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# 1975 A-Level Pure Mathematics Paper I

## 1. (a) Find a, b, c, d, e such that

{a ( x 1) 5 b ( x 1) 4 c ( x 1) 3 d ( x 1) 2 e ( x
n

k4

k 1

## as a product of linear and quadratic factors

in n.
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2. (a)Let b1 , . . . , b n be real numbers,
B( x ) ( x b1 )( x b 2 ) . . . ( x b n ) and
B'(x) the derivative of B(x). Show that b1 , . . . , b n are all distinct if and only if
B' ( b1 ), . . . , B ' ( b n ) are all nonzero.
(b) Now suppose that b1 , . . . , b n are all distinct. For a polynomial A(x) of degree < n
in x, prove that
n
A(b r )
A( x )

r 1 B' ( b )( x b )
B( x )
r
r

## (c)Let p be an integer < n. By using (b) or otherwise, resolve

xp
( x 1)( x 2) . . .

(x n)

## into partial fractions. Hence

show that

1p
2p
( 1) n 2 ( n 1

...
1
!( n 1)!
2!( n 2)!
( n 1) ! 1!

is zero.
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3. (a)

Let a 1 ,a
such that
a1 a

, ... , a

be positive numbers

and b1 b 2 ... b n .

j (a i a j )( b i b j )0

jaibi b j ai a j bi na jb j.
i

; b1 ,b 2 , ... , b n

... a

## Explain why, for a fixed j ,

Deduce that

. Show that

1 1 1
( a i )( bi ) a ibi.
ni ni ni

## (b) Let (a ij ) i 1, 2,..., n ; j1, 2,..., m be an nm matrix of positive numbers

such that a 1 j a 2 j ... a nj for all j . Show that

1 1 1 1
( ai1)( ai2). .( aim ) ai1ai2. .aim
ni ni ni ni
(c) Let

a 1 ,a 2 , . . . , a n

## be positive numbers and m an integer 1 . Prove that

1
1 m
m
( ai ) ai .
ni
ni
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4.

(a) Let and be real numbers and suppose 0 . Find the multiplicative
inverse of the matrix

1
0

x y
1
x
z 1
y z 1
x y 2 z 1

## has a unique solution provided : 1 .

Show that if this condition does not hold no solution exists.
(1975)

5. Given a 2x2 matrix P and a real number , let P denote the matrix

0
0 P and P

the determinant of P.

Let

01 01
I A, ,
0 1 10
10 0 1
B , C .
01 1 0

## The following relations may be assumed ( where for example, -B = (-1)B )

(i) A 2 B 2 C 2 I ,
(ii) AB = C = -BA
(iii) CB = A = -BC,
(iv) AC = B = -CA.
(a) Show that the set of eight matrices I , A, B , C forms a group under matrix multiplication.
(b) Show that every 2x2 real matrix P can be expressed uniquely in the form
P = wI + xA + yB + zC
where w, x, y and z are real numbers . Given that P 0 , express P 1 in this form in terms of w, x,
1
y and z. Hence show that P P APA BPB CPC
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6. Let p and q be integers. We say p and q are relatively prime, if 1 is the only common positive
integral factor of p and q. The following lemmas may be assumed in part (a).
Lemma 1. Let m, n and p be integers such that p is an integral factor of mn, and p and n are
relatively prime. Then p is an integral factor of m.
Lemma 2.
Let p and m, and p and n be two pairs of relatively prime integers. Then p and mn are
relatively prime.

(a) Let
p( x ) a

n 1

n 1

... a 1 x a

## be a polynomial with integral coefficients

p
is a rational root of the equation P(x) = 0 where p and
q
(q 0), then p is an integral factor of a 0 and q

ai

## q are relatively prime integers

is an integral factor of a n .
(b) Let a be an integer and P(x) the polynomial

2 x n 2 5 x n 1 2 x n 2ax 3 (5a 2) x 2 ( 2a

Show that P(2) = 0. Using (a) or otherwise, show that P(x) = 0 has exactly two rational roots
provided a does not take one of the values 0, 2, -2.
3
2
(c) Show that
satisfies the equation
4
2
x
10 x
1 0. Hence use (a) to deduce that
3
2
is an irrational number.
(1975)
7. (a)Balls are drawn without replacement from an urn containing N balls exactly n of which are white. Find
the probability that a white ball is drawn for the first time at the rth draw. (Distinguish between the
cases r N - n + 1 and r > N - n + 1.)
(b) By considering the probability that the first white ball is drawn at or before the (N - n + 1)th draw, or
otherwise, verify the identity (n < N)
1

Nn
( N n )( N n 1)

N 1
( N 1)( N 2)

. . .

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U X and V Y

8. Let

f

and

## provide either a proof or a counterexample.

(a) f ( U1 )f ( U 2 )f ( U1 U 2 ),
(b) f ( U1 )f ( U 2 )f ( U1 U 2 ),
(c) f 1 ( V1 )f 1 ( V2 )f 1 ( V1 V2 ),
(d) f 1 ( V1 )f 1 ( V2 )f 1 ( V1 V2 ),
where U 1 , U 2 are subsets of X and V1 , V2
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are subsets of Y .

## 1975 A-Level Pure Mathematics Paper II

1. Given a circle C : x 2 y 2 r 2 .
(a) Show that the line y = mx + c touches C if and only if c 2 (1 m 2 ) r 2 .
(b) Let (a, b) be a point such that a 2 r 2 and a 2 b 2 r 2 By using
(a) or otherwise, prove that the equation of the pair of tangents from (a, b) to C can be expressed as
(*)

(a 2 r 2 )( yb ) 2 2ab( x a )( yb )( b 2 r 2 )( x a ) 2

.
(c) If a 2 r 2 but a 2 b 2 r 2 , by factorizing the left hand side of (*),
show that it still represents the pair of tangents from (a, b) to C.
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2. (a) Let (a, b) be a point on the curve
K :11 x 2 212 xy 22 y 2 213 x 2 23 y 33 0 .

Prove that if K has a tangent at (a, b), then the equation of the tangent is

11 ax 12 ( bx ay) 22 by13 ( x a ) 23 ( y b ) 33

.
(b) Suppose that a hyperbola H is obtained by applying a rotation to a hyperbola in standard position and
suppose that one of the asymptotes of H is a 1 x a 2 y 0 . Prove that the equation of
the hyperbola H is of the form (a 1 x a 2 y)( b1 x b 2 y ) c , for some constants
b1 , b 2 and c.
(c) Find the equation of the hyperbola, given
(i) that it is obtained by applying a rotation to a hyperbola in standard position,
(ii) that one of its asymptotes is the line 2x - y = 0,
(iii)that it passes through the point (1, 0) and its tangent at (1, 0) is parallel to the line 4x + y = 0.
(iv)that it passes through the point (1, 1).
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( x 1) 3
be a real-valued function defined on the real line except x = -1.
( x 1) 2
(a) Prove that the straight line x = -1 and y = x-5 are asymptotes of the graph y = f(x).
(b) Find , if any
(i) the local maxima and minima of f(x) ;
(ii) the intersections of the graph y = f(x) and its asymptotes.
(c) Sketch the graph of y = f(x).
(d) Sketch the graph of y f ( x ) .
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3. Let f(x) =

## 4. For any non-negative integer n , let I n

(a) For any n > 0 , express

cos x

(2cos x )

dx
,
( 2cos x ) n
dx

in terms of

I n and I n 1

.
(b) For any n > 1, express
I n , I n 1

cos 2 x
dx
( 2cos x ) n

and

in terms of

I n 2 .

(c) By making use of (a) and (b) and the identity cos 2 x sin 2 x 1 or otherwise , prove
that

In

1
sin x
[
( n 2) I n 2 2( 2n 3) I n 1 ]
3( n 1) ( 2 cos x ) n 1

## for all n > 1 .

(d) By putting t = tan

x
2

or otherwise evaluate I1 .

(e) By making use of (c) and (d) or otherwise , evaluate the following definite integral
2
dx
0 3 (2 cosx ) 2 .
5. (a)Let n be a positive integer. Prove that
show that

i (tan n)

tan n n
where

1 i tan

1 i tan

1 i tan n

1 i tan n

(cot i ) n (cot i ) n
(cot i ) n (cot i ) n

## C1 cot n 1 n C 3 cot n 3 n C 5 cot n 5 ...

cot n n C 2 cot n 2 n C 4 cot n 4 ...

Cr

n!
.
r! ( n r )!

and

(1975)

, where i = 1 . Hence

## (b) By using (a) and considering the roots of the equation

x n n C1 x n 1 n C 2 x n 2 n C 3 x n 3 n C 4 x n 4 n C 5 x n 5 ... 0,
n

or otherwise evaluate

cot

k 1

( 4k 1)
4n

(1975)
dx
( x a )( x b)
a b 2
( x a )( x b) ( x
)
for all x 0 and hence show
2
t

## 6. Let a and b be two positive real numbers and let L (a , b) = lim

t 0
(a) Prove that ( x
that
(*)

ab

ab ) 2

1
ab

L (a , b )
2

and (ii) a b

(**) L(a,b) =

2
a

L( a , b )

## (c) By replacing a and b by

use of (**) , prove that
4

ab (

a
2

and

1
(
L( a , b )

a
2

## , respectively , in (*) and making

)2 .

(1975)
7. (a)Suppose that f is a continuous real-valued function defined on the real line such that f(x) 0 for
all real number x and , for any real numbers , there is (, ) such that
x

## on the real line

(i.e. if , then F( ) F() )
(b) By taking f(x) to be 1 cos x and 1 cos x in turn in (a) , prove
that
sin sin

## for all real numbers

(1975)
8. Let F(x) = sec x -x - 1 be a function defined on the interval [0,
2 )
number in [0,
2 )
(a) Prove that

1
(i) sin

5 1
;

## (ii) F is strictly decreasing on [0 , ] and strictly increasing on [ ,

2 ]
( i.e. if 0 x 1 x 2 , then F( x 1 )F( x 2 ) and if
x1 x 2
2 , then F( x 1 )F( x 2 ) . )
(iii) F attains its absolute minimum at x = with F( )0.
)
(b) Let x 1 ,x 2 ,x 3 ,... be the sequence in [0,
defined
2
inductively by x 1 , x n 1 sec x n 1
( n = 1 , 2 , ... ). Prove that x n 1 x n for all positive integers n. Suppose lim x n .
n

Prove that
(i) 0
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