawing, rather than using a polyline. The following illustration shows the parameters of the Random Daylight command:

The following example explains how to draw the outline of a building pad, and then project slopes down to match the existing ground. To create grading plans using daylighting commands
Steps 1 From the Grading menu, choose Daylighting ➤ Select Daylight Surface to select into which surface the slopes match. Use to locate

Selecting the Daylight Surface

2 Use the 3D polylines commands in the Creating 3D Polylines Terrain ➤ 3D Polylines menu to create the proposed design. Draft the proposed outline using 3D polylines either at a continuous elevation or at changing elevations. 3 From the Terrain menu, choose 3D Polylines ➤ Fillet 3D Polyline to fillet (round) the corners of the outline, as necessary. This creates more daylight projections radially around each corner. Filleting 3D Polyline Vertices

Adding Vertices to a Polyline 4 From the Grading menu, choose Daylighting ➤ Add Vertices to add more vertices to the polyline outline. The for Daylighting closer the vertices, the more accurate the daylight slopes.

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To create grading plans using daylighting commands (continued)
Steps 5 From the Grading menu, choose Daylighting ➤ Create Single to determine the daylight match line at a specified slope. This command applies a constant slope to the entire polyline footprint. The command checks for both cut and fill automatically. It also draws temporary objects that represent the location where the projected slope matches into existing ground. OR Calculating Daylight Points From the Grading menu, choose Daylighting ➤ Create Based on Multiple Slopes Multiple when you need to daylight using different slopes. For example, when one area of the proposed plan falls outside of the construction limits (i.e. property line or building), you can change an individual slope or group of projected slopes. The command draws temporary objects that show the new daylight match line location, as shown in the following illustration. Use to locate

Calculating Daylight Points Based on a Single Slope

6 To insert objects into the drawing that represent the grading plans, you can use the Daylight All command to import a 3D daylight match line and proposed grading points and breaklines. You can then use these objects to create the proposed ground surface model.

Inserting Daylight Points, Breaklines, and Polylines into a Drawing

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Modifying Point Elevations
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Changing Elevations of Points by Relative Hinge Changing Elevations of Points by Absolute Hinge

Sometimes you may modify elevations of selected points in the project. If you choose the commands from the Modify Point Elevations submenus, you can modify the elevations of finished ground point objects by using a relative or absolute hinge, or by working with a stratum.

Using a Hinge
You can use a hinge line to edit the elevations of points or finish grade labels. A hinge line is defined by two points and a relative or absolute slope or grade, in a similar way to how a door hinge pivots about an axis. The slope or grade adjusts all the points up or down, adding or subtracting the specified slope from the existing slopes of the points. Valid elevations must exist in the drawing. The following illustration shows point elevations adjusted by a relative hinge. The points are adjusted by adding a 3% grade to the existing grades.

The following illustration shows point elevations adjusted by an absolute hinge. The points are adjusted by making all the grades 3%.

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Key Concepts

To change the elevations of points or labels using a relative hinge, choose Grading ➤ Modify Point Elevations ➤ Modify by Relative Hinge. Then, follow the prompts to establish a hinge line, define the slope, and select the points to adjust. To change the elevations of points or labels using an absolute hinge, choose ➤ Modify Point Elevations ➤ Modify by Absolute Hinge. Then, follow the prompts to establish a hinge line, define the slope, and select the points to adjust.

Working with a Stratum
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Working with a Stratum

A stratum defines a group of two surfaces for the purpose of calculating volumes and elevation differences between those two surfaces. In all cases, the first surface is considered the existing ground and the second surface is considered the finished ground for volume and elevation comparisons. You can also define multiple strata with various types of combinations. For example, you can establish an existing ground surface, and then create one or more finished ground surfaces to compare with that existing ground surface. You can then define different strata by combining the single existing ground surface and different finished ground surfaces.

Using the Stratum Commands
From the Grading menu, choose Modify Point Elevations ➤ Select Current Stratum to define a stratum based on the existing and finished ground surfaces for calculating volumes. You can also delete a stratum using this command. In all cases, the first surface is considered the existing ground and the second surface is considered the finished ground for volume and elevation comparisons.

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The stratum commands update the elevations of selected points based on a defined stratum. You can report NEZ point data based on a stratum and obtain the elevations from a stratum based on specified X, Y coordinates. The elevations retrieved from the stratum can be the elevation of the first surface, the second surface, or the elevation difference between the two surfaces. When you calculate volumes, you are prompted for the stratum to be used for those computations.

Key Concepts

To define a stratum, choose Grading ➤ Modify Point Elevations ➤ Select Current Stratum. If a stratum has not been defined, then the Define Stratum dialog box is displayed. If one or more strata have been defined, then the Select Current Stratum dialog box is displayed. Click New to define a new stratum. To select the current stratum, choose Grading ➤ Modify Point Elevations ➤ Select Current Stratum to display the Select Current Stratum dialog box from which you can select the current stratum. To update the elevations of selected points based on a stratum, choose Grading ➤ Modify Point Elevations ➤ Modify by Selection. Or, choose Modify by Range to select a range of points. To report the elevations of selected points based on a stratum, choose Grading ➤ Modify Point Elevations ➤ Report by Selection. Or, choose Report by Range to select a range of points. To obtain the elevations from a stratum based on specified X, Y coordinates, choose Grading ➤ Modify Point Elevations ➤ Random Point File.

Working with Ponds
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Working with Ponds

The Grading menu contains commands to design and define ponds. You can use these commands with Hydrology commands to create and edit ponds or any type of water-retention structure. The first step in a detention design is to use Runoff commands from the Hydrology menu to calculate the runoff from the watershed and to create the inflow hydrograph for the design storms. For more information, see Chapter 4, “Hydrology and Hydraulics.” You can estimate the size of a detention pond by using the Detention Basin Storage method. Based on the inflow runoff and the allowable peak discharge, this method calculates the size needed for a detention pond. You can then establish the preliminary pond location and size by drawing and editing the pond perimeter until the shape and size are satisfactory.

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The pond perimeter is a polyline. You can then calculate subsequent slopes from each vertex in the polyline. The next step in pond design is a preliminary design of the outflow structures. You can then calculate routed hydrographs using the Storage Indication Method. For more information, see Chapter 4, “Hydrology and Hydraulics.” The following illustration shows a shaped pond with normal and highlight contours:

Autodesk Civil Design has six groups of commands on the Grading menu that you can use to define ponds and shape them:
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Pond Settings: Changes settings for contours, slope control lines, and benches. Pond Perimeter: Draws a pond perimeter, changes its elevation, adds vertices to the perimeter, fillets the perimeter, and saves and imports perimeter shapes. Define Pond: Names or renames a pond, defines pond geometry by selecting existing polylines or contours, or deletes a pond from the drawing.

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Pond Slopes: Grades the bank of the pond. Shape Pond: Shapes the pond, by creating the contours, slope control lines, and the bottom polyline, after you have created the pond slope design. List/Label Pond: Lists information about ponds and labels them in the drawing.

Changing the Pond Settings
As you shape a pond, contours, slope control lines, and the pond bottom are created. You can use Pond Settings commands from the Grading menu to change the contour and slope control line settings for the ponds in the drawing. You can also establish bench settings and, as the pond is shaped, benches are created in the pond bank. To design pond contours, you can do the following:
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Specify the methods of pond contour creation by choosing Pond Settings ➤ Contours to display the Pond Contour Settings dialog box. Select the Elevation option to create contours at specified elevation intervals. Enter the interval in the box next to the option. To create continuous, unsegmented contours, select the Continuous check box. Select the Path Distance option to create contours at specified intervals along the pond slope template that you apply to the pond. Enter a distance between contours in the box next to the Path Distance option. These distances are along the slope of the specified template, not in the Z direction. Select the Slope Changes option to create contours based on the changes in the slope of a pond template that you apply to the pond. Do not use this option when the template you are using is a continuous slope. Choose Pond Settings ➤ Slope Control Lines to determine pond slope control line settings, such as vertex settings, the layer, color, and linetype.

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Creating Pond Perimeters
To create a pond perimeter, you can either draw the perimeter as a 2D or 3D polyline, or you can use the Pond Perimeter commands from the Grading menu. If you create a pond perimeter with the Pond Perimeter commands, the perimeter is drawn as a polyline. Slopes can be calculated from each vertex in the polyline, as show in the following illustration.

You can add vertices to a pond perimeter for greater accuracy, and you can fillet the perimeter to create pond shapes with rounded corners.

Key Concepts
■ ■

You can define pond perimeters from polylines or contours. You can use a 2D or 3D polyline command to draw the pond perimeter, or you can choose Pond Perimeter ➤ Draw to draw the perimeter as a 3D polyline, assign an elevation to it, and define the perimeter as a pond. If you use the Draw command, you can draw only straight line segments. To create curved segments, choose Pond Perimeter ➤ Fillet after drawing the perimeter. When you use the Draw command, a <pond name>.pnd file containing pond data is created.

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To add vertices to the pond perimeter at a specified interval, choose Pond Perimeter ➤ Add Vertices. The more vertices you assign to a pond perimeter, the more slope control lines are created for the pond when you shape the pond. This command removes all extended entity data for an existing pond. You can use the Import Perimeter command to import a saved perimeter into the drawing. Pond slope data cannot be re-imported into a drawing; it must be recreated from the pond perimeter.

Defining Ponds
You can use the Define Pond commands on the Grading menu to define the pond perimeter from an existing polyline, or to define the 3D pond information from existing contours.

Key Concepts

To name a pond, choose Define Pond ➤ By Polyline. You can then select the pond when you are using the Pond Slopes command to define the pond slope information. Use this command instead of the Pond Perimeter commands when you have an existing polyline in the drawing that you want to use as the pond perimeter. To define existing contours as a pond, choose Define Pond ➤ By Contours. The contours you select provide all the data required for creating a pond perimeter, pond slope, and a pond bottom. Both the By Polyline and By Contours commands name the pond and creates a .pnd file. This file contains elevation, area, and perimeter data for each pond contour. Use the Delete Pond command to select pond elements to delete from the drawing, and to delete the pond definition file or the pond outflow file from the project folder. When you delete a pond, you can choose to delete this file or to delete the pond rim (perimeter) data, the contours, the slope control lines, the bottom polyline, the outflow file, or all pond elements.

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Defining Pond Slopes
After you establish a pond perimeter, you can design the pond slopes in the following ways:
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Apply single or multiple slopes or grades to the pond perimeter. Design the pond slopes based on a known, required volume. This is useful when you use the Detention Basin Storage command to compute the required storage volume. Design pond slopes with a template that represents the pond bank. A pond slope template works in a similar way to a Civil Design roadway template. You draw a cross-sectional view of the pond bank, save it to a file, and then apply it to the pond.

Pond slope, elevation, and depth data is referred to as pattern data. Each pond vertex stores its own pattern data. Pattern data is created when you use the Pond Slope commands to design the slope of the pond bank. If you want to remove the pond pattern data from one or more vertices on a pond, then you can use the Reset Patterns command. You can also reset the patterns on selected pond vertices when using the Linear – Multiple command.

Key Concepts

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Choose Pond Slopes ➤ Linear to define a linear slope for the pond and to apply it to all the vertices of the pond perimeter. Use this command to apply the same slope to every pond vertex. You can specify the pond elevation, depth, or create daylight lines. You must also specify the slope or grade. Choose Pond Slopes ➤ Linear – Multiple to apply different slopes to selected pond perimeter polyline vertices. If you know the required storage volume for a pond, choose Pond Slopes ➤ By Volume to define slopes based on a specified volume. Choose Pond Slopes ➤ Draw Template to draw a template for the pond as a 2D polyline. The template can be either a single segment or multiple segments with different slopes. Draw templates in an upper-left to lower-right direction at a 1:1 scale, using only straight-line segments. Choose Pond Slopes ➤ Set Current Template to designate the current template after you have defined pond slope templates. The current template is applied to a pond perimeter when you use the By Template and Template – Multiple commands.

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Shaping Ponds
You can use the Shape Pond commands from the Grading menu to create the contours, the slope control lines, and the bottom polyline for an existing pond. A shaped pond is required when you use Hydrology commands because the commands depend on 3D pond information. When you create pond slope information with Pond Slopes commands, you are prompted to shape the pond at the end of the commands. The exceptions are the Template – Multiple and Linear – Multiple commands. If you choose not to shape the pond as you define the slopes, or if you are using one of the Multiple commands, you can use the Shape Pond commands to create the pond elements. You can also use the Shape Pond commands to redraw the pond after you change the contour, bench, and slope control line settings.

Key Concepts
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■ ■

You can import pre-defined pond shapes into the drawing. You can shape a pond by applying a template to the pond, by defining single or multiple slopes for the pond, or by defining what the final pond volume should be. A pond template is a cross-sectional view of the pond perimeter. You can use daylighting to match the pond side slopes into the existing ground surface model.

To design a detention pond
Steps 1 Determine the specific watershed characteristics and design criteria, including the peak flow rate volume. 2 Draw the pond perimeter polyline. 3 From the Grading menu, choose Define Pond ➤ By Polyline to define the pond perimeter polyline. Drawing a Pond Perimeter Defining a Pond Perimeter from a Polyline Use to locate

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To design a detention pond (continued)
Steps Use to locate

Drawing a Pond Slope 4 From the Grading menu, choose Pond Slopes ➤ Draw Slope Template to draw the pond slope template polyline. Template There are several ways to shape the pond. One method is to use a pond slope template, as shown below.

The pond slope template is essentially a cross section view of the pond perimeter. You draw the pond slope template at a 1:1 scale, and then you can apply it to the pond perimeter. 5 To define the pond template, from the Grading menu, choose Pond Slopes ➤ Define Template. 6 To designate the current template, from the Grading menu, choose Pond Slopes ➤ Set Current. 7 From the Grading menu, choose Pond Slopes ➤ By Template to apply the current pond slope template to all the vertices of the pond perimeter polyline. 8 Type Yes when you are prompted to Shape Pond. Shaping the pond brings pond slope data and contours into the drawing. 9 Verify that the detention pond design meets the design criteria and conditions. Defining a Pond Slope Template Selecting the Current Pond Slope Template Applying a Slope Template to a Pond

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Hydrology and Hydraulics

4
In this chapter
■ Hydrology and hydraulics ■ Gathering data for

Autodesk Civil Design provides a variety of methods you can use to calculate runoff from a site, perform routing, and design detention basin inflow and outflow structures.

hydrologic analysis
■ Using the hydrology calculators ■ Calculating runoff ■ Using the hydraulic structure

calculators
■ Routing ponds ■ Adding and editing outlet

structures for ponds
■ Outputting pond data

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Hydrology and Hydraulics
Search Help for…
Hydrology Overview

Early in the process of evaluating a site, you must evaluate how the proposed development affects watershed runoff. In general, most urban and rural developments alter the runoff characteristics of a site by reducing the pervious surface area, which ultimately decreases infiltration and travel times. Since the amount of runoff is directly related to the infiltration characteristics of the site, any development that decreases the pervious surface area generally results in higher peak discharges and higher runoff volumes. In addition, decreasing travel times causes the peak discharge to occur earlier in the storm water event. To evaluate the impact on the watershed runoff, you can establish pre-development and post-development runoff models, and then compare the results. For example, most reviewing agencies require that post-development discharges do not exceed pre-development discharges for one or more storm frequencies. To control post-development peak discharges, you can calculate the required storage volume for one or more selected storm frequencies, and then design a detention pond to accommodate increases in storm water runoff for the selected storm events. Hydrology and hydraulics are often viewed as inexact sciences that usually involve iterative processes of trial and error. You might begin by estimating the best placement for storm water control devices on a site, and then calculate the runoff. From the runoff results, you can design the detention pond. You can use the Pond Outflow Design dialog box to add multiple-stage structures and make them active or inactive, so you can calculate the routed hydrograph using several variations of structures until you get the results you need. You can use the Civil Design Hydrology commands to:

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Calculate runoff from watershed areas using the Rational, the TR-55 Graphical Peak Discharge and Tabular Hydrograph Methods, and the TR-20 method. Develop pre- and post-development runoff models. Design various types of retention/detention facilities to store excess runoff. Design and analyze hydraulic conveyance structures such as channels, culverts, and weirs.

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Sample Hydrology Files Included with Autodesk Civil Design
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List of Files for Hydrology

After you install Autodesk Civil Design, sample hydrology files are installed into the following folder: c:\Program Files\Land Desktop 2004\data\hd Use these files to help you learn how to use the Hydrology commands. The following table lists some of the file names and descriptions. You can add these files into the appropriate dialog box (for example, add the sample.clt file into the Culvert Calculator) to see the data. Sample hydrology files
county.rf example.idf hec205.dat orange.idf post-dev.tab postdev.hdc predev.hdc sample.clt sample.gpd sample.rat sample.sim sample.tab stgdis.sdc stgstr.ssc Sample rainfall frequency file Intensity Duration Frequency file HEC-2 Cross Sections (not processed by HEC) Intensity Duration Frequency file TR-55 Tabular Hydrograph Method file Post-Development Hydrograph Pre-Development Hydrograph Culvert file Graphical Peak Discharge file (TR-55 Graphical) Rational Method file Storage Indication Method file TR-55 Tabular Hydrograph Method file Stage Discharge Curve Stage Storage Curve

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Gathering Data for Hydrologic Analysis
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Using the Terrain Model Explorer

As you evaluate a site to determine whether development is feasible, you must consider what effect the development of the site has on area runoff. The first step in this process is to gather hydrologic data about the site, primarily for the pre-development model. To use Civil Design for this, you must have an existing ground surface, and you must know the soil types and current land use of the site. You can start a watershed hydrologic analysis by using the Terrain Model Explorer, located in Autodesk Land Desktop, to create an existing ground surface model of the site. Then, you can use the watershed command (also within the Terrain Model Explorer) to create polylines that outline principal watershed areas on the surface model. Later, you can select these polylines when you are prompted to choose a watershed area when using the Hydrology commands. You can also add soil type information, including soil boundary information, to the surface model.

Key Concepts

Before starting a hydrologic analysis of a site, determine the soil groups existent at the site, the cover type, treatment, and hydrologic condition. These features affect the results of the pre-development runoff calculations. A good way to start the hydrologic analysis of a site is to use the Terrain Model Explorer to create a surface model, complete with topographical information, watershed boundaries, subarea flow paths, slope arrows, and relevant hydrologic data. The compiled topographic and hydrologic data should extend sufficiently off-site to provide adequate coverage of the drainage area affected by the proposed development.

To add watershed and drainage data to the drawing
Steps 1 Create an existing ground surface for the proposed site. Use to locate

Using the Terrain Model Explorer Creating a Watershed Model After Building the Surface

2 Generate watershed data for the existing ground surface model.

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To add watershed and drainage data to the drawing (continued)
Steps Use to locate

3 From the Terrain menu, choose Surface Display ➤ Slope Drawing Arrows on a Arrows to draw arrows that follow the slope of the existing Surface that Show Surface Slopes surface. 4 From the Terrain menu, choose Surface Utilities ➤ Water Drop to draw flow paths. The Water Drop command traces the path of a drop of water from the origin point to the point where it outflows. This can help you determine where the major outflow points are and where you may need to add hydraulic structures. Drawing Water Drop Paths on the Current Surface

Data generated with the Water Drop command can help you visualize the surface slopes and determine where water flows and accumulates during a storm. You can use this information to decide the best way of controlling the flow. After you’ve visualized the runoff paths on the surface, you can calculate the peak runoff flow for different storm events.

Using the Hydrology Calculators
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Working with Hydrology Commands

Many of the features in the Hydrology menu use calculator-type dialog boxes to solve for an unknown value. For each calculator, you must enter the known values in the appropriate field for the particular value, or use the corresponding Select button to select the value from the drawing or from another dialog box. You can select the unknown value that you want to determine from a list at the top of the calculator. If you do not enter all values, then the calculation is not completed. An error message is displayed at the bottom of the dialog box whenever you make an error entering data. Autodesk Civil Design includes several hydrology calculators, including
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Time of travel. Time of concentration. Runoff (Rational, TR-55, and TR-20).

You can use the calculators in two different ways: independently or nested. If you use the calculators independently, you use only one dialog box at a time. If you use them in a nested fashion, you can access certain calculators from within other dialog boxes. For example, while calculating time of

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concentration (Tc), you may want to calculate the sheet flow component of Tc. A separate calculator pops up to perform these calculations and transfer the results to the other dialog box. Each calculator has its own command to run the calculator and save the values to a file. The Civil Design hydrology calculators all use a similar data-entry methodology. The following illustration shows a time of concentration calculator. Time of concentration is discussed further in this section (see page 82). To solve for the total Tc, you enter values for Sheet, Shallow, and Channel flow in the boxes, or click Select to display separate calculators for these components.

As an additional feature, you can enter values as mathematical equations. For example, if the first sheet flow component is the sum of two sub-components, 10 and 5 minutes, you can type 10+5, and 15 is displayed.

Calculating Runoff
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Calculating the Runoff from Watershed Areas

Runoff is the water that flows out of a watershed subarea as a result of a storm event. It is typically expressed as a flow rate in cubic feet per second, or as a volume in cubic feet or acre-feet. The runoff volume is equal to the volume of rainfall that occurs on the area, minus the volume of rainfall that is infiltrated by the ground, is intercepted by foliage, or is held in small depressions. Runoff is calculated by examining
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Rainfall intensity, duration, and distribution Soil conditions Antecedent moisture conditions (how much moisture is already present in the soil before the storm occurs) Land use

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Sometimes a runoff volume within a specified time period is adequate for design purposes, but a peak flow rate is generally needed also. In many cases, a hydrograph is required to show a flow-versus-time relationship. Autodesk Civil Design provides the following methods for calculating peak runoff flow rates from watershed areas:
■ ■ ■ ■

Rational TR-55 Graphical Peak Discharge TR-55 Tabular Hydrograph TR-20

NOTE It is important that you have some familiarity with the methods and
terminology described above. If you need more information about hydrology, the Civil Design online Help contains a list of references. For more information about NRCS (Natural Resources Conservation Service) methods, you can obtain documents from your local NRCS or county Soil & Water Conservation District office, most college libraries, or the National Technical Information Service in Washington, D.C. Before calculating runoff you should check with your local city or county for their applicable requirements. For a general guide refer to the following table.

If you want to … size a storm pipe or culvert calculate runoff from multiple subareas

Then use … the Rational Method or TR-55 Methods. the Rational Method or TR-55 Tabular Method. the TR-55 Tabular Method or the TR-20 Method. the TR-20 Method.

create a hydrograph for a storm event with a 24-hour duration create a hydrograph for a storm event of different length than 24 hours calculate runoff volume for designing storage facilities using the storage indication method (reservoir routing) calculate runoff volume for designing storage facilities

a hydrograph method, like the Tabular method or the TR-20 method.

TR-55 methods.

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Key Concepts

You can use the commands from the Hydrology menu to determine
■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Applicable rainfall distribution type Size of the drainage area (A) Runoff curve number (RCN) Runoff coefficient (C) Adjustment factor, the time of concentration (Tc) Time of travel (Tt) Size of the pond and swamp area Rainfall frequency Rainfall intensity for each subarea

Slopes and elevations across a site can be extracted from a surface model. You can also build a surface and model the watershed before calculating runoff by using Terrain Model Explorer in Autodesk Land Desktop. Establish an intensity duration frequency (IDF) curve file (.idf extension) for the project location.

Using the Rational Method
Despite its many governing limitations, the Rational Method is the most widely used method for calculating storm water runoff in small urban areas or for highway drainage. The method is based entirely upon a rational analysis of the rainfall-runoff process in which a simple formula is used to estimate the peak runoff occurring in the defined watershed area for the selected storm event. This estimate of peak runoff can then be used as a design flow for sizing proposed inlets, pipes, culverts, and other hydraulic structures. The following formula is used to calculate the peak runoff rate in the defined watershed area for the selected storm event.

Q = CIA
where Q = Peak runoff rate (ft3/s) C = Runoff Coefficient I = Rainfall Intensity (in/hr) A = Drainage area (acres)

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NOTE For more information about the Rational Method, refer to the AASHTO (American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials) Model Drainage manual, as well as resources listed in the Civil Design online Help.

To calculate the peak discharge using the Rational Method
Steps 1 Determine the specific watershed characteristics and design criteria, including watershed location/area, soil type, land use, and sheet, shallow, and channel flow parameters. Create the intensity duration frequency (IDF) curve file (.idf extension) from applicable rainfall data for the project location. 2 From the Hydrology menu, choose Runoff ➤ Rational to display the Rational Method dialog box. Calculating the Peak Runoff Flow for an Area Using the Rational Method Use to locate

3 Click IDF to display the Intensity- Frequency Factor Editor. Defining Rainfall Intensity Select the IDF curve file. From the editor, click Load to add Values the IDF curve file for the project area, and then click OK to return to the Rational Method dialog box. 4 Select the applicable rainfall frequency from the popup list.

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To calculate the peak discharge using the Rational Method (continued)
Steps 5 Specify the watershed area. Use to locate

Calculating the Peak Runoff You can enter a value for the area in the edit box, or, if you Flow for an Area Using the created a watershed with the Terrain Model Explorer, you Rational Method can select the polyline from the drawing by clicking Area and selecting the polyline. You can also draw a new polyline. Specifying a Rational Runoff Coefficient

6 Specify the runoff coefficient. You can enter in a value for the runoff coefficient that represents the ratio of runoff to rainfall, or click Coef to select a single value from a list of standard runoff coefficients. You can also click CmpCoef to calculate a composite runoff coefficient value, if applicable, for the site. 7 Select an adjustment factor.

Specifying a Frequency Adjustment Factor The adjustment factor edit field is not directly editable, but you can click Factor from the Rational Method dialog box to display the Frequency Factor Editor dialog box. Select the Use Frequency Factor check box, and then select the appropriate storm event from the list of events. Click OK to return to the Rational Method dialog box, and add the appropriate adjustment factor for the specified storm event to the adjustment edit field. Calculating the Watershed Time of Concentration

8 Specify the time of concentration value. You can enter a value for the time of concentration, or click Tc to display the Time of Concentration Calculator. You can use this calculator to specify the sheet flow, shallow flow, and channel flow parameters and compile the time of concentration data. 9 Click Save to display the Save Rational Method Data dialog box. Enter the file name and click Save to return to the Rational Method dialog box. 10 Click OK when you are finished to close the Rational Method dialog box.

To determine the runoff peak discharge for other storm events, select the new storm frequency from the list in the Rational Method dialog box. The software automatically re-calculates the appropriate rainfall intensity and the runoff peak discharge. For example, if you select 100 from the Rainfall Frequency list, the runoff peak discharge for the 100-year storm event is calculated.

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Using the TR-55 Methods
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Using the TR-55 Methods to Calculate Runoff

Technical Release 55 (TR-55), Urban Hydrology for Small Watersheds, presents two simplified methods for estimating storm water runoff from urbanizing watersheds: the graphical peak discharge method and the tabular hydrograph method. TR-55 was first published by the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), formerly the Soil Conservation Service (SCS), in 1975, and updated to its current form in 1986. TR-55 presents methods to calculate storm runoff volumes, peak discharge rates, and pre- and post-developed hydrographs. The methods apply to small watersheds (around 2000 acres or less) in the United States. TR-55 was originally developed as a manual method, but with the advent of personal computers, it has been computerized in many forms. Although the procedures of TR-55 are particularly well suited to urban and urbanizing watersheds, the methods can be applied, in general, to any small watershed when the governing limitations of either method have been adequately addressed. The Graphical Peak Discharge Method (GPDM) is the simpler of the two methods, and it is intended for use on hydrologically homogeneous watersheds for which land use, soils, and cover type are uniformly distributed throughout the watershed. The TR-55 Graphical Peak Discharge Method, as the name of the method implies, determines the peak discharge only.

The second runoff procedure outlined in Technical Release 55 (TR-55) is the Tabular Hydrograph Method. The Tabular Hydrograph Method can be used on heterogeneous watersheds that can be subdivided into homogeneous subareas. By dividing the heterogeneous watershed into homogeneous

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subareas, you can obtain estimated peak discharges and hydrographs for the heterogeneous watershed.

The following table can help you decide the TR-55 method to use.

If … the watershed has multiple subareas you only require a peak discharge value you require a hydrograph

Then use … the Tabular Method. the Graphical Method. the Tabular Method.

Using the TR-20 Method
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Using the TR-20 Method to Calculate Runoff

Technical Release 20 (TR-20) is also published by the NRCS, using the procedures described in the SCS National Engineering Handbook, Section 4, Hydrology. The TR-20 Unit Hydrograph Method is a more sophisticated hydrologic analysis method, in which you can use variable-length storm events.

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This method uses a dimensionless (or unit) hydrograph and a rainfall distribution curve to calculate peak discharge.

A dimensionless hydrograph represents the discharge of water that would occur during a storm that lasts 24 hours and creates a uniform 1-inch depth of runoff. In this runoff calculation method, the dimensionless hydrograph is used to represent the average capacity of a watershed to discharge runoff. The unit hydrograph provided in the TR-20 Method was derived from a large number of natural unit hydrographs from watersheds varying widely in size and geographic location. If a natural unit hydrograph is available for the region being investigated, then it might be more accurate to use the observed data rather than using a unit hydrograph based on such widely varying data. Compared with the TR-55 methods, which are used for smaller, simpler watersheds, the TR-20 runoff calculation method has a broader range and can be used for larger and more complex watersheds. The TR-20 Method is best used for watersheds ranging from 2 to 400 square miles with subareas from 0.1 to 20 square miles. The TR-20 Method provided in Autodesk Civil Design is a limited version intended to be used to calculate a single subarea.

NOTE To view calculations used for the TR-20 method, see Chapter 16 in
National Engineering Handbook, Section 4, Hydrology.

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The TR-20 Method uses TR-20 distribution curve tables (tr20t1 through tr20t7). These files are stored in the following folder with a .dst extension: c:\Land Desktop 2004\Data\hd Distribution curves show the relationship between the fraction of rainfall that occurs and a given time period. The TR-20 distribution curve tables use both 24- and 48-hour time periods, and also include a table for emergency spillway conditions (table tr20t6). The different TR-20 distribution curve tables are based on different rainfall distribution types (I, IA, II, and III) that are described on page B-1 of the TR-55 manual.

NOTE As you perform calculations using the TR-20 Method, it is recommended that you use imperial units, such as rainfall in inches and area in square miles. If the units for rainfall are set to something other than inches, then the TR-20 distribution curve table (.dst file) must match the rainfall units.

Calculating Time of Concentration and Time of Travel
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Time of Concentration and Time of Travel

You can use Civil Design’s calculators to calculate both time of concentration and time of travel. Civil Design uses the methods outlined in the TR-55 manual for calculating the time of concentration and travel time that are discussed in detail in Chapter 3, “Time of Concentration and Travel Time,” in the TR-55 manual. The Time of concentration value (Tc) is used in the TR-55 and TR-20 methods as well as the Rational method. The TR-55 and TR-20 runoff calculation methods also use the Time of travel value (Tt). Specific criteria for calculating these values may vary, depending on review agency.

Time of Concentration
Time of concentration (Tc) is the time for runoff to travel from the hydraulically most distant point of the watershed to a point of interest within the watershed. Time of concentration influences the configuration of the runoff hydrograph. Developing (urbanizing) a watershed usually decreases the Tc and increases the peak discharge rate.

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Tc is made of up to three flow segments: sheet, shallow, and channel flows. Sheet flow This is a very shallow flow over plane surfaces. It is the first component of Tc and starts at the hydraulically most distant watershed point. Sheet flow normally occurs at a depth of 0.1 foot or less, and the length of sheet flow rarely exceeds a few hundred feet. The maximum length of sheet flow is 300 feet. Data used to compute the sheet flow are the length of flow, the slope, the 2-year rainfall amount, and the ground roughness as measured by Manning’s n. Shallow Concentrated flow This flow type normally occurs after a maximum of 300 feet of sheet flow. The average velocity of shallow concentrated flow is determined by watershed slope and channel material (paved or unpaved). Typical areas where you have shallow flow are in swales between houses and the gutter section of a roadway. Open Channel flow This flow type begins where surveyed channel cross section information has been obtained, where channels are visible on aerial photographs, or where streams are indicated on USGS quadrangle sheets.

Time of Travel
Travel time (Tt) is the time it takes water to travel (already flowing in shallow or channel flow) from one watershed subarea through another subarea that is downstream. Tt can be made up of shallow flow and channel flow. Sheet flow is not used when you calculate Tt because Tt represents the time it takes for water that is already flowing (from an upstream subarea) to arrive at the point of outflow of the current subarea. Travel time for a subarea needs to be computed when drainage from an upstream drainage area is passing through it. The TR-55 travel time method has the following limitations:
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The maximum Tt allowed in the Tabular Hydrograph method is 3 hours. A watershed with only one subarea does not have a Tt. Travel Time is computed only when the runoff from an upstream subarea passes through a subarea before it reaches the composite watershed outflow point. It is sometimes difficult to determine exactly where shallow concentrated flow ends and channel flow begins. Use your best judgment and, if needed, consult your local NRCS office.

Factors such as surface roughness, channel shape and flow patterns, and surface slope affect the time of concentration and travel time.

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Using the Hydraulic Structure Calculators
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Calculating Hydraulic Values for Structural Components

In addition to the Hydrology calculators described previously (see page 73), the Hydrology menu provides calculator-type dialog boxes for analyzing and designing various hydraulic structures, including the following:
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Pipes (both pressure and gravity flow) Channel Orifice Weir Riser Culvert

The following illustration shows a Manning’s n gravity pipe calculator. To solve for the flow rate, enter values in the Slope, Manning’s n, Depth of Flow, and Diameter boxes.

As with the hydrology calculators, you can enter values as mathematical equations. For example, if the required diameter is 36 inches and the required flow percentage in a particular pipe is 75%, then type 36*0.75, and the value 27.0 is displayed. You can also specify the value in any units and the value is automatically converted to units that are specified in the settings. For example, if the settings units are inches, type 2ft, and the value 24 is displayed. Or, if the settings units are meters, type 2ft, and the value 0.6096 is displayed. The value and units may be separated by a space, but this is not required.

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Pipe Calculators
Autodesk Civil Design includes different types of pipe calculators for analyzing both standard and custom pipes. Standard pipe shapes include circular, rectangular, and elliptical pipes, as shown in the following illustrations.

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For custom (user-defined) pipes, calculations are based on the area and wetted perimeter of the pipe, rather than standard dimensions such as diameter and radius. As with standard-shaped pipes, you can select the value to solve for, and enter the known parameters, such as the cross-sectional area and wetted perimeter. Pipe calculators are available for both gravity- and pressure-flow situations. Gravity flow calculations are made with Manning’s formula. Pressure-flow calculations can be made with either the Darcy-Weisbach or Hazen-Williams formulas.

Manning’s Formula Gravity Pipe Calculators
The Manning’s formula pipe calculators calculate flow rates and other hydraulic values for pipes in gravity-flow situations. Use the Manning’s formula to calculate velocity for both imperial and metric units.
Imperial units:

1.486 V = ------------ R 2 / 3 s 1 / 2 n 1 V = -- R 2 / 3 s 1 / 2 n

Metric units:

where V = Fluid velocity (ft/s or m/s) n = Manning’s number R = Hydraulic radius (ft), which is the area of flow divided by the wetted perimeter (A/P). s = Slope (ft/ft)

Darcy-Weisbach Pressure Pipe Calculators
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Calculating Pipe Flow and Other Hydraulic Values Using the Darcy-Weisbach Equations

The Darcy-Weisbach pipe calculators calculate flow rates and other hydraulic values for pipes in pressure-flow situations. Two different equations are used in the Darcy-Weisbach pipe calculators. One is used for circular pipes and the other for elliptical and rectangular pipes. The Darcy-Weisbach pipe calculators use the following formula to calculate head loss due to friction in circular pipes.

fLv 2 h L = ----------2dg

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where hL = Head loss due to friction (ft or m) f = Friction factor L = Length of pipe (ft or m) v = Fluid velocity (ft/s or m/s) d = Diameter of pipe (ft or m) g = Acceleration due to gravity (32.174 ft/s2 or 9.807 m/s2) The Darcy-Weisbach pipe calculators use the following formula to calculate head loss due to friction in non-circular (rectangular and elliptical) pipes.

fLv 2 h L = ----------8Rg
where hL = Head loss due to friction (ft or m) f = Friction factor L = Length of pipe (ft or m) v = Fluid velocity (ft/s or m/s) R = Hydraulic radius (ft) g = Acceleration due to gravity (32.174 ft/s2 or 9.807 m/s2)

Hazen-Williams Pressure Pipe Calculators
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Calculating Pipe Flow and Other Hydraulic Values Using the Hazen-Williams Equations

The Hazen-Williams pipe calculators calculate flow rates and other hydraulic values for pipes in pressure flow situations. The Hazen-Williams pipe calculators use the following formula to calculate head loss due to friction in circular pipes.
Metric: Imperial:

V = 0.849cR 0.63 S 0.54 V = 1.318cR 0.63 S 0.54

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where V = Fluid velocity (ft/s or m/s) c = Roughness coefficient R = Hydraulic radius (ft or m) S = Head loss due to friction (ft/ft or m/m)

Key Concepts
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Use the pipe calculators to determine a flow rate in a pipe, or to solve for other values based on a given flow rate. Use Manning’s formula for gravity-flow situations, and either the Darcy-Weisbach or Hazen-WIlliams formulas for pressure-flow situations. Select from a list of standard-shaped pipes, or use a custom (user-defined) pipe.

To design or analyze a pipe
Steps 1 Determine the peak flow rate (or the pipe characteristics to be used to determine a flow rate). Use to locate

Calculating the Runoff from Watershed Areas

2 From the Hydrology menu, choose Pipes, and then select Calculating Hydraulic one of the calculation methods to display the appropriate Values for Structural dialog box, such as the Manning dialog box shown earlier Components in this section. 3 From the Solve For list, select the value you wish to calculate. Do not enter the value for which you are solving. 4 Enter the known parameters in the other boxes. When you have entered the required parameters, the solution is displayed in the appropriate box. 5 For additional output and display options, click one of the buttons in the lower-right portion of the dialog box. Choices vary depending on calculation methods, but may include: Plot, Output, Critical, and Rating. 6 Click OK to exit the dialog box.

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Channel Calculators
Autodesk Civil Design has channel calculators that you can use to calculate channel dimensions, flow rates, slope, Manning’s n, and flow depths, as well as to design inflow and outflow structures for ponds. You can design rectangular and trapezoidal channels, and you can design channels with user-defined radii and slope values with the Advanced Channel Calculator. The channel calculators use Manning’s n coefficients to define the channel friction factors.

Use the Rectangular Channel Calculator to solve for values for rectangular channels. The following illustration shows rectangular channel values.

Use the Trapezoidal Channel Calculator to solve for values for trapezoidal channels. The following illustration shows trapezoidal channel values.

Use the Advanced Channel Calculator to calculate hydraulic values for channels with user-defined left and right radii and slopes. You can solve for flow rate, slope, Manning’s n, and depth of flow.

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The following illustration shows an advanced channel.

Key Concepts
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Use the channel calculators to determine a flow rate in an open channel, or to solve for other values based on a given flow rate. The channel calculators work much like those for pipes in gravity-flow situations; in fact, gravity pipes represent a specific case of open-channel flow, which is analyzed using Manning’s formula.

Orifice Calculator
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Calculating Orifice Values

Use the Orifice Calculator to calculate hydraulic values for orifices. The following illustration shows orifice values.

The structure height, headwater, and tailwater are all measured from the center of the orifice.

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The Orifice Calculator uses the following formula:

Q = cA 2gH
where Q = Design flow rate (ft3/s or m3/s) c = Orifice coefficient A = Cross-sectional area (ft2 or m2) g = Acceleration due to gravity (32.174 ft/s2 or 9.807 m/s2) H = Total head (ft or m), which is headwater minus tailwater

Weir Calculators
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Calculating Weir Values

Weirs are used as outlet devices for regulating the flow of water out of detention ponds or other water storage facilities. They can also be used as measurement devices in streams and constricted channels. Use the weir calculators to solve flow rate, depth of flow, weir coefficient, and height. As you enter weir parameters, the velocity, area, wetted area, and percent full values are also calculated for the weir. For Cipolleti and triangular weirs, the crested length is also reported.

NOTE The weir coefficients provided with Autodesk Civil Design are samples only. You must determine the weir coefficient based on the geometry of the weir you are designing.
Autodesk Civil Design has commands to design sharp-crested weirs in three shapes: Cipolleti (trapezoidal), rectangular, and triangular.

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Cipolleti (Trapezoidal) Weir Calculator
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Calculating Cipolleti Weir Values

The Cipolleti Weir calculator uses the following formula to calculate the flow rate:

2 Q = -- C d C v 2gTh11.5 3
where Q = Design flow rate (ft3/s or m3/s) Cd = Discharge coefficient Cv = Velocity coefficient g = Acceleration due to gravity (32.174 ft/s2 or 9.807 m/s2) T = Wetted width of the weir (ft or m) h1 = Depth of flow of the weir (ft or m) The following illustration shows Cipolleti weir values with the wetted width of (T) = bottom width + ½ depth.

Rectangular Weir Calculator
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Calculating Rectangular Weir Values

You can use the Rectangular Weir Calculator to calculate hydraulic values for suppressed and contracted rectangular weirs. The following formula is used to calculate the design flow rate for a suppressed weir:

2 Q = -- cL 2g ( H ) 1.5 3

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The following formula is used to calculate the design flow rate for a contracted weir, including a correction (-0.2H) to the length to account for edge contractions.

2 Q = -- c ( L – 0.2H ) 2g ( H ) 1.5 3
where Q = Design flow rate (ft3/s or m3/s) c = Weir coefficient L = Length of weir (ft or m) g = Acceleration due to gravity (32.174 ft/s2 or 9.807 m/s2) H = Weir head (ft or m)

Triangular Weir Calculator
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Calculating Triangular Weir Values

The following formula is used to calculate the design flow rate for triangular weirs:

8 θ Q = c ----- 2g tan  -- H 2.5  2 15
where Q = Design flow rate (ft3/s or m3/s) c = Weir coefficient g = Acceleration due to gravity (32.174 ft/s2 or 9.807 m/s2) θ = Notch angle of weir (degrees) H = Weir head (ft or m)

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Riser Calculator
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Calculating Riser Values

Risers can be used as outlets (or principal spillways) for detention ponds or other water storage facilities. When you design a riser, the typical goal is to size the riser and pipe diameters so that the peak discharge is less than the allowable rate for the chosen design storms. After you enter the required information into the Riser Calculator, it determines the optimum riser and pipe diameters. The Riser Calculator determines whether the top of the riser stand pipe is acting as a weir or a riser based on the flow rate. Use the Settings option in the Riser Calculator to define the weir and orifice coefficients to use in the calculations. You can view results of the riser calculation in a few different ways. The calculator dialog box reports diameter, flow, and head values for the riser and the pipe. Select Output to create a file that lists all the information, along with weir and orifice flow rate, in the Riser Calculator dialog box. You can also view the results of the calculations as a rating curve. The following illustration shows the values required for designing a riser.

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Culvert Calculator
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Using the Culvert Calculator

A culvert can be used to convey peak flows under roadways and other structures. You can use slope arrows and water drop trails to determine where the runoff is most likely to cross an alignment. You can then place culverts at these critical locations, and use the Culvert Calculator to design culverts. The following illustration shows the values required for designing a culvert.

Key Concepts

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Determine the peak discharge inflow amount that the culvert has to convey using the Rational Method, the Graphical Peak Discharge Method, the Tabular Hydrograph Method, or an inflow hydrograph. Consider outlet and tailwater control conditions. Consider entrance and exit loss conditions. Consider over-topping conditions. Consider minimum and maximum design flow velocities to prevent the effects of scouring or related erosion problems.

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To design a culvert
Steps 1 Determine the specific watershed characteristics and design criteria, including the peak flow rate amounts at the discharge point. 2 From the Hydrology menu, choose Culvert Calculator to display the Culvert Design dialog box. Calculating Culvert Size and Shape Use to locate

3 Select the applicable barrel shape from the list. You can select circular or box for the shape of the barrel.

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To design a culvert (continued)
Steps Use to locate

4 Click Select to specify the tailwater depth using one of the Specifying the Tailwater following methods. Depth for a Culvert

Select Tailwater Only to specify a fixed number for the depth of flow at the tailwater, then enter the depth in the box. Note that this number is a relative depth above the outlet invert and elevation is not considered. Select Downstream Channel to specify the tailwater depth by solving for the Depth of Flow in the Advanced Channel Calculator dialog box. Click Select to open the calculator, then enter data to approximate the shape of the channel at the culvert outlet. Select Tailwater Curve to base the tailwater depth on data from a rating curve file that you specify. Specifying the Culvert Length

5 Specify the culvert length and diameter for a circular barrel, or the width and height for a box barrel.

You can enter values for these parameters, or you can choose the Select buttons and pick points in the drawing. Specifying the Culvert Diameter

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To design a culvert (continued)
Steps 6 Specify the flow rate for the culvert. You can enter a value directly, or you can calculate a flow rate value by clicking Select to display the Runoff Editor dialog box. From here, you can display the Runoff Method Selection dialog box to select an appropriate runoff method where you can then either import or calculate the flow.
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Use

to locate

Specifying the Flowrate for a Culvert

Click Rational to add a .rat file or to use the Rational Method calculator. Click Tabular to add a .tab file or to use the TR-55 Tabular Hydrograph Method calculator. Click Peak Discharge to add a .gpm file or to use the TR-55 Graphical Peak Discharge Method calculator. Click Inflow Hydrograph to add a .hdc or .wk1 file. Click TR-20 Method to add an .scs file or to use the SCS TR-20 Unit Hydrograph Method calculator. Specifying a Coefficient

7 Specify the Manning’s n roughness coefficient value for the culvert. You can enter a value for Manning’s n, or you can click Select and pick a Manning’s n value from a list of standard values based on different types of culvert materials. 8 Specify the roadway elevation, the culvert inlet elevation, and the culvert outlet elevation.

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To design a culvert (continued)
Steps 9 Click Settings to display the Culvert Settings dialog box to specify inlet, outlet, or optimum control conditions, entrance losses, flow rate ranges, and number of culvert barrels. Use to locate

Changing the Culvert Settings

10 Click OK to close the Culvert Settings dialog box and return to the Culvert Calculator. 11 Click Save to save the culvert design data to a file. 12 Click OK to exit the Culvert Design calculator.

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Routing Ponds
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Working with Ponds Routing Ponds

One of the most common requirements for post-development storm water management is that the post-development discharges not exceed the pre-development discharges for one or more storm frequencies. The detention basin is generally the least expensive and most reliable measure for controlling post-development peak discharges. If the runoff enters a detention pond, the flow is attenuated, meaning that the peak rate of inflow is “detained.” The water flowing out of the pond, therefore, exits at a slower rate. This attenuation of flow is a main goal of storm water management. To begin the process of designing a detention pond, start by calculating the post-development runoff using one of the runoff calculation methods. The hydrograph of the post-development runoff flow is called the inflow hydrograph because it represents the flow rate of water entering the detention pond. Using this inflow hydrograph (and other runoff data), you can calculate the required storage volume for a pond. In addition, you can generate the outflow hydrograph that represents the flow rate of water exiting the detention pond. This process of calculating the outflow hydrograph for a detention basin based on the inflow is called routing. Autodesk Civil Design provides two commands to calculate routing data. Use the Detention Basin Storage command to calculate the required storage volume for a pond, and use the Storage Indication method command to calculate a routed hydrograph.

Estimating TR-55 Detention Basin Storage
After you have calculated the peak pre-development outflow and the peak post-development inflow for a site, you can use TR-55 Detention Basin Storage to estimate the storage volume required by the detention pond to control post-development generated runoff.

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The TR-55 Detention Basin Storage procedure is based on the average storage and routing results obtained from analyzing many detention structures. It often results in oversizing the designed detention facility. The procedure should not be used for final pond sizing design if a 25% error in calculated storage volume is not acceptable.

Key Concepts

You can use the runoff methods described in this chapter to determine the peak inflow discharge into the detention pond and the peak outflow discharge from the detention pond. You can build a surface and model the watershed before calculating storage requirements by using Terrain Model Explorer in Autodesk Land Desktop. You can use existing data when you calculate the required storage volume. Some of the different files you can use are
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*.tab files generated by the TR-55 Tabular Hydrograph Method *.ssc stage-storage curve files *.hdc hydrograph files *.bsn files

To calculate the required storage volume for ponds
Steps 1 Determine the pre- and post-development watershed hydrological characteristics of the site. 2 Use one of the Hydrology runoff methods described in the Calculating the Runoff from Watershed Areas preceding topics to determine the post-development peak inflow discharge to the detention basin and the pre-development peak outflow discharge from the detention basin. Use to locate

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To calculate the required storage volume for ponds (continued)
Steps 3 From the Hydrology menu, choose Routing ➤ Detention Basin Storage to display the Detention Basin Storage dialog box. Use to locate

Calculating the Required Storage Volume for a Detention Basin

4 Click Data Input or Hydrograph to add an Inflow file. The InFlow File label displays the name of the currently loaded file that defines the Peak Inflow. This file can be a graphical, tabular, or hydrograph file. 5 The Pond Name label displays the name of the currently selected pond. Click Pond to select an existing pond from the drawing. 6 Select the applicable rainfall distribution from the Rainfall Distribution list.

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To calculate the required storage volume for ponds (continued)
Steps 7 Specify the drainage area. Use to locate

Specifying the Drainage Enter a value for the area in the edit box, or, if you created Area a watershed with the Terrain Model Explorer, select the polyline from the drawing by clicking Select and selecting the polyline. You can also draw a new polyline.

8 Specify the peak inflow value if you did not add an Inflow file in step 4. 9 Specify the peak outflow value. Enter a value for the peak outflow, or click Select and enter values in the Pond Outflow Design dialog box. You can add outflow structures to control the flow, such as weirs, culverts, or gravity pipes. If you have a defined pond, you can click Pond and choose the pond you want to use for these calculations. 10 Specify the runoff flow value. 11 Click Save to display the Save Basin Data dialog box. Enter the file name, and click Save to return to the Detention Basin Storage dialog box. Specifying the Peak Outflow

After you have entered all the values, the runoff volume and the computed storage volume for the detention basin is displayed at the bottom of the dialog box. If you have a currently defined pond, then the maximum storage elevation for the currently defined pond is listed as well.

Creating a Hydrograph with the Storage Indication Method
You can create the routed hydrograph for the detention pond by using the Storage Indication Method. This command uses a post-development hydrograph, stage-storage curve, and stage-discharge curve (as well as an

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optional pre-development hydrograph for viewing in the multiple hydrographs plot) to route runoff.

To create the required input files for using the Storage Indication Method, you can use the TR-55 Graphical and Tabular runoff commands, the Rational Method command, the Stage-Storage Curve command, and the Outflow Editor ➤ By Pond command. Or, you can create the files manually. The following Storage Indication Method formula is used for the routing calculations:
S 2 + ( O 2 ⁄ 2 )∆ t = [ S 1 – ( O 1 ⁄ 2 )∆ t ] + [ ( I 1 + I 2 ) ⁄ ( 2 ∆ t ) ]

where S2 + (O2 / 2) ∆t = Storage characteristic at peak outflow (m3) S1 = Storage volume at time, t1 (m3) O1 = Outflow rate at time, t1 (cms) ∆t = Routing time period (hrs) I1 = Inflow rate at time, t1 (cms) I2 = Inflow rate at time, t2 (cms)

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Key Concepts
■ ■

Use the Pond Outflow Design dialog box (see page 107) to design the outflow structures for the pond before using the Storage Indication Method. Pond routing is often an iterative process of trial and error. You may have to return to the Pond Outflow Design dialog box to design different inflow and outflow structures and possibly redesign the pond, and then recalculate the outflow hydrograph to achieve the results you want. You can load a previously saved Storage Indication Method file by clicking the Load button in the Storage Indication Method dialog box. You can clear any existing data in the dialog box by clicking the New button.

To create a hydrograph using the Storage Indication Method
Steps 1 Create the necessary input files, including ■ stage-storage curve (.ssc) file. ■ hydrograph data (.hdc) file ■ stage-discharge curve data (.sdc) file 2 From the Hydrology menu, choose Routing ➤ Storage Indication Method to display the Storage Indication Method dialog box. 3 In the Description text box, enter a description for the calculation. 4 In the Time Increment text box, enter a time increment. 5 Click Input Curves to display the Curve Input dialog box. 6 Click Select to locate and load the input curves for the analysis. You must load a minimum of the following three curve values:
■ ■ ■

Use

to locate

Calculating Routing Values for Detention Basins

Calculating the Routing Values for a Reservoir or Storage Facility

post-development hydrograph stage-storage curve stage-discharge curve

Load a pre-development hydrograph file when you want to view it in comparison with the post-development and routed hydrographs (when you click the Multi-Hydrographs button). 7 Click OK to close the Curve Input dialog box.

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To create a hydrograph using the Storage Indication Method (continued)
Steps 8 Review the data by clicking the following buttons:

Use

to locate

Storage Character—to view the calculated storage volume vs. the stage

Routed Hydrograph—to display the flow rate vs. time

■ ■

Multi-Hydrographs—to view all hydrographs. Output—to display the storage indication method data in the default editor.

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To create a hydrograph using the Storage Indication Method (continued)
Steps 9 Click Save to display the Save Storage Indication Method Data dialog box. 10 Enter the name of the file in the File name box, and then click Save. The file is saved with an .sim file extension in the following folder: c:\Land Projects 2004###BOT_TEXT###lt;current project>\hd 11 Click OK to close the Storage Indication Method dialog box. Use to locate

Adding and Editing Outlet Structures for Ponds
Search Help for…
Adding and Editing Outlet Structures for Ponds Calculating the Routing Values for a Reservoir or Storage Facility Calculating Routing Values for a Detention

Use the Outflow Editor commands from the Hydrology menu to attach inflow or outflow structures to a defined pond. You can attach these structures to a defined pond in one of two ways: by specifying a defined pond and by specifying a stage-storage curve data file. You can also directly open a file previously saved through the Pond Outflow Design dialog box by using the Outflow Editor ➤ Editor command.

Adding and Editing Outlet Structures to a Pond
You can use the Outflow Editor commands to design multiple stage inflow and outflow structures for detention ponds required for attenuating different frequency storms. This procedure is typically one of trial and error. You can begin with approximate sizes of the inflow and outflow structures, and then refine the design by changing the dimensions of the structures or by modifying the shape of the pond.

NOTE Inflow structures are typically used only to accommodate base flow that
is already flowing into the pond.

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You can add multiple structures to the design by using the hydrology calculators. Click Add to select the calculators. You can use these calculators to calculate the flow rate for the structure, or you can add structure files that you have previously saved. By default, each structure you add is active. This can be controlled by the Active check box in the Outflow dialog box. To remove a structure from current calculations, clear the Active check box. You can also use this to see how the stage-discharge curves and rating curves are affected by different combinations of structures. After you have completed a design of the inflow and outflow structures, you can save the files as rating (.rtc) or stage-discharge curves (.sdc) to use for calculating the pond routing with the Storage Indication Method command or the Detention Basin Storage command.

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As you add structures, a structure elevation is reported in the Outflow Editor. This structure elevation corresponds to pre-determined attachment points. The following illustrations show examples of channel attachment points, orifice attachment points, and pipe attachment points.

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Key Concepts
■ ■ ■

You can attach structures to a defined pond by specifying a defined pond or by specifying a stage-storage curve data file. You can directly open a file previously saved through the Pond Outflow Design dialog box by using the Outflow Editor ➤ Editor command. You can save completed designs of inflow and outflow structures as rating (.rtc) files or stage-discharge curves (.sdc) to use for pond routing with the Storage Indication Method command or the Detention Basin Storage command. As you add structures, a structure elevation is reported in the Outflow Editor. This structure elevation corresponds to pre-determined attachment points.

To add inflow and outflow structures to a pond
Steps 1 From the Hydrology menu, choose Outflow Editor ➤ By Pond to display the Pond Name dialog box. 2 Select the name of the pond, and then click OK. The Pond Outflow Design dialog box is displayed with the current pond name in the title bar. 3 Click Add to display the Add Structure dialog box. 4 Select a structure from the list, then click OK to display the Calculator dialog box for that structure. 5 Use the calculator to configure the structure or to load a previously saved file, and then click OK to exit the calculator. The Outflow Structure Description dialog box is displayed. 6 In the Description box, enter a name for the structure, and then click OK. 7 By default, each structure you add is active. You can select the name of an attached structure and clear the Active check box to remove that structure from the stage-discharge calculations. 8 To specify whether the structure is to be used as an inflow structure or an outflow structure, select the structure’s name in the Attached Structures list, and then select the Inflow option or the Outflow option. Use to locate

Adding Inflow and Outflow Structures to a Pond

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To add inflow and outflow structures to a pond (continued)
Steps 9 In the Str. Elevation box, enter the absolute elevation at which the structure is attached. 10 Under Modify Pond, you can enter a value for the water surface elevation in the Surface Elev box to reflect revised water levels. 11 Click Save to save the current data to a file. The data is stored in the following folder with the same base name as the pond and with a .pda extension: c:\Land Projects 2004###BOT_TEXT###lt;project name>\hd 12 Click Plot to view and save the rating curve and stage-discharge curve. Use to locate

Outputting Pond Data
Search Help for…
Outputting Pond Data Calculating Routing Values for Detention Basins

You can use pond data in other hydrology software packages by outputting the data to files using the Pond Output commands from the Hydrology menu. When you use the Pond Output commands, you can generate and save a stage-storage curve that you can use to calculate the outflow hydrograph of a detention pond by using the Storage Indication Method command.

Reporting the Pond Contour Data By Selecting the Pond Perimeter
To create a text file that contains data for each contour in a pond, use the Pond Output ➤ Output Editor by Pond command. You can choose the data you want in the file, including elevation, area, and volume information.

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Pond Output Data Types
You can select any of the following types of pond data to save to a file:
■ ■ ■

■ ■ ■

Elevation: Reports the elevation of the pond contour. Area: Reports the area of the pond contour. Average Area Volume: Reports the volume of a pond contour in relation to the contour below it. The bottom of the pond (the last contour listed) does not have a volume. This option uses the Average End Area method of calculating volumes. Conic Volume: Reports the volume of a pond contour in relation to the contour below it. The bottom of the pond (the last contour listed) does not have a volume. This option uses the Conic method of calculating volumes. Cumulative Average Volume: Reports the volume (calculated by using the Average End Area method) of each contour in relation to the bottom of the pond. For example, the first contour in a pond (the top of the pond) has a cumulative volume that is equal to the entire pond volume. The second contour in a pond (the first contour that is below the top of the pond) has a cumulative volume that is equal to the full pond volume minus the volume between the first and second contour. Cumulative Conic Volume: Same as Cumulative Average Volume except it uses the Conic method of calculating the volume. Perimeter: Reports the length of the contour perimeter. None: Shows no data in the selected column.

The following illustration shows an example of the Average End Area method for pond volumes:

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The following illustration shows an example of the Conic method for pond volumes.

Reporting the Pond Contour Data By Selecting the Pond Contours
Use the Pond Output ➤ Output Editor by Contours command to create a text file that contains data for each contour in a pond. You can choose the data you want in the file, including elevation, area, and volume information.

NOTE This command is the same as the Output Editor by Pond command
except that you select the pond contours to display the Output Editor.

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Generating a Stage-Storage Curve for the Pond
A stage-storage curve is a graph that plots a pond storage volume versus a pond depth (or stage). The curve shows the volume of water in a pond at any given stage. Use the Pond Output ➤ Stage-Storage Curve command from the Hydrology menu to generate a stage-storage curve for the selected pond. You can save the stage-storage curve to a file to use when calculating pond routing and when calculating a pond outflow hydrograph.

Key Concepts
■ ■ ■

You can use the Pond Output commands to output pond data to text files that can be used in other hydrology software packages. You can select ponds by perimeter or contours. You can generate a stage-storage curve to show the volume of water stored in a pond at any given stage. The stage-storage curve can be saved to a file that is used for pond routing.

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Working with the Layout Commands

5
In this chapter
■ Using the Layout menu ■ Creating intersections ■ Creating cul-de-sacs ■ Creating parking stalls ■ Creating sports fields ■ Creating walks and patios

Use the commands from the Layout menu to automate the process of creating intersections and to add details to site plans. Details can include intersections, cul-de-sacs, parking stalls, sports fields, and walks and patios.

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Using the Layout Menu
Search Help for…
Site Layout

You can use the commands from the Layout menu to add finishing touches, such as intersections and cul-de-sacs, to alignments that you created using Autodesk Land Desktop. As you plan a site layout, design efforts focus on the identification, sizing, organization, and location of site elements. These site elements can include open space areas, walks, and paths. You can also use the Layout commands to add details to site plans, such as parking stalls and sports fields. The Layout commands are grouped into four sections. The upper section contains commands for working intersections. The other sections contain commands for working with cul-de-sacs, parking stalls, sports fields, and walks and patios.

Creating Intersections
The Intersection commands from the Layout menu clean up lines where road alignments cross. Several intersection commands can be used to automate the intersection-creation procedure by breaking lines, where necessary, and filleting curves. A typical intersection has two or more adjoining or crossing streets or highways. Several geometric design issues need to be considered in creating intersections, including the horizontal and vertical alignment of the adjoining roads, location of sidewalks and utilities, and provision for adequate sight

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distance. The minimum distance for the driver to react and stop the vehicle before reaching an object in the road is known as stopping sight distance (SSD), and should be considered not only on horizontal and vertical curves, but on intersections as well. When you use the Intersection commands, linetypes that are not continuous, such as dotted or dashed lines, can cause problems. If a point of tangency falls at a line space, the command can fail. The commands are also sensitive to a zoom location. If all the offsets and distances appear correct, but an Intersection command is failing, you may need to zoom in or out of the intersection for the command to function properly. You can use the following Intersection commands to create and clean up various types of intersections.

2 Way Intersection ➤ Tangent-Tangent Command
The 2 Way Intersection ➤ Tangent-Tangent command cleans up a two-way intersection where both roads are on tangent (straight). An intersection that has two intersecting tangents is used primarily for joining local and minor arterial streets. The following illustration shows the intersection of straight roads.

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2 Way Intersection ➤ Curve-Tangent Command
The 2 Way Intersection ➤ Curve-Tangent command cleans up an intersection where a curve meets a tangent. This command considers the main road to be curved and the side road to be straight. The following illustration shows the intersection of a curved main road and a straight side road.

2 Way Intersection ➤ Tangent-Curve Command
The 2 Way Intersection ➤ Tangent-Curve command cleans up an intersection where a tangent meets a curve. This command considers the main road to be straight and the side road curved. The following illustration shows the intersection of a straight main road and a curved side road.

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3 Way Intersection Command
The 3 Way Intersection command cleans up the intersection of three straight roads. This type of intersection is also called a Y-intersection. In a Y intersection, three non-tangent lines intersect at a point. The following illustration shows the intersection of three straight roads.

4 Way Intersection ➤ Tangent-Tangent Command
The 4 Way Intersection ➤ Tangent-Tangent command cleans up a four-way intersection. A four-way intersection occurs where two roadways cross, and it is often found near large developments in high-density areas. The following illustration shows the intersection of two straight roads that cross.

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4 Way Intersection Tangent-Curve Command
The 4 Way Intersection ➤ Tangent-Curve command cleans up a four-way intersection where a curve and a tangent cross. The following illustration shows the intersection of a straight road that crosses a curved road.

Key Concepts
■ ■

Use continuous linetypes, instead of dotted or dashed lines, as you design alignments that meet in intersections. The Intersection commands can be used only for alignments with symmetrical left and right offsets. The width of intersecting roads must be the same. You can use AutoCAD commands, such as BREAK, TRIM, and FILLET, to create intersections when you do not want to use the automated Intersection commands, or when the intersecting roads are asymmetrical or have varying widths. You can place points manually along intersection geometry by using commands from the Points menu to create stakeout reports.

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To create intersections
Steps 1 Draw the roadway centerline alignments for an intersection by selecting commands from the Autodesk Land Desktop Lines/Curves menu. 2 Define the alignments.

Use

to locate

Lines/Curves Menu

If the alignment was drawn with lines and/or curves, from the Alignments menu, choose Define From Objects to define the roadway alignments. If the alignment was drawn with polylines, from the Alignments menu, choose Define From Polyline to define the alignments.

Defining an Alignment from Objects Defining an Alignment from a Polyline

3 From the Alignments menu, choose Create Offsets to create offsets for the alignments. NOTE To use the Intersection commands, the offsets must be symmetrical.

Creating Offsets for an Alignment

4 From the Layout menu, choose Intersection Settings to set Changing the Intersection the intersection settings. You can enter the following Settings settings:

■ ■

Layer: Enter the layer names for the offsets. These layer names should generally match the layer names of the associated offsets in the Alignment Offset Settings dialog box, but they may change for specific cases. Corner lot radius: Enter the radius value used to fillet the offset tangent or arc intersections. Distance: Enter the total distance between the right and left offsets. Generally, this distance should be twice the offset value set for the offset in the Alignment Offset Settings dialog box. In specific cases, it should always match the total distance between the offsets in the drawing.

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To create intersections (continued)
Steps 5 To create the intersection, select one of the intersection commands from the Layout menu. TIP You can select different intersection commands depending on whether the intersection is made up of curves or tangents, and whether the alignments cross or not. For example, if you are designing an intersection where two tangents cross, choose 4 Way Intersection ➤ Tangent-Tangent from the Layout menu. 6 Use the commands from the Points menu to set critical points along the intersection. You can place points along the intersection geometry, such as at the point of curvature. 7 Generate a stakeout report of the alignment centerline for Creating an Alignment the surveyor. From the Alignments menu, choose Stakeout Report Stakeout Alignment ➤ Create File. Use to locate

Cleaning Up Roadway Intersections

Creating Cul-de-Sacs
Cul-de-sacs are streets that are closed at one end, with a turnaround area at the closed end. You can use the Cul-de-sacs commands to create horizontal geometry automatically for the end of a cul-de-sac and to modify the setup and creation of cul-de-sacs off roadway tangents and curves. The Cul-de-sacs commands work only on line and arc objects, and not on polylines. If the alignment is a polyline, therefore, use the Alignment Import command to import the alignment as line and arc objects. You can use the commands from the Layout menu to design the following types of cul-de-sacs.

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Standard Tangent Command
Search Help for…
Creating a Cul-de-sac off Roadway Tangents

The Cul-de-sacs ➤ Standard Tangent command creates a cul-de-sac off a straight road. You must select the endpoint of the roadway centerline and specify a positive or negative offset distance. The following illustration shows a cul-de-sac off a roadway tangent.

The Cul-de-sacs ➤ Standard Curve command creates a cul-de-sac off a curved road. You must select the endpoint of the roadway centerline and specify a positive or negative offset distance. The following illustration shows a cul-de-sac off a curved roadway.

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Hammerhead Command
Search Help for…
Creating a Hammerhead Cul-de-sac

The Cul-De-Sacs ➤ Hammer Head command creates a hammerhead cul-de-sac. This command works only for a tangent segment of alignment. If you select a curve, it can produce unexpected results. Also, all generated line work is comprised of tangent segments only. You need to fillet curves manually. The following illustration shows a hammerhead cul-de-sac.

Bend Command
Search Help for…
Creating a Bend Cul-de-sac at the Intersection of Two Tangents

The Cul-De-Sacs ➤ Bend command creates a bend cul-de-sac at the intersection of two tangents. You must select the roadway centerlines of the two tangents and specify an offset distance. The following illustration shows a bend cul-de-sac.

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Teardrop Command
Search Help for…
Drawing a Teardrop Cul-de-sac off the End of a Roadway Tangent

The Cul-De-Sacs ➤ Teardrop command creates teardrop cul-de-sac off the end of a roadway tangent. You must select the endpoint of the roadway centerline, and specify a radius of two arcs and the distance between their two centers. When you design a teardrop cul-de-sac, several geometric parameters must be met.

■ ■ ■

The second radius must be less than the difference between the cul-de-sac outer radius and the total right-of-way distance. This is a minimum guideline and can vary, depending on the specific conditions. The distance between centers must be greater than the difference between the cul-de-sac radius and the total right of way distance. The centerline alignment must be long enough to intersect the tapering tangents. The radius of the second arc and the outer offset distance cannot be the same.

The following illustration shows a teardrop cul-de-sac.

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Key Concepts
■ ■

The alignment used to create a cul-de-sac should be drawn using continuous linetypes. All cul-de-sac commands treat a single offset as the outer offset. The offset widths that you specify in the Cul-de-sac Settings dialog box must match the widths of the alignment offsets.

To create a cul-de-sac
Steps 1 Draw the roadway centerline alignments for the cul-de-sacs by selecting commands from the Autodesk Land Desktop Lines/Curves menu. NOTE Any alignment defined from a polyline must be imported using the Alignments ➤ Import command before you use the Cul-de-sacs commands. 2 From the Alignments menu, choose Define from Objects to define the alignment. 3 From the Alignments menu, choose Create Offsets to create offsets for the alignment. 4 From the Layout menu, choose Cul-de-sacs ➤ Settings to set the cul-de-sac settings. These settings control radii, offset widths, and offset layers. 5 Create the cul-de-sac by selecting one of the Cul-de-sac commands from the Layout ➤ Cul-de-sacs menu. Changing the Cul-de-sac Settings Defining an Alignment from Objects Use to locate

Lines/Curves Menu

Creating Cul-de-sacs

Creating Parking Stalls
The Parking Stalls commands from the Layout menu configure how Civil Design draws and labels parking stalls in a drawing. With these commands, you can draw a specific number of stalls and then label them, modify the length and width of the parking stall, and fit several stalls within a given space. All stalls are drawn using the length and width dimensions you specify with the Parking Stalls ➤ Data command. These values are valid for the current drawing session only. You must specify these values each time you open a drawing.

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The following illustration shows parking stall dimensions.

The Parking Stalls ➤ Style command from the Layout menu can create ten different types of parking stalls in a drawing. You can create parking stalls at various pre-set or custom angles. You can also create parallel parking designs and parking designs that radiate off a curve. You can use the Fit-On/Off command to determine whether to automatically fit the maximum number of parking stalls into a specified amount of space. You can use the Label On/Off command to determine whether to label the number of stalls. Both of these commands are toggle commands, meaning each time you use the command, you turn the settings on or off. The following illustration shows parking stalls at a custom angle

Key Concepts
■ ■ ■ ■

Parking Stall dimensions are set with the Parking Stalls ➤ Data command. The Parking Stalls ➤ Fit-On/Off command determines whether to fit the maximum number of stalls into a selected area. The Parking Stalls ➤ Label-On/Off command determines whether to label the stalls. Parking Stalls are created with the Parking Stalls ➤ Style command, which displays the Parking Stall Layout dialog box. From the dialog box, you can select the desired style and click OK to create the parking stalls.

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To create parking stalls
Steps 1 From the Layout menu, choose Parking Stalls to display a list of choices. 2 Select a parking stall layout, click OK, and follow the screen prompts, which vary depending on the type of parking layout you select. Use to locate

Creating Parking Stalls

Creating Sports Fields
When you use the Sports Fields commands from the Layout menu, you can choose from a wide array of sports fields to insert into a drawing. These include baseball, football, basketball, and soccer fields, as shown in the following illustrations. The following illustration shows a sample baseball diamond.

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The following illustration shows a sample football field.

The following illustration shows a sample basketball court.

The following illustration shows a sample soccer field.

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Key Concepts

Sports fields are inserted as a combination of blocks, lines, and polylines. If you need to access or edit specific elements of sports fields, you can explode the blocks to break them into their component objects. In addition to the Sports Fields commands, Civil Design includes additional commands to draw various track and field elements, such as long jump, triple jump, and pole vault areas. To access these commands from the Layout menu, choose Track and Field and select the track and field element you want to insert.

To create a sports field
Steps 1 From the Layout menu, choose Sports Fields ➤ and select the type of sports field you want to insert. 2 Follow the screen prompts, which vary depending on the type of sports field you select. In most cases you select an insertion point and rotation angle, along with some key parameters for that type of field. Use to locate

Creating Sports Fields

Creating Walks and Patios
When you use the Walks and Patios commands from the Layout menu, you can create paver walks and patios, as well as brick walks, patios, and hatching. The centerline of the walkway, the hatch pattern, and the boundary line are placed on the current layer. The following illustration shows an example of a paver walk.

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The following illustration shows an example of a paver patio.

The following illustration shows an example of the pattern dimensions for a brick walkway.

Key Concepts
■ ■

■ ■

For Paver Walks and Brick Walks, you draw a centerline and assign a width to define the walk geometry. For Paver Patios and Brick Patios, you draw a boundary to define the patio geometry. If you do not create a closed boundary, Civil Design closes the boundary for you. You must create at least two line segments for patio boundaries. You may need to experiment with hatch patterns and scales. Some hatch patterns may not function properly when the scales are set incorrectly; for example, when a walk width is too narrow for a certain hatch scale, the hatch may not be drawn.

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If you already have a boundary drawn, you can use the Walks and Patios ➤ Brick Hatching command.

To create a walk or patio
Steps 1 From the Layout menu, choose Walks and Patios ➤ and select the walk or patio you want to create. 2 Follow the screen prompts, which vary depending on the type of walk or patio you select. For walks, define the alignment by drawing a centerline. For patios, define the geometry by drawing a boundary. Use to locate

Creating Walks and Patios

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Viewing and Editing Roads in Profile View

6
In this chapter
■ Overview of viewing and editing

You can generate a roadway profile by using an existing ground profile from a horizontal alignment and an existing ground surface. After you have created a roadway profile, you can modify and label it, and then create output files that export profile information.

roads in profile view
■ Changing the profile settings ■ Sampling the existing ground to

create profile data
■ Creating existing ground

profiles
■ Creating finished ground

road profiles
■ Defining vertical alignments ■ Superimposing vertical

alignment data
■ Editing vertical alignments ■ Calculating vertical curve length ■ Listing and labeling vertical

alignments
■ Creating ASCII output files of

profile information

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Overview of Viewing and Editing Roads in Profile View
Search Help for…
Creating Existing Ground Profiles Sampling the Existing Ground Profile Data from a Surface

After you draft and define a horizontal alignment for a road, you can create a road profile (also known as a vertical alignment or long section) that represents the existing and finished grades along the roadway centerline. To work in profile view, create an existing ground profile for a defined alignment by sampling elevation data from a surface. You can then create the existing ground profile in the drawing, and draw the vertical alignments and vertical curves that represent the finished ground profile design. After you draw a finished ground vertical alignment, you must define it in the same way you define a horizontal alignment. The finished ground elevations are used later to calculate the elevations for the roadway cross sections.

Storage Location of Alignment and Profile Data
The alignment folder (c:\Land Projects 2004###BOT_TEXT###lt;project name>\align) contains all the files for the horizontal alignments in the project. Each alignment that has a profile or cross section has a unique subfolder under the \align folder. This subfolder contains all the profile and cross section files for the alignment. For example, if you have an alignment called MAIN ST in the project P101, you can find all the profile and cross section files in the \P101\ALIGN\MAIN ST folder. The following types of files are stored here:
*.dcn *.err *.icn *.sed *.smp *.tcd *.tcp *.tdf *.vrt *.xsd *.xsp

Each profile, when inserted into the drawing, contains a profile definition block. This invisible block contains attributes that are necessary to locate, draw, and read information from the profile. If you want to view the attribute

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block, use the AutoCAD ATTDISP (attribute display) command to turn on the invisible attributes, and then zoom in to the lower-left corner of the profile.

NOTE If the block is very small, you may need to zoom in tightly.
Additional profile settings are located in the <dwgname>.dfm file that is located in the ###BOT_TEXT###lt;project name>\dwg folder. The profile settings contain the drawing defaults for profile layer names, scales, and label increments.

Accessing the Profile Commands
You can access Civil Design profile commands from the Profiles menu, as shown in the following illustration.

The upper section includes commands to adjust various profile settings, such as layers, labels, and ground sampling tolerances. The second section includes commands to select surfaces and sample methods and to create and select profiles. The third and fourth sections include commands to work with finished ground profiles and ditch and transition profiles. The last section includes commands to label and list vertical alignments, to superimpose profiles, and to output data to an ASCII file.

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Changing the Profile Settings
Search Help for…
Changing the Profile Settings

To change profile settings, choose Profile Settings from the Profiles menu. Before you work with profiles, set up the following profile settings:

These settings … Sampling Existing ground layer

Control … How the existing ground data is sampled. Layers on which the existing ground profile graphics are placed. Layers on which the finished ground profile graphics and labels are placed.
■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Finished ground layer

Labels and prefix

Layer prefix for profile layers Text used in profile labels Label increments Vertical curve K values Passing, stopping, and headlight sight settings Label precision

Values

Sampling Settings
Sampling settings control the following:
■ ■ ■

How often curves and spirals on the alignment are sampled. Whether the existing ground is sampled to the left and right of the centerline. Whether sample lines are created that show the limits of the sampled area.

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In the Profile Sampling Settings dialog box, you can specify the sample offset tolerance, as shown in the following illustration.

Profile elevations are calculated at each point where the horizontal alignment crosses a surface triangle edge. In areas with large surface triangles, the sample offset tolerance value improves profile definition by determining how many samples are taken along curves and spirals regardless of the surface conditions. The offset tolerance dictates the mid-ordinate of the sampling chord as shown in the following illustration.

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The default offset value is half a unit. If the traced chord is more than half a foot or meter away from the actual curve, then the command samples additional elevations so that the chord for each curve segment does not exceed the sample offset tolerance (half a foot or meter) away from the curve. This affects only the rate at which the existing ground elevations are sampled on a curve. To see the locations that are being sampled, select Import to place sample lines in plan view. The sample lines are imported onto the specified layer even when the layer is frozen. Importing sample lines is useful to verify that the graphic representation of the alignment in the drawing matches the alignment database file. When you enter sample offset values, you normally enter positive values for left and right sides. If you use a negative value, then the sampling is done on the opposite side of the alignment. For example, if you specify -10 for the left sampling width, then the command samples 10 units to the right of the alignment. The sample offset widths cannot be greater than the smallest radii of the alignment. The left and right offsets can be shown in full profile if you have selected Import when creating a full profile. If you have not selected Left and Right Sampling, then only the profile centerline is sampled. When sampling left and right of the alignment, the command produces slightly inaccurate data at PIs (Points of Intersection) that have no horizontal curve because of overlapping or disjunct offset lines.

Existing Ground Layer Settings
You can use the EG Layers command to assign each existing ground profile definition to a separate, unique layer. For easier layer management when you want more than one profile in a drawing, assign unique layer names before creating each profile. You can also automatically include the current alignment name as a prefix in the layer name. For more information, see “Labels and Prefix Settings” on page 140. These layer settings are stored with the invisible profile block that is created when you generate a profile. For more information about invisible profile blocks, see “Creating Existing Ground Profiles” on page 142. You cannot change these settings for a profile after it has been created in the drawing. If you want to update a profile with these changes, then you must re-create the profile by using the Full Profile, Surface Profile, or Quick Profile commands.

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In the Existing Ground Layer Settings dialog box, as shown in the following illustration, you can enter layer names for the surfaces and for the profile centerline and left and right offsets as well as text for the base and grid items.

The left and right offsets for the existing ground profile are created if you sample to the left and right of the centerline when sampling the existing ground surface. To bring these offsets into the drawing, you must select the Sample Left/Right check box in the Profile Sampling Settings dialog box when you sample the profile.

Finished Ground Layer Settings
You can assign each finished ground profile definition to a separate, unique layer. For easier layer management when you want more than one profile in a drawing, assign unique layer names before creating each profile. You can also automatically include the current alignment name as a prefix in the layer name. For more information, see “Labels and Prefix Settings” on page 140. These layer settings are stored with the invisible profile block created when you generate a profile. For more information, see “Existing Ground Layer Settings” on page 138.

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Labels and Prefix Settings
Labels and Prefix settings control the layer prefix and the profile label settings.

For easier layer management when working with profiles, you can assign a layer prefix. This layer prefix is appended to all profile layer names associated with the current alignment. The layer prefix can include any alphanumeric character. To include the current alignment name automatically in the layer prefix, type an asterisk (*). For example, if the current alignment name is 202CL, a layer prefix entered as *- (asterisk, hyphen) forces all profile layers to have the prefix 202CL-. The Profiles commands combine the layer names you assigned with the EG Layers and FG Layers commands with a layer prefix to create the layer names. For example, if you assign the prefix ROAD to the default layer PEGC, the layer name is ROADPEGC. If you use multiple surfaces, the command uses the default suffix for each surface name. Each profile label inserts text to indicate label type. You can change these text strings when you have a different labeling convention for profile elements.

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Values Settings
You can set stationing increments in the Profile Value Settings dialog box for the following:
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Labels and grid lines. Minimum K values for sag and crest vertical curves. Sight distance values for vertical curves based on passing and stopping sight distance. Label precision values.

Vertical curves that do not meet the minimum and maximum requirements of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) are identified in the lookup table section of the Vertical Alignment Editor. For more information, see “Editing Vertical Alignments” on page 155.

Key Concepts
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Before you work with profiles, verify the profile settings. You can assign unique layer names to existing and finished ground alignment data by choosing Profile Settings ➤ EG Layers and Profile Settings ➤ FG Layers from the Profiles menu. To alter values for a profile that you have already plotted, you can use the Profile Properties command, and then re-import the profile.

Sampling the Existing Ground to Create Profile Data
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Sampling the Existing Ground to Create Profile Data

To create a profile, you must first sample the existing ground from a surface, a file, or from cross sections. You can also create existing ground data in the Vertical Alignment Editor. Sampling the existing ground creates elevational values for the profile.

Sampling the Existing Ground Profile Data from a Surface
If you have an existing ground surface on which a horizontal alignment is located, then you can use this existing ground surface to sample elevations for the profile. You can sample one or more surfaces at the same time when sampling the existing ground data from surfaces. To sample multiple

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surfaces, you must first create a file of the surface names using the Select Multiple Surfaces command. Then, before sampling the data, enable the multiple surfaces by selecting Toggle Multiple Surfaces. The Sample From Surface command accesses the files that were created when you originally generated the surface, and then creates a file containing existing ground elevations along the defined alignment. You can use the existing ground elevations to create an existing ground profile. The Sample From Surface command processes the profile information for a specified station range and displays the distance sampled in a statement similar to the following:
You have sampled profile for 3856.25 feet of alignment

The command creates a file for the current alignment with a .vrt extension in the following folder: c:\Land Projects 2004###BOT_TEXT###lt;project name>\align\ <alignment name> If a file with the same name already exists, then the command displays a confirmation prompt to overwrite the previous definition.

Creating Existing Ground Profiles
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Creating Existing Ground Profiles Working with Profiles and Vertical Alignments

You can create an existing ground profile in a drawing, and then add finished ground roadway design geometry to represent the roadway in profile view.

Before you create a profile, configure the profile settings. For more information, see “Changing the Profile Settings” on page 136. When you create a profile, an invisible block is inserted at the profile insertion point. This block contains information specific to that particular plot of the profile, including

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its location in the drawing, the vertical exaggeration, and the layer settings. This block also contains the Values settings for the profile; therefore, you must configure the settings before you use the Full Profile, Surface Profile, or Quick Profile commands. After you create the existing ground data for an alignment, you can generate a profile. Create a full profile to define a finished ground alignment, or to annotate the profile. A full profile, as shown in the following illustration, includes a datum line, datum elevation, existing ground, existing ground text, and grid base.

Or, you can create a quick profile, which is created without a horizontal or vertical grid base or station elevations, as shown in the following illustration.

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If you sampled multiple surfaces, then you can create subsurface profiles. Usually you should create a full profile of the existing ground top surface, and then create subsurface profiles for any other surfaces you sampled using the Surface Profile command. When you generate a profile, you can do the following:
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Import the left and right profiles (if you sampled left and right offsets for the existing ground). Specify the station range and datum elevation for the profile. Control whether the profile is created from left to right, or from right to left. Control whether a grid is inserted with the profile.

NOTE By specifying the station range, you can import a subset of the entire profile. When you define the finished ground profile definition, you should work with the entire length of the profile. A subset of the entire profile should be imported only for plotting purposes.

Key Concepts
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When sampling the profile from a surface model, make sure that the correct surface model is set current. Verify that the existing ground surface model is accurate. Create a model that best reflects the conditions on the site. Make sure that the vertical scale is set properly for the drawing. The vertical scale is compared with the horizontal scale set during the drawing setup to determine the vertical exaggeration of the profile. If the horizontal scale is 1 =50’, a vertical scale of 5.00 (1’’ = 5’) produces a vertical exaggeration of 10. A profile has an attached invisible block to locate it in the drawing. If you move the profile, you must first undefine the profile to remove the old profile definition block, and then redefine the profile to create a new profile definition block. Use the commands from the Profiles ➤ Create Profile menu. When there is more than one profile in a drawing, use the Set Current Profile command to select the correct profile for subsequent profile commands.

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To create an existing ground profile
Steps 1 From the Alignments menu, choose Set Current Alignment to make sure that the proper alignment is set as current. 2 Sample the existing ground data (either from a terrain model surface, an ASCII text file, or manual input) by using one of the commands in the Profiles ➤ Existing Ground menu. 3 From the Profiles menu, choose Create Profile ➤ Full Profile to draft the profile. In the Profile Generator dialog box, you can select to draw the profile from left to right or from right to left. You can also control the profile datum, scale, and use of a grid. You can draw the entire profile at one time or you can import stages of the alignment. Use to locate

Making an Alignment Current

Sampling the Existing Ground Profile Data from a Surface

Creating a Complete Profile

Creating Finished Ground Road Profiles
After you create an existing ground profile, you can draw the proposed finished ground profile elements that include the finished ground centerline, offsets, and ditches and transitions. The profile view of the roadway geometry is called a vertical alignment. Vertical alignments are composed of vertical tangents and vertical curves. The procedure for defining a vertical alignment for a ditch or transition is similar to defining a finished ground centerline. The only difference is that you must specify the alignment you are defining so that you can save the elevational data to a database.

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Profile Layer Management
The Profile menu contains two sections for defining the finished ground elements. One section contains commands for creating the finished ground (FG) centerline, and another section contains commands for creating ditches and transitions (DT). Both sections have almost identical commands under each heading for drawing tangents and vertical curves, for defining the vertical alignments, and for listing elevations. Although the commands may have the same names, make sure to use the command under the appropriate menu heading to ensure accurate database and layer information for the vertical alignments. For example, if you want to draw a tangent for the finished ground centerline, select FG Centerline Tangents ➤ Set Current Layer to set the current layer. Then, select FG Centerline Tangents ➤ Create Tangents to draw the tangent. When you define the alignment using the Define FG Centerline command, the FG Centerline layer is isolated so you can easily select the alignment objects to define. The following topics discuss tangent and vertical curve creation in more detail.

Drawing Vertical Tangents
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Creating Ditch and Transition Tangents

You can draw vertical alignment tangents for the finished ground centerline or ditches and transitions using the FG Centerline Tangents or DT Centerline Tangents commands from the Profile menu. Use these commands to
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Set the current layer. Rotate the AutoCAD crosshairs to match the grade of the centerline or ditches and transitions. Draw vertical alignment tangents. Change the grade going into and coming out of the centerline or ditches and transitions. Move the point of vertical intersection (PVI).

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The first prompt in the Ditches and Transitions (DT) commands is different from the first prompt of the finished ground centerline (FGC) commands because you must specify the vertical alignment you want to use. This prompt is generally in the following format:
Select profile (Center/Left/Right)<Center>: R Select right profile (Ditch/1/2/3/4/5/6/7/8)<1>:

You can press ENTER at the first prompt to select the finished ground centerline profile. You can type L or R to choose a ditch or transition. In the previous example of the first prompt, the 1 through 8 alignments are the eight offsets on the right side of the centerline. These alignments are generally used to control the location of key points on cross section templates, such as the right edge of pavement (EOP) and shoulder. The 1 through 8 alignments are also on the left side of centerline. You can access the left and right ditch profiles by entering the appropriate offset side, and then typing D (for ditch). The following illustration shows a vertical tangent.

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Drawing Vertical Curves
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Equations Used for Calculating Crest and Sag Curve Lengths

You can create tangents and define a profile, and then design vertical curves using the Vertical Alignment Editor. Or, you can create vertical curves using the either the FG Vertical Curves or the DT Vertical Curves commands. Before you create vertical curves, you must set the current profile and the current layer, and then draw the tangents for the finished ground centerline or ditches and transitions. All vertical curve commands place the curve on the same layer as the selected tangents. There are several different options you can use to draw vertical curves.

One method of drawing a vertical curve is to specify a K value. The K value of a vertical curve is the horizontal distance required to affect a 1% change in grade on the vertical curve. (K = Length of curve / (|Grade in - Grade out|). The following illustration shows a vertical curve based on the K value.

Another method of drawing a crest vertical curve is to specify a minimum passing sight distance.

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The following illustration shows the parameters used to calculate a vertical curve based on minimum passing sight distance.

Other methods of drawing vertical curves are based on stopping sight distance, headlight sight distance, and by specifying design speed.

Defining Vertical Alignments
After drawing the tangents and vertical curves for the finished ground centerline, you must define the finished ground centerline as a vertical alignment. When you define the finished ground centerline, the elevational data is saved to a database that is used for creating cross sections.

Defining a Finished Ground Centerline
The Define FG Centerline command temporarily turns off all layers except the finished ground layer. If the vertical alignment objects are not visible after you select this command, then cancel the command and move the objects to the correct layer. The correct layer is the layer you defined for finished ground objects when using the FG Layers command. By default, this layer name is PFGC. After you complete the command, the layers are then restored to their original state.

NOTE If the Define FG Centerline command displays the message, “No vertical exists,” then you cannot reference the finished and existing ground information to the same station or location. Use the Set Current Profile command to verify the location of the existing ground data, then define the vertical alignment again.

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Defining a Ditch or Transition
After drawing the tangents and vertical curves on the profile for a ditch or transition definition, you must define it as a vertical alignment. The procedure for defining a vertical alignment for a ditch or transition is similar to defining a finished ground centerline. The only difference is that you must specify the alignment you are defining. As an alternative to drawing ditch or transition alignments, you can use the finished ground centerline (or any other vertical alignment) definition to create ditches and transitions by calculating a change in elevation based on offset and grade. The Define by Offset/Grade command uses a grade and offset value to create a new vertical transition alignment with elevations calculated in relation to an existing vertical alignment. You can create the new vertical alignment at a uniform offset from an existing vertical alignment, or you can base the offset distance on a horizontal alignment that may have a non-uniform horizontal offset distance (such as for a passing lane):
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When you base the offset distance on a uniform offset from a vertical alignment, you must specify the uniform offset distance you want to use. When you base the offset distance on a horizontal alignment, you are not prompted for an offset distance. Instead, you must specify two horizontal alignments to use to determine the offset distance.

To create a vertical alignment at an offset based on a horizontal alignment, use the Alignment option in the Define by Offset/Grade command to offset a vertical alignment based on the offset distances between two selected horizontal alignments. The alignment that you offset can be the finished ground centerline, a left or right ditch, or a transition. The alignment that is created can be a left or right ditch or transition. The Alignment option can be used when a constant offset distance does not work, such as when there are vertical curves in profile view or passing lanes (irregular offset distances) in plan view. To use this option, horizontal alignments must correspond to the vertical alignment that you want to reference and the vertical alignment that you want to create. The two horizontal alignments are used to calculate the offset distances along the profile that, when applied to the change in grade value, result in the new vertical alignment definition. To view the alignment, choose Import from the DT Vertical Alignments menu.

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Key Concepts
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■ ■

In addition to the finished ground centerline profile, you can design ditches and transitions in profile view. To draw vertical tangents, you can use the Create Tangents commands from the Profiles menu, or you can use the AutoCAD LINE command. To draw vertical curves, you can use the Vertical Curves commands. Additional tools for drafting vertical tangents are from the Profiles ➤ FG Centerline Tangents menu and the Profiles ➤ DT Tangents menu. To define the finished ground profiles properly, you must draw them on the correct layer. Before drawing any entities, set the current layer with the Set Current Layer command. After you design finished ground elements in profile view for transition control and ditches, you can attach them to the cross sections by using the Edit Design Control command in the Sections menu. For more information, see “Transitioning a Roadway” in Chapter 7, “Viewing and Editing Roads in Section View”. After you attach the elements, the sections are updated with the ditch and transition elevations you established in profile view. After drawing a finished ground profile for a centerline, ditch, or transition, you must define it as a vertical alignment.

To create a finished ground profile centerline
Steps 1 Create the existing ground profile. Use to locate

Creating Existing Ground Profiles Setting the Current Layer for the Finished Ground Centerline

2 From the Profiles menu, choose FG Centerline Tangents ➤ Set Current Layer to set the current layer.

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To create a finished ground profile centerline (continued)
Steps 3 From the Profiles menu, choose FG Centerline Tangents ➤ Create Tangents to draw proposed tangents based on stations, elevations, lengths, and grades. You can adjust the AutoCAD crosshairs to a selected grade, if needed. To adjust the crosshairs, from the Profiles menu, choose FG Centerline Tangents ➤ Crosshairs @ Grade. This command affects the AutoCAD snap angle variable and turns Ortho mode on. It is important to remember that the vertical scale is based on the current setting in Drawing Setup. Autodesk Civil Design factors in this scale exaggeration automatically when you use the Create Tangents command. 4 From the Profiles menu, choose FG Vertical Curves to draw vertical curves for the finished ground centerline. Before creating vertical curves, set the current profile and draw the tangents for the finished ground centerline. All vertical curve commands place the curve on the same layer as the selected tangents. 5 From the Profiles menu, choose FG Vertical Alignment ➤ Define FG Centerline to define the finished ground centerline. When you select this command, all layers, other than the FG Centerline layer, are turned off so you can quickly select only the FG Centerline objects. Creating Vertical Curves for the Finished Ground Centerline Use to locate

Drawing the Vertical Alignment Tangents for the Finished Ground Centerline

Defining the Finished Ground Centerline as a Vertical Alignment

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Superimposing Vertical Alignment Data
You can use the Utilities ➤ Superimpose Profiles command to plot the elevations from one vertical alignment onto the profile of another adjacent alignment. Autodesk Civil Design reads the elevations and stations of the source vertical alignment you select and finds the corresponding offset station from the destination alignment. The program then plots the resulting elevations as a polyline on the destination profile. You can use the vertical alignment information to perform various tasks, such as define the lines as a vertical transition profile to control template transition elevations, or use as a reference or representation for a design.

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Prerequisites
Before you use the Superimpose Profiles command, you must complete the following minimum requirements:

The destination profile must be plotted in the current drawing.

NOTE If more than one profile exists for the current alignment in the
drawing, then you are prompted to select the drawing profile you want to work with.

The source alignment must be adjacent to the destination alignment and must have vertical alignment data defined for it.

Key Concepts

The Superimpose Profiles command provides a method to control the template transition elevations along a transition alignment as well as a method to show the relationship between profiles. There are two sections in the Superimpose Vertical Alignment dialog box: source vertical alignment and destination profile. In the source vertical alignment section, you select the horizontal alignment, an associated vertical alignment, and the spacing and station limits. In the destination profile section, you select the profile layer.

To superimpose alignments
Steps Use to locate

1 From the Alignments menu, choose Set Current Alignment Making an Alignment to make the correct alignment current. Current 2 If more than one drawing profile for the current alignment exists in the current drawing, then you are prompted to select the profile on which you want to plot the information. If only one drawing profile exists for the current alignment, it is selected automatically. 3 From the Profiles menu, choose Utilities ➤ Superimpose Profiles. In the Superimpose Vertical Alignment dialog box, you can select the horizontal alignment, the associated vertical alignment to plot on the destination profile, and the destination layer on which you want the profile lines plotted. Superimposing a Vertical Alignment onto a Different Profile

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Editing Vertical Alignments
You can use the Vertical Alignment Editor dialog box to create and edit existing ground or finished ground profile points of vertical intersection (PVIs) and vertical curves, as well as to generate vertical alignment reports. If you have sampled the existing ground surface, then you can use this tabular editor to view or edit the generated information. You can open the Vertical Alignment Editor, shown in the following illustration, by choosing Edit Vertical Alignments from the Profiles menu.

Tabs to select vertical alignment

Editing tools

Button to expand the curve calculator Geometric calculator section for calculating data using empirical formulas Lookup table section for calculating data using design speed and lookup tables

You can use the grid area to edit PVI data, and use the editing tool buttons to copy selected or all PVIs, and to insert, delete, and offset PVIs.

Vertical Curve Calculator
The Vertical Alignment Editor expands to display the vertical curve calculator. The geometric calculator section is on the left, and the lookup table section is on the right.

Use the geometric calculator section to calculate vertical curve length based on empirical formulas.

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Use the lookup table section to calculate vertical curve length based on defined design speed and lookup tables. To use the lookup table section, you must first assign one or more design speeds to the alignment by using the Design Speed button in the top part of the Vertical Alignment Editor.

For more information about the vertical curve calculator, see “Calculating Vertical Curve Length” on page 158.

Editing Vertical Alignments Graphically
In addition to editing PVI data directly in the Vertical Alignment Editor, you can edit PVI data in the drawing using the graphical editing commands. You can use graphical editing commands to move PVIs, to create new PVIs, and to create finished ground vertical curves, making it possible to design the entire vertical alignment graphically. To use the graphical editing commands, a profile must be plotted in the drawing, and the Show Profile Preview check box must be selected in the Vertical Alignment Editor Options dialog box. If multiple profiles are plotted in the drawing, you must select a working profile. The current PVI is marked with a triangle in the drawing. When you click on a different PVI in the Vertical Alignment Editor, or use the up and down arrow keys to move between PVIs, the PVI marker in the drawing is updated. The following illustration shows a selected vertical alignment, the current PVI marker, and the bounding box that surrounds the working profile.

If the horizontal alignment is visible in the drawing, then the current PVI marker appears on the horizontal alignment as well as on the profile, making it easy to compare plan and profile PVI locations. You can control the display of the profile preview graphics, adjust the size and color of the current PVI marker, and adjust the color of the working profile and bounding boxes.

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Generating Reports From Vertical Alignment Data
Using the Vertical Alignment Editor, you can also generate reports by clicking the Reports button. For example, you can generate a report that lists the station, elevation, and curve length at each PVI for the currently displayed vertical alignment. This report also lists the percent grade that exists between each PVI. If a vertical curve exists at a PVI, then the report also lists the vertical curve length.

IMPORTANT The Vertical Alignment Editor is not linked dynamically to the drawing. You are prompted to import the finished ground centerline after you modify it, but you must manually re-import any other alignment offset you modify to update the drawing.

Key Concepts
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You can create and edit existing ground and finished ground profile PVIs and vertical curves using the Vertical Alignment Editor. You can edit PVIs and vertical curves either by entering data in the grid or by picking points in the drawing to specify information graphically. You can access a shortcut menu containing the graphical editing commands by right-clicking in the grid of the Vertical Alignment Editor. Using the Vertical Alignment Editor, you can specify design speeds along the horizontal alignment to determine vertical curve lengths. The Curve Calculator can be used to determine appropriate curve lengths based on calculated values or customized lookup tables. When you click the Reports button in the Vertical Alignment Editor, the Vertical Alignment Reports window is displayed in Internet Explorer where you can generate reports that list vertical curve and tangent information for the current alignment. If you edit the existing ground profile by using the Vertical Alignment Editor, then you must recreate the profile with the Create Full Profile command if you want to see the changes in the drawing. You are automatically prompted to re-import the finished ground centerline into the drawing after editing it with the Vertical Alignment Editor. To import any of the finished ground ditch, or left and right profiles, choose DT Vertical Alignments ➤ Import from the Profiles menu.

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To edit a vertical alignment
Steps Use to locate

1 From the Profiles menu, choose Edit Vertical Alignments Editing Vertical Alignments to display the Select Vertical Alignment to Edit dialog box. with the Vertical Alignment Editor 2 Select the vertical alignment you want to edit and click OK Selecting a Vertical to display the Vertical Alignment Editor. Alignment to Edit 3 You can edit elevations, points of intersection, and vertical Editing Vertical Curves curves by entering new values in the appropriate cell, or by using the editing tools. 4 You can graphically edit PVIs and vertical curves using the Editing Vertical Alignments Graphically commands on the Vertical Alignment Editor shortcut menu. 5 You can change the way the profile preview, including the Changing the Vertical current PVI marker, is displayed. Alignment Editor Options 6 You can generate vertical alignment reports by PVI station, PVI station and curve, vertical curve, and increments by clicking Reports. 7 After you finish editing the alignment, close the Vertical Alignment Editor by clicking Close. 8 If you edited the finished ground centerline data, you are prompted to import the modified vertical alignment into the drawing. Click Yes to import the modified vertical alignment. Creating Vertical Alignment Reports

Calculating Vertical Curve Length
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Calculating Vertical Curve Length Using the Curve Calculator

You can use the Curve Calculator section of the Vertical Alignment Editor to analyze information about the current PVI to determine an appropriate vertical curve length. The Curve Calculator is divided into two sections: a geometric calculator on the left side and a lookup table on the right. You must assign a design speed to the alignment (by using the Design Speed button in the Vertical Alignment Editor) in order to use the lookup table section. Double-click a value in the Length column of the lookup table section to send that value to the Curve Length box on the

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left side. Then you can round the value, if needed, and commit the value to the vertical alignment by clicking the button next to the Curve Length box.
Geometric calculator section Click this button to commit the curve length value to the vertical alignment. Lookup table section

Double-click a length value to send it to the geometric calculator on the left.

In the geometric calculator section of the curve calculator, you can review information about crest and sag vertical curves for a selected PVI. For crest curves, the calculated K value, as well as passing and stopping sight distances, are shown for a specified curve length. For sag curves, the headlight sight distance is shown. You can enter a value for a stopping or passing sight distance and a K value, and Autodesk Civil Design calculates a corresponding curve length. The lookup table section of the calculator uses a series of separate ASCII text files, which you can edit, to compare vertical curve design information regarding the current finished ground PVI against the associated alignmentbased speed values. From these lookup tables, a list of minimum and maximum curve lengths are shown for the currently selected PVI.

Key Concepts
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The geometric calculator section of the curve calculator calculates vertical curve length based on empirical values. If you know the intended design speed for the alignment, you can assign design speed values to the alignment and then use the lookup table section of the calculator to calculate curve length. To select a curve length that was calculated using a lookup table, doubleclick the value in the Length column. This sends the value to the Curve Length box in the geometric calculator section of the calculator, where you can round the value up or down and then commit the value to the vertical alignment.

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Listing and Labeling Vertical Alignments
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Listing and Labeling Vertical Alignments

You can label vertical curves, finished ground tangents, and the elevation and station of a point by using the Labels commands from the Profiles menu. You can list information for vertical curves, finished ground tangents, elevation and station of any point in a profile, and depth between selected points by using the List commands.

Labeling the Vertical Curves
To create labels for vertical curves, select Profiles ➤ Label ➤ Vertical Curves to show the following:
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Beginning of the vertical curve (BVC). End of the vertical curve (EVC). Length of the vertical curve. PVI elevation. Algebraic difference. K value. High/low point (a tick mark is placed at this point).

Tangents, from which the vertical curve was created, are broken at the BVC and EVC. Circles with a radius of 0.5 units are inserted at the BVC and EVC points. As specified in the profile settings, labels are on the finished ground text layer.

NOTE The vertical curve label uses the label increment and precision that you specified with the Values command. You cannot use the Values command to change these; however, after you specified the values settings and created the profile. Instead, you must use the Set Properties command to edit these settings.

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The following illustration shows a labeled vertical curve:

Labeling the Finished Ground Tangents
Labels for finished ground centerline tangents and ditch and transition tangents show the percent slope along the tangent and the finished ground elevations. The finished ground elevations are placed along the grid base at the increment you specified with the Values command.

NOTE You must label the vertical curves before labeling the tangents.
Otherwise, the tangents are labeled to the PVI points rather than the start or end of the vertical curves. The following illustration shows a labeled finished ground tangent:

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Key Concepts
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Vertical alignment labels use the current text style. To label the station and elevation of a specific point, choose the Label ➤ Spot Elevations command from the Profiles menu. To display vertical alignment data on screen, use the List commands, such as List ➤ Vertical Curves and List ➤ Tangents from the Profiles menu.

Creating ASCII Output Files of Profile Information
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Creating ASCII Output Files of Profile Information

You can export profile data to an ASCII file (also called a text file). To create ASCII files, choose ASCII File Output from the Profiles menu. Then, choose Output Settings to change the output settings. To produce profile data, select ASCII File Output ➤ Profile. The data is displayed in the following format:
Alignment name surface type, number of surfaces of this type surface code, surface name number of points for this surface pt code, internal sta, external sta, elevation, vc length in, vc length out.

Autodesk Civil Design uses a series of profile codes to identify data elements. For example, the surface type is identified with a 0 for existing ground and a 1 for proposed ground. The internal station is the original station value before station equations are used as the alignment is defined. The external station is the current station value. If you have not used station equations, the internal and external station values are the same. In ASCII files, a line beginning with either a number character (#) or a semicolon (;) is a comment line.

Key Concepts
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Each time you create a new report, make sure to change the default output file name so you do not overwrite the previous report. The files created by the ASCII FIle Output commands are intended only for data exchange, and are not intended to serve as reports.

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Viewing and Editing Roads in Section View

7
In this chapter
■ Overview of viewing and editing

To design a roadway in cross-sectional view, you can create a roadway template and then apply it to the plan alignment and profiles. As you work in section view, you can superelevate and transition the road to meet design requirements.

roads in section view
■ Creating existing ground

cross sections
■ Working with templates ■ Creating finished ground

cross sections
■ Viewing and editing cross

sections
■ Transitioning a roadway ■ Superelevating a roadway ■ Using roadway data for finished

ground surfaces
■ Usage tips

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Overview of Viewing and Editing Roads in Section View
Search Help for…
Creating Cross Sections The Process of Creating Cross Sections

After you have created a roadway alignment and profile, you can generate cross sections. Cross sections are cut at specific stations along an alignment. When you use the Cross Sections commands, you can
■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Create existing ground cross sections for the alignment Create finished ground roadway surface templates Establish design parameters for ditches, superelevation, and transitions Extract, view, modify, and plot cross sections Insert cross sections in a drawing for plotting Output volumes using Average End Area or Prismoidal methods Place design roadway points in a drawing or external file for field staking Create a surface or other 3D data from a finished ground road design Create a 3D road grid of the alignment

The following is a brief summary of the design process for alignment cross sections: Design process for creating a cross section for an alignment
Step Creating existing ground data Description You can create existing ground data for cross sections in one of the following three ways:
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Sample the data from one or more surfaces. Import the data from a text file. Enter the data into the Existing Ground Section Editor.

Creating existing ground subsurfaces (optional)

You can use the following two methods to create existing ground subsurfaces.

You can create them at the same time as the top surface by sampling multiple surfaces or by sampling them from a text file. If you create cross sections from a single existing surface, then you can define the subsurfaces later by entering borehole data with Interpolation Control in the Existing Ground Editor.

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Design process for creating a cross section for an alignment (continued)
Step Drawing and defining templates Description A template represents the finished ground surfaces, such as the asphalt and granular surfaces, and may contain predefined subassemblies for curb and shoulder surfaces. Use the Edit Template command to add information to the templates, including superelevation regions, transition control, and point codes. To use Depth, Stepped, or Surface slopes, you must fill in the appropriate slope table. Use the Edit Design Control command to apply the finished ground design—the templates, ditches, and slopes—to the existing ground cross sections. You can apply transition control at this step after you have defined the appropriate horizontal or vertical alignments. After you have applied the templates to the cross sections, you can define the superelevation parameters, and then apply additional sections at key superelevation stations. Use the View/Edit Sections command to view the cross sections and to make modifications to the design of individual sections.

Editing templates

Using slope tables

Creating finished ground data

Superelevations

Viewing and editing sections

Cross Section Database Files
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Working with the Cross Section Database Files

Horizontal alignments are defined by a name and are stored in the alignment database for reference. All commands that work with alignments refer to the information from this database. Profile and cross section data is also stored in data files in the following folder. c:\Land Projects 2004###BOT_TEXT###lt;project name>\align###BOT_TEXT###lt;alignment name> Cross section settings for options such as the template control, sampling increments, and plotting layers are stored in the <dwgname>.dfm file in the following folder along with the rest of the settings for the current drawing: c:\Land Projects 2004###BOT_TEXT###lt;project name>\dwg

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Accessing the Cross Section Commands
Access Civil Design Cross Section commands from the Cross Sections menu. The commands are grouped into eight sections, as shown in the following illustration.

Creating Existing Ground Cross Sections
Search Help for…
Creating Existing Ground Cross Sections

The first step in working with cross sections is to establish the existing ground surface information. You can create the existing ground cross section data in one of three ways:
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Sample the data from one or more surfaces Sample the data from a text file Enter the data manually by using the Existing Ground Section Editor

As you sample the existing ground, elevational values for the cross sections are created. If you sample multiple surfaces, then you must first create a file of the surface names you want to sample using the Select Multiple Surfaces command.

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NOTE You can use multiple surfaces for sampling by using the Toggle Multiple
Surfaces command. To control how the existing ground is sampled for cross section data, specify the section sampling settings, such as how much of the existing ground is sampled (the swath width), whether you are prompted to enter additional stations to sample, and whether sample lines are imported onto the plan view of the alignment. To specify sampling settings, choose Cross Sections ➤ Existing Ground ➤ Sample From Surface. The Section Sampling Settings dialog box is displayed, as shown in the following illustration.

Key Concepts
■ ■ ■

You can extract cross section data from a terrain model or from a station/ offset/elevation text file. You can plot sections that show existing ground conditions along the roadway. To create existing ground cross sections, you must define a road alignment. A design profile, however, is not required until you apply a template to the sections.

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To generate existing ground cross sections
Steps 1 From the Alignments menu, choose Set Current Alignment to make sure that the proper alignment is set as current. 2 Generate existing ground section data using one of the commands in the Cross Sections ➤ Existing Ground menu. The data can be extracted from a terrain model, from a station/offset/elevation ASCII text file, or from manual data entry. 3 View the cross sections by selecting Cross Sections ➤ View/Edit Sections. Cross sections are displayed as temporary lines, as shown in the following illustration. Use to locate

Making an Alignment Current

Sampling the Existing Ground Section Data from One Surface Creating the Existing Ground Cross Section Data From a Text File Choosing Which Cross Section Station to Edit or View

Use the Next option to view the cross sections as they progress along the alignment.

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To generate existing ground cross sections (continued)
Steps 4 From the Cross Sections menu, choose Existing Ground ➤ Edit Sections to modify the cross section data in a tabular editor as shown in the following illustration. Use to locate

Editing the Existing Ground Cross Section Data

5 You can plot a single section, a page of sections, or all sections by selecting a command from the Cross Sections ➤ Section Plot menu. Sections are plotted into the drawing based on the current horizontal and vertical scales.

Plotting a Single Cross Section Plotting Multiple Cross Sections

Creating Existing Ground Cross Sections

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Working with Templates
Search Help for…
Template Definition Setting the Path for Templates and Subassemblies

To create finished ground cross sections, you must use a template. A template represents a finished surface, such as a road, channel, dam, or railway bed surface and its subsurface layers, such as asphalt, concrete, and granular materials, with optional subassemblies for shoulders and curbs. For more information about subassemblies, see “Working with Subassemblies” on page 177. You can draw a template using an exaggerated scale (based on the drawing’s vertical scale) to better visualize the surfaces. After drawing a template, define the template and the design control, and then generate the cross sections. Sections are generated wherever an existing ground cross section has been sampled. All templates have a defined finished ground reference point that can position the template on the cross section using the horizontal alignment and the finished ground vertical alignment (the finished ground centerline profile) for control. This reference point is usually the crown of the roadway, as shown in the following illustration.

After you have created a template, you must define datum, superelevation, and transition points. You can also edit the template to change settings, such as subgrade depths and the shape of the template.

Drawing Templates
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Creating and Editing Templates and Subassemblies Drawing Templates

You can draw template surfaces using the Draw Template command or PLINE. As you use the Draw Template command, the vertical exaggeration of the drawing is automatically taken into account. If you use PLINE, however, you must keep in mind the vertical exaggeration as you draw the polylines. You can use the Draw Template command to draw both templates and subassemblies. This command uses 2D polylines based on offset, depth, grade, and slope parameters. You can draw either the template or the subassembly first. When you use the Define Template command, however, it attaches the subassembly to the template; therefore, you must define the

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subassembly first. For more information about the Define Template command, see “Defining Templates” on page 174.

NOTE Turn off running object snaps before using the Draw Template
command. As you draw template surfaces, you must consider whether the surfaces are normal or subgrade, and you must consider whether the template is symmetrical or asymmetrical. The following illustration shows an example of symmetrical and asymmetrical templates.

In a symmetrical template, the left and right halves are identical. As you define the template, you need to draw surfaces only on the left half. The left half is mirrored about a vertical plane that passes through the finished ground reference point and it creates the surfaces on the right half. A typical template can consist of normal surfaces, subgrade surfaces, or a combination of both. You can draw these surfaces symmetrically or asymmetrically. How they are drawn affects how you define the templates later on. Normal surfaces are the elements of the template that make up the upper part of the template, such as pavement surfaces, median islands, shoulders and curbs. A typical subgrade surface is made up of granular substances, such as gravel. The following illustration shows normal and subgrade surfaces on a template. Many of the subgrade surface parameters are defined using the Define Template command instead of the Draw Template command.

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As you draw normal and subgrade templates, keep the following concepts in mind:
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■ ■

Both types of surfaces must be drawn with either the Draw Template command or PLINE. There is no limit to the number of normal surfaces on a template. You can only draw one subgrade surface, but it can be composed of multiple material layers. Each subsequent subgrade is defined by its depth below the upper subgrade and its grade to the intersecting slope. If both normal and subgrade surfaces are used for a template, the subgrade surface must be drawn below the normal surfaces. As you draw the template, draw only the top part of a subgrade surface. When you use symmetrical templates, draw a subgrade surface along the bottom of the normal surfaces starting from the center of the template out to the connection-point-out. When you use asymmetrical templates, draw from connection point to connection point. For more information about a connection-point-out, see “Defining Templates” on page 174. At the prompt to select points for the template, use drawing options, such as Relative, Grade, and Slope, to select points accurately.

Subgrade surfaces are linked to normal surfaces; but use separate design parameters, which you can enter when you define the template. Enter these parameters as numeric values to create dynamic regions that are adjusted automatically by the program in transitioning and superelevation conditions. You can also control the subgrade depth by using a profile definition.

NOTE The Draw Template command takes the vertical scale factor of the drawing into account. For example, if the horizontal scale is set to 1’’ = 40’ and the vertical scale is set to 1’’ = 20’, then the Draw Template command exaggerates the template or subassembly by a vertical scale factor of two. The Define Template and Define Subassembly commands compensate for the vertical scale factor of 2:1 and store the template or subassembly definition with a scale of 1:1. Do not change the scales between the time the template or subassembly is drawn and the time it is defined or it is not defined properly.

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Drawing Normal Template Surfaces
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Drawing Normal Surfaces for Symmetrical Templates Drawing Normal Surfaces for Asymmetrical Templates

As you follow the general procedures for drawing a template surface, keep the following concepts in mind:

A normal surface that has the opening at a mirror plane (the finished ground reference point) is mirrored so it becomes a closed surface. An example of this type of surface is an asphalt surface of a two-lane road. When you draw a normal symmetrical surface, start at the centerline (the vertical plane of the finished ground reference point), and draw the surface to the left, in a counter-clockwise direction, until the surface returns to the centerline. Any normal surface that does not intersect a mirror plane must be drawn as a closed surface. When you define a symmetrical template, all closed surfaces are mirrored about a vertical plane that passes through a finished ground reference point. An example of this type of surface is a curb surface. When you draw a closed surface that does not cross the centerline, start at a point nearest the centerline and draw a surface in a counter-clockwise direction.

To draw asymmetrical templates, follow the general procedures for drawing a template surface. When you draw normal surfaces for an asymmetrical template, you must draw an entire surface. Start with the top of the surface at the centerline (the vertical plane of the finished ground reference point) and draw to the left, in a counter-clockwise direction until you return to the starting point. All normal surfaces for an asymmetrical template must be drawn so that they join the starting point.

Drawing Subgrade Surfaces
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Drawing Normal and Subgrade - Symmetrical and Asymmetrical Template Surfaces

As you follow general procedures for drawing a template surface, keep in mind the following concepts:

With subgrade surfaces, draw only the top of a surface definition between connection points. Define the rest of subgrade surface information with the Define Template command. When you draw a subgrade surface for a symmetrical template, start a surface at the centerline (the vertical plane of the finished ground reference point), draw it to the left, tracing below the normal surfaces (if they exist), and end the surface at the connection point.

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■ ■

A template can have only one drawn subgrade surface, and it must be below all normal surfaces. To define multiple subgrade surfaces, draw one subgrade surface, and then define the other subgrade surfaces as depths and grades by using the Define Template command. The side slope for the subgrade surface is determined by the slope settings in Design Control when the template is applied to the cross sections.

To draw asymmetrical subgrade surfaces, follow the general procedures for drawing a template surface. With subgrade surfaces, draw only the top of a surface definition between connection points. Define the rest of a subgrade surface information with the Define Template command. When you draw a subgrade surface for an asymmetrical template, start the surface at one of the connection points and trace below the normal surfaces (if any) to the other connection point. You can start at either the left or the right connection point.

Key Concepts

If a road has the same surface elements on both sides, then the template is symmetrical. You need to draw only the left half of a symmetrical template. If the road, however, has one south-bound lane and two northbound lanes, then the template is asymmetrical. In an asymmetrical template, you must draw both sides. Curbs and shoulders can be defined as part of a template, You can also draw these items separately and define them as subassemblies. As you define a template, you can then attach the subassembly to the template definition.

Defining Templates
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Defining a Template that Only has Normal Surfaces Defining a Template that has Subgrade Surfaces

After you draw a template, you can define it by using the Define Template command. This command can have varying prompts, depending on whether the template you are defining is composed of normal or subgrade surfaces. If you define a template with only normal surfaces, specify a finished ground reference point, a datum line, and connection-points-out. You can also add subassemblies to the template definition. The reference point is the point on the template that controls the placement of the template horizontally and vertically on the sections. This is usually the crown of the road. The datum line is compared against the existing ground surface to calculate the cut and fill areas. The connection-point-out is a point

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on each side of the roadway, usually the furthest point from the centerline, where the defined template stops and match slopes or ditch slopes begin, based on design control and existing conditions. The following illustration identifies these elements for a template with only a normal surface.

When you define a template with a subgrade surface, you are not prompted to define connection points, a datum line, or whether to attach subassemblies. The connection points are defined automatically at the outer end of the drawn portion of the subgrade, and the datum lines are generated automatically along the bottom of each subgrade layer. Each datum line is numbered in ascending order, starting from the lowest subgrade on the template. Before you define templates, do the following:

■ ■

Set the template storage path by using the Set Template Path command. This is a project-based setting that ensures all drawings associated with a project use the same path. Draw the template surfaces as 2D polylines with either the Draw Template command or PLINE. When templates consist of only normal surfaces, define the subassemblies to be attached. Draw subassemblies as if they were being attached to the left side of the template.

After you define templates and subassemblies, you can then use them in any project. If you use previously-defined templates, make sure to specify the correct template path. To view the completed template, use the Import Template command. To add transition and superelevation regions to a template, or to add datum lines and top surfaces, use the Edit Template command.

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Editing Templates
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Editing Templates

You can redefine a cross section template, or you can create a new template from an existing template, using the Edit Template command. After the command imports the template into the drawing, you can do the following:
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Modify connection, superelevation, transition, top surface, and datum points Add or delete surfaces Modify surface points Add point codes Attach subassemblies

The template is drawn on the current layer using the vertical scale factor determined by the vertical scale that you specified with the Drawing Setup command when you created the drawing.

NOTE If you use the Edit Template command to define template features such as point codes, transitions or superelevation, you can save time by using the Endpoint (endp) running object snap. After you are finished, you can turn off the object snap.
When you use the Edit Template command to add surfaces, it creates two polylines for each surface: one for the left side and one for the right side. The command also displays any attached subassemblies. Although they cannot be modified, subassemblies can be attached to the current template. To use the Edit Template command, the template and its subassemblies must be in the folder that you specified with the Set Template Path command.

NOTE Use the Edit Template command for both symmetrical and asymmetrical templates. In symmetrical templates, the command does not mirror the surface edits from the left to right side. If you want it to remain a symmetrical template, you must change both sides of the template.

Key Concepts
■ ■

To apply transition and superelevation regions on a template, you must modify the template after you define it. To insert points into a drawing based on template points, such as the right-of-way and edge-of-pavement, you can use template point codes.

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To work with templates
Steps Use to locate

1 From the Cross Sections menu, choose Draw Template to Drawing a New Template draw the finished ground template. Surface 2 To use a subassembly for a curb or shoulder, use the Draw Defining Subassemblies Template command to draw the subassembly. Then, from the Cross Sections menu, choose Templates ➤ Define Subassembly to define the subassembly. 3 From the Cross Sections menu, choose Templates ➤ Edit Material Table to set up the Material Table. A material table is a collection of surface material names that you can select as you are defining template surfaces. 4 From the Cross Sections menu, choose Templates ➤ Define Template to define the template. In this step, you can define the finished ground reference point, the template geometry, the surface materials, and the depths of subgrade surfaces. You also attach subassemblies (optional) to the template at this point. 5 From the Cross Sections menu, choose Templates ➤ Edit Template to add transition points and superelevation points, as necessary, to the template. You can also add top surface points to the template that you can later import into the drawing to use as finished ground data. Editing Templates Defining Templates Defining and Editing a Material Table

Working with Subassemblies
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Working with Subassemblies Creating and Editing Templates and Subassemblies

Subassemblies represent optional design elements, such as shoulders or curbs. You can attach subassemblies to a template at the connection-point-out. Subassemblies differ from normal template surfaces in that they vary depending on whether the template is in a cut or fill situation. The basic design process for a subassembly is to draw and define it, and then attach it to a template.

NOTE You cannot attach subassemblies to a template that uses subgrade surfaces. If you have defined subgrades for a template, then you are not prompted to attach subassemblies.

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Drawing Subassemblies
Subassemblies are similar to template surfaces, and they are drawn in the same way with either the Draw Template command or PLINE. Depending how you want to apply subassemblies, you must follow several different rules as you draw them:
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Unlike normal surfaces on templates, subassemblies can be either open or closed surfaces. Subassemblies, like templates, are drawn as polylines. You can create a polyline in the same way for both. Draw subassemblies for the left side of a template. When you attach a subassembly to a template, it is mirrored automatically to reflect the correct orientation for that side of the template. If you attach a subassembly to only the right side of the template, then you must draw and define it as if it is being attached to the left side. When you attach subassemblies, you can use different subassemblies on the left and right side of the template.

The following illustration shows examples of how to draw shoulder and curb subassemblies.

Defining Subassemblies
If you are using a subassembly, you must define it before you define the template you are attaching it to. When you define a subassembly, specify the connection-point-in, the surface material, the connection-point-out, and the datum points. The connectionpoint-in of the subassembly is attached to the connection-point-out on the template. You can attach subassemblies to the connection-point-out on either side of the template. If a subassembly is attached to a cross section template, then the design slope assigned in the Edit Design Control command is attached to the connectionpoint-out of the subassembly instead of the connection-point-out of the template.

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Subassembly definition varies from template definition in a number of ways.
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Subassemblies can only use one datum definition. Transition points cannot be assigned to subassemblies; therefore, subassemblies cannot be stretched, but they can be moved. Because a subassembly is attached to the cross section template at the template’s connection-point-out, the subassembly’s final location is affected by transitioning applied to the template. Although you can draw the template and subassembly in any order, you must define the subassembly with the Define Subassembly command before defining the template.

Attaching the Subassemblies to Templates
As you define a template with the Define Template command, you can attach subassemblies. To select a subassembly, you can do either of the following:
■ ■

Enter the name of the subassembly that you want in the appropriate box. Click Select (to the right of the subassembly name) to access the Subassembly Librarian dialog box.

A curb and shoulder are two types of subassemblies that you can attach to the left and right of cross section templates. For shoulder subassemblies, you can choose two different shoulder definitions, one to be applied in cut situations and one for fill situations. Working from the centerline out, the first category of subassembly that is attached to a connection-point-out is called a curb subassembly. The second category of subassembly that is attached is called a shoulder subassembly. Use the subassembly name, NULLS, in places where a subassembly is not required. The connection-point-out of the shoulder connects either to a ditch foreslope when you use ditches, or to a design slope when you do not use ditches. You can define two different types of shoulder subassemblies for each side of the template: one for cut situations and the other for fill situations. If you do not use subassemblies, the slope attaches to the connectionpoint-out of the template.

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The following illustration shows the categories of subassemblies and connection points.

Using Material Tables
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Using Material Tables Defining and Editing a Material Table

A material table contains surface material names to use in conjunction with the Define Template, Edit Template, Define Subassembly, or Edit Subassembly commands. Use material names when creating template surface volume reports. You can predefine a material table using the Edit Material Table command. When you use a command that requires a material table, the command automatically prompts you to select a material name. If no table exists, then you are prompted to create one. You can create a library of tables based on any specification. For example, you can create material tables for different asphalt and gravel types or for structure types, such as curbs. Within each table, you can create entries for different materials available for that material type. A material table is saved with a .mat extension and it is in the template folder specified by the Set Template Path command.

Using Template Point Codes
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Using Template Point Codes Outputting and Importing Template Points

A point code identifies a specific location on a cross section template with a point code number and description. You can apply point codes to the template with the Edit Template command, and you can view them with the View/Edit Sections command. You can use point codes by choosing Point Output ➤ Tplate Points to DWG to import a specific selection of template

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points into a plan view of a drawing or by choosing Point Output ➤ Tplate Points to File to create a text file of the points. To set up a sheet style that labels specific points on plotted cross sections based on these points with offset or elevation, you can use the Sheet Manager utilities. The point codes you customize begin with the number 25. Point code numbers 1 through 24 are reserved for codes that are provided with the program or that are included with the program in future releases. These reserved codes are added automatically to every new point code table that you create, and they are tracked by the program. Unlike point codes that you customize, you cannot assign these reserved codes to any points within the template, nor can you delete them. You can, however, modify their descriptions. These predefined point codes are, for the most part, points on cross sections, such as slope or ditch points, that cannot be selected when modifying the template definition. Use the Points option of the Edit Template command to assign locations for point codes. You can apply a point code to more than one position on the template. A point code with an EOP description can, for example, be applied to the edge of pavement on both the left and right sides of the template. These point locations and the cross section template are adjusted based on any transitioning and superelevations.

NOTE When you add point codes to a template, only the point code number is stored with a template definition. The point code description is retrieved from a current point code table.
When you use a command that requires a point code table, the command automatically prompts you to select a table. If a table does not exist, then you have the option to create one. Point code tables are saved with a *.pcd extension and they are in the template folder that you specified with the Set Template Path command.

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Creating Finished Ground Cross Sections
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Creating Finished Ground Sections Working with Profiles and Vertical Alignments

After you draw and define a template, you can use it to generate finished ground cross sections. To do this, use the Design Control dialog box as shown in the following illustration.

In addition to controlling the template, use the Design Control dialog box to make changes to ditches, slopes, and benches, as well as transition alignments and profiles. Use other design commands in the dialog box to configure slope settings and superelevation.

Prerequisites for Applying Templates to Existing Ground Cross Sections
Before applying the template to the existing ground cross sections, you must complete the following minimum requirements:
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Define a horizontal alignment Sample the existing ground profile from either a surface or from a file Define the vertical alignment for the finished centerline Sample the existing ground cross sections from either the surface or a file Draw, define, and modify the necessary templates and subassemblies

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Key Concepts

Each template has a finished ground reference point that is used by the Edit Design Control command to position the template on the cross section using the horizontal alignment and the finished ground vertical alignment for control. The finished ground reference point is usually the crown of the roadway. You can use two methods to modify the cross sections after you process them. You can use the Edit Design Control command to modify a range of cross sections, or you can use the View/Edit Sections command to change individual sections. If you want to apply superelevation or transition control to finished ground cross sections, the template must contain transition and superelevation control locations. You define these locations using the Edit Template command. You can then apply superelevation factors and specify vertical and horizontal transitions when widening or altering the roadways characteristics. You can use two methods to process cross sections. If you change any of the cross section design control when you are using the Edit Design Control command, then the sections are processed automatically as you exit the command. You can also process cross sections manually by choosing Cross Sections ➤ Design Control ➤ Process Sections.

To create finished ground cross sections
Steps 1 From the Alignments menu, choose Set Current Alignment to make the correct alignment current. 2 If you are applying superelevation to the alignment, then set up the superelevation parameters. From the Cross Sections menu, choose Design Control ➤ Superelevation Parameters. NOTE You can set up the superelevation parameters at any time during the design process. 3 In the Superelevation Control dialog box, click OK to display the Save Status dialog box, and then click Yes to apply superelevation parameters to all existing cross sections. The Superelevation Section Sampling dialog box is displayed. Use to locate

Making an Alignment Current Changing the Superelevation Settings

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To create finished ground cross sections (continued)
Steps Use to locate

4 In the Superelevation Section Sampling dialog box, you Adding Sampled Cross Sections to Key can choose to sample sections at key superelevation stations. Select the Sample These Stations check box, set Superelevation Stations the swath widths, select the surface(s) to sample, and click OK. 5 From the Cross Sections menu, choose Design Control ➤ Edit Design Control to set up the design control parameters and process the sections. These parameters control the template you can use when processing cross sections, ditch values, slope control values, transitions, and superelevation. Whenever you modify the design control parameters, the cross sections are processed automatically. 6 You can view and modify individual cross sections by selecting Cross Sections ➤ View/Edit Sections. Choosing Which Cross Section Station to Edit or View Plotting a Single Cross Section Plotting Multiple Cross Sections Using the Edit Design Control Command to Process and Edit the Cross Sections

7 Plot the cross sections using one of the Cross Sections ➤ Section Plot commands.

Using Design Control
Search Help for…
Modifying Design Control

You can apply design control to the cross sections from the Design Control dialog box. To display the Design Control dialog box, select Design Control ➤ Edit Design Control from the Cross Sections menu. You are prompted to enter a station range. The changes that you make are applied only to this station range. This dialog box uses parameters specified with the Depth Slopes, Stepped Slopes, or Surface Slopes commands.

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You can use the Design Control dialog box, shown in the following illustration, to select a template to use, to define ditches and slopes, and to attach plan and profile alignments to the sections.

After you create finished ground cross sections, you can modify the Design Control and re-process a specific range or all the sections. When you make changes in the Design Control dialog box, only the parameters that you change are re-applied to every section in the specified station range. For example, to change only the ditch width, select Ditches in the Choose Edit Operation section of the dialog box, and then enter new values in the Ditch Control dialog box. After you click OK to exit the command, the program determines the parameters that you have changed and modifies the sections accordingly. When you use the View/Edit Sections command, you can access a similar Control Editor with options for modifying the template, ditch, and slope control. You can also use the View/Edit Sections command to make changes graphically by picking points on a display of the cross section. The View/Edit Sections command works on only one station at a time. This is the recommended method for modifying superelevation regions.

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Modifying Roadway Slope
There are several methods that you can use to create match slopes for cross sections. For each section, you can apply different cut and fill slope conditions to the left and right sides. You can apply simple slopes that follow a linear slope projection (3:1 in cut and 4:1 in fill). You can also use benching for areas of substantial cut or fill. More advanced slope calculation methods vary the design slope based on conditions, such as the surface material that you are cutting into and the depth of cut/fill. When you use these more advanced options, it is a two-step process to apply slope control to cross sections. First, set up the slope tables with slope values you want to use. The following illustration shows the Depth Control Editor in which you can set up depth slope values.

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After you set up the slope tables, apply these values to the cross sections using the Edit Design Control command. Display the Slope Control dialog box, shown in the following illustration, by using the Edit Design Control command.

Key Concepts
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To use simple slopes, select the Edit Design Control command. Simple slopes have typical cut and fill slope values. Depth control slopes use different slopes in cut and fill for various depth ranges. These are based on the depth slope tables that you can create by choosing Design Control ➤ Depth Slope from the Cross Sections menu. This option determines the depth of cut or fill for each section, and then uses the appropriate slope. You can apply benching to simple slopes or depth control slopes based on height criteria. You can define the width and grade of the bench. Stepped control slopes are a variation on depth control slopes. This slope, instead of finding the appropriate value for the current depth and applying it as a constant, changes as it passes through each depth range. Surface control slopes can be applied only in cut situations and are based on the different existing ground surfaces that they pass through.

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To design slopes for a roadway
Steps 1 Create finished ground cross sections for the roadway. 2 If you want to use stepped, surface, or depth control slopes, then you must define the slope tables. Select either Depth Slopes, Stepped Slopes, or Surface Slopes from the Cross Sections ➤ Design Control menu. Changing the Depth Slope Settings Changing the Stepped Slope Settings Changing the Surface Slope Settings 3 From the Cross Sections menu, choose Design Control ➤ Edit Design Control and then click Slopes to modify the cross section slope control. In this step, select a type of slope you want to apply in cut and fill situations. After you exit the Slope Control dialog box, the cross sections are processed and updated with the new slope information. 4 You can modify the slopes for individual cross sections, if Changing the Slope Control needed, by selecting Cross Sections ➤ View/Edit Sections. Specifying the Design Control Values for Sideslopes Use to locate

Viewing and Editing Sections
Use the View/Edit Sections command to view and modify sections one-byone. The following illustrations show how sections are displayed when you use the View/Edit Sections command. What you see using the View/Edit Sections command
Station 42+00 Station 42+50 Station 43+00

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Search Help for…
Using the View/Edit Sections Command to Edit the Cross Sections

The following command prompt is displayed when you use the View/Edit Sections command. You can use the Next, Previous, and Station options to move to a section you want to view or modify.

Edits that you make to individual cross sections with the View/Edit Sections command are not overridden when you apply different cross section factors to a range of sections with the Edit Design Control command. For example, if you modify the superelevation of three cross sections, and then apply ditch control to the entire range of sections, the superelevation changes you made are not lost. However, if you modify the superelevation of three cross sections and then apply superelevation parameters to the entire range of cross sections, the changes that you made to the three cross sections are overridden.

Transitioning a Roadway
Search Help for…
Creating Roadway Transitions with Templates and Cross Sections Modifying Design Control

To transition a road from one set of dimensions to another, you can create plan and profile transition regions on the finished roadway design. For example, if the highway design includes a passing lane on a hill, you can add the additional lane to the plan view of the roadway, define the edge of pavement as a transition alignment, and then update the cross sections using the Edit Design Control command. You can also design vertical alignments in profile view that represent vertical transitions, subgrade surfaces, or ditch elevations, and then you can attach these vertical alignments to the cross sections, updating them with the new elevations. The following are general steps to transition a road:
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Define the transition regions of the template. If you are using horizontal transitioning, draw and define the plan view transition lines as alignments. Then, attach the alignments to the cross sections.

NOTE You can also modify transitioning for each station with the View/Edit Sections command, and then re-import the edited values into a plan view of the alignment with the Import Plan Lines command.

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If you are using vertical transitioning, draw and define the profiles of the transition lines. Then, attach the profiles to the cross sections.

NOTE You can also modify transitioning for each station with the View/Edit Sections command, and then re-import the changed values into a profile view of the alignment with the Import Profile command.
The horizontal and vertical alignments you attach can be transition lines, ditches, or rights-of-way. The transition lines are attached to the transition control points that you define on the template.

Defining the Template Transition Regions
Search Help for…
Defining the Template Transition Regions Highlighting Template Features for Better Viewing

Transition regions are used to stretch templates horizontally or vertically to accommodate areas where the roadway offsets or elevations are irregular, such as when a road widens for a passing lane. By using transition regions on a template, you do not need to have multiple templates to accommodate these varying conditions. You can define up to sixteen transition regions on a template, eight left and eight right.

Control Point and Region Point
To define an area on the template to be stretched, pick two key points, the control point and the region point, on the template for each transition region.

Control point. Determines the place on the template where the horizontal or vertical alignment is attached. It is the point on the template that is moved to the offset or elevation that you want. Region point. Determines the outer edge of the region to be stretched. To achieve the surface modification when a transition is applied to a template, a surface line that is intersected by the vertical plane of the region point is modified between that point and the next point on the surface toward the centerline.

In many situations, the control point and region point use the same location. For example, the outer edge of pavement of an asphalt surface that leads up into a crown at the centerline would be defined as both the region point and the control point. If you define these points at two different locations, then you must locate the region point closer to the centerline than the control point. For example, if you want to stretch a center median island that has a curb structure, you

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must place the control and region points at different locations to avoid stretching the curb as well as the median. If you define the horizontal transition alignment for the median along the path of the edge of pavement where it meets the face of curb, place the transition control point at this location. If you also place the region point at this location, then the curb structure stretches as the median becomes wider, and it creates an extremely wide curb. To force the stretch to be applied at the back of curb, define the region point at the back of curb while maintaining the control point at the face of curb. You can also resolve this situation by defining the horizontal transition alignment along the back of curb to define both the region point and control point at the back of curb.

NOTE If transitioning is applied to a template, everything on the outside of the
transition region moves to follow the transition change in offset or elevation.

Pinned or Dynamic
A typical template has a central portion, such as a median or the traveled lanes of a template without a median, where the surfaces cross the centerline. If a surface crosses the centerline, it can have both a left and right transition control affecting it. The two options, Pinned and Dynamic, can control the way in which the transitioning affects the template surface.
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Pinned. The inner vertex of the region segment is always held while the segment is stretched. Dynamic. The grade of all segments between the control points is held. Each half of the central surface is moved to the specified offset or elevation, and then the surfaces are joined by trimming off the overlapping segments or by extending the segments so that they meet. The Dynamic option affects only the central portion of the template and the surfaces must cross the centerline. If the transition lines come together so that the surfaces between the innermost transition lines disappear, then the next transition regions can become dynamic.

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The following illustration shows the region point and the control point as well as the pinned and dynamic options.

It is usually best to use the default value of the Pinned option in most situations. There are situations where you can use the Dynamic option, for example, if the transition alignment crosses the design centerline alignment. If multiple transition alignments cross the design centerline alignment, then define only the first transition region as dynamic. All other transition regions following the first transition region should be defined as pinned, regardless of whether they cross the centerline or not. When you use the Dynamic option, the center portion of the template is collapsed or removed from view if the two opposing transition region points have the same horizontal location. This is beneficial in situations where the width of a median island is designed to taper gradually to zero.

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The following illustration shows an example of a median collapsing at the point where the transition regions meet.

To achieve this, define opposing transition alignments, such as L1 and R1, to follow the proposed edge of median island. If the transition alignments L1 and R1 fall exactly on one another, then the median island is removed completely from the cross sections at these points. Collapsed template areas work only between opposing transition regions such as L1 to R1. If you define R1 and R2 to fall on top of each other, the template areas do not collapse, but stretch together to a single point.

NOTE The Pinned and Dynamic options apply only to the transition regions between the innermost left and right transitions where the transition region surfaces meet at centerline.

Key Concepts
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To create transition regions, you must define transition control points on the template using the Edit Template command. You can create horizontal and vertical transition alignments, and then attach them to the cross sections using the Edit Design Control command. You can use commands in the Cross Sections ➤ Ditch/Transition menu to define plan and profile transition alignments. You can also use commands in the Alignments and Profiles menus to define and modify these transition alignments. If you make changes to the transition alignments using the View/Edit Sections command or the Edit Design Control command, then you can use the Cross Sections ➤ Ditch/Transition ➤ Import commands to import these transition alignments back into the plan or profile views.

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To transition a roadway
Steps 1 Draw and define the finished ground template. 2 From the Cross Sections menu, choose Templates ➤ Edit Template to place transition points on the template. 3 To apply the template to the cross sections, from the Cross Sections menu, choose Design Control ➤ Edit Design Control and then click Template Control. 4 Draw and define horizontal or vertical transition alignments. For example, you can draw a horizontal transition alignment for a passing lane, or you can draw a vertical transition alignment for a ditch. Use to locate

Defining Templates Defining the Template Transition Regions Specifying the Design Control Values for Templates Defining a Ditch or Transition as a Horizontal Alignment Defining a Ditch or Transition as a Vertical Alignment Attaching the Horizontal Transitions to Cross Sections Using Ditch or Transition Profiles when Processing the Cross Sections

5 To apply the transition alignments to the template, from the Cross Sections menu, choose Design Control ➤ Edit Design Control. To attach horizontal alignments, click Attach Alignments. To attach profiles, click Attach Profiles. Click OK to exit the Edit Design Control dialog box, and the cross sections are updated automatically with the transition information. 6 You can modify individual cross sections, if needed, using the Cross Sections ➤ View/Edit Sections command.

Changing the Left and Right Transition Regions

Importing a Ditch or 7 To update the vertical alignment with the changes that Transition from the Sections you made to the cross sections, you can choose Ditch/ Transition ➤ Import Profile from the Cross Sections menu, into a Profile and then import the transition line into the profile. To update the horizontal alignment with the changes that Importing a Ditch or Transition from the Sections you made to the cross sections, you can choose Ditch/ into the Plan View Transition ➤ Import Plan Lines from the Cross Sections menu and import the horizontal transition into the plan view. 8 To update the alignment database, redefine the imported Defining a Ditch or a horizontal and vertical alignments. Transition as a Horizontal Alignment Defining a Ditch or a Transition as a Vertical Alignment

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Superelevating a Roadway
Search Help for…
Modifying Design Control Creating the Roadway Superelevation with Templates and Cross Sections

Superelevation occurs on roadways where the horizontal alignment curves and the road must bank to accommodate the speeds of automobiles. As a car approaches a curve, the roadway cross slope changes until the roadway reaches a full superelevated state, and then the cross slope returns to normal as the car exits the curve. To define superelevation for roads, define superelevation regions on a roadway template. You can also use the Superelevation Parameters command to modify the design control for superelevation. To modify superelevation one cross section at a time, you can use the View/Edit Sections command.

Superelevation Methods
You can choose one of the following five superelevation methods. Rather than using formal names, the methods are designated by letters.

Superelevation Method A. Revolves a crowned pavement section about the centerline. Both edges of pavement change elevation to attain proper superelevation. The following illustration shows superelevation method A.

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Superelevation Method B. Holds the inside edge of pavement of a crowned pavement section and forces the outside edge of pavement up. The following illustration shows superelevation method B.

Superelevation Method C. Holds the outside edge of pavement of a crowned pavement section and forces the inside edge of pavement down. The following illustration shows superelevation method C.

Superelevation Method D. Holds the outside edge of a section of noncrowned pavement with a straight cross slope and forces the inside edge

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of pavement down. The following illustration shows superelevation method D.

Superelevation Method E. Holds the inside edge of a section of a noncrowned pavement with a straight cross slope and forces the outside edge of pavement up. The following illustration shows superelevation method E.

Key Concepts

To apply superelevation to cross sections, you must use the Edit Template command to place superelevation control points on the roadway surface template. To add sampled cross sections at key superelevation stations, you must sample cross sections prior to applying superelevation, apply superelevation parameters, and then use the Superelevation Section Sampling dialog box.

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To superelevate a roadway
Steps 1 From the Cross Sections menu, choose Templates ➤ Edit Template to define the superelevation regions on the finished ground template. 2 To apply the template to the cross sections, from the Cross Sections menu, choose Design Control ➤ Edit Design Control, and then click Template Control. 3 To modify the superelevation curve parameters, from the Cross Sections menu, choose Design Control ➤ Superelevation Parameters. Use to locate

Defining the Template Superelevation Regions

Specifying the Design Control Values for Templates Changing the Superelevation Control Values

In the Superelevation Control dialog box, you can select a Editing, Inserting, or method of superelevation to use, change the subgrade Deleting a Superelevated superelevation values, and so on. Curve 4 You can generate a report of cross section information by Outputting the clicking Output in the Superelevation Control dialog box. Superelevation Data 5 In the Superelevation Control dialog box, click OK to display the Save Status dialog box, and then click Yes to apply superelevation parameters to all existing cross sections. The Superelevation Section Sampling dialog box is displayed. 6 In the Superelevation Section Sampling dialog box, you Adding Sampled Cross Sections to Key can choose to sample sections at key superelevation stations. Select the Sample These Stations check box, set Superelevation Stations the swath widths, select the surface(s) to sample, and click OK. 7 To view and modify the superelevation at individual cross section, from the Cross Sections menu, choose View/Edit Sections. 8 Although profiles do not support superelevation directly, you can convert the superelevation information to a transition to import it into the profile. From the Cross Sections menu, choose Templates ➤ Edit Template to define transition points at the same location as the superelevation points on the template. From the Cross Sections menu, choose Ditch/Transition ➤ Import Profile to import superelevation as a transition line into the profile. Editing the Superelevation

Importing Superelevation into a Profile

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Using Roadway Data for Finished Ground Surfaces
Search Help for…
Importing the Template Points into a Drawing

You can use roadway data to create points, surfaces, or 3D geometry in a drawing.

Placing Road Design Points into a Drawing
You can place points into a drawing that relate to a finished road design. You can use these points as data for creating a finished ground surface that contains the roadway data. For example, you can create
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Existing ground, top surface, and datum template points. Points based on template point codes. Catch points and daylight lines.

The following illustration shows template points inserted into a drawing.

You can process this point data like any other point data and use it to create a finished ground roadway surface. You can then paste this surface into the existing ground surface to create a composite of the two surfaces.

Key Concepts

If you want to import top surface points, datum points, or custom point codes, then you must first define these points. From the Cross Sections menu, choose Templates ➤ Edit Template to define the points and then reprocess the cross sections.

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If you import top surface data or the datum data into the drawing, both ditch and match slope points are imported. Point codes can include centerline points, ditch points, bench points, catch points, and so on.

Search Help for…
Creating Surfaces and 3D Data from Road Design Data

Creating Surfaces and 3D Data from Road Design Data
You can use the Road Output commands on the Cross Section menu to simplify the process of creating surfaces and other 3D data from finished ground road designs.

Use the Create Road Surface command to create surface data from a road design. You can either create a new surface from the data or add the data to an existing surface. Use the Draw 3D Polylines From Point Codes command to create 3D polylines that connect all points that have the same point code along an alignment. Use the Draw Daylight 3D Polyline command to create a closed 3D polyline that represents the locations where the road top surface matches into the existing ground surface. The 3D polyline is created by connecting the cross section catch points along the alignment. You can also create a 3D grid of the roadway by selecting Cross Sections ➤ 3D Grid. You can use the grid data in a surface by selecting it as 3D Faces.

Key Concepts

The surface data that is created when you use the Create Road Surface command can be created as breaklines, a point file, or both. The surface boundary is created by connecting the catch points along the alignment. You can use the Draw 3D Polylines From Point Codes command in conjunction with the Draw Daylight 3D Polyline command to create a surface using the Terrain Model Explorer Define by Polyline command to define the 3D polylines as breaklines. Use the polyline created by the Draw Daylight 3D Polyline command to define the surface boundary.

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Usage Tips
Search Help for…
Actions that Affect Cross Section Control

Many of the results that you achieve with the Cross Section commands are affected by other, interrelated commands in Autodesk Civil Design and Autodesk Land Desktop. The following actions can affect cross section control:

Horizontal Alignment – Station Equations: After you create cross sections, if you define a station equation on the centerline alignment, then you must resample the profile and the existing ground cross sections. Horizontal Alignment – Centerline: After you create cross sections, if you modify the centerline horizontal alignment, then you must recreate the existing ground profile and resample the cross sections. Horizontal Alignment – Transitions and Ditches: If you attach a horizontal alignment to cross sections for template transitioning, ditch control, or right of way control, and then modify it, you must re-attach it by using the Edit Design Control command. Profile – Existing Ground: You can resample the existing ground profile at any time after creating cross sections. This action does not affect the cross section template elevations, but it does affect the cross section volumes. Profile – Finished Ground: If you modify the finished ground centerline profile, then you should use the Process Sections command to update the template elevations. In addition to the Process Sections command, the Edit Design Control, View/Edit Sections, and Section Plot commands also reprocess the sections. Profile – Transitions and Ditches: If you modify any of the transitions or ditch profiles, then you must re-attach them by using the Edit Design Control command. Existing Ground – Edit: After you have applied a template to the cross sections, you can modify the existing ground cross sections with the Edit Sections command on the Sections ➤ Existing Ground menu. After you make the modifications, you must use the Design Control ➤ Process Sections command to update the cross sections. Existing Ground – Resample: You can resample the existing ground sections (from a surface or a file) after you apply templates to the cross sections. You are prompted to overwrite the existing section information. If you respond yes, then the existing ground section information is deleted first, then resampled. If you respond no, then the new existing ground information is merged with the previous surface information. Resampling the existing ground always maintains the finished ground section information. If you used the Existing Ground ➤ Edit Sections command to interpolate subsurfaces, then you must resample the subsurfaces.

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Existing Ground – Add Sections: You can create additional cross sections after you apply templates, either by resampling the sections or by entering the information manually with the Existing Ground ➤ Edit Sections command. A new cross section acquires all its design control from the section that is immediately before it, except for the template elevation, which it extracts from the centerline finished ground profile. If you attached any horizontal or vertical alignments to the template, such as transitions, ditches, and ROW lines, then you must re-attach them for the new sections by using the Edit Design Control command. You need to reprocess superelevation only if you modify the superelevation parameters with the Superelevation Parameters command. If you do change the superelevation parameters, then you are prompted when ending the command to reprocess the superelevation information.

Template – Edit: After you have applied the template to the cross sections, you can make changes to a template, such as adding transitions or superelevation points. After you have reprocessed the cross sections, you can use the View/Edit Sections command to ensure that the modified template has been applied. Slopes – Depth, Step, and Surface: If you modify a slope table that you have already applied to a template, then use the Process Sections command to update the slopes. Edit Design Control: You can use the Edit Design Control command at any time to modify the design control for a range of stations (sections). If you modify and re-process a range of stations with this command, only the specific criteria that you modify is reapplied to the selected range. For example, if you only modify the ditch width using the Edit Design Control command, then the new width is applied to the selected range of stations, but nothing else. This is because ranges can overlap and you may have modified individual sections with the View/Edit Sections command.

Superelevation Parameters: You can modify the superelevation parameters at any time. The Superelevation Parameters command automatically reprocesses the cross sections. View/Edit Sections: You can use the View/Edit Sections command at any time to view the cross sections and to make modifications to the design of individual sections.

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Designing Pipe Runs

8
In this chapter
■ Overview of designing

Use the Pipes commands to create conceptual and finished pipe runs in plan and profile views. Begin a pipe design by laying out conceptual plan and profile pipe runs. Then, import finished draft pipe runs to create symbols and labels.

pipe runs
■ Drawing and defining

conceptual pipe runs
■ Importing conceptual pipe runs ■ Drafting conceptual pipe runs in

profile view
■ Editing pipe runs graphically ■ Working with the Pipes

Run Editor
■ Drafting finished pipe runs in

plan view
■ Drafting finished pipe runs in

profile view

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Overview of Designing Pipe Runs
Search Help for…
Working with Pipes

The Pipes menu in Autodesk Civil Design contains commands to design and draft pipe runs of storm water or sanitary sewer collection systems. You can start a design by drawing conceptual pipe runs, represented by single lines, or you can import predefined pipe runs into the drawing. You can use terrain models to obtain elevational data for the pipe runs and you can associate a pipe run with a roadway alignment for horizontal location data. After you have sized and configured a pipe run, you can draft finished plan and profile pipe runs with customized labels, node structures, and graphical pipe designations. You can use the Pipes commands to
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Design and draft sanitary and storm water sewer systems in both plan and profile views. Perform flow, velocity, depth, slope, and other types of analyses to satisfy a variety of design conditions using the Pipes Run Editor. Determine hydraulic and energy grade line elevations for a system. Size the pipe segments and adjust run variables with the Pipes Run Editor.

Some terms used in this chapter are described below. Node An intersection of individual pipes, or the end of one individual pipe, in a defined pipe run. In a sanitary sewer design, the node is typically represented by a structure such as a manhole. An entity that connects two unique nodes. A collective group of pipes and nodes. A pipe run has a minimum of two nodes connected by a pipe. The physical definition of a node, such as a catch basin, manhole, or an item at the end of a pipe.

Pipe Run Structure

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Drawing and Defining Conceptual Pipe Runs
Search Help for…
Drawing and Defining Conceptual Pipe Runs Drawing and Defining Pipe Runs

The first step in designing the pipe run is to lay out the conceptual pipe run in a drawing. Conceptual pipe runs are single-line representations of plan and profile view pipe runs. They serve as quick sketches of pipe run configurations, which you can use to check a particular pipe run for proper layout and location.

Key Concepts

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From the Pipes menu, choose Define Pipe Runs ➤ Draw Pipe Run to draw pipe runs. Select starting and ending points of individual pipe run segments, and then specify their elevations. This command also defines the pipe run to the database. From the Pipes menu, choose Define Pipe Runs ➤ Define By Polyline to define the pipe run from an existing polyline in a drawing. You can also create a pipe run by importing a file that is saved as an ASCII text file. You can draw the pipe run by specifying stations and offsets from an existing alignment. You can draw pipe runs with or without referencing a terrain model. A terrain model can provide you with surface elevations for manhole rims, or you can input the manhole elevations manually. After you save the pipe run, you can also define the pipe run as an alignment, or you can select an existing alignment to associate the pipe run with. By associating the pipe run with an alignment or by defining it as an alignment, you can draft the pipe run in profile view. You can edit various pipe run parameters in the Edit Run Node dialog box, which you can display from the Pipes menu, by choosing Conceptual Plan ➤ Edit Graphical.

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To draw and define a pipe run
Steps 1 From the Projects menu, choose Edit Drawing Settings to display the Edit Settings dialog box. Make sure Civil Design is selected in the Program list, select Pipeworks in the Settings list, and then click Edit settings. Or, from the Pipes menu, choose Settings ➤ Edit to display the Pipes Settings Editor. These settings control the pipe diameter, name, material, coefficient, the formula for calculating pipe flow volume, and the invert depths. Use to locate

Changing the Pipe Settings

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To draw and define a pipe run (continued)
Steps Use to locate

2 Click Node to display the Node Data Settings dialog box. Changing the Default Node Data Settings These settings control the node name and structure reference description and node head losses. Make changes to the settings, as necessary, and then click OK. 3 After you have made all the changes to the pipe settings, click OK. 4 From the Pipes menu, choose Define Pipe Runs ➤ Draw Pipe Run, and then enter a new pipe run name. Select a terrain model (when a surface is defined in a project). You can use this surface to extract rim elevations for the manhole structures located at each pipe run node. You are prompted to turn the current surface on or off. If you want to enter elevations manually, click Off to turn off the surface. If you want to extract elevations from the surface, click On. 5 If you are basing the run on an existing roadway horizontal alignment, then select an alignment and place the first point of the pipe run by specifying the station and offset from the alignment. If you are drawing the run manually, then specify the first point by picking a point in the drawing or by entering its northing/easting coordinates. Drawing and Defining Pipe Runs

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To draw and define a pipe run (continued)
Steps 6 After you specify each point, press ENTER to Add the point to the pipe run. An “X” is temporarily displayed at the current point, and a triangle is temporarily displayed at each node, as shown in the following illustration. Use to locate

7 Enter the first point’s rim elevation (when it is not being extracted from the current terrain model). 8 Add the next point by station and offset or by manually picking the point. 9 Continue adding points in the pipe run. 10 Type S to save your changes to the database. The Run Alignment Association dialog box is displayed.

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To draw and define a pipe run (continued)
Steps 11 Select an alignment option. You can create an alignment from the pipe run you just drew, or you can associate the pipe run with an existing alignment or the current alignment. If you select the Create an Alignment from Run option, then you are prompted to select the alignment start point and the entities that make up the pipe run alignment, the same as when you define a roadway alignment. This alignment is saved to the alignment database. You can use this alignment for drafting the pipe run in profile view. Use to locate

Importing Conceptual Pipe Runs Into a Drawing
You can import existing pipe runs from the pipe database into a drawing. For example, if you delete the entities in a drawing that make up the pipe run, you can import the pipe run back into a drawing. Or, you can import the pipe run into another drawing that is associated with the same project.

Key Concept
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A defined run must exist in the database prior to importing. Import pipe runs in plan view by choosing Conceptual Plan ➤ Import Run. Import pipe runs in profile view by choosing Conceptual Profile ➤ Import Run.

To import a plan view pipe run
Steps 1 From the Pipes menu, choose Conceptual Plan ➤ Import Run to display the Defined Runs dialog box. 2 Select the pipe run that you want to import. 3 Click OK to import the selected pipe run into the drawing. Use to locate

Importing Conceptual Pipe Runs into Plan View

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Drafting Conceptual Pipe Runs in Profile View
Search Help for…
Drawing and Defining Conceptual Pipe Runs

You can draft a conceptual pipe run in profile view if you associated the plan pipe run with an alignment or defined an alignment from the pipe run. You can use the conceptual profile view of the pipe run to check for problems with inverts and to make graphical changes to the run in profile view.

Key Concepts
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■ ■

Before you define a profile, you must have a defined alignment for the pipe run. Draft a profile in a drawing for the alignment that you are associating with the pipe run. The profile is drawn based on default pipe depths and dimensions listed in the Pipe Data Settings dialog box, which can be accessed from the Pipes Settings Editor dialog box. Pipe runs are stationed in the same direction in which they are drawn. To view and modify the pipe run in a profile, you can import it from the Pipes menu, by choosing Conceptual Profile ➤ Import Run.

To draft a conceptual profile pipe run
Steps 1 Define a conceptual plan pipe run. Use to locate

Defining Polylines as Pipe Runs Making an Alignment Current

2 From the Alignments menu, choose Set Current Alignment to select the alignment that you associated with the pipe run or that you created from the pipe run. 3 From the Profiles menu, choose Create Profile ➤ Full Profile to create a full profile of the defined alignment. 4 From the Pipes menu, choose Settings ➤ Edit to display the Pipes Settings Editor.

Creating a Complete Profile

Changing the Pipe Settings

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To draft a conceptual profile pipe run (continued)
Steps Use to locate

5 Click Profile in the Layer Data section to display the Profile Changing the Profile Layer Settings for Pipes Layer Settings dialog box, and review the names to be used for the profile layers. 6 From the Pipes menu, choose Conceptual Profile ➤ Import Run to import the run into the profile. A conceptual profile is drawn, as shown in the following illustration. Importing Conceptual Pipe Runs into Profile View

7 You can modify the pipes and nodes of the conceptual profile view from the Pipes menu, by choosing Conceptual Profile ➤ Edit Graphical. If you prefer to modify data using a tabular editor, then from the Pipes menu, choose Conceptual Profile ➤ Edit Data.

Editing Conceptual Pipe Runs in Profile View Editing Conceptual Profile Pipe Runs Using the Pipe Run Editor

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Editing Pipe Runs Graphically
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Editing Conceptual Pipe Runs

After you lay out a pipe run, there are two ways to modify it in plan and profile views. You can make changes to it on screen, adjusting the entities that make up the pipe run, or you can make changes to it in tabular editors. This section describes how you can use the Edit Graphical command to edit a plan view pipe run in a drawing.

Key Concepts

You can modify the pipe run in plan view either graphically or by using the Pipes Run Editor. You can add, delete, or move pipe run nodes, and you can modify all the associated database information for each node, including rim and sump elevations. You can modify the pipe run in profile view either graphically or by using the Pipes Run Editor. You can change nodes or pipes using this method. You can modify the slope of a pipe, starting and ending elevations, and you can modify all the associated database information for the pipe. You can also use the Graph option to change the pipe run graphically by selecting a point to pass the pipe through.

To modify a conceptual plan pipe run
Steps 1 Define a conceptual plan pipe run. Use to locate

Drawing and Defining Pipe Runs Editing Conceptual Pipe Runs in Plan View

2 From the Pipes menu, choose Conceptual Plan ➤ Edit Graphical. 3 Select the run that you want to modify by selecting it from the drawing, or by pressing ENTER and selecting its name from the dialog box. In this example, you are using the DBase option to change a node name. 4 Move to the node that you want to change by using the Next or Prev options. 5 Type DB to display the Edit Run Node dialog box. 6 Select the NAME: <name> row.

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To modify a conceptual plan pipe run (continued)
Steps 7 Enter a new name for the node in the Edit box, and then click OK. You can use the DBase option to modify elevations, pipe materials, dimensions, and so on. 8 Type S to save the change to the pipe run database. Use to locate

Working with the Pipes Run Editor
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Pipes Run Editor Controls Editing Conceptual Plan Pipe Runs Using the Pipes Run Editor

You can use the Pipes Run Editor to modify a conceptual pipe run in a dynamic spreadsheet format dialog box. You can use this dialog box to adjust pipe sizing and flow rate parameters of the pipe runs.

You can choose the columns of information that you want to display in the Pipes Run Editor. You can select one of the defined views from the View list to view specific column groupings. For example, you can pick the Node view to view the columns that only pertain to nodes.

Working with the Pipes Run Editor

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Changes that you make in relevant cells of the spreadsheet affect data in other parts of the spreadsheet. For example, increasing the flow rate values in the Pipe Flow column results in increases in the values found in the Pipe Size column, as well as changes to values in the Design Flow, Design Velocity, and Design Depth columns.

Key Concepts
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■ ■

■ ■ ■ ■

Pipe run nodes are listed by northing/easting coordinates, station and offset (if applicable), and node labels. Structures at nodes are listed with rim and sump elevations, node and sump drop values, and structure type and dimensions, including structure wall thickness values. Pipe segments are listed with pipe size (diameter), start and finish invert elevations, slope, drop, and flow values, as well as roughness coefficients for use in Manning, Darcy-Weisbach, and Hazen-Williams pipe flow calculations formulae. Critical flow and depth values for each pipe segment are listed. Contributing flow data from one or two laterals is listed, with lateral names, discharge point invert elevations, and flow values. Flow data is listed for each pipe segment, including design flow, design velocity, design depth, and % d/D (percentage full value at a specific design flow rate) values. The wetted and full-flow areas, and wetted and full-flow perimeter values are listed. Hydraulic and energy grade line elevations in and out are listed. The critical slope, depth, and velocity are listed for each pipe segment, as well as Froude number and flow regime data. You can list data from upstream runs, including run name, invert in, and flow values. You can list runoff data from an existing surface runoff file.

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Drafting Finished Pipe Runs in Plan View
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Drawing Finished Draft Pipe Runs Creating Finished Draft Runs in Plan View

After you have configured the final details of a pipe run with the Pipes Run Editor, you can draft the finished plan pipe run into a drawing. Illustrative structure blocks and labels for nodes are inserted, and then pipes are drawn and labeled between nodes. The following illustration shows a finish draft plan run detail.

Key Concepts

■ ■ ■ ■

You can specify pipe label position, pipe linetype, and line text using the Plan Pipe Drafting settings. You can choose which label components to display. You can append prefixes and suffixes to pipe size, slope, material, name, and length labels. You can also specify the precision for size, slope, and length values, and you can add arrows to indicate flow direction. You can select node label station, offset, elevation, and name labels in the Plan Node Drafting settings. You can choose to display any of the label components. You can append prefixes and suffixes to node station, right or left offset, and pipe, inverts in and out, sump, and rim elevation labels. You can also specify the precision for station, offset, and pipe, sump, and rim elevation values. You can specify the layers for the finished plan pipe run labels. You can specify structure label locations by picking points or by entering an offset distance relative to each structure. You can rotate structures as they are inserted. To properly label pipe runs with the Sheet Manager commands, you must plot the finished draft plan view of the pipes (although you do not need to include any textual information such as pipe diameter or invert elevations).

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To draft a finished plan pipe run
Steps 1 From the Pipes menu, choose Settings ➤ Edit to display the Pipes Settings Editor dialog box. 2 Under Pipes Drafting Labels, click Plan to establish the finished plan pipe settings. Changing the Label Settings for Finished Draft Pipes in Plan View Changing the Label Settings for Finished Draft Nodes in Plan View Creating Finished Draft Runs in Plan View Use to locate

3 Under Node Drafting Labels, click Plan to establish the finished plan node settings.

4 From the Pipes menu, choose Finish Draft Plan ➤ Draw Pipes, and then select the pipe run. You can select the pipe run from the drawing by clicking on it, or you can press ENTER to display the Defined Runs dialog box where you can select the run. 5 Specify the layers for the finished plan pipe run labels. 6 Specify the option for placing the structure labels: Picking or Offset. If you choose the picking option, then you are prompted to locate each structure label as it is drawn. 7 Specify whether or not you want to rotate each structure as it is inserted in the drawing. The finished plan pipe run is drawn, as shown in the following illustration.

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Drafting Finished Pipe Runs in Profile View
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Drawing Finished Draft Pipe Runs Creating Finished Draft Runs in Profile View

After you have configured final details of a pipe run with the Pipes Run Editor, you can draft a finished profile pipe run in the current profile. Similar to drafting the finished plan pipe run, illustrative structure blocks and labels for nodes are inserted, and then pipes are drawn and labeled between nodes.

Key Concepts
■ ■

To draft a finished profile pipe run, you must have defined a current profile properly in the drawing. You can specify the pipe label position and slope percentage using the Profile Pipe Drafting settings. You can choose which label components to display. You can append prefixes and suffixes to pipe size, slope, material, name, and length labels. You can also specify the precision for size, slope, and length values, and you can add arrows to indicate flow direction. You can specify node label station, offset, elevation, and name labels with the Profile Node Drafting settings. You can choose the label components to display. You can append prefixes and suffixes to node station, right or left offset, and pipe, inverts in and out, sump, and rim elevation labels. You can also specify the precision for station, offset, and pipe, sump, and rim elevation values, as well as the text grouping configuration. To label pipe runs properly with the Sheet Manager commands, you must plot the finished draft profile view of the pipes (although you do not need to include any textual information such as pipe diameter or invert elevations.)

To draft a finished profile pipe run
Steps Use to locate

1 If you do not have a profile currently drafted in a drawing Creating a Complete Profile for the pipe run alignment (or the alignment that you associated with the pipe run), then from the Profile menu, choose Create Profile ➤ Full Profile to draw the profile. 2 From the Pipes menu, choose Settings ➤ Edit to display the Pipes Settings Editor dialog box. 3 Under Pipes Drafting Labels, click Profile to establish the finished profile pipe settings. Changing the Label Settings for Finished Draft Pipes in Profile View

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To draft a finished profile pipe run (continued)
Steps 4 Under Node Drafting Labels, click Profile to establish the finished profile node settings. Use to locate

Changing the Label Settings for Finished Draft Nodes in Profile View Creating Finished Draft Runs in Profile View

5 From the Pipes menu, choose Finish Draft Profile ➤ Draw Pipe Run, and then select the pipe run. You can select the pipe run from the drawing, or you can press ENTER to display the Defined Runs dialog box, where you can select the run. The finished draft profile pipe run is drawn on the existing profile, as shown in the following illustration.

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Creating Plan, Profile, and Cross Section Sheets

9
In this chapter
■ Creating plan, profile, and cross

You can use Sheet Manager commands to automate the creation of plan, profile, and cross section sheets. When you use a sheet style customized for the project, you can quickly generate updated sheets with complete annotation as the project data changes.

section sheets
■ Getting started with plan/

profile sheets
■ Sheet Manager terminology ■ Setting up a plan/profile

sheet style
■ Creating a plan/profile

sheet series
■ Creating a section sheet series

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Creating Plan, Profile, and Cross Section Sheets
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Creating a New Sheet Style

You can create sheets that show the current project’s alignments, profiles, and cross sections by using the Sheet Manager commands. You can create three types of sheets.

■ ■

Plan/Profile Sheets: A series of sheets generated for an alignment and profile. Each plan/profile sheet contains a station range of the profile and the corresponding plan view. Profile Sheets: A series of sheets generated for sequential station ranges of a profile. Cross Section Sheets: A series of sheets generated for cross sections. Each cross section sheet contains multiple cross sections, based on the number of cross sections that fit within a section frame for the specified scale.

To create plan and profile sheets, the alignment and profile must be present in the drawing. To correctly label finish draft pipe runs, they must also be present in the drawing. In contrast, cross section sheets are based on the cross sections that exist in the project database, not on cross sections that may be plotted in the drawing. The process of creating sheets can be simple or advanced, depending on whether you use sheet style templates that are provided with Autodesk Civil Design or whether you customize a sheet style to use additional label styles.

Accessing the Sheet Manager Commands
You can access the Sheet Manager commands in Civil Design from the Sheet Manager menu. The commands are grouped into five sections, as shown in the following illustration.

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The top section contains the Settings command to change various settings for the sheets. The second section contains commands to work with sheet styles, or predefined templates for generating sheets. The third section contains commands to lay out, edit, and generate various types of sheets. The fourth section contains sheet tool commands that you can use, for example, to move between model and paper space, set scales, change views, and so on. The bottom section contains the batch plotting commands.

Getting Started with Plan/Profile Sheets
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Laying Out a Plan/Profile Sheet Series

The simplest way to get started with sheets is to generate a plan/profile sheet series based on a default sheet style. To create plan/profile sheets, you lay out the series, then you generate the sheets, which creates a separate .dwg file for each sheet. The following illustration shows a representative plan/profile sheet.

You can load these sheets in Autodesk Land Desktop and use the standard AutoCAD plot commands to plot the sheets, or you can set up a batch plot to plot multiple sheets at a time. The generated sheets reference the entities in the project from which they are generated. Therefore, to open the sheets, you must open a drawing associated with the project from which the sheets were generated, and then use the Load Sheet commands from the Sheet Manager menu to view the generated sheets.

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Laying Out a Sheet Series
To create plan/profile and profile sheets, you start by laying out the series in the drawing. When you lay out a sheet series, you determine the segments of the alignment and profile that are plotted on each sheet by adjusting rectangles called view definitions. In plan/profile sheet series, the view definitions are positioned over the horizontal alignment, as shown in the following illustration.

The dimensions of the view definitions are based on the viewport dimensions of the sheet style you select. Default sheets styles provided with Autodesk Civil Design are located in the Autodesk Land Desktop \data\sheets folder.

Generating a Plan/Profile Sheet Series
When you generate the sheet series, Autodesk Land Desktop switches to a layout tab and generates the plan and profile views and labels. The last generated sheet in the series stays visible on a layout tab when the command has finished generating the series, and the individual sheets are saved as .dwg files to the project’s \cd\data###BOT_TEXT###lt;series name> folder. The sheet drawings are named sequentially, such as s001.dwg and s002.dwg. The process of creating a plan/profile sheet series is covered in more detail in “Setting Up a Plan/Profile Sheet Style” on page 224 and “Creating a Plan/ Profile Sheet Series” on page 229.

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Sheet Manager Terminology
When you are using the Sheet Manager commands, you may come across the following terminology. Many of these terms are described in further detail in following topics. Frame Frames are part of a sheet style. They are rectangular polylines that position labels on the sheets as the sheets are generated. Label styles (also called frame components) are attached to frames. Frames can correspond exactly with the plan viewport in order to label plan stations, for example, or they can be set up below the profile viewport to label profile stations beneath the profile. You set up cross section sheets by using frames rather than view definitions. Frame components include text label styles, blocks, distance label styles, and grids. You attach frame components to frames using the Create/Edit Frame command. You lay out, or arrange, the profile and plan/profile sheet series in model space. When you lay out a series, rectangles called view definitions are positioned over the alignment or profile. You can move these view definitions to control the sections of the alignment and profile that are generated on each sheet. The AutoCAD drawing editor contains two modes of working with drawings: Layout and Model. Layout mode is where you edit sheet styles. You switch between the two modes by clicking the Model and Layout tabs at the bottom of the AutoCAD window. Layout mode is also known as paper space. Model space is where you create drawing entities, such as alignments and profiles. See Layout Mode. A group of sheets generated from the current alignment, saved as .dwg files. Sheets in a series may contain views of a horizontal alignment, a profile, or cross sections.

Frame Component

Laying Out

Layout Mode

Model Space Paper Space Sheet Series

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Sheet Style

A pre-defined template used for generating sheets. A sheet style determines the location and scale of the alignment, profile, or cross sections, and also determines how they are labeled. You set up sheet styles in paper space at 1:1 scale. A sheet style typically contains a border, a title block, viewports, frames, and label styles. A rectangular polyline that is placed over the plan or profile when you lay out a sheet series. A view definition controls what sections of the alignment and profile are plotted on each sheet. The dimensions of the view definition are based on the dimensions of the associated sheet style viewport. Viewports are part of a plan/profile or profile sheet style. A viewport is a paper space entity that corresponds to the model space view definition, and is assigned a category that determines whether it is a plan or profile viewport.

View Definition

Viewport

Setting Up a Plan/Profile Sheet Style
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Laying Out a Plan/Profile Sheet Series

When you want to customize the appearance of generated sheets, you can modify a default sheet style or create a new sheet style. The key benefit of a sheet style is its ability to create a wide variety of automatic labels. By spending some time at the beginning of a project to set up a sheet style, you can quickly generate sheets that contain the annotation that is crucial to the project. You, or anyone else working on the project, can use this sheet style template again and again whenever you need updated sheets. The following process describes the steps for customizing a plan/profile sheet style. The concepts introduced in this process are described in greater detail in following sections, and can also be applied to creating profile sheet styles.

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To customize an existing plan/profile sheet style
Steps 1 Start a new drawing and a new project. When working with sheet styles, it is best to work in a new project that contains no data. 2 Open the sheet style that you want to edit by choosing Sheet Styles ➤ Load Sheet Style from the Sheet Manager menu. In the Load Sheet Style dialog box, select a sheet style (*.dwg) to open. For plan/profile sheets, you can select sdskplpr.dwg. The sheet style is opened in paper space. For this example, you may want to delete one of the viewports and its corresponding frames so you can recreate them using the following steps. 3 From the Sheet Manager menu, choose Sheet Styles ➤ Create Viewport to draw a new viewport. The viewports on a sheet style control the location and dimensions of the plan and profile on the generated sheets, as shown in the following illustration. Creating a Viewport Loading a Sheet Style Use to locate

4 From the Sheet Manager menu, choose Sheet Styles ➤ Set Viewport Category to set the viewport category to either plan or profile. This specifies the viewport for plan and the viewport for profile. Use this command to also set the scale of the viewport. The scale should match the scale of the drawing in which the plan and profile are drafted.

Choosing a Viewport Category

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To customize an existing plan/profile sheet style (continued)
Steps 5 From the Sheet Manager menu, choose Sheet Styles ➤ Text Label to edit or to create label styles. Sheet Manager provides a sampling of text label styles that you can modify, or you can create new styles with many different codes and code categories (such as cross section cut centroid labels). 6 From the Sheet Manager menu, choose Sheet Styles ➤ Create/Edit Frame to draw frames. You attach the text labels to the frames in order to generate annotation. Frames can be co-linear with viewports, or they can be positioned elsewhere on the sheet style, such as below the profile viewport. For example, in the following illustration, a label frame is located below the profile viewport to label stations. Use to locate

Creating a Text Label Categories and Codes for Text, Block, and Distance Labels

Working with Frames

7 From the Sheet Manager menu, choose Sheet Styles ➤ Create/Edit Frame to attach label styles to the frames. 8 From the Sheet Manager menu, choose Sheet Styles ➤ Save Sheet Style to save the sheet style to the sheet style directory. Be sure to give the sheet style a unique name so you don’t overwrite the sheet style you opened originally. You can then select the sheet style when you lay out a new sheet series.

Attaching Label and Grid Styles to a Frame

Saving a Sheet Style

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Text Label Styles
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Creating a Text Label

When you customize sheet style annotation, you work mainly with text label styles. A text label style controls what is labeled on each sheet in a series, as well as how the label is positioned on the sheet. When you are create and edit text label styles, you will come across the following terminology. Code Category The category of data to label. For example, Alignment, Profile, and Cross Section are different code categories. You can think of code categories as the general type of entity to label. The specific part of the entity to label. For example, codes can include tangent length, curve radius, stations, and many others.

Code

To get started with text label styles, try examining and using the label styles and sheet styles provided with Autodesk Civil Design to see how the label styles are set up and attached to frames. For more information about frames, see the following section. Additional styles or frame components that you can set up include Block, Distance, and Grid styles. Block labels insert symbols, distance labels insert dimension labels, and grid styles insert grids onto generated sheets.

Frames
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Drawing Frames for Section Sheets

To use label styles you must attach them to the frames on the sheet styles. Typically you attach labels to two different types of frames: label frames and view frames. Label frames are frames positioned adjacent to viewports on the sheet. View frames are frames that are co-linear with the viewports on the sheet. You attach labels to view frames when you want to create labels on the model space entities, such as when you want to create alignment station labels.

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The following illustration shows view frames for the plan and profile viewports, and label frames positioned adjacent to the profile viewport.

Two other frame types, table and section, are used when creating section sheet styles and when labeling non-graphical data, such as volumes. The following is a brief summary of the various frame types. Label Frame Positions labels to the sides, above, or below profiles and cross sections. Typical labels inserted in label frames include station and elevation along the bottom of a profile or the grid elevations on the sides of the profile. Positions labels directly over the alignment or profile. Typical labels inserted in view frames include plan view alignment stationing or profile vertical curve information. Used to create non-graphical labels on sheets, such as area and volume information about cross section sheets. Defines how cross sections are positioned on a sheet.

View Frame

Table Frame

Section Frame

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Creating a Plan/Profile Sheet Series
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Generating a Plan/ Profile Sheet Series

In addition to laying out and generating sheets, you must take other steps when you create plan/profile sheets, such as customizing settings and selecting the current alignment and profile in the drawing.

Key Concepts

The layout of a plan/profile sheet is determined by the length of profile that can be displayed per sheet. The plan view is then aligned to coincide with the profile view. After you generate sheets, you can use commands in the Sheet Tools menu to copy model space entities to paper space, to rotate annotation, and to update labels based on changes to the label styles or to the model space entities.

The following steps describe the process of creating a plan/profile sheet series in greater detail. To create a plan/profile sheet series
Steps Use to locate

1 From the Sheet Manager menu, choose Settings to set the Changing Sheet Manager Settings Sheet Manager settings. For plan/profile sheets, you can specify the layer names, whether the sheets are generated with fixed profile stations, and so on. 2 Select the current alignment and profile. Making an Alignment Current Making a Profile Current 3 From the Sheet Manager menu, choose Plan/Profile Sheets ➤ Layout Sheet Series to display the Set Current Sheet Series Name dialog box. 4 Enter a name for the new series, and then click OK to display the Edit Sheet Series dialog box. 5 Set up the sheet series options. These options include the sheet style that you want to use, the starting sheet number, and the sheet overlap distance. Laying Out a Plan/Profile Sheet Series

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To create a plan/profile sheet series (continued)
Steps 6 Click OK to place the view definition rectangles along the alignment. Each view definition represents one sheet that is created, as shown in the following illustration. Use to locate

7 Edit the layout, if necessary, from the Sheet Manager menu, by choosing Plan/Profile Sheets ➤ Edit Sheet Layout. You can move and rotate the view definitions that were placed over the alignment to control the parts of the alignment and profile that appear on each sheet. 8 From the Sheet Manager menu, choose Plan/Profile Sheets ➤ Generate Sheet – Series to generate the sheet series. 9 You can view one sheet at a time by loading it. From the Sheet Manager menu, choose Plan/Profile Sheets ➤ Load Sheet – Individual. The Sheet Manager ➤ Plan/Profile ➤ Load Sheet – Series command can load up to 255 sheets into the current drawing. Each sheet is placed on its own layout tab. 10 From the Sheet Manager menu, choose Plot ➤ Edit Batch Plot Job to select a group of sheets to plot. 11 From the Sheet Manager menu, choose Plot ➤ Run Batch Plot Job to plot the sheets.

Editing a Plan/Profile Sheet Layout

Generating a Series of Plan/ Profile Sheets

Loading a Generated Plan/ Profile Sheet Loading a Plan/Profile Sheet Series

Batching Plot Sheets

Running a Batch Plot Job

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Creating a Section Sheet Series
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Generating a Section Sheet Series

When you create a section sheet series, you do not lay out the series as you do for plan/profile and profile sheets. This is because section sheets are based on cross sections that are stored in the database rather than drawing entities that you can view through viewports. A section sheet style, therefore, does not contain viewports. Instead, you use a section frame to control where the cross sections are placed on a sheet. The following illustration shows the frames on a section sheet style.

Key Concepts

■ ■

A section sheet style must have one Section/View frame and one Section/ Section frame. A section sheet style can have any number of label and table frames. You can use table frames to position labels on section sheets that do not have design-specific locations, such as volume calculations. The easiest way to generate section sheets is to use a predefined section sheet style. There are predefined sheet styles in the \data\sheets folder. For example, you can use the cross section sheet named xs100m.dwg in the \data\sheets\metric folder.

It is very important to define the section sheet settings when you are generating section sheets. For example, make sure to configure the horizontal scale correctly so that the section swath width that you sampled fits on the sheets.

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The following illustration shows the settings that affect the layout of generated cross section sheets.

To create a section sheet series
Steps 1 Create finished ground cross sections using the commands in the Cross Sections menu. You do not need to plot the cross sections in the drawing. 2 Select the current alignment and profile. Making an Alignment Current Making a Profile Current 3 From the Sheet Manager menu, choose Settings, and then click Section Preferences to set the cross section sheet settings. These settings control margins, scales, and volume calculation methods. 4 From the Sheet Manager menu, choose Section Sheets ➤ Generate Section Sheets to display the Set Current Series Name dialog box. 5 Enter a name for the series and then click OK to display the Edit Section Sheet Series Data dialog box. Generating a Cross Section Sheet Series Changing Cross Section Sheet Preferences Use to locate

Working With Cross Sections

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To create a section sheet series (continued)
Steps 6 Select the sheet style to use, set the starting sheet number, the starting section number, and the starting and ending stations. 7 Click OK to generate the sheets. The following illustration shows a representative cross section sheet. Use to locate

Creating a Section Sheet Series

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Glossary

A.A.S.H.T.O.

The American Association of State, Highway, and Transportation Officials.

algebraic difference (A.D.) The difference in grade between two tangents on a vertical curve at their point of vertical intersection (PVI), expressed as a percentage. area rainfall The average rainfall over an area, usually as derived from, or discussed in contract with, point rainfall. asymmetrical roadway template A template with different features on either side of the centerline. For example, if you design a highway with two left lanes and one right lane, you use an asymmetrical template that is wider on the left to accommodate the two left lanes, and narrower on the right to accommodate one right lane.

NOTE An asymmetrical template can have symmetric or asymmetric subassemblies.
backslope A ditch is comprised of a base and two fill slopes. The slope on the back side of a roadside ditch, which normally ties into existing ground, is the backslope. base flow Stream discharge derived from groundwater sources. Sometimes includes flows from regulated lakes or reservoirs. Fluctuates much less than storm runoff. baseline The horizontal alignment to which all survey and design data on a project is referenced by station and offset. While the actual centerline of a roadway is sometimes used, the baseline is often a parallel offset from the centerline, far enough away so that when it is staked out in the field, it is not disturbed during the construction of the project. basin The area of land drained by a watercourse.

bench slope Benches are ledges placed into side slopes at a defined width and grade and are used for erosion control. catch basin A structure with a sump that inlets drainage from a gutter or median and discharges the water through a conduit. In common usage it is a grated inlet with or without a sump.

Glossary

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catch point A location where the proposed side slopes of a finished ground template match into the existing ground. catchment area The area tributary to a lake, stream, or drainage system.

centerline (CL) The center of an alignment. Road lanes are created by offsetting the centerline a specified distance. When designing roadway templates, the centerline is usually the finished ground reference point. CFS Abbreviation for cubic feet per second, a unit of water flow. Sometimes called second feet. channel 1. The bed and banks that confine the surface flow of a natural or artificial stream. Braided streams have multiple subordinate channels within the main stream channel. Anabranched streams have more than one channel. 2. The course where a stream of water runs, or the closed course or conduit through which water runs, such as a pipe. channel lining The material applied to the bottom and/or sides of a natural or man-made channel. Material may be concrete, sod, grass, rock, or any of several other types. channel routing The process whereby a peak flow and/or its associated stream flow hydrograph is mathematically transposed to another site downstream. Cipolleti weir A modification of the fully contracted, rectangular, sharp-crested weir. This weir has a trapezoidal control section; the crest is horizontal and the sides slope outward with slopes of 4:1. The Cipolleti weir uses the following equation:

Q =
where

2 -- C d C v 3

2gTh1

1.5

Q = Design flow rate, Cd = Discharge coefficient, Cv = Velocity coefficient, g = Acceleration due to gravity (32.174 ft/s2 or 9.807 m/s2), T = Wetted width of the weir (ft or m) h1 = Depth of flow of the weir (ft or m) code An option that you use when labeling sheets with the Sheet Manager commands. You use codes along with code categories to specify what sheet items you want to label. The code determines the specific item to label, such as Station. code category An option that you use when labeling sheets with the Sheet Manager commands. You use code categories along with codes to specify what sheet items you want to label. The code category determines the overall category of the item you want to label, such as Alignment. conceptual draft pipes Conceptual pipe runs are single-line representations of plan and profile view pipe runs. They serve as quick sketches of pipe run configurations, which you can use to check a particular pipe run for proper position and location.

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Glossary

connection-point-out The connection-points-out on a roadway template are the places on each side of the roadway, typically the furthest points from the centerline. It is where the defined template stops and match slopes or ditch slopes begin, based on design control and existing conditions. If the template contains only normal surfaces, and is symmetrical, then you need to specify only one connection-point-out. If the template contains only normal surfaces, but is asymmetrical, then you need to define connection points for each side of the template. If you define a template with a subgrade surface, then you are not prompted to define the connection points, as they are defined automatically at the outer end of the drawn portion of the subgrade. Connection-points-out are also used in roadway template design as the place where subassemblies such as curbs or shoulders are attached. The connection-point-out then automatically moves to the outermost point on the subassembly (farthest from centerline and highest elevation). critical depth Critical depth is the depth of flow in an open channel for which specific energy is at a minimum value. cross section Section views taken at a 90-degree angle to the alignment.

cross section (Hydrology) The shape of a channel, stream, or valley, viewed across its axis. In watershed investigations, it is determined by a line approximately perpendicular to the main path of water flow, along which measurements of distance and elevation are taken to define the cross sectional area. culvert 1. A structure usually designed hydraulically, that uses submergence to increase hydraulic capacity. 2. A structure used to convey surface runoff through embankments. 3. A structure, as distinguished from bridges, that is usually covered with embankment and composed of structural material around the entire perimeter. Some, however, are supported on spread footings with the stream bed serving as the bottom of the culvert. 4. A structure 20 feet or less in centerline length between extreme ends of openings for multiple boxes. cut slope The cross section slope created when the edge of a template or ditch (the connection-point-out) falls below the existing ground line. The resulting slope matching up into the existing ground is called a cut slope because the existing ground must be cut (removed) during construction. Darcy Weisbach A coefficient of roughness, used in a formula to estimate a channel’s capacity to convey water. The Darcy-Weisbach formula used to calculate head loss due to friction is:

hL =
where

fv 2 d2g

hL: Head loss due to friction f: Darcy friction factor v: Velocity d: Diameter g: Acceleration due to gravity (32.174 ft/s2 or 9.807 m/s2)

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237

daylighting Daylighting refers to the process of projecting a user-defined slope or grade from a footprint for the purpose of locating points where the slope or grade intersects with a target. The target may be a previously defined surface, an elevation, or a distance. daylight lines A daylight line is a 3D polyline that uses daylight points as its vertices. A daylight point is a location in the drawing where a projection line intersects with a target. depth controlled slope A depth controlled slope type uses different design slopes, depending on the depth of cut or fill required at each location. For example, a fill depth of eight feet could use a different slope than a fill depth of five feet. design control
■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Design control is used in roadway design to:

Specify the template to use. Define the ditch parameters. Define the slope parameters. Attach horizontal and vertical transition alignments. Edit the superelevation parameters. The rate of flow for which a facility is designed.

design discharge or flow

design storm A given rainfall amount, aerial distribution, and time distribution, used to estimate runoff. The rainfall amount is either a given frequency (for example, 25-year, 50-year) or a specific large value. detention basin A basin or reservoir incorporated into the watershed where runoff is temporarily stored, thus attenuating the peak of the runoff hydrograph. direct runoff The water that enters the stream channels during a storm or soon after, forming a runoff hydrograph. May consist of rainfall on the stream surface, surface runoff, and seepage of infiltrated water (rapid subsurface flow). discharge The rate of a stream’s flow volume per unit of time, usually expressed in cfs (cubic feet per second). ditch As part of Design Control, you can design ditches independently for each side of a roadway. You can control them to appear in only a cut condition, in only a fill condition, in either a cut or fill condition, or turn them off completely. Ditches start from the template (or subassembly) connection-point-out and, instead of defined as part of a template, they are controlled through Design Control parameters. ditch slope The two sides of a ditch. The inner side is the foreslope, the outer side is the backslope. drainage area The area draining into a stream at a given point. The area can be different sizes for surface runoff, subsurface flow, and base flow, but generally the surface flow area is used as the drainage area. E value (superelevation) The maximum allowable superelevation rate in either ft/ft or m/m. An E value of 0.10 equals a 10 percent grade. energy gradelines Lines joining the elevation of energy heads. Energy gradelines are drawn above the hydraulic gradelines at a distance equivalent to the velocity head of the flowing water at each section along a stream, channel, or conduit.

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fill slope The cross section slope created when the edge of a template or ditch (the connection-point-out) falls above the existing ground line. The resulting slope matching down into the existing ground is called a fill slope because material must be brought in to fill the area during construction. finished draft pipes Finished draft representations of pipe runs in plan and profile views are produced after you adjust the conceptual pipe runs to represent the final design. The finished draft versions are fully annotated based on a variety of user-defined options including line types, flow direction arrows, and comprehensive labels. finished ground A digital terrain model of a proposed final design, and the representation of that surface as line work on a profile or section. The proposed or actual terrain model of a developed terrain. fit plot The performance curve representing the headwater versus the flow through a culvert. flow rate The rate of flow that travels through a pipe or other structure. The flow rate is determined by depth of flow and pipe diameter. flow control structure A structure, either within or outside a channel, that acts as a countermeasure by controlling the direction, depth, or velocity of flowing water. footprint A footprint is an open or closed 2D or 3D geometric figure. After you have created a grading object, you can edit elevations, establish target regions, add slope tags, and apply corner treatments from the footprint. footprint vertices The footprint vertices are the endpoints that define the segments of a footprint. Corner treatments are applied at footprint vertices. A footprint vertex has the following values:
■ ■

X, Y, Z location a station along the footprint from the first vertex

foreslope When a ditch is created, it is comprised of a base and two fill slopes. The slope between the template and the ditch is called a foreslope. frame
■ ■ ■ ■

A rectangular object on a paper space sheet that indicates where

Labels and grids appear on the sheet. Sections appear on a sheet. Plan and profile views appear on a sheet. Tables appear on a sheet.

grade The slope of a surface, with the vertical rise or fall expressed as a percentage of the horizontal distance. grading The process used to model the finished ground surface.

grading object grading object is an AutoCAD object that represents a user-defined 3D design, such as a building pad. The grading object has a footprint, projection lines, target regions, slope tags, and daylight lines. From the grading object, you can create a terrain model, breaklines, contours, and calculate volumes. You can group grading objects together to represent more complex grading schemes. You can make edits to the grading object when it is unlocked and it automatically updates in the drawing.

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239

grading target The grading target defines what the projection lines from the footprint will intercept. The three choices for targets are as follows: terrain model surface, relative or absolute elevation, or distance. gravity pipe gravity. Hf H A pipe or conduit in which liquid flow is achieved through the use of

The friction headloss, ft. Total energy head loss, ft.

Hazen-Williams A coefficient of roughness, used in a formula to estimate a channel’s capacity to convey water. Use the Hazen-Williams formula to calculate velocity using both imperial and metric units. The Hazen-Williams formula is shown below: Imperial: Metric: where V: Velocity C: Roughness coefficient R: Hydraulic radius S: Head loss due to friction head The height of water above any datum. A loss of energy in a hydraulic system.

V = 1318 C R 0.63 S 0.54 .

V = 0.849 C R0.63 S 0.54

headloss

headwater (Hw) That depth of water impounded upstream of a culvert due to the influence of the culvert constriction, friction, and configuration. HEC-2 HEC stands for Hydraulic Engineering Center. HEC-2 is a software program created by the U.S Army Corps of Engineers Hydraulic Engineering Center. You can plot hydraulic cross sections to a file in the standard HEC-2 file format, then perform post-processing in programs designed for HEC-2 calculations. hydraulic grade lines A profile of the piezometric level to which the water would rise in piezometer tubes along a pipe run. In open channel flow, it is the water surface. See also piezometer. inflow The rate of discharge arriving at a point (in a stream, structure, or reservoir).

initial abstraction (Ia) For surface runoff, Ia is all the rainfall before runoff begins. For direct runoff, Ia consists of interception, evaporation, and the soil-water storage that must be exhausted before direct runoff can begin. Sometimes called initial loss. inlet A structure that captures concentrated surface flow. Can be located along the roadway, in a gutter, in the highway median, or in a field. inlet control Flow control at a culvert in which the inlet characteristics and headwater depth govern the capacity. intensity The rate of rainfall on a watershed, usually expressed in inches per hour.

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Glossary

invert

The flow line in a channel cross section, pipe, or culvert. The elevation of the flow line of a pipe as it enters a structure. The elevation of the flow line of a pipe as it exits a structure.

invert in elevation invert out elevation

K value (vertical curves) The value of a vertical curve is the horizontal distance needed to effect a one percent change in grade on the vertical curve. Manning’s n A coefficient of roughness, used in a formula for estimating the capacity of a channel to convey water. Generally, n values are determined by inspection of the channel. The Manning formula used to calculate pipe flow velocity is as follows:

Imperial Units: Metric Units:

V =

1486 2 3 1 2 . R s n 1 V = R 2 3s12 n

where V = Velocity n = Manning’s n R = Hydraulic radius s = Pipe slope mass haul A mass haul diagram is a graph that plots the cubic yards of earth (in cut or fill situations) at stations along an alignment. You must process finished ground cross sections before you can create a mass haul diagram. mass inflow curve A graph showing the total cumulative volume of storm water runoff, plotted against time for a given drainage area. mass ordinate The sum of the cut (positive) and the fill (negative) volumes at each station. A positive mass ordinate indicates a surplus of material; a negative mass ordinate indicates a need for borrow material. A zero ordinate indicates a balance of cut and fill. matchline A contour showing the line of zero cut or fill within the job area. Match lines are also known as daylight lines. match slope The slope that starts at the template connection-point-out, and matches down into the existing ground (in a fill situation), or matches up to the existing ground (in a cut situation). Also known as ditch slope. node Any structure that joins two pipe lengths.

node drop The difference between the elevation of a pipe as it enters a node and as it exits a node. NRCS Natural Resources Conservation Service, formerly SCS, Soil Conservation Service.

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241

outfall The point location of structure where drainage discharges from a channel, conduit, or drain. outlet control Flow control at a culvert in which the capacity is governed principally by the barrel roughness, length, and shape, and in some cases by the tailwater. overland flow Runoff that makes its way to the watershed outlet without concentrating in gullies and streams (often in the form of sheet flow). overtopping A condition when headwater rises to the elevation of the roadway. Overtopping usually occurs at the low point of a vertical curve on the roadway. passing sight distance The distance measured to a point where an approaching vehicle comes into view ahead of a driver on an undivided road. This is used to calculate crest vertical curves. p-curve A plot of flow versus headwater, or a performance curve. Maximum discharge rate on a runoff hydrograph.

peak discharge

percent runoff The percentage of the length of runoff that occurs before the start of a circular curve on a superelevation transition in, or after the end of the circular curve on the transition out. piezometer An instrument for measuring pressure or compressibility. For example, an instrument that measures the change of pressure of a material subjected to hydrostatic pressure. pipe run A series of pipes and structures (such as manholes) connected together to create a wastewater collection system. Systems can be either storm sewer or sanitary sewer. plan view position. What you see when you look straight down on a site from an elevated

pressure pipe A pipe or conduit in which liquid flow is achieved through applying hydraulic pressure. The hydraulic pressure is created by using pressurized inlet points such as pumping stations, for enabling liquid to be moved uphill against gravity. profile A longitudinal section based on a horizontal alignment. Also, vertical section of the surface of the ground along any fixed line—usually parallel to the centerline. projection lines Projection lines define the projection of a slope from the footprint to the grading target. A projection line begins at the footprint or corner treatment and projects upward (cut) or downward (fill) at the specified slope until the grading target is reached. The point at which the slope projection reaches the grading target is referred to as the daylight point. The line that connects the daylight points together is referred to as the daylight line. rainfall intensity Amount of rainfall occurring in a unit of time, converted to its equivalent in inches per hour at the same rate. rating curve A graphical plot relating stage to discharge.

rational method An imperial approach to estimate storm runoff, by use of the formula, Q=CIA. The Rational Method also has an adjusted rational method formula, Q=CCfIA, where Cf is the frequency factor. reservoir routing Flood routing of a hydrograph through a reservoir.

242

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Glossary

retention basin A basin or reservoir where water is stored for regulating a flood. It does not have an uncontrolled outlet. The stored water is disposed by a means such as infiltration, injection (or dry) wells, or by release to the downstream drainage system after the storm event. The release can be through a gate-controlled gravity system or by pumping. right of way (ROW) When building an alignment, one crucial factor is the allowable work area. Property lines of the property owners who reside adjacent to the construction site generally specify these limits, which are called right-of-way lines. rim The rim of a pipe node structure, such as a manhole.

riser A device that transfers fluid from a retainment or impoundment area. It can consist of vertical stand pipes, valves, connectors, and high pressure choke and kill lines to allow pressure kicks to be handled. You can attach buoyancy devices as local conditions dictate to automatically control when valves open. roadway template Represents the chosen design of a road, showing the lane and shoulder widths, asphalt, base surface, ditches, foreslopes, and backslopes in a cross-sectional view. roughness coefficient The estimated measure of texture at the perimeters of channels and conduits. Usually represented by the n value coefficient used in Manning’s channel flow equation. This value varies depending on the condition of the pipe material that is used. The roughness coefficient that is used depends on which formula and method you use for pipe flow calculations: Manning, Darcy-Weisbach, or Hazen-Williams. routing The process of routing runoff for various storm types. Runoff routing must address different storm events. For example, a multi-stage outflow structure might consist of a 24-in. diameter riser pipe with a small 6 in diameter orifice at the bottom, and a 10-ft. rectangular weir spillway. The orifice would be the outlet structure for the smaller storms (1, 2, and 5 year); the riser pipe and orifice for the midrange storms (10 and 25 year); and the spillway, riser pipe, and orifice for the large storms (50-and 100-year). runoff coefficient A factor representing the portion of runoff resulting from a unit rainfall. Dependent on terrain and topography. runoff curve number (RCN) storm event. Represents how much water runs off an area during a

Runoff curve numbers have been established for various cover descriptions and soil groups. All the curve numbers for hydrologic soil groups A, B, C, and D are presented in the TR-55 manual, Table 2-2. runoff The part of precipitation that runs off the surface of a drainage area after all abstractions are accounted for. SCS Soil Conservation Service, now called NRCS (Natural Resources Conservation Service). sheet series A group of sheets (for plotting) associated with a particular alignment and/or profile. Each sheet series has a unique name, and can contain a maximum of 999 sheets.

Glossary

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243

sheetstyle A 1:1 scale paper sheet template for plotting. Typically contains a title block, paper space viewports, and miscellaneous annotation. Sheet styles are stored outside the drawing and consist of a drawing file, an .sdb binary file, and .dbf files. slope tag Slope tags are points along the footprint that define what the slope of the projection lines are at that station. Slope tags define areas along the footprint where a certain slope begins and ends. The initial Grading settings establish two slope tags for the entire footprint, one at the start station and one at the end station. Between two slope tags, you can define one slope. The slope at the start station slope tag is applied to the grading object until the next slope tag is reached. Then the slope at the next slope tag is applied to the grading object until the following slope tag is reached. soil types A, B, C, and D The TR-55 manual categorizes soils into four infiltration groups: A, B, C, and D. Group A has the fastest infiltration rate (the rate at which water is absorbed by the soil), and group D has the lowest infiltration rate. Appendix A of the TR-55 manual shows the absorption group for various soil types. stage-storage curve A plot of stage-versus-storage in volume.

stepped control slopes Similar to the depth type, except instead of using one slope, the stepped type can change the slope as it passes through the depth range and can add benches at set depths. Stepped control slopes are used to connect finished ground cross section templates to the existing ground surface. The grades used at each point in the slope are determined by the depth at that point. You can apply bench widths and grades at each specified depth range. You can use stepped control slopes in cut or fill situations. stopping sight distance The distance measured to a point where an object comes into view requiring the driver to stop. This value is used to calculate crest vertical curves. storage-indication method Plus method. storm duration A flood-routing method, also often called the Modified

The period or length of a storm.

strip volume The volume of an existing surface that is removed from the site, regardless of whether it is in a cut or fill situation. The catch points or right-of-way offsets are used to determine the limits of the removal. subassembly A curb or shoulder segment that you can add to the outer edge of a defined template. subcritical flow Subcritical flow occurs when flow depth is greater than critical depth, causing the flow to be relatively tranquil. subgrade Refers to the materials that a roadway or other structure is built upon. For example, crushed stone or gravel. sump The bottom of a pipe node structure. The difference between the invert out elevation of a pipe and the sump

sump drop elevation.

supercritical flow Supercritical flow occurs when flow depth is below critical depth, causing the flow to be rapid.

244

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Glossary

superelevation Used on curves to compensate for the centrifugal force on a vehicle. In order to maintain safe, continuous operation of a vehicle, the traveling lanes are superelevated, or banked, around the curve. surface control slopes Similar to the depth type, but instead of changing slope at a particular depth, it changes slope at the places where the surface changes. The surface the cut slope is passing through determines the slope used. You can also use the surface type to create ledges at places where the surface changes. This is useful for situations in which the cut passes through a layer of rock. This ledge can be set either to follow the surface or to bench at a specified grade. You use surface control slopes to connect finished ground cross section templates to the existing ground surface. The grades used are based on the material type being passed through. symmetrical template A symmetrical template for roadway design has the same features on both sides of the centerline. You only need to draw one-half of a symmetrical template. The other half is replicated when you define the template. A symmetrical template can have symmetric or asymmetric subassemblies. synthetic hydrograph A hydrograph determined from empirical rules developed for an unguaged drainage area. Based on the physical characteristics of the watershed basin. tailwater (TW) The depth of flow in the stream directly downstream of a drainage facility. Often calculated for the discharge flowing in the natural stream without the highway construction. This term is usually used in culvert design, and is the depth measured from the downstream flow line of the culvert to the water surface. target region Target regions allow for different parts of the footprint to project slopes to different targets. Regions are defined by the distance along the footprint from the start of the footprint. When the grading object is created, one target region is created that encompasses the entire footprint. The target region start station is at the beginning of the footprint and the end station is at the end of the footprint. You can add regions to the grading object and individual regions can have various targets. Depending on your needs, you could have one target region along the footprint that projects slopes to a terrain surface and another target region along the footprint that projects slopes to an absolute elevation. template points Points that are assigned to various points on a roadway template. You can import these points into the drawing for use as finished ground grading data. time of concentration (Tc) The time it takes water from the most distant point (hydraulically) to reach a watershed outlet. time of travel (Tt) The average time for water to flow through a reach, or other stream, or valley length. toe of slope The point at which a fill slope ties into the existing ground is the toe of fill slope. The point at which the cut slope meets the base of the cut ditch is the toe of cut slope.

Glossary

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245

top surface A defined reference line through a template that is used to create a 3-dimensional road grid. You can also use this reference line to import points. A template can have multiple top surfaces. TR-55 The Graphical Peak Discharge and Tabular Hydrograph Runoff Calculation methods are based on Technical Release 55 (TR-55), Urban Hydrology for Small Watersheds. SCS (Soil Conservation Service) first published TR-55 in 1975, and updated it to its current form in 1986. TR-55 presents methods to calculate storm runoff volumes, peak discharge rates, and pre- and post-developed hydrographs. The methods apply to small watersheds (around 2000 acres or less) in the United States. transition lines Offsets of an alignment that are used to determine the offsets or elevations of such things as edge of pavement and right-of-way. Transition lines can be both horizontal alignments and vertical alignments. uniform flow The flow of constant cross section and average velocity through a reach of channel during an interval of time. unit hydrograph A hydrograph of a direct runoff, resulting from one inch of effective rainfall generated uniformly over the watershed area during a specified period of time or duration. unsteady flow The flow of variable cross section and average velocity through a reach of channel during an interval of time. vertical alignment Can define the existing ground, finished ground centerline, ditches, or transition lines on a profile. The vertical alignment is comprised of vertical tangents and curves. vertical curve gradient. A parabolic curve on a profile that provides a uniform change in

vertical distance A distance measured along a sloped surface. For example, if you measure a distance from point A to point B that is on a 3:1 grade, then that distance is longer than the distance measured horizontally. view definition A rectangle that represents one sheet in a sheet series.

watercourse A channel in which a flow of water occurs, either continuously or intermittently, with some degree of regularity. weeding The process of removing points along a selected polyline representing a contour. The weeding factors determine the amount of points removed. You can use weeding to reduce the amount of point information taken from the contours that may not be necessary to generate an accurate surface. Weeding can also be used to remove additional vertices along a 3D polyline that is being used as a grading object footprint. weir A dam in a stream or river that is used to either raise the water level or divert the flow of the water. The shape of the notch in a weir affects how the water flows through it. Weirs are classified in accordance with the shape of the notch. For example, V-notch, rectangular, trapezoidal, and parabolic.

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Index

2 way intersections cleaning up, 117–118 curve-tangent, 118 tangent-curve, 118 3 way intersections, 119 3D grid, roadway, 200 4 way intersections cleaning up, 119–120 tangent-curve, 120 tangent-tangent, 119

B
baseball fields, 128 basketball courts, 128 bend cul-de-sacs, 124 breaklines 3D polyline, 28, 56 creating from grading object, 45 brick walks, creating, 130

C
calculating grading object volumes, 34 orifice values, 90 rectangular weirs, 92 calculation formulas gravity flow (pipes), 86 head loss (pipes), 87 pressure flow (pipes), 86 rectangular weirs, 93 storm water runoff, 76 triangular weir, 93 calculators, hydrology, 74 See also hydrology calculators CD Browser about, 16 documentation available on, 17 centerline (finished ground profiles) vertical alignments, 146 channel calculators, 89 Cipolleti Weir calculator, 92 weir values, 92 Civil Design, 2 accessing Help, 10 documentation, 9 menus, 5

A
accessing commands Civil Design menus, 5 cross sections, 166 grading, 28–29 hydrology, 70 Sheet Manager, 220 Acrobat Reader 5.0 installing, 18 viewing or printing PDF files, 16 Adobe Acrobat Reader 5.0 installing, 18 viewing or printing PDF files, 16 alignment editing, 155 profile, 145, 155 superimposing profiles, 153 annotation, sheet styles, 227 anti-virus software, 19 ASCII text files (profiles), 162 file format, 162 Authorization wizard, 21 Autodesk software license agreement, 20

Index

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247

Civil Design (continued) release 3 features, 8 running with Autodesk Land Desktop, 4 sample projects, 3 starting, 4 coefficients (friction) channels, 89 orifices, 90 commands, accessing Civil Design menus, 5 cross sections, 166 grading, 28 hydrology, 70 hydrology calculators, 73, 84 layout, 116 Sheet Manager, 220 Terrain Model Explorer, 72 connection-point-out, roadway templates, 174 contours, grading object, 45 corner treatments, 40 creating from road design, 7 creating profiles, 142 cross section templates, 170 point codes, 180 subassemblies, 178 cross sections creating, 166 database files, 165 editing, 185, 188 subassemblies, 177 cross sections alignment data folder, 134 cul-de-sacs bend, 124 creating, 122 hammerhead, 124 standard, 123 teardrop, 125 culverts, designing with calculator, 95 curbs. See subassemblies Curve Calculator, 155, 158 curve-tangent intersections, cleaning up, 118 Custom Components page, 23 Custom installations, 20

designing culverts, 95 intersections, 116 pipe runs, 204 detention basins, stage inflow and outflow structures, 107 ditches and transitions, vertical alignment tangents, 146 documentation, available on CD Browser, 16–17 drawing pond perimeters, 64 subassemblies, 178 drawing template (roadway cross sections), 170

E
edit design control (cross sections), 184 roadway transitions, 190 elevations (grading points), 59 stratum, 60 elevations in profiles, 141 existing ground (profiles), 142 alignment data folder, 134 creating, 142 creating vertical alignment data, 141 editing, 155 layer settings, 138 sampling, 141 Existing Ground Section Editor, 166 existing ground surface (stratum), 60

F
features, adding and removing after stand-alone installation, 22 finished ground (profiles) alignment data folder, 134 editing, 155 layer settings, 139 finished ground centerline (profiles) defining, 149 vertical curves, 148 finished ground surfaces (grading), 60 stratum, 60 flow rates Cipolleti Weir calculator, 92 Manning’s n calculator, 74, 84 flow rates in channels left and right radii and slopes, 89 football fields, 128 footprint, grading object, 30 formulas (calculations) flow rates, 92 gravity-flow in pipes, 86 head loss values in pipes, 87 orifice, 90–91 pressure-flow in pipes, 86 rectangular weir, 92

D
Darcy-Weisbach equations friction factors (pipes), 86 pressure-flow (pipes), 86 daylighting commands, 30 creating grading plans, 51 defining ponds, 65 subassemblies, 178 surface templates, 174 design control (cross sections), 184

248

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Index

formulas (calculations) (continued) storm water runoff, 76 triangular weir, 93 frames, creating, 223, 228 label frames, 227 friction factors (pipes) Darcy-Weisbach equations, 86 Full installations, 20

G
grading, 28–30 accessing commands, 29 daylighting, 51–52 developing a grading plan, 28 finished ground surface, 28 object. See grading object points. See grading points ponds. See grading ponds stratum, 60 grading object, 30 breaklines, 45 calculating statistics, 34 calculating volumes, 48 commands, 30 contours, 45 creating, 30, 33–34 editing, 41, 43–44 footprint, 30 grips, 44 settings/properties, 35, 39 slope tags, 31 surfaces, 45 target, 38 volumes, 34 grading plans, creating using daylighting commands, 51 grading points, 59 elevations, 59 stratum, 60 grading ponds, 67 defining ponds, 65 perimeters, 64–65 settings, 63 slopes, 66 Grading Wizard, 31, 33 grips editing grading objects, 43–44 editing slope tags, 31

hydrologic analysis in site development, 72 hydrologic studies, 70 hydrology introduction to hydrology tools, 70 outputting pond data, 111 routing, 100 See also pond routing using Hydrology commands, 70, 76 hydrology calculators, 73, 84 analyzing pipes, 85 methods for calculation, 75 pond storage volume, 114 riser values, 94 runoff from watershed areas, 74 runoff travel time, 82 hydrology files, 71

I
inflow structures for ponds, 107 installation types, specifying, 20 Installation wizard, 20 installing, Adobe Acrobat Reader 5.0, 18 installing Autodesk Civil Design, 19 intersections 2 way intersections, 117–118 4 way intersections, 119–120 designing, 116

L
label styles in sheet series, 227 labeling parking stalls, 126 labels (profiles), 160 settings, 140 vertical curves, 160 layer settings, finished ground profiles, 139 laying out sheet series, 223 Layout commands, 116 license agreement (stand-alone installation), 20 list vertical alignment information, 160 long section. See roadway profile lookup tables, 155, 158

M
Manning’s n gravity pipe calculator, 84 formula, 86 material tables, 180 menus, loading, 5

H
hammer head cul-de-sacs, 124 Hazen-Williams pipe calculator, 87 Help, accessing, 10 horizontal data files, storing, 134 hydrograph data file (.hdc) calculating reservoir routing values, 103

N
Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), 74–75 TR-20 methods, 80 TR-55 methods, 79

Index

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249

normal surface template, 171 asymmetrical, 173 symmetrical, 173

O
online Help, accessing, 10 outflow structures for ponds. See also pond outflow editor, 107 outlets, ponds, 94 outputting pond data, 111 See also pond output profile data (ASCII format), 162

P
parking stalls, creating, 126 patios, creating, 130 PDF files documentation available on CD Browser, 17 installing Adobe Acrobat Reader 5.0, 18 viewing or printing, 16 peak runoff (calculating) Rational Method, 76 TR-20 method, 81–82 perimeters for ponds, 64 pipe calculators, 85 Darcy-Weisbach formula, 86 Hazen-Williams formula, 87 Manning’s n formula, 86 pipe runs conceptual profile, 210 designing, 204 drawing and defining, 205 editing graphically, 212 finished plan, 215 finished profile, 217 importing, 209 Pipes Run Editor, 213 plan/profile sheet series, 221 creating, 229 generating, 222 laying out, 222 plotting. See Sheet Manager point codes creating polyline from, 7, 200 cross section templates, 180 tables, 181 point elevations, modifying, 59 points (grading), 59 stratum, 60 polylines creating from road design, 7, 200 pond outflow editor, 107 pond output, 111, 113–114 data types, 112

pond perimeters, 64 defining from existing polylines, 65 drawing, 64 pond routing, 100 storage indication method, 104 pond slopes, linear, 66 ponds, 61–62 adding and editing outlet structures, 107 defining perimeters or contours, 65 detention basin outflow hydrograph, 100 outputting data, 111 perimeters, 64 routing, 100 shaping, 67 Product Authorization wizard, 21 product documentation available on CD Browser, 16–17 profile, 142, 144 ASCII output files, 162 changing settings. See also profile settings, 136 creating, 145 data files, 134 ditches and transitions, 146–147 editing vertical alignments, 155 horizontal alignment data folder, 134 labeling and listing, 160 sampling existing ground data, 141 setting current, 144 superimposing profiles, 153 profile settings, 136 labels and prefix, 140 sampling, 136, 138 values, 141

R
Rational Method for calculating runoff, 76 Readme file, 17, 20 rectangular weir calculation formula, 92 reports for pond data, 114 See also pond output reservoir (calculating routing values), 103 riser calculator, 94 Road Output commands, 7, 200 roadway 3D grid, 200 creating cross sections, 166 editing, 155 editing in section view, 164 modifying slopes, 186 profile, 145, 155 routing values (ponds), 103 runoff, 74, 79 calculating, 75, 79 calculating from watershed areas, 74 calculating storm water, 76

250

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Index

runoff (continued) designing culverts, 95 hydrologic analysis, 72 time of concentration, 82 time of travel, 82

S
sampling existing ground (profiles), 141 sampling settings cross sections, 167 profiles, 136 saving pond perimeter, 65 section sheet series, creating, 231 serial numbers, obtaining, 16, 19 settings for profiles, changing, 136 shaping ponds, 67 contours, 63 perimeters, 64 Sheet Manager, 220 accessing commands, 220 cross section sheets, 220 definition of terms, 223 frames, 228 label styles, 227 plan and profile sheets, 220 profile sheets, 220 sheet series, 223 plan/profile, 221, 229 section, 231 sheet styles, 224 annotation, 227 frames, 227–228 plan/profile, 224 types, 220 shoulders. See subassemblies, 177 site development, hydrologic analysis, 72 slope daylighting (calculating) breaklines, 55–56 slopes roadway, 186 settings/properties, 39 slope tags, 39 slopes in channels rectangular, 89 trapezoidal, 89 soccer fields, 128 software license agreement, stand-alone installation, 20 Soil Conservation Service (SCS), 74–75 spillways, pond, 94 sports fields, creating, 128, 130 stage-discharge curve data file (.sdc) calculating reservoir routing values, 103 stage-storage curve for ponds, 103, 114 Stand-Alone Installation Guide description, 17

Stand-Alone Licensing Guide, description, 18 stopping sight distance (SSD), 117 storage indication method (pond routing) formula, 104 storage volume, 114 detention basin (calculating), 100 plotting storage curve for ponds, 114 storm water calculating runoff, 76 detention basins, 100 estimating runoff, 79 management, 100 stratum, 60–61 styles, sheets. See sheet styles subareas in watersheds, 74 subassemblies, 177 defining, 179 templates, 170 subgrade surface template, 171 asymmetrical, 174 symmetrical, 173 superimposing alignment profiles, 153–154 surface (template), 170 normal and subgrade, 172 surface data, 7 creating from road design, 200 surface data, grading object, 45 surfaces adding breaklines to, 45 as grading target, 36 stratum, 60 surfaces (cross sections) symmetrical template, 173

T
tables, creating materials, 180 point codes, 181 Tabular Hydrograph Method, 79 tangent-curve intersections, 120 cleaning up, 118 target regions, 31 settings and properties, 38 teardrop cul-de-sacs, creating, 125 Technical Release 55. See TR-55 methods templates (cross sections), 170 defining, 174 point codes, 180 reference points, 174 roadway transitions, 190 subassemblies, 178–179 templates (editing) roadway transitions, 190 templates (normal surfaces), 171 attaching subassemblies, 178 templates (subgrade surfaces), 171

Index

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251

Terrain Model Explorer, 72 text labels, sheet styles, 227 time of concentration, calculating, 74, 82 time of travel, calculating, 82–83 TR-20 method, 80 TR-55 methods, 79 Detention Basin Storage, 100 Tabular Hydrograph Method, 79 time of concentration, 82–83 time of travel, 82 transitions (roadway) defining on template, 190 triangular weir calculations, formula, 93 turnarounds in cul-de-sacs, 122 tutorials, accessing, 14

U
unavailable features, in stand-alone installation, 23–24

vertical alignments (continued) generating reports, 157 horizontal data files, 134 labeling, 160 sampling existing ground data, 141 See also roadway profile vertical curves calculating length, 158 creating, 155 drawing, 148 labeling, 160 lookup table, 155 view definitions, sheets, 222 view frames, sheet styles, 227 virus software, 19 volumes, calculating, 34 for grading object, 48–49

W
walks and patios, creating, 130 watershed areas estimating storm water runoff, 79 watershed hydrologic analysis, 72 watershed subareas calculating runoff, 74, 82 weir calculators, 91 wizards Installation wizard, 20 Product Authorization wizard, 21

V
Vertical Alignment Editor, 8 creating existing ground data, 141 design speed, 156, 158 generating reports, 157 lookup table, 155–156 vertical curve calculator, 155, 158 vertical curves, 148 vertical alignments defining, 149 ditches and transitions, 146 existing ground profiles, 142

Y
Y intersections, 119

252

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Index