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1975 AL

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{a ( x 1) 5 b ( x 1) 4 c ( x 1) 3 d ( x 1) 2 e ( x

n

k4

k 1

in n.

(1975)

2. (a)Let b1 , . . . , b n be real numbers,

B( x ) ( x b1 )( x b 2 ) . . . ( x b n ) and

B'(x) the derivative of B(x). Show that b1 , . . . , b n are all distinct if and only if

B' ( b1 ), . . . , B ' ( b n ) are all nonzero.

(b) Now suppose that b1 , . . . , b n are all distinct. For a polynomial A(x) of degree < n

in x, prove that

n

A(b r )

A( x )

r 1 B' ( b )( x b )

B( x )

r

r

xp

( x 1)( x 2) . . .

(x n)

show that

1p

2p

( 1) n 2 ( n 1

...

1

!( n 1)!

2!( n 2)!

( n 1) ! 1!

is zero.

(1975)

3. (a)

Let a 1 ,a

such that

a1 a

, ... , a

be positive numbers

and b1 b 2 ... b n .

j (a i a j )( b i b j )0

jaibi b j ai a j bi na jb j.

i

; b1 ,b 2 , ... , b n

... a

Deduce that

. Show that

1 1 1

( a i )( bi ) a ibi.

ni ni ni

such that a 1 j a 2 j ... a nj for all j . Show that

1 1 1 1

( ai1)( ai2). .( aim ) ai1ai2. .aim

ni ni ni ni

(c) Let

a 1 ,a 2 , . . . , a n

1

1 m

m

( ai ) ai .

ni

ni

(1975)

4.

(a) Let and be real numbers and suppose 0 . Find the multiplicative

inverse of the matrix

1

0

x y

1

x

z 1

y z 1

x y 2 z 1

Show that if this condition does not hold no solution exists.

(1975)

5. Given a 2x2 matrix P and a real number , let P denote the matrix

0

0 P and P

the determinant of P.

Let

01 01

I A, ,

0 1 10

10 0 1

B , C .

01 1 0

(i) A 2 B 2 C 2 I ,

(ii) AB = C = -BA

(iii) CB = A = -BC,

(iv) AC = B = -CA.

(a) Show that the set of eight matrices I , A, B , C forms a group under matrix multiplication.

(b) Show that every 2x2 real matrix P can be expressed uniquely in the form

P = wI + xA + yB + zC

where w, x, y and z are real numbers . Given that P 0 , express P 1 in this form in terms of w, x,

1

y and z. Hence show that P P APA BPB CPC

(1975)

6. Let p and q be integers. We say p and q are relatively prime, if 1 is the only common positive

integral factor of p and q. The following lemmas may be assumed in part (a).

Lemma 1. Let m, n and p be integers such that p is an integral factor of mn, and p and n are

relatively prime. Then p is an integral factor of m.

Lemma 2.

Let p and m, and p and n be two pairs of relatively prime integers. Then p and mn are

relatively prime.

(a) Let

p( x ) a

n 1

n 1

... a 1 x a

p

is a rational root of the equation P(x) = 0 where p and

q

(q 0), then p is an integral factor of a 0 and q

ai

is an integral factor of a n .

(b) Let a be an integer and P(x) the polynomial

2 x n 2 5 x n 1 2 x n 2ax 3 (5a 2) x 2 ( 2a

Show that P(2) = 0. Using (a) or otherwise, show that P(x) = 0 has exactly two rational roots

provided a does not take one of the values 0, 2, -2.

3

2

(c) Show that

satisfies the equation

4

2

x

10 x

1 0. Hence use (a) to deduce that

3

2

is an irrational number.

(1975)

7. (a)Balls are drawn without replacement from an urn containing N balls exactly n of which are white. Find

the probability that a white ball is drawn for the first time at the rth draw. (Distinguish between the

cases r N - n + 1 and r > N - n + 1.)

(b) By considering the probability that the first white ball is drawn at or before the (N - n + 1)th draw, or

otherwise, verify the identity (n < N)

1

Nn

( N n )( N n 1)

N 1

( N 1)( N 2)

. . .

(1975)

U X and V Y

8. Let

f

and

(a) f ( U1 )f ( U 2 )f ( U1 U 2 ),

(b) f ( U1 )f ( U 2 )f ( U1 U 2 ),

(c) f 1 ( V1 )f 1 ( V2 )f 1 ( V1 V2 ),

(d) f 1 ( V1 )f 1 ( V2 )f 1 ( V1 V2 ),

where U 1 , U 2 are subsets of X and V1 , V2

(1975)

are subsets of Y .

1. Given a circle C : x 2 y 2 r 2 .

(a) Show that the line y = mx + c touches C if and only if c 2 (1 m 2 ) r 2 .

(b) Let (a, b) be a point such that a 2 r 2 and a 2 b 2 r 2 By using

(a) or otherwise, prove that the equation of the pair of tangents from (a, b) to C can be expressed as

(*)

(a 2 r 2 )( yb ) 2 2ab( x a )( yb )( b 2 r 2 )( x a ) 2

.

(c) If a 2 r 2 but a 2 b 2 r 2 , by factorizing the left hand side of (*),

show that it still represents the pair of tangents from (a, b) to C.

(1975)

2. (a) Let (a, b) be a point on the curve

K :11 x 2 212 xy 22 y 2 213 x 2 23 y 33 0 .

Prove that if K has a tangent at (a, b), then the equation of the tangent is

11 ax 12 ( bx ay) 22 by13 ( x a ) 23 ( y b ) 33

.

(b) Suppose that a hyperbola H is obtained by applying a rotation to a hyperbola in standard position and

suppose that one of the asymptotes of H is a 1 x a 2 y 0 . Prove that the equation of

the hyperbola H is of the form (a 1 x a 2 y)( b1 x b 2 y ) c , for some constants

b1 , b 2 and c.

(c) Find the equation of the hyperbola, given

(i) that it is obtained by applying a rotation to a hyperbola in standard position,

(ii) that one of its asymptotes is the line 2x - y = 0,

(iii)that it passes through the point (1, 0) and its tangent at (1, 0) is parallel to the line 4x + y = 0.

(iv)that it passes through the point (1, 1).

(1975)

( x 1) 3

be a real-valued function defined on the real line except x = -1.

( x 1) 2

(a) Prove that the straight line x = -1 and y = x-5 are asymptotes of the graph y = f(x).

(b) Find , if any

(i) the local maxima and minima of f(x) ;

(ii) the intersections of the graph y = f(x) and its asymptotes.

(c) Sketch the graph of y = f(x).

(d) Sketch the graph of y f ( x ) .

(1975)

3. Let f(x) =

(a) For any n > 0 , express

cos x

(2cos x )

dx

,

( 2cos x ) n

dx

in terms of

I n and I n 1

.

(b) For any n > 1, express

I n , I n 1

cos 2 x

dx

( 2cos x ) n

and

in terms of

I n 2 .

(c) By making use of (a) and (b) and the identity cos 2 x sin 2 x 1 or otherwise , prove

that

In

1

sin x

[

( n 2) I n 2 2( 2n 3) I n 1 ]

3( n 1) ( 2 cos x ) n 1

(d) By putting t = tan

x

2

or otherwise evaluate I1 .

(e) By making use of (c) and (d) or otherwise , evaluate the following definite integral

2

dx

0 3 (2 cosx ) 2 .

5. (a)Let n be a positive integer. Prove that

show that

i (tan n)

tan n n

where

1 i tan

1 i tan

1 i tan n

1 i tan n

(cot i ) n (cot i ) n

(cot i ) n (cot i ) n

cot n n C 2 cot n 2 n C 4 cot n 4 ...

Cr

n!

.

r! ( n r )!

and

(1975)

, where i = 1 . Hence

x n n C1 x n 1 n C 2 x n 2 n C 3 x n 3 n C 4 x n 4 n C 5 x n 5 ... 0,

n

or otherwise evaluate

cot

k 1

( 4k 1)

4n

(1975)

dx

( x a )( x b)

a b 2

( x a )( x b) ( x

)

for all x 0 and hence show

2

t

t 0

(a) Prove that ( x

that

(*)

ab

ab ) 2

1

ab

L (a , b )

2

and (ii) a b

(**) L(a,b) =

2

a

L( a , b )

use of (**) , prove that

4

ab (

a

2

and

1

(

L( a , b )

a

2

)2 .

(1975)

7. (a)Suppose that f is a continuous real-valued function defined on the real line such that f(x) 0 for

all real number x and , for any real numbers , there is (, ) such that

x

(i.e. if , then F( ) F() )

(b) By taking f(x) to be 1 cos x and 1 cos x in turn in (a) , prove

that

sin sin

(1975)

8. Let F(x) = sec x -x - 1 be a function defined on the interval [0,

2 )

number in [0,

2 )

(a) Prove that

1

(i) sin

5 1

;

2 ]

( i.e. if 0 x 1 x 2 , then F( x 1 )F( x 2 ) and if

x1 x 2

2 , then F( x 1 )F( x 2 ) . )

(iii) F attains its absolute minimum at x = with F( )0.

)

(b) Let x 1 ,x 2 ,x 3 ,... be the sequence in [0,

defined

2

inductively by x 1 , x n 1 sec x n 1

( n = 1 , 2 , ... ). Prove that x n 1 x n for all positive integers n. Suppose lim x n .

n

Prove that

(i) 0

(1975)

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