# APPENDIX A

Proximate Analysis
Sample Calcullations:
Determination of the Moisture content:

where: Ws is the weight of the sample in grams
Wf is the weight after heating in grams
Wc is the constant weight of the crucible in grams
Determination of Volatile Matter Content

where: Ws is the weight of the sample in grams
Wf is the weight after heating in grams
Wc is the constant weight of the crucible in grams
Mave is the average moisture content of the sample.

Determination of Ash content

where: Ws is the weight of the sample in grams
Wf is the weight after heating in grams
Wc is the constant weight of the crucible in grams

Determination of Fixed Carbon content
1

where: Mave is the weight of the sample in grams
Wf is the weight after heating in grams
Wc is the constant weight of the crucible in grams

Sample Calculation:

2

Calculations:
Table 1. Proximate Analysis of Ulva reticulata during sun-drying (trial 1)
Ulva reticulata
replicate 1

time
wtconsta
nt

7:45
11:3
3
14:4
1
18:2
1
8:28
11:3
4
14:4
4
18:1
2

wi
sampl
e

replicate 2
M

wtcrucibl
e

AVE.
M

replicate 3

wi
samp
le

M

wtcrucibl
e

wi
samp
le

M

22.94
74
23.67
29
23.90
64

0.750
8
0.976
0
0.731
9

23.46
71
24.44
80
24.50
19

0.30
78
0.20
58
0.18
64

20.43
80
31.48
15
23.65
98

0.50
03
0.51
37
0.54
01

20.78
05
31.89
59
24.09
87

0.31
54
0.19
33
0.18
74

35.30
67
35.73
88
35.94
06

0.48
04
0.49
53
0.47
85

35.63
26
36.13
60
36.32
90

0.3
216
0.1
980
0.1
884

0.31
49
0.19
90
0.18
74

26.02
94
22.33
67
24.51
49

0.748
4
0.917
7
0.622
8

26.63
90
23.09
14
25.08
06

0.18
55
0.17
76
0.09
17

23.86
33
36.20
77
24.02
21

0.41
96
0.49
6
0.50
16

24.20
32
36.61
79
24.47
77

0.18
99
0.17
30
0.09
17

31.88
95
28.01
84
32.45
1

0.59
3
0.52
83
0.52
87

32.36
98
28.45
38
32.93
12

0.1
901
0.1
759
0.0
917

0.18
85
0.17
55
0.09
17

Table 2. Proximate Analysis of Sun-dried Sargassum polycystum during sun-drying(trial 1)
Sargassum polycystum
Replicate 1

Time

7:45
11:3
3
14:4
1
18:2
1
8:28
11:3

Replicate 2

Ave.
M

Replicate 3

24.077
3

2.0237

25.3963

0.348
2

22.390
4

2.021
2

23.7047

0.349
7

24.104
8

2.030
1

25.426
0

0.34
92

0.349
055

20.068
2

1.9899

21.7238

0.168
0

26.109
8

0.914
3

26.8762

0.161
8

23.027
1

2.663
3

25.248
3

0.16
60

0.165
247

23.789
1

2.0230

25.4648

0.171
7

23.237
3

2.019
9

24.9048

0.174
5

29.945
5

2.063
0

31.650
6

0.17
35

0.173
213

2.0065

25.7524

0.154
1

23.305
0

2.055
6

0.153
8

31.948
1

2.083
5

33.709
3

0.15
47

0.154
207

24.055
1

25.0444

3

4
14:4
4
18:1
2

24.275
5

2.0491

26.0857

0.116
6

23.921
3

2.073
7

25.7401

0.122
9

35.715
9

2.074
9

37.539
7

0.12
10

0.120
169

25.842
0

1.9967

27.6236

0.107
7

26.433
1

2.055
0

28.2524

0.114
7

31.405
4

2.017
6

33.206
1

0.10
75

0.109
974

Table 4. Moisture content of all sun-dried seaweed species
species

Ulva
reticulata
Sargassu
m
oligocyst
um

# Moisture Content
replicate 1
ID
wtconsta Wtsamp
19
1 SO
3
2 22
3 17

Sargassu
m
polycyst
um
Ulva
lactuca

1 16
2 UR
2
3 I
1 SP
1
2 SS
1

nt

le

24.51
49
20.43
8
26.10
98
23.23
73
23.65
98
31.88
95
24.07
77
29.94
55
36.20
77

0.622
8
1.997
2
1.992
4
2.015
6
2.021
2
2.006
5
1.996
1
2.020
7
2.018
1

wt.
25.08
06
22.12
89
27.80
98
24.99
36
25.42
26
33.68
82
25.84
28
31.65
43
37.95
77

M
0.09
17
0.15
34
0.14
68
0.12
86
0.12
78
0.10
36
0.11
57
0.15
44
0.13
28

replicate 2
I
wtconsta Wtsampl
D nt
e
2
0
G
1
1
1
3
K
H
J
2
0
B

24.02
21
23.90
7
22.33
67
23.67
29
23.67
31
26.43
38
22.33
71
24.02
21
25.84
31

0.501
6
2.003
2.056
4
1.995
6
2.013
4
2.001
43
2.001
3
2.019
9
2.020
4

(trial 1)

wt.
24.47
77
25.60
26
24.09
18
25.40
89
25.42
91
28.22
78
24.10
68
25.72
99
27.59
58

M
0.0917
065
0.1534
698
0.1465
182
0.1300
862
0.1278
434
0.1036
409
0.1157
248
0.1545
126
0.1324
985

replicate 3
ID
wtconsta Wtsamp
UR
1
UL
2
S0
1
SS
2
S0
2
22
18
4
2

nt

le

32.45
1
28.01
84
35.71
59
31.48
15
31.40
54
26.10
98
23.02
71
24.05
51
24.27
55

0.528
7
2.005
1.978
7
2.016
4
2.010
1
2.011
2
2.002
2.023
4
2.022
3

wt.

M

avera
ge M

32.93
12
29.71
59
37.40
44
33.23
38
33.15
82
27.91
29
24.79
78
25.76
50
26.02
98

0.09
17
0.15
34
0.14
67
0.13
10
0.12
80
0.10
35
0.11
55
0.15
49
0.13
25

0.091
7
0.153
4
0.146
6
0.129
9
0.127
9
0.103
6
0.115
7
0.154
6
0.132
6

Table 5. Volatile matter content of all sun-dried seaweed species (trial 1)
4

VM Content
1
ID
3
1
J
7
SP3
SP2
C20
UL3
UR1

wtconsta

Wtsampl

nt

e

22.39
04
24.10
48
22.33
71
23.78
91
20.06
82
31.94
81
31.33
48
35.73
88
32.45
1

average
VCM

2

2.008
2.043
2.011
2
2.021
2
1.847
2
2.022
7
1.994
6
2.062
8
2.004
4

wt.

VCM

22.78
80
25.00
43
23.19
29
24.62
58
20.61
14
32.68
24
31.91
28
36.33
43
33.00
06

0.710
3
0.406
3
0.427
8
0.456
1
0.578
0
0.533
4
0.594
6
0.556
7
0.593
2

wtconsta

Wtsampl

nt

e

17

24.27
55
23.92
14
31.40
54
24.51
49
35.30
75
35.94
06
23.23
73

SS1

36.2077

E

26.02
97

2.049
7
2.168
4
2.072
3
2.005
9
2.239
2
2.168
7
2.114
2
2.091
8
2.021
6

ID
2
F
S02
19
L
UR3

wt.
24.70
14
24.87
74
32.28
79
25.34
63
35.96
48
36.72
97
23.84
81
36.81
05
26.58
43

VCM

VCM

0.7005

0.7054

0.4057

0.4060

0.4275

0.4277

0.4556

0.4559

0.5786

0.5783

0.5326

0.5330

0.5954

0.5950

0.5572

0.5570

0.5930

0.5931

5

Table 6. Ash content of all sun-dried seaweed species (trial 1)
ASH
CONTENT
1
wt.

avera
ge
Ash

2
ASH

22.800 0.20
3
41
25.002 0.43
2
93
23.195 0.42
0
66
24.619 0.41
3
07
20.612 0.29
4
46
32.681 0.36
9
28
31.911 0.28
7
92
36.318 0.28
8
12
32.983 0.26
7
58
Table 7. Fixed

wt.
24.68
88
24.87
73
32.28
57
25.33
94
35.96
33
36.72
86
23.84
78
36.80
1
26.56
83
Carbon

ASH

ASH

0.201 0.202
6
9
0.440 0.440
8
0
0.424 0.425
8
7
0.411 0.410
0
9
0.292 0.293
9
7
0.363 0.363
4
1
0.288 0.289
8
0
0.283 0.282
6
4
0.266 0.266
4
1
content of all sun-dried seaweed species (trial 1)

6

FC CONTENT
avera
1
2
ge FC

Table 8. Proximate Analysis of Ulva
reticulata during sun-drying (trial 2)

Table 9. Proximate Analysis of Sargassum polycystum
during
sun-drying
(trial 2)
FC
FC
FC
Ulva
reticulata
replicate 1
time
15:0
0
17:3
0
9:30
12:3
0
14:0
0
15:3
0
18:0
0
8:00
12:0
0
FINA
L

hr
s.

min
s.

tT of
drying

#

0

0

0

2

30

2.50

0

30

0.00

5

30

5.50

K

7

0

7.00

A

8

30

9.00

H

11

0

12.00

J

0

0

0.00

15

0

15.00

20

0

17.00

E

UR
3
UR
1

wtcruci
ble

26.02
97
23.67
31
24.02
24
26.43
38
22.33
71
35.94
06
32.45
10

wi
sampl
e

2.1499

2.0812
2.1167
2.0632
2.0624

2.0059
2.0018

26.29
60
24.18
74
24.80
81
27.77
81
23.78
66
37.51
60
34.24
80

replicate 2
M 0.006
#
wt0.006
wi 0.000
cruci
ble
1
1 sampl 0
0.001 0.000 e 0.000
0
0
5
0.8
SO 31.40 2.0692
31.65
761 0.001
2
54
0.001 0.000267
0
1
0
0.7 0.003
SS 31.48
2.1488
32.01
0.003
0.003
529
15 4
22
3 956
0.6
UL 35.30 2.3705
36.21
-1
288
67
271
0.000
0.000
0.3 0.000
UL 28.01
2.0063
29.34
52
1 476
484
84 7
0.2 0.000
UL 35.73
1.9975
37.12
0.000
0.000
972
88 5
23
4 57
0.000 0.000 0.000
0.2
63 22.391 1.9756 3 23.94
146
04
678
0.004
0.006
0.1 0.007
1
24.10
2.1456
26.03
5
0 11
023
48 5
0.008 0.007 0.008
4
9
2

wtcruci

M

#

0.8
805

1
2

23.86
33

0.7
496
0.6
178
0.3
389
0.3
057

1
6
2
1

23.65
98
25.84
2
23.90
64
23.78
91

0.2
122
0.1
022

9
7

5
2

ble

23.92
13
24.27
55

replicate 3
wi
sampl
e

2.0256

1.9678
2.0379
2.0647
2.0785

2.0472
2.1695

M

24.11
67

0.8
749

24.17
222
26.61
885
25.26
89
25.24
883

0.7
396
0.6
188
0.3
401
0.2
977

25.52
692
26.22
31

0.2
157
0.1
023

averag
eM

0.8772

0.7474
0.6218
0.3425
0.3002

0.2142
0.1023

7

0
18:0
0
8:00
12:0
0
FINA
L

11

0

12.00

G

0

0

0.00

15

0

15.00

22

20

0

17.00

SO
2

54
23.90
70
26.10
98
31.40
54

2.1021

2.0148
2.0328

68
25.66
93

106
0.1
616

27.84
01
33.16
9

0.1
412
0.1
324

3
UL
2

88
28.01
84
23.67
29
23.02
71

13
18

2.1134

2.0542
2.2233

Table 10. Moisture content of all sun-dried seaweed species

Species

#

Ulva reticulata

Sargassu
m
oligocyst
um

Sargassu
m
polycyst
um
Ulva
lactuca

SS
1
SS
2
SS
3
SS
4
SS
1
SS
2
SS
3
SS
4
UL
1
UL
2
UL

replicate
1
wtconsta
ID
UR
1
F
UL
2
SO
1
UR
3
SS
2
L

11
SO
2
18
2
14

Wtsamp

nt

le

32.45
10
23.92
14
28.01
84
35.71
59
35.94
06
31.48
15
35.30
75
22.33
67
31.40
54
23.02
71
24.27
55
23.30

2.001
8
2.108
8
2.006
0
2.010
9
2.009
0
2.012
2
2.175
8
2.100
6
2.000
2
2.023
9
2.016
9
2.028

wt.

M

34.24
80
25.71
61
29.73
25
37.41
27
37.60
43
33.20
24
37.17
69
24.13
88
33.13
19
24.76
17
26.05
44
25.12

0.10
23
0.14
89
0.14
55
0.15
62
0.17
19
0.14
48
0.14
08
0.14
21
0.13
68
0.14
29
0.11
80
0.10

06
29.79
26

699
0.160
5

25.43
60
24.95
43

0.141
699
0.133
199

1
G
L
20
15
H
19
17
SP
1
I
9
D

le

24.10
48
23.90
7
35.30
75
24.02
21
24.07
73
26.43
38
24.51
49
23.23
73
29.94
55
24.07
77
23.90
64
24.51

2.145
6
2.110
2
2.004
5
2.002
1
2.010
2
2.013
1
2.153
4
2.046
3
2.001
2.035
6
2.023
3
2.045

H
15

31
31.88
95
26.43
38
24.07
73

2.3452

2.0643
2.3249

976
37.00
954

999
0.161
999

4
0.161
4

30.40
407
29.17
674

0.140
999
0.131
5

0.141
3
0.132
4

(trial 2)

Moisture Content
replicate
2
wtconsta Wtsamp
ID
wt.
nt

UR
2

26.03
11
25.70
28
37.02
10
25.71
23
25.73
87
28.15
89
26.36
40
24.99
20
31.67
19
25.82
18
25.68
93
26.35

M
0.10
22
0.14
90
0.14
52
0.15
58
0.17
35
0.14
31
0.14
13
0.14
25
0.13
72
0.14
32
0.11
88
0.10

ID
2
SP
2
SS
1
UL
1
J
3
4
14
C
13
A
SP

replicate 3
wtconsta Wtsamp
wt.
nt

le

24.27
55
31.94
81
36.20
77
35.30
67
22.33
71
22.39
04
24.05
51
23.30
5
24.05
54
23.67
29
24.02
24
31.94

2.169
5
2.100
7
2.010
9
2.002
9
2.007
6
2.009
5
2.158
9
2.072
4
2.002
2
2.041
2.022
9
2.03

26.22
31
33.73
48
37.92
54
36.99
61
23.99
78
24.10
95
25.90
85
25.08
28
25.78
31
25.41
82
25.80
4
33.77

avera
ge M
M

M

0.10
23
0.14
95
0.14
58
0.15
65
0.17
28
0.14
45
0.14
15
0.14
22
0.13
71
0.14
49
0.11
93
0.10

0.102
3
0.149
1
0.145
5
0.156
2
0.172
7
0.144
1
0.141
2
0.142
3
0.137
1
0.143
7
0.118
7
0.102
8

3

5

1
56
23
51
6
13
24
2
81
Table 11. Volatile matter content of all sun-dried seaweed species
VM Content

ID
SP1
UR3

2
18
3
7
12
14
SO1
SO2
UL2
SS2

wtconsta

1
Wtsampl

nt

e

29.94
55
35.94
06
24.27
55
23.02
71
22.39
04
23.78
91
23.86
33
23.30
5
35.71
59
31.40
54
28.01
84
31.48
15

2.016
8
2.011
5
2.029
4
2.011
7
2.018
7
2.012
1
2.011
5
2.016
2.013
6
2.011
0
2.012
8
2.015
8

wt.

VCM

30.24
13
36.50
44
24.99
94
23.62
36
23.01
46
24.57
31
24.59
36
23.87
81
36.46
12
31.83
45
28.42
8
31.89
61

0.751
1
0.570
6
0.497
8
0.547
3
0.518
1
0.466
2
0.495
7
0.573
5
0.492
8
0.642
9
0.677
8
0.692
1

ID

wtconsta

2
Wtsampl

nt

e

wt.

VCM

26.10
2.106 26.42 0.749
98
7
21
5
23.90
2.012 24.47 0.569
G
7
1
26
8
24.51
25.23 0.499
D
51
2.031
67
2
35.30
2.017 35.90 0.546
L
75
6
80
2
22.94
2.038 23.57 0.519
8
74
7
44
7
35.30
2.018 36.09 0.464
UL1
67
7
59
9
25.84
2.006 26.56 0.496
21
2
7
92
4
24.02
2.145 24.63 0.573
20
21
3
18
5
25.84
2.065 26.60 0.493
B
31
4
68
2
24.02
2.543 24.56 0.643
A
24
2
43
2
24.10
2.032 24.51 0.678
1
48
1
77
1
22.33
2.012 22.75 0.691
J
71
3
13
9
Table 12. Ash content of all sun-dried
22

08
(trial 2)

21

3

avera
ge
VCM
0.750
3
0.570
2
0.498
5
0.546
8
0.518
9
0.465
6
0.496
1
0.573
5
0.493
0
0.643
1
0.678
0
0.692
0
seaweed species (trial

2)
ASH CONTENT
1
2
ASH
ASH
wt.
wt.
30.25 0.15
26.43 0.15
81
50
89
62

averag
e ASH
0.1556
9

36.50
77
25.00
06
23.63
00
23.01
60
24.58
52
24.59
22
24.15
80
36.47
46
31.83
48
28.42
74
31.89
68

0.28
19
0.35
73
0.29
97
0.30
99
0.39
57
0.36
24
0.42
31
0.37
68
0.21
35
0.20
32
0.20
60

24.47
64
25.23
73
35.91
38
23.58
08
36.09
96
26.56
80
24.92
96
26.62
18
24.56
41
24.51
93
22.74
94

0.28
30
0.35
56
0.30
05
0.31
07
0.39
28
0.36
18
0.42
30
0.37
70
0.21
30
0.20
40
0.20
49

0.2825
0.3564
0.3001
0.3103
0.3942
0.3621
0.4231
0.3769
0.2133
0.2036
0.2055

Table 13. Ash content of all sun-dried seaweed species
(trial 2)
FC CONTENT
1
2
averag
e FC
FC
FC
0.008 0.008
3
0
-0.0082
0.001 0.001
6
9
-0.0018
0.000 0.000
6
3
-0.0004
10

0.003
2
0.000
7
0.006
0
0.000
7
0.138
8
0.006
7
0.000
1
0.000
3
0.000
3

0.002
9
0.003
1
0.001
8
0.000
6
0.138
8
0.007
3

-0.0030
-0.0019
-0.0039
0.0006
-0.1388
-0.0070

0.000
1
0.000
8

-0.0002

0.000
9

0.0003

0.0000

11

APPENDIX B
PREPARATION & STANDARDIZATION OF 0.1 N NaOH
Preparation
Volume to be prepared: 2 Liters of 0.1 N NaOH
Amount of NaOH neede (g) d:

Amount of NaOH actual (g) : 8.0804 g NaOH

Table 14. Standardization
Wt. of KHP (g)
Initial Vol. of NaOH
(mL)
Final Vol. of NaOH
(mL)

Trial 1
0.5073
8.9

Trial 2
0.5011
6.6

Trial 3
0.5013
7.3

35

32.4

32.9

Calculating for the Molarity of the NaOH solution:
Trial 1

Trial 1

Trial 1

12

APPENDIX C
Calorific Values

A. Determination of Calorimeter Constant using benzoic acid

Given:

Heat capacity of benzoic acid: 26430 J/ mol (Perry’s Chemical Engineering Handbook)

Heat Capacity of nitric acid: 57767.49 J/mol (Perry’s Chemical Engineering Handbook)

Molarity of NaOH: 0.0958 mol/ L

Heat Capacity of Fuse wire used: 9.6279 J/cm

Working Equation:
[Equation 1]
Where C = calorimeter constant (JK)
Wb = weight of benzoic acid (g)
Cb = heat capacity of benzic acid (J/mol)
∆ T = temperature difference (Tf – Ti)
F1 = correction for the formation of nitric acid:
[Equation 2]

F2 = correction for the fuse wire consumed:
[Equation 3]

= length of fuse wire consumed (cm)
Cw = heat capacity of the fuse wire (J/cm)

13

B. Determination of the Calorific Values

[Equation 4]

C. Sample Calculations

Calorimeter Constant
Given:

Weight of benzoic acid = 0.69 g

 Initial temperature = 27.8 °C
 Final temperature = 29.8 °C

Volume of washing = 60 ml

Aliquot of washing = 30 ml

Fuse wire consumed = 7.8 cm

Volume NaOH used = 0.2 ml

(∆ T) = Ti – Tf = 29.8 – 27.8 = 2 °C

F1 = 2.21365 J

F2 = 75.09762 J
Calorimeter constant:

C = 9157.006 J/K

Calorific Value

14

Given:

Weight of sample = 0.4262 g

 Initial temperature = 27.2°C
 Final Temperature = 27.6 °C

Volume of washing = 100 ml

Aliquot of washing = 50 ml

Fuse wire consumed = 4.2 cm

Volume NaOH used = 0.3 ml

(∆ T) = Ti – Tf = 27.6 – 27.2 = 0.4 °C

F1 = 3.320475 J

F2 = 40.43718 J

15

Calorific Value:

CV = 8494.975 kJ/kg
Table 15. Raw and Calculated Data
Molarity NaOH (mol/L) HC HNO3 (J/mol) Heat capacity of Benzoic Acid (J/mol) Fuse Wire (J/cm)
0.0958

57767.49

26430

9.6279

Table 16. Calibration of Bomb Calorimeter
Weig
ht
(g)

1

2

3

Washi
ng
(mL)

Aliqu
ot
(mL)

0.69

Fuse
Wire
Consu
med
(cm)
7.8

Correct
ion
HNO3
(J)

Correct
ion
wire (J)

Initi
al T
(°C)

30

NaO
H
use
d
(ml)
0.2

60

2.21365

27.8

100

50

0.8

7.6

53

25

0.4

0.69

7.5

100

50

0.4

8.85460
1
4.69293
8
4.4273

0.69

10

100

50

0.1

75.0976
2
75.0976
2
73.1720
4
72.2092
5
96.279

0.69

7.8

0.69

0.69

8.6

100

50

0.2

82.7999
4

27.7

1.10682
5
2.21365

27.8
28.5
28.5
27.7

Fin
al
T
(°C
)
29.
8
29.
8
30.
5
30.
5
29.
7
29.
7

ΔT
(°C
)
2

Calorim Average
eter
Calorim
constant
eter
(J/K)
constant
(J/K)
9157.006 9158.666

2

9160.326

2

9157.394

2

9156.668

2

9167.043

2

9166.054
AVERAGE

9157.157

9166.549

9160.79

16

Table 17. Raw and Calculated Data for Preliminary Run

17

Weight
(g)
Cordova
S. Oligocystum

S.
Polycystum
S.
Crassifolium
S.
Crystaefoliu
m
Maribago
S.
Polycystum
U. Reticulata

Buaya
U. Lactuca

Fuse Wire
Consumed
(cm)

Washin
g (mL)

NaOH
used
(ml)

Correction
HNO3 (J)

Initial
T

Final
T

(°C)

(°C)

4.2

100

50

0.3

3.320475

40.43718

27.2

27.6

0.4

0.4254

5

100

50

0.2

2.21365

48.1395

27.2

27.6

0.4

0.5098

6.9

100

50

0.1

1.106825

66.43251

28.8

29.4

0.6

0.4268

4.1

100

50

0

0

39.47439

26.9

27.4

0.5

0.4896

7.5

100

50

0.2

2.21365

72.20925

28

28.7

0.7

0.4895

7.5

100

50

0.3

3.320475

72.20925

28

28.7

0.7

0.4255

4.4

100

50

0.2

2.21365

42.36276

28.5

29

0.5

0.4243

5

100

50

0.3

3.320475

48.1395

28.6

30

0.5

10673.9

0.4114

4.4

100

50

0.3

3.320475

42.36276

27.4

27.9

0.5

10967.8
8

0.4151

5

100

50

0.2

2.21365

48.1395

27.4

27.9

0.5

0.2875

5.3

100

50

1.6

17.7092

51.02787

28.8

29.2

0.4

0.2832

6.9

100

50

0.1

1.106825

66.43251

29.1

29.5

0.4

11022.6
3
10913.1
3
12506.3
6
12700.4
8

0.3999

4.5

100

50

3.2

35.4184

43.32555

28.1

28.7

0.6

13477.4
1

0.4039

5

100

50

3

33.20475

48.1395

28.1

28.7

0.6

13547.7
1
13407.1
1

0.4262

Aliquo
t (mL)

Correction
wire (J)

ΔT

(°C)

Calorific
Value
(kJ/kg)

Average
CV
(kJ/kg)

8494.97
5
8495.44
7
10649.1
5
10639.4
6
12945.5
3
12943.2
7
10659.9
7

8495.21
1
10644.3

12944.4

10666.9
4

12603.4
2

18

Table 18. Raw and Calculated Data for Sun Drying of Ulva reticulata (trial 1)
time

7:45
11:33

14:41
18:21
2nd
Day
8:28
11:34
14:44
6:12
Moist
urefree

Weight
(g)

Fuse
Wire
Consum
ed (cm)

Washing
(mL)

Aliquo
t (mL)

NaOH
used
(ml)

Correction
HNO3 (J)

Correction
wire (J)

Initial
T
(°C)

Final
T
(°C)

ΔT
(°C)

Calorific
Value
(kJ/kg)

0.4392
0.5342
0.5307
0.6064
0.6083
0.5104
0.4001
0.4093
0.4948

3
4.2
3.4
4.4
4.5
4.5
4
3
4.1

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50

2.2
2.5
2.6
2.4
2.2
2.4
2.2
2
2

24.3501524
27.6706277
28.7774528
26.5638026
24.3501524
26.5638026
24.3501524
22.1365022
22.1365022

28.8837
40.43718
32.73486
42.36276
43.32555
43.32555
38.5116
28.8837
39.47439

25.7
25.8
25.8
27
27
27
27.5
27.1
27.2

26.1
26.3
26.3
27.6
27.6
27.6
27.9
27.5
27.7

0.4
0.5
0.5
0.6
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.4
0.5

8221.95
8446.81
8514.95
8950.44
8924.54
8837.2
9001.39
8827.99
9132.55

0.4958
0.3946
0.5053
0.4862
0.485
0.4855
0.3474
0.3401
0.4259
0.3195

10
3.8
5.5
5.4
4.3
5.1
2.6
3
3.5
4.2

88
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

44
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50

2.9
1.8
2.1
2.6
2.1
2.4
1.3
1.3
1.5
2.3

32.0979281
19.922852
23.2433273
28.7774528
23.2433273
26.5638026
14.3887264
14.3887264
16.6023766
25.4569775

96.279
52.95345
36.58602
51.99066
41.39997
49.10229
25.03254
28.8837
33.69765
40.43718

27.1
26.5
26.5
25
25
26.1
28.5
28.4
28.5
26.2

27.6
26.9
27
25.5
25.5
26.6
28.9
28.8
29
26.6

0.5
0.4
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.4
0.4
0.5
0.4

8979.46
9101.47
8946.3
9254.68
9310.83
9278.54
10434.4
10647
10636.5
11262.7

0.3173

6.9

100

50

2.9

32.0979281

66.43251

28.5

28.9

0.4

11237.9

Average
CV (kJ/kg)

8394.572
8904.06
8987.307

9009.078
9281.349
10572.63
11250.28

19

Table 19. Raw and Calculated Data for Sun Drying of Sargassum polycystum (trial1)
time

Weight
(g)

Fuse Wire
Consumed
(cm)

Washing
(mL)

Aliquot
(mL)

NaOH
used (ml)

Correction
HNO3 (J)

Correction
wire (J)

Initial
T (°C)

Final
T (°C)

ΔT
(°C)

Calorific
Value
(kJ/kg)

Average
CV
(kJ/kg)

7:45
11:33

14:41

18:21

0.6974

4.7

100

50

0.4

4.427300434

45.25113

26.7

27.3

0.6

7810.146

0.5759

2.9

100

50

0.3

3.320475325

27.92091

29.6

30.1

0.5

7899.208

0.5686

3.5

100

50

0.3

3.320475325

33.69765

29.6

30.1

0.5

7990.463

0.5556

4

100

50

0.4

4.427300434

38.5116

28.7

29.4

0.6

9815.578

0.4665

3.9

100

50

0.35

3.873887879

37.54881

29.4

29.9

0.5

9729.845

0.4696

5

100

50

0.33

3.652522858

48.1395

29.4

29.9

0.5

9643.533

0.5785

4.3

100

50

0.2

2.213650217

41.39997

28.7

29.3

0.6

9425.861

0.6532

6.6

100

50

0.4

4.427300434

63.54414

28.2

28.9

0.7

9713.077

0.5681

5.4

100

50

0.3

3.320475325

51.99066

28.7

29.3

0.6

9577.826

0.5667

3.8

90

45

0.5

5.534125542

36.58602

29.4

30.3

0.6

9624.765

0.48

1.1

100

50

2

22.13650217

10.59069

29.8

30.3

0.5

9474.308

0.5844

2.4

100

50

2.3

25.45697749

23.10696

30

30.6

0.6

9322.228

0.5911

4.3

100

50

0.2

2.213650217

41.39997

28.2

28.8

0.6

9224.938

0.4867

1

100

50

0

0

9.6279

29.6

30.1

0.5

9391.344

7899.939

9729.652

9572.255

2nd
Day
8:28
11:34

14:44

9473.767

9492.108

20

6:12

M-free

0.4621

2.5

100

50

0.2

2.213650217

24.06975

29.6

30.1

0.5

9860.042

0.54802
2771
0.46565
6518
0.46508
5598

5.5

100

50

0.2

2.213650217

52.95345

27.6

28.2

0.6

9928.98

3.3

100

50

0.2

2.213650217

31.77207

28

28.5

0.5

9763.44

3.45

100

50

0.2

2.213650217

33.216255

28

28.5

0.5

9772.32

0.4263

5

100

50

1

11.06825108

48.1395

29.2

29.7

0.5

10605.65

0.5089

2.3

100

50

0.8

8.854600867

22.14417

29.1

29.7

0.6

10739.78

9821.58

10672.72

21

Table 20. Raw and Calculated Data for Sun Drying of Ulva reticulata (trial 2)
time

Weight
(g)

Fuse Wire
Consumed
(cm)

Washing
(mL)

Aliquot
(mL)

NaOH
used
(ml)

Correction
HNO3 (J)

Correction
wire (J)

Initial
T (°C)

Final
T(°C)

ΔT
(°C)

Calorific
Value
(kJ/kg)

0.4225

-

-

-

-

-

-

29.9

29.9

0

0.4884

-

-

-

-

-

29.9

29.9

0

0.4789

-

-

-

-

-

-

30

30

0

0.5781

-

-

-

-

-

-

30

30

0

0.5789

-

-

-

-

-

-

27.5

27.5

0

0.6102

-

-

-

-

-

-

27.5

27.5

0

0.4659

5.7

100

50

2

22.1365022

54.87903

26

26.4

0.4

7699.722

0.3513

2.8

100

50

1.3

14.3887264

26.95812

27.1

27.4

0.3

7705.352

0.3374

3.4

100

50

1.6

17.7092017

32.73486

27.2

27.5

0.3

7995.83

0.3154

4.7

100

50

1.35

14.942139

45.25113

26.5

26.8

0.3

8522.65

0.4052

2.8

100

50

2

22.1365022

26.95812

26.5

26.9

0.4

8922.067

0.2978

5.4

100

50

1.2

13.2819013

51.99066

26.5

26.8

0.3

9009.283

0.3002

2.5

100

50

1

11.0682511

24.06975

27.4

27.7

0.3

9326.973

0.2972

3.7

100

50

0.5

5.53412554

35.62323

27.4

27.7

0.3

9108.613

0.2902

4.5

100

50

1.1

12.1750762

43.32555

27.4

27.7

0.3

9278.899

0.2775

0.3

100

50

1.8

19.922852

2.88837

26.1

26.4

0.3

9821.355

0.282

1.5

100

50

2

22.1365022

14.44185

26.2

26.5

0.3

9615.811

0.2798

1.3

100

50

1.5

16.6023766

12.51627

27.1

27.5

0.3

9718.079

0.3195

4.2

100

50

2.3

25.4569775

40.43718

26.2

26.6

0.4

11625.14

0.4558

6.9

100

50

3

33.2047533

66.43251

28.5

29.1

0.6

11842.79

Average
CV (kJ/kg)

15:00
17:30

-

0

2nd day
9:30
12:30
14:00
15:30

18:00

0
0

7800.302

8818

3rd day
8:00
12:00

1400

Moistur
e free

9238.162

9718.415
11733.97

22

Table 21. Raw and Calculated Data for Sun Drying of Sargassum polycystum (trial 2)
time

15:00
17:30
2nd
day
9:30
12:30
14:00
15:30

18:00

3rd
day
8:00
12:00

1400

M-free

Weigh
t (g)

Fuse
Wire
Consu
med
(cm)

Washing
(mL)

Aliquo
t (mL)

NaOH
used
(ml)

Correction
HNO3 (J)

Correction
wire (J)

0.455
0.5687

-

-

-

-

-

-

0.5245
0.5479
0.457
0.5781
0.6812
0.7125
0.5466
0.5649
0.5467
0.5552

-

-

0.4253
0.4185
0.5272
0.3984
0.5099
0.3994
0.4306

-

-

2.4
3.1
4
6.6
7
5.4

100
100
100
100
100
100

50
50
50
50
50
50

0.3
0.5
1
0.4
0.3
0.4

3.320475325
5.534125542
11.06825108
4.427300434
3.320475325
4.427300434

6.2
5
3
5.7
2.4
1.9
4.1

100
100
100
100
100
100
100

50
50
50
50
50
50
50

0.5
0.4
0.6
2
1.5
2.5
0.35

5.534125542
4.427300434
6.64095065
22.13650217
16.60237663
27.67062771
3.873887879

Initial
T(°C)

Final
T(°C)

ΔT
(°C)

Calorific
Value
(kJ/kg)

Average
CV
(kJ/kg)

26.1
26.1

26.1
26.1

0
0

0
0

0

0

23.10696
29.84649
38.5116
63.54414
67.3953
51.99066

27.2
27.3
27.3
27.3
28
28
28
27.2
27.2
27.2

27.2
27.3
27.3
27.3
28.5
28.5
28.4
27.7
27.7
27.7

0
0
0
0
0.5
0.5
0.4
0.5
0.5
0.5

0
0
0
0
6685.214
6378.968
6613.129
7988.005
8248.911
8148.374

59.69298
48.1395
28.8837
54.87903
23.10696
18.29301
39.47439

26
26
26
26
26
26
28.1

26.4
26.4
26.5
26.4
26.5
26.4
28.6

0.4
0.4
0.5
0.4
0.5
0.4
0.5

8462.471
8630.225
8620.771
9004.269
8905.052
9059.471
10536.57

0

6559.104

8128.43

8571.156

8989.597
10651.87

23

0.4218

3.8

100

50

0.2

2.213650217

36.58602

26.6

27.1

0.5

10767.18

Initia
lT
(°C)

Final
T
(°C)

ΔT
(°C)

Calorific
Value
(kJ/kg)

Table 22. Raw and Calculated Data for different seaweed species after sun-drying (trial 1)
Species

Weight
(g)

Fuse Wire
Consumed
(cm)

Washi
ng
(mL)

Aliquot
(mL)

NaOH
used
(ml)

Correction
HNO3 (J)

Correction
wire (J)

Average
CV (kJ/kg)

S.
oligocystum
1

0.6376
0.5201
0.633
0.513
0.5142
0.5135
0.5005
0.5907
0.3903

5.5
4.2
3.6
3
5
4
6.9
6
5.4

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

1 0.4548
0.4514
0.5437
2 0.4653
0.4648
0.5591
3 0.4533
0.4436
0.5381

3
5.4
4.6
6.9
6.2
6.4
2.1
6.1
5

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

1

3.7
3.7
3.7
3.7
3.4

100
100
100
100
100

2

3

50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50

0.2
0.2
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.3
0.2

2.21365
2.21365
3.320475
2.21365
1.106825
2.21365
2.21365
3.320475
2.21365

52.95345
40.43718
34.66044
28.8837
48.1395
38.5116
66.43251
57.7674
51.99066

29
29
29.1
28.4
28.7
28.7
28.2
28.5
28.5

29.6
29.5
29.7
28.9
29.2
29.2
28.7
29.1
28.9

0.6
0.5
0.6
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.6
0.4

8534.045
8724.754
8623.212
8868.027
8812.036
8840.643
9014.484
9201.602
9249.582

50
50
50
50
50
50

0.4
0.5
0.4
0.2
0.3
0.7
0.3
0.3
0.3

4.4273
5.534126
4.4273
2.21365
3.320475
7.747776
3.320475
3.320475
3.320475

28.8837
51.99066
44.28834
66.43251
59.69298
61.61856
20.21859
58.73019
48.1395

28.8
29.2
29.1
28.9
29.2
28.3
28.8
29.2
29.1

29.3
29.7
29.7
29.4
29.7
28.9
29.3
29.7
29.7

0.5
0.5
0.6
0.5
0.5
0.6
0.5
0.5
0.6

9997.986
10019.65
10019.79
9696.43
9718.98
9706.864
10052.63
10185.63
10118.96

50
50
50
50
50

2.7
2.5
2.1
1.9
1

29.88428
27.67063
23.24333
21.02968
11.06825

35.62323
35.62323
35.62323
35.62323
32.73486

28.6
28.7
27.9
27.9
29.8

29
29.1
28.3
28.3
30.4

0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.6

9566.211
9572.095
9679.059
9685.002
10678.95

8627.337

8840.235

9155.223

S.
polycystum
50
50
50

10012.48

9707.425

10119.07

U. lactuca

2
U. reticulata

0.3762
0.377
0.3725
0.3715
0.5106

9569.153
10127.38
10572.73

24

0.5202

4

100

50

1.2

13.2819

38.5116

29.8

30.4

0.6

10466.51

Table 23. Raw and Calculated Data for different seaweed species after sun-drying (trial 2)
Species

Weight
(g)

Fuse Wire
Consumed
(cm)

Washing
(mL)

Aliquot
(mL)

0.5608

3.9

100

50

0.6452

5.7

100

0.6947

3.9

0.6945

3.9

0.5559

NaOH
used
(ml)

Correction
HNO3 (J)

Correction
wire (J)

Initial
T
(°C)

Final T
(°C)

0.4

4.4273

37.54881

29.6

30.2

50

0.2

2.21365

54.87903

27.3

100

50

0.3

3.320475

37.54881

100

50

0.4

4.4273

37.54881

3.8

100

50

0.3

3.320475

36.58602

0.6504

5.7

100

50

0.2

2.21365

0.5398

1.5

100

50

0.1

0.634

3.9

100

50

0.6779

3.7

100

0.4764

4.1

0.6082

ΔT
(°C)

Calorific
Value
(kJ/kg)

Average
CV
(kJ/kg)

0.6

9726.281

9788.327

28

0.7

9850.373

30

30.6

0.6

7853.181

29.6

30.2

0.6

7853.849

29.9

30.5

0.6

9815.736

54.87903

27.3

28

0.7

9771.618

1.106825

14.44185

29.7

30.2

0.5

8456.552

0.4

4.4273

37.54881

29.6

30.2

0.6

8603.309

50

0.3

3.320475

35.62323

30.2

30.8

0.6

8050.642

100

50

0.1

1.106825

39.47439

27.8

28.3

0.5

9529.416

5

100

50

0.4

4.4273

48.1395

29.3

29.9

0.6

8950.851

0.4994

6.9

100

50

0.5

5.534126

66.43251

30.8

31.3

0.5

9027.69

0.6432

1.5

100

50

0.3

3.320475

14.44185

26.9

27.5

0.6

8517.898

0.5082

4

100

50

0.5

5.534126

38.5116

31.1

31.6

0.5

8926.308

0.6126

6.7

100

50

0.2

2.21365

64.50693

30.2

30.8

0.6

8863.457

0.5025

6.1

100

50

0.4

4.4273

58.73019

28.6

29.1

0.5

8989.528

0.3239

4.6

100

50

1.9

21.02968

44.28834

28.2

28.6

0.4

11111.45

0.3174

6.5

100

50

2.6

28.77745

62.58135

27.2

27.6

0.4

11256.95

0.3881

6

100

50

2.7

29.88428

57.7674

26.9

27.4

0.5

11576.25

0.3945

5.4

100

50

2.5

27.67063

51.99066

27

27.5

0.5

11408.7

0.4431

3.4

100

50

2.2

24.35015

32.73486

29.8

30.4

0.6

12275.76

0.4422

5.1

100

50

2

22.1365

49.10229

29.8

30.4

0.6

12268.74

S.
oligocystu
m
1
2
3
4

7853.515
9793.677
8529.93

S.
polycystum
1
2
3
4

8790.029
8989.271
8722.103
8926.492

U. lactuca
1
2
3

11184.2
11492.48
12272.25

25

U. reticulata

0.3899

2.8

100

50

1.5

16.60238

26.95812

28.2

28.7

0.5

11624.54

0.4684

4.3

100

50

0.8

8.854601

41.39997

29.8

30.4

0.6

11627.28

11625.91

26

APPEDIX D

MULTIPLE LINEAR REGRESSION
Multiple linear regression model:

Normal estimation equations for multiple linear regression:

.

.

.

.

.
.

.

.

.

.
.

.

.

.

.

*These equations can be solved for bo, b1, b2, …, bk by any appropriate method for
solving systems of linear equations.

27

CALCULATIONS
Given: Table 24. Raw and Calculated Data for Multiple Linear Regression
Species
S.
oligocystum
1
S.
oligocystum
2
S.
oligocystum
3
S.
polycystum
1
S.
polycystum
2
S.
polycystum
3
U. lactuca 1
U. lactuca 2
U. reticulata
S.
oligocystum
1
S.
oligocystum
2
S.
oligocystum
3
S.
oligocystum
4
S.
polycystum
1
S.
polycystum
2
S.
polycystum
3
S.
polycystum

#

HV(y)

M (x1)

VCM(x2
)

ASH(x3)

1

8.62734

15.34

40.60

44.00

2

8.84024

14.66

42.77

42.57

3

9.1552

12.99

45.59

41.09

4

10.0125

12.79

57.83

29.37

5

9.7074

10.36

53.30

36.30

6
7
8
9

10.1191
9.5692
9.6820
10.5727

11.57
15.46
13.26
9.17

59.50
55.70
59.31
70.54

28.90
28.24
26.61
20.29

1
0

9.7883

14.91

57.02

28.25

1
1

7.8535

14.55

49.85

35.64

1
2

9.79368

15.62

54.68

30.01

1
3

8.52993

17.27

51.89

31.03

1
4

8.79003

14.41

46.56

39.42

1
5

8.9893

14.12

49.61

36.21

8.7221

14.23

57.35

42.31

8.9265

13.71

49.30

37.69

1
6
1
7

28

4
U. lactuca 1
U. lactuca 2
U. lactuca 3
U. reticulata

1
8
1
9
2
0
2
1

11.1842

14.37

64.31

21.33

11.4925

11.87

67.80

20.36

12.2723

10.23

69.20

20.55

11.6259

10.23

75.03

15.56

Estimation equations for multiple linear equation:

29

From the given,
n = number of points = 21
Table 24. Raw and Calculated Data for Multiple Linear Regression
Speci
es

#

HV(y
)

SO1

1

8.63

SO2

2

8.84

SO3

3

SP1

4

9.16
10.0
1

SP2

5

SP3

6

9.71
10.1
2

UL1

7

9.57

UL2

8

UR

9
1
0
1
1
1
2
1
3
1
4

9.68
10.5
7

SO1
SO2
SO3
SO4
SP1

9.79
7.85
9.79
8.53
8.79

M
(x1)
15.3
4
14.6
6
12.9
9
12.7
9
10.3
6
11.5
7
15.4
6
13.2
6

VCM(
x2)

ASH(
x3)

40.60

44.00

42.77

42.57

45.59

41.09

57.83

29.37

53.30

36.30

59.50

28.90

55.70

28.24

59.31

26.61

9.17
14.9
1
14.5
5
15.6
2
17.2
7
14.4
1

70.54

20.29

57.02

28.25

49.85

35.64

54.68

30.01

51.89

31.03

46.56

39.42

x12
235.3
2
214.9
2
168.7
4
163.5
8
107.3
3
133.8
6
239.0
1
175.8
3
84.09
222.3
1
211.7
0
243.9
8
298.2
5
207.6
5

x22
1648.3
6
1829.2
7
2078.4
5
3344.3
1
2840.8
9
3540.2
5
3102.4
9
3517.7
7
4975.8
9
3251.2
8
2485.0
2
2989.9
0
2692.5
7
2167.8
3

x32
1936.0
0
1812.2
0
1688.3
9

x1x2
622.80
627.01
592.21

862.60
1317.6
9

739.65

835.21

688.42

797.50

861.12

708.09

786.46

411.68

646.85

798.06
1270.2
1

850.17

900.60

854.10

962.86
1553.9
4

896.14

552.19

725.32

670.93

x1x3
674.9
6
624.0
8
533.7
6
375.6
4
376.0
7
334.3
7
436.5
9
352.8
5
186.0
6
421.2
1
518.5
6
468.7
6
535.8
9
568.0
4

x2x3
1786.4
0
1820.7
2
1873.2
9
1698.4
7
1934.7
9
1719.5
5
1572.9
7
1578.2
6
1431.2
6
1610.8
2
1776.6
5
1640.9
5
1610.1
5
1835.4
0

x1y
132.3
4
129.6
0
118.9
3
128.0
6
100.5
7
117.0
8
147.9
4
128.3
8
96.95
145.9
4
114.2
7
152.9
8
147.3
1
126.6
6

x2y
350.27
378.10
417.39
579.02
517.41
602.08
533.00
574.25
745.80
558.13
391.50
535.52
442.62
409.26

x3y
379.6
0
376.3
3
376.1
9
294.0
7
352.3
8
292.4
4
270.2
3
257.6
4
214.5
2
276.5
2
279.9
0
293.9
1
264.6
8
346.5
0
30

SP2
SP3
SP4
UL1
UL2
UL3
UR

Σ

1
5
1
6
1
7
1
8
1
9
2
0
2
1

8.93
11.1
8
11.4
9
12.2
7
11.6
3

14.1
2
14.2
3
13.7
1
14.3
7
11.8
7
10.2
3
10.2
3

204.
25

281.
12

8.99
8.72

2461.1
5
3289.0
2
2430.4
9
4135.7
8
4596.8
4
4788.6
4
5629.5
0

1311.1
6
1790.1
4
1420.5
4

15.56

199.3
7
202.4
9
187.9
6
206.5
0
140.9
0
104.6
5
104.6
5

655.7
3

3853.
11

67795
.71

49.61

36.21

57.35

42.31

49.30

37.69

64.31

21.33

67.80

20.36

69.20

20.55

75.03
1177.
74

454.97

924.13

414.53

804.79

422.30

707.92

242.11

767.56

511.2
9
602.0
7
516.7
3
306.5
1
241.6
7
210.2
3
159.1
8

21910.
78

15510
.25

8954.
51

700.49
816.09
675.90

1796.3
8
2426.4
8
1858.1
2
1371.7
3
1380.4
1
1422.0
6
1167.4
7

126.9
3
124.1
2
122.3
8
160.7
2
136.4
2
125.5
5
118.9
3

35312
.30

2702.
05

872.29

325.5
0
369.0
3
336.4
4
238.5
6
233.9
9
252.1
9
180.9
0

11640
.57

6211.
53

445.96
500.21
440.08
719.26
779.19
849.24

31

From the figures calculated above,
the estimation equations for multiple linear equation are as follows:

Solving these 4 unknowns with 4 equations,
The values of the unknowns are:

Plugging in these values in the regression model,

Then, the correlation is..

32

Calculation for the R2 of the correlation produced:

where:
ymean= 9.7264

Table 25. Calculated Data for Multiple Linear Regression

Yi
8.6273
8.8402
9.1552
10.0125
9.7074
10.1191
9.5692
9.6820
10.5727
9.7883
7.8535
9.7937
8.5299
8.7900
8.9893
8.7221
8.9265
11.1842
11.4925
12.2723
11.6259

(YiYmean)2
1.2079
0.7852
0.3262
0.0819
0.0004
0.1542
0.0247
0.0020
0.7163
0.0038
3.5076
0.0045
1.4315
0.8767
0.5433
1.0086
0.6398
2.1253
3.1191
6.4815
3.6082

(Ŷ)
8.1487
8.4041
8.8272
9.9988
9.7444
10.2525
9.6417
10.1718
11.4951
9.7476
9.0930
9.4583
9.0756
8.7575
9.1098
8.7305
9.0494
10.5056
11.0271
11.2884
11.7842

(ŶYmean)2
2.4891
1.7485
0.8085
0.0742
0.0003
0.2768
0.0072
0.1984
3.1284
0.0005
0.4012
0.0719
0.4234
0.9387
0.3802
0.9917
0.4583
0.6072
1.6920
2.4400
4.2347

33

Table 26. Seawater Conditions during sampling
Paramete
r
T (oC)
DO
(g/mL)
Salinity
(%)
pH

Maribago

Buaya

Cordova

29

30

33.4

31

30

29

30.2

30

29.8

6.57

8.09

6.85

3.5

3.13

2.79

3.4

2.97

2.99

27
7.8

28
7.6

32
8.57

28
8.62

28
8.25

22
8.06

35
8.33

38
8.23

35
8.46

34