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CONTENTS
Description

Page Number

1.

03

2.

04

3.

Vectors

06

4.

07

5.

09

6.

12

7.

## Simple Harmonic Motion & Lissajous Figures

14

8.

Gravitation

18

9.

Properties of Matter

20

25

11. Waves

30

35

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## UNITS, DIMENSIONS AND MEASUREMENTS

(i)

SI Units:
(a)
Time-second(s);
(b)
Length-metre (m);
(c)
Mass-kilogram (kg);
(d)
Amount of substancemole (mol); (e) Temperature-Kelvin (K);
(f)
Electric Current ampere (A);
(g)
Luminous Intensity Candela (Cd)

(ii)

## Uses of dimensional analysis

(a)
To check the accuracy of a given relation
(b)
To derive a relative between different physical quantities
(c)
To convert a physical quantity from one system to another system
a

n1u 2 = n 2 u 2

or

M
L
T
n 2 = n1 1 x 1 x 1
M2
L2
T2

X1 X 2 + ... + X N
N

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

## Mean absolute error: Xm=

(vi)
(vii)

| Xi |
N

X
X
X
x 100
Percentage error =
X

Fractional error =

Xa Y b
Zc

X
Y

=| a |
+| b|
+|c|

X
Y

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(i)

## Displacement: | displacement | distance covered

(ii)

Average speed: v =

(iii)
(iv)

s1 + s 2
s +s
= 1 2
s
s
t1 + t 2
1
+ 2
v1 v 2

(a)

If s1 = s2 = d, then v =

(b)

If t1 = t2, then v =

2 v1 v 2
= Harmonic mean
v1 + v 2

v1 + v 2
=arithmetic mean
2

## Average velocity: (a) v av =

r2 r1
; (b) | v av | v
t 2 t1

dr
Instantaneous velocity: v =
and | v | = v = instantaneous speed
dt

v v
= 2 1
t 2 t1

(v)

Average acceleration: a av

(vi)

Instantaneous acceleration: a = d v / dt

dv
v
dx

(vii)

(a)
v = u + at;
1 2
at ;
2

(b)

x = ut +

(c)

v2 u2 + 2ax;

(d)

x = vt

(e)

1 2
at ;
2
v+u
x=
t;
2

1 2
at ;
2

(f)

s = x x 0 = ut +

(g)

2
2
v = u + 2a (xx0)

a
(2n1)
2

(ix)

## Motion of a ball: (a) when thrown up: h = (u2/2g) and t = (u/g)

(b) when dropped: v = (2gh)
and t = (2h/g)

(x)

(xi)

## Condition for equilibrium: (a) F3 = (F1 + F2 ) ; (b) F1 + F2 F3 |F1 F2|

(xii)

Lamis Theorem:

P
Q
R
=
=
sin ( ) sin ( ) sin ( )

(xv)

Fdt

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## Formula Booklet Physics XI

(1)

(a)

F12 = F12

(b)

m
F = F21
M+m
F
Acceleration: a =
M+m

(c)

(2)

F21
Fig. 1

## (xvi) Inertial mass: mI = F/a

(xvii) Gravitational mass: mG =

F12

F FR 2
=
; m I = mG
g GM

(xviii) Non inertial frame: If a 0 be the acceleration of frame, then pseudo force F = m a 0
Example: Centrifugal force =

mv 2
= m 2 r
r

## (xix) Lift problems: Apparent weight = M(g a0)

(+ sign is used when lift is moving up while sign when lift is moving down)
m1

(xx)

Pulley Problems:
(a)
For figure (2):
Tension in the string, T =

m1m 2
g
m1 + m 2

## Acceleration of the system, a =

The force on the pulley, F =
(b)

m2
g
m1 + m 2

Frictionless
surface

T
m2

Fig. 2

m 2g

2 m1m 2
g
m1 + m 2

## For figure (3):

Tension in the string, T =

2m1m 2
g
m1 + m 2

m 2 m1
g
m 2 + m1

T
T

4m1m 2
g
m1 + m 2

T
T
a

m1
Fig. 3

m2

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VECTORS

(i)

## Vector addition: R = A + B = B + A and A B = A + ( B )

(ii)

Unit vector: A = ( A/ A)

(iii)

Magnitude: A = (A 2x + A 2y + A 2z )

(iv)

## Direction cosines: cos = (Ax/A), cos = (Ay/A), cos = (Az/A)

(v)

Projection:

(b)

Component

of B along A = A . B

1
(c)
If A = A x i + A y j, then its angle with the xaxis is = tan (Ay/Ax)
Dot product:

A . B = AB cos ,

(a)
(vii)

Component of A along B = A . B

(vi)

(a)

(b)

A . B = A x B x + A y B y + A z Bz

Cross product:
(a)

A x B = AB

(b)

sin n ;

A x A = 0;

Ax B=

(c)

i
Ax

j
Ay

k
Az

Bx

By

Bz

(viii) Examples:

(a)

W= F. r;

(e) v = w x r ;

(b) P = F . v ;

(f) = x F ;

(c) = E . A;

(x)

## Area of a triangle: Area =

(xii)

(g) F m = q v x B

(ix)

(xi)

(d) = B . A;

1
|Ax B |
2
^
^
^
Gradient operator: V = i
+j
+k
x
y
z

Volume of a parallelopiped: V = A . B x C

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(i)

## Uniform Circular Motion:

(a)
v = r;
2
2
(b)
a = (v /r) = r ;
2
(c)
F = (mv /r);
(d)
(e)

r . v = 0;

v.a =0

(ii)

2
Cyclist taking a turn: tan = (v /rg)

(iii)

## Car taking a turn on level road: v = (srg)

(iv)

2
Banking of Roads: tan = v /rg

(v)

## Air plane taking a turn: tan = v /r g

(vi)

Overloaded truck:
(a)
Rinner wheel < Router wheel
(b)
maximum safe velocity on turn, v = (gdr/2h)

(vii)

## Nonuniform Circular Motion:

(a)
Centripetal acceleration ar = (v2/r);
(b)
Tangential acceleration at = (dv/dt);
(c)
Resultant acceleration a= (a 2r + a 2t )

## (viii) Motion in a vertical Circle:

(a)
For lowest point A and highest point B, TA TB = 6 mg; v2A = v2B + 4gl ; vA (5gl); and vB
(gl)
(b)
Condition for Oscillation: vA < (2gl)
(c)
Condition for leaving Circular path: (2gl) < vA < (5gl)

(ix)

Relative velocity: v BA = v B v A

(x)

## Condition for Collision of ships: ( r A v B ) x ( v A v B ) = 0

(xi)

Crossing a River:
(a)
Beat Keeps its direction perpendicular to water current
(1)
vR =( ( v 2w + v 2b ) ; (2) = tan1 ( v w / v b );
(3)
t=(x/vb) (it is minimum) (4) Drift on opposite bank = (v w/vb)x
(b)
Boat to reach directly opposite to starting point:

(xii)

x
v b cos

g x2

(a)

## equation of trajectory: y = x tan

(b)

time of flight: T =

(c)
(d)

## Horizontal range, R = (u2 sin 2/g)

2
2
Maximum height attained, H = (u sin /2g)

2 u sin
g

2u 2 cos 2

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(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)

## Range is maximum when = 450

0
Ranges are same for projection angles and (90 )
Velocity at the top most point is = u cos
2
tan = gT /2R
2
(H/T ) = (g/8)

## (xiii) Projectile thrown from a height h in horizontal direction:

(a)
T = (2h/g);
(b)
R = v(2h/g);
2
2
(c)
y = h (gx /2u )
(d)

2
Magnitude of velocity at the ground = (u + 2gh)

(e)

2gh
u

## (xiv) Projectile on an inclined plane:

2u sin ( 0 )
g cos 0

(a)

Time of flight, T =

(b)

Horizontal range, R =

2 u 2 sin ( 0 ) cos
g cos 2 0

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## Formula Booklet Physics XI

FRICTION
(i)

Force of friction:
(a)
s sN (self adjusting); (s)max = sN
(b)
k = kN (k = coefficient of kinetic friction)
(c)
k < s

(ii)

## Acceleration on a horizontal plane: a = (F kN)/M

(iii)

2
Acceleration of a body sliding on an inclined plane: a = g sin (1 k cot t )

(iv)

(v)

## Angle of friction: tan = s (s = coefficient of static friction)

DYNAMICS OF RIGID BODIES
2 1
=
t 2 t1
t

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

## Average angular acceleration: =

(v)

2
2
Instantaneous angular acceleration: = (d/dt) = (d /dt )

(vi)

## Relation between linear and angular acceleration:

(a)
aT = r and aR = (v2/r) = 2R
(b)
Resultant acceleration, a = (a 2T + a 2R )
(c)
In vector form,

2 1
=
t 2 t1
t

a = a T + a R , where a T = x r and a R = x u = x x r

(vii)

(a)
= 0 + t;
1
(b)
= 0t + t2;
2
(c)
2 02 = 2

(a)

x CM =

m 1x 1 + m 2 x 2
;
m1 + m 2

(b)

v CM =

m1 v1 + m 2 v 2
m1 + m 2

(c)

a CM =

m 1a 1 + m 2 a 2
m1 + m 2

Also v CM =
(ix)

dx CM
dv
d 2 x CM
and a CM = CM =
dt
dt
dt 2

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(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)

X CM =

## Formula Booklet Physics XI

mi x i
;
M

m i r i
;
M

d r CM
;
dt

d v CM
;
dt

r CM =

v CM =

a CM =

P CM = M v CM = m i v i ;

## Also, moment of masses about CM is zero, i.e., m i r i = 0 or m1r1 = m 2 r2

2

(x)

Moment of Inertia:
(a) I = mi ri
2
(b) I = r , where = m1m2/(m1 + m2)

(xi)

2
2
2
Radius of gyration: (a) K = (I/M) ; (b) K = [(r1 + r2 + + rn )/n] = root mean square distance.

(xii)

1
I2
2

or I = (2K/2)

(xv)

1 2
I = L2/2I
2

## (xvii) Relation between and :

(a)
= I,
(b)
If = 0, then (dL/dt)=0 or L=constant or, I=constant i.e., I11= I22
(Laws of conservation of angular momentum)

## (xviii) Angular impulse: L = t

=
(xix) Rotational work done: W

(xx)

d = av

Rotational Power: P = .

(xxi) (a)
(b)

## Perpendicular axes theorem: Iz = Ix + Iy

2
Parallel axes theorem: I = Ic + Md

## (xxii) Moment of Inertia of some objects

(a)

Ring:

I = MR2 (axis); I =
2

1
MR2 (Diameter);
2

## I = 2 MR (tangential to rim, perpendicular to plane);

2
I = (3/2) MR (tangential to rim and parallel to diameter)

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10

(b)
(c)

## Formula Booklet Physics XI

1
1
MR2 (axis); I = MR2 (diameter)
2
4
1
Cylinder: I = MR 2 (axis )
2

Disc: I =

(d)
(e)
(f)

Thin rod: I = (ML /12) (about centre); I = (ML /3) (about one end)
Hollow sphere : Idia = (2/3) MR2; Itangential = (5/3) MR2
Solid sphere: Idia = (2/5) MR2 ; Itangential = (7/5) MR2

(g)

Rectangular: I C =

(h)

Cube: I = (1/6) Ma

(i)

(j)
(k)
(l)

## Right circular cone: I = (3/10) MR2

Triangular lamina: I = (1/6) Mh2 (about base axis)
Elliptical lamina: I = (1/4) Ma2 (about minor axis) and I = (1/4) Mb2 (about major axis)

M l2 + b2
(centre)
12
2

## (xxiii) Rolling without slipping on a horizontal surface:

K2
1
1
1
K = MV 2 + I 2 = MV 2 1 +

2
2
2
2
R

( Q V = R and I = MK2)

(a)

## Velocity at the bottom, v =

(b)

Acceleration, a = g sin

(c)

2gh

K2
1 +

K2
1 +

r 2

K2
2s 1 + 2

g sin

## (xxiv) Simple pendulum: = T = 2 (L/g)

2
2
(xxv) Compound Pendulum: T = 2 (I/Mg l), where l = M (K + l )
Minimum time period, T0 = 2 (2K/g)

## (xxvi) Time period for disc: T = 2 (3R/2g)

Minimum time period for disc, T = 2 (1.414R/g)
(xxvii) Time period for a rod of length L pivoted at one end: T = 2(2L/3g

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(i)

1

(ii)

F . d r ab(b)

Path 1

F . d r ;(c)

F .d r = 0

closed
path

Path 2

## For conservative forces, one must have: V x F = 0

Potential energy: (a) VU = W; (b) F = (dU/dX ) ;

(iv)

(v)

(vi)

2 =

(vii)

Kx 2 ; (b ) 2U =
1

2
mv
2f

## (viii) Conservation of energy: K = U

mv i2 ;

(c)

(iii)

F = VU
GMm

(R + h )

K x 2 2 x1 2

(b ) 12 K =

mv 2

or, K + U = Ki + Ui

(ix)

(x)

## Tractive force: F = (P/v)

(xi)

Equilibrium Conditions:
(a)
For equilibrium, (dU/dx) = 0
(b)
For stable equilibrium: U(x) = minimum, (dU/dx) = 0 and (d2U/dx2) is positive
2
2
(c)
For unstable equilibrium: U(x) = maximum, (dU/dx) = 0 and (d U/dx ) is negative
2
2
(d)
For neutral equilibrium: U(x) = constant, (dU/dx) = 0 and (d U/dx ) is zero

(xii)

2
[E U(x )]
m

(xiii) Momentum:
(a)

(b)

p = m v;

F = d p / dt ,

(b)

(c)

## Recoil speed of gun, v G =

mB
x vB
mG

(xiv) Impulse: p = F av t
(xv)

## Collision in one dimension:

(a)
Momentum conservation : m1u1 + m2u2 = m1v1 + m2v2
(b)
For elastic collision,1 e = 1 =1 coefficient
of restitution
1 2
1
2
2
2
2 1v 1 + m 2v 2
2
(c)
Energy conservation:
m1u21 + m22u2 = m
(d)

st

nd

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## Formula Booklet Physics XI

m m2
v1 = 1
m1 + m 2

(e)
(f)
(g)

2 m1
2m 2

u1 +
m + m u 2 ; v2 = m + m

1
2
1
2

m m1

u1 + 2
m + m u2

1
2

If m1 = m2 = m, then v1 = u2 and v2 = u1
Coefficient of restitution, e = (v2v1/u1 = u2)
e = 1 for perfectly elastic collision and e=0 for perfectly inelastic collision. For inelastic
collision 0 < e < 1

## (xvi) Inelastic collision of a ball dropped from height h0

2n
(a)
Height attained after nth impact, hn = e h0
2
2
(b)
Total distance traveled when the ball finally comes to rest, s = h0 (1+e )/(1e )
(c)

2h 0 1 + e

g 1 e

m m2
= 1
K i m1 + m 2

and

K lost
K lost
4m1m 2
=
= 100%
; If m1 = m 2 ,
Ki
Ki
(m1 + m 2 )2

1 m1 m 2
(u1 u2)2 (1e2)
2 m1 + m 2

m em 2
v1 = 1
m1 + m 2

m (1 + e )
u 1 and v 2 = 1
u1

m1 + m 2

## (xix) Oblique Collision (target at rest):

m1u1 = m1v1 cos 1 + m2v2 cos 2 and m1v1 sin 1 = m2v 2 sin 2
Solving, we get: m1u12 = m1v12 + m2v22
(xx)

dV
dM
= v el
dt
dt
M0 mb
[M0 = original mass of rocket plus fuel and mb = mass of fuel burnt]
V = vrel loge

M0

## Rocket equation: (a) M

(b)
(c)

If we write M = M0 mb = mass of the rocket and full at any time, than velocity of rocks at
that time is:
V = vrel loge (M0/M)

## (xxi) Conservation of angular momentum:

(a)
If ext = 0, then L = Li
v max rmax
=
v min
rmin

(b)

For planets,

(c)

I
Spinning skater, I11 = I2W 2 or = i i

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(i)

## Simple Harmonic Motion:

(a)
F = Kx ;
K
x or a = 2x, where = (K/m);
m

(b)

a=

(c)

## Fmax = KA and amax = 2A

d2x

+ 2 x = 0

(ii)

Equation of motion:

(iii)

Displacement: x = A sin (t + )
(a)
If = 0, x = A sin t ;
(b)
If = /2, x = A cos t
2
2
1
(c)
If x = C sin t + D cos t, then x = A sin (t + ) with A= (C +D ) and = tan (D/C)

(iv)

Velocity:
(a)
v = A cos (+ );
(b)
If =0, v = A cos t;
(c)
vmax =A
2
2
(d)
v = (A x );
(e)

x2
A

v2

2 A 2

dt 2

=1

(v)

Acceleration:
(a)
a = 2 x = 2A sin (t+) ;
2
(b)
If =0, a= A sin t
2
(c)
|amax| = A;
2
(d)
Fmax = m A

(vi)

(a)
= (K/m) ;

(vii)

1
2

(K / m );

(b)

(c)

T = 2

m
K

(a)
U = 2 Kx2 ;
dU
;
dx

(b)

F=

(c)

Umax = 2 m A ;

(d)

U =2 m A sin t

1

(a)

K = 2 mv2;

(b)

K= 2 m2 (A2x2);

(c)

2 2
2
K =2 m A cos t ;

(d)

Kmax =2 m2A2

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(ix)

Total energy:
(a)
E = K + U = conserved;
2 2
(b)
E = (1/2) m A ;
(c)
E = Kmax = Umax

(x)

## Average PE and KE:

(a)
< U > = (1/4) m2A2 ;
2 2
(b)
< K > = (1/4) m A ;
(c)
(E/2) = < U > = < K >

(xi)

Some relations:
(a)

v12 v 22

x 22 x 12

(b) T = 2

## Formula Booklet Physics XI

x 22 x 12
v12 v 22

; (c) A =

(v1x 2 )2 (v 2 x1 )2
v12 v 22

(a)
mg = Kx0;
(b)

x0
m
= 2
K
g

T = 2

m + (m s / 3)
K

## (xiii) Massive spring: T = 2

(xiv) Cutting a spring:
(a)
K = nK ;
(b)
T = T0/(n) ;
(c)
= (n) 0
(d)

n +1
K, K2 =
n

If spring is cut into two pieces of lengths l1 and l2 such that l1 = nl2, then K1 =
(n +1) K and K1l1 = K2l2

(xv)

Springs in parallel:
(a)
K = K1 + K2 ;
(b)
T = 2 [m/(K1 + K2)]
(c)
If T1 = 2 (m/K1) and T2 = 2(m/K2), then for the parallel combination:
1
T2

1
T12

or T =

T22

T1T2
T12

+ T22

and 2 = 12 + 22

## (xvi) Springs in series:

(a)
K1x1 = K2x2 = Kx = F applied
(b)
(c)
(d)

1
1
1
=
+
K K1 K 2
1

12

T = 2

K=

or

22

K 1K 2
K1 + K 2

or T 2 T12 + T22

m(K1 + K 2 )
K 1K 2

or

1
2

K 1K 2
m (K 1 + K 2 )

(a)

I=C

or

(b)
(c)

=0 sin (t+);
= (C/I) ;

d 2
dt

C
=0;
I

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1
2

## Formula Booklet Physics XI

C
;
I

(d)

(e)

4
T = 2(I/C), where C = r /2l

(a)

I = = mgl sin or

(b)

= (g/l) ;

(c)

(d)

T = 2 (l/g)

1
2

d 2

d 2 g
g
+ sin = 0 or
+ =0;
dt
l
dt 2 l
2

(g/l ) ;

(a)
T = 2 sec ;
(b)
l = 99.3 cm
(xx)

## Infinite length pendulum:

(a)

T = 2

(b)

T=2

1
;
1
1

g +

l Re

Re
(when l)
g

A 2
(xxi) Anharmonic pendulum: T T0 1 + 0 T0 1 +
2

16

16 l

## (xxii) Tension in string of a simple pendulum: T = (3 mg cos 2 mg cos 0)

(xxiii) Conical Pendulum:
(a)
v = (gR tan ) ;
(b)
T = 2 (L cos /g)
(xxiv) Compound pendulum: T = 2
(a)
(b)

(l + K / l)
2

## For a bar: T = 2(2L/3g) ;

For a disc : T = 2 (3R/2g)

## (xxv) Floating cylinder:

(a)
K = Ag ;
(b)
T = 2(m/Ag) = 2(Ld/g)
(xxvi) Liquid in Utube:
(a)
K = 2A g and m = AL ;
(b)
T = 2(L/2g) = 2(h/g)
(xxvii) Ball in bowl: T = 2[(R r)/g]
(xxviii) Piston in a gas cylinder:
A2E
;
V

(a)

K=

(b)

T = 2

mV
A2E

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(c)

T = 2

(d)

T = 2

Vm

A 2P
Vm

2 P

AY
;
l

(a)

K=

(b)

T = 2

lm
AY

## (xxx) Tunnel across earth: T = 2(Re/g)

(xxxi) Magnetic dipole in magnetic field: T = 2(I/MB)
(xxxii) Electrical LC circuit: T = 2 LC or
(xxxiii) Lissajous figures
Case (a): 1 = 2 =

1
2 LC

or 1 : 2 = 1 : 1
x2

General equation:

y2
b2

2 xy
cos = sin 2
ab

## For = 0 : y = (b/a) x ; straight line with positive slope

For = /4 :
For = /2 :

x2
a

x2
a2

+
+

y2
b

y2
b2

2 xy 1
= ; oblique ellipse
ab
2

= 1 ; symmetrical ellipse

## For = : y = (b/a) x ; straight line with negative slope.

Case (b): For 1 : 2 = 2:1 with x = a sin (2t + ) and y = b sin t
For = 0, : Figure of eight

3
,
: Double parabola
4 4
3
For = , : Single parabola
2 2

For =

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GRAVITATION
(i)

(a)

11

(ii)

## Acceleration due to gravity (a) g = GM/R2 ;

(iii)

Variation of g:
(a)
due to shape ; gequator < gpole
2
(b)
due to rotation of earth: (i) gpole = GM/R (No effect)
(ii) gequator =

GM
R2

dF
2 dr
=
F
r

(b) Weight W = mg

2 R

## (iii) gequator < gpole

2
2
(iv) R = 0.034 m/s
(v) If 17 0 or T = (T0/17) = (24/17)h = 1.4 h, then object would
float on equator
(c)

(iv)

## At a height h above earths surface g = g 1

2h
, if h < < R
g

(d)
At a depth of below earths surface: g = g 1
R
GM m 1
g earth
Acceleration on moon: gm =
6
R 2m

GM ^
r (outside) ;
r2

(b)

r r (inside)

(vi)

## Gravitational potential energy of mass m:

(a)
At a distance r : U(r) = GMm/r
(b)
At the surface of the earth: U0 = GMm/R
(c)
At any height h above earths surface: U U0 = mgh (for h < < R)
or

(vii)

g =

GM

(v)

(ix)

## Gravitational potential energy of system of masses:

(a)
Two particles: U = Gm1m2/r
(b)

(x)

(xi)

Three particles: U =

Gm1m 2 Gm1m 3 Gm 2 m 3

r12
r13
r23

Escape velocity:
2GM
or ve = (2gR) = (gD)
R

(a)

ve =

(b)

ve = R

8G
3

h=

(v e / v)

or v = v e

h
h
ve
R+h
R

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(xii)

(a ) v 0 =

GM
;
r

(b) v 0 = v e

R
;
2 (R + h )

(c) v0 ve/2

(R + h )3
GM

## (xiv) Energy of satellite: (a) Kinetic energy K =

(b)
(c)
(d)
(xv)

(if h<<R)

; (b ) T =2

(if h << R )

1
1 GMm
mv 20 =
2
2 r

GMm
= 2K ;
r
1 GMm
;
Total energy E=K + U=
r
2
1 GMm
E = U/2 = K ; (e) BE = E =
2
r

Potential energy U =

(c)

R
g

GMT 2
h =
4 2

4 2
(R + h )3 ;
GM

1/ 3

R ;

## (xvi) Keplers law:

(a)
Law of orbits: Orbits are elliptical
(b)
Law of areas: Equal area is swept in equal time
2
3
2
2
3
(c)
Law of period: T r ; T = (4 /GM)r

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SURFACE TENSION
Force
F
= ;
Length l

(a)

(ii)

## Combination of n drops into one big drop: (a) R = n1/3r

T=

(b) T =

Surface energy W
=
Surface area
A

(i)

(b)

2
2
1/3
Ei = n(4r T), E = 4R T, (E/Ei) = n ,

(c)

## E = 4R2T (n1/3 1) = 4R3T

1
r

(iii)

Increase in temperature: =

(iv)

(v)

E
1
= 1

1/3
E i n

3T 1 1
or
s r R

3T
sJ

1 1

r R
Fcohesive

(a)

(b)

(c)

## Convex surface (as for mercuryglass) if Fadhesive <

2
Fcohesive
2
Fcohesive
2

Angle of contact:
(a)
Acute: If Fa> Fc/2 ;
(b)
obtuse: if Fa<Fc/2 ;
0
(c)
c=90 : if Fa=Fc/2
(d)

cos c =

Tsa Tsl
, (where Tsa, Tsl and Tla represent solid-air, solid- liquid and liquid-air
Tla

surface tensions respectively). Here c is acute if Tsl < Tsa while c is obtuse if Tsl > Tsa
(vi)

Excess pressure:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

(vii)

## General formula: Pexcess = T

+

R1 R 2
For a liquid drop: Pexcess = 2T/R
For an air bubble in liquid: Pexcess = 2T/R
For a soap bubble: Pexcess = 4T/R
Pressure inside an air bubble at a depth h in a liquid: Pin = Patm + hdg + (2T/R)

Forces between two plates with thin water film separating them:
(a)
(b)
(c)

1
r

P = T

1
;
R

1 1
F = AT ;
r R

(ix)

Capillary rise:
(a)

h=

2T cos
;
rdg

(b)

h=

2T
(For water = 00)
rdg

rR
Rr

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(c)
(d)
(x)

rdg h +
3

## If weight of water in meniseus is taken into account then T =

2 cos
2T cos ( )
Capillary depression, h
rdg

## Combination of two soap bubbles:

(a)
If V is the increase in volume and S is the increase in surface area, then 3P0V + 4TS =
0 where P0 is the atmospheric pressure
(b)
If the bubbles combine in environment of zero outside pressure isothermally, then S = 0 or
R3 = R 12 + R 22

ELASTICITY
(i)

## Stress: (a) Stress = [Deforming force/crosssectional area];

2
(b) Tensile or longitudinal stress = (F/ r );
(c) Tangential or shearing stress = (F/A);
(d) Hydrostatic stress = P

(ii)

## Strain: (a) Tensile or longitudinal strain = (L/L);

(b) Shearing strain = ;
(c) Volume strain = (V/V)

(iii)

Hooks law:
FL
A(L)

(a)

(b)

(c)

## For volume elasticity: Stress = B x Strain or B =

(V/V )

(iv)

Compressibility: K = (1/B)

(v)

(vi)

(vii)

## Stress due to heating or cooling of a clamped rod

Thermal stress = Y (t) and force = YA (t)

1 MgL 1 L2 g
=
2 YA 2 Y

## (viii) Torsion of a cylinder:

(a)
r = l (where = angle of twist and = angle of shear);
(b)
restoring torque = c
(c)
restoring Couple per unit twist, c = r4/2l (for solid cylinder)
and C = (r24 r14)/2l (for hollow cylinder)
(ix)

## Work done in stretching:

1 (stress )
1
1
x stress x strain x volume = Y (strain)2 x volume =
x volume
2
2
Y
2
1
Potential energy stored, U = W =
x stress x strain x volume
2
1
x stress x strain
Potential energy stored per unit volume, u =
2
2

(a)
(b)
(c)
(x)

W=

Loaded beam:

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(xi)

(xii)

Wl 3

(a)

depression, =

(b)

Depression, =

(rectangular )

4Ybd 3
Wl 3

12Yr 2

(cylindrical )

Positions ratio:
D r
=
D
r

(a)

Lateral strain =

(b)

(c)

Poissons ratio =

(d)

## Theoretically, 1 < < 0.5 but experimentally 0.2 0.4

lateral strain
r/r
=
longitudinal strain L / L

## Relations between Y, , B and :

(a)
Y = 3B (12) ;
(b)
Y = 2 (1+ );
1
1
1
=
+
Y 9 B 3

(c)

(xiii) Interatomic force constant: k = Yr0 (r0 = equilibrium inter atomic separation)
KINETIC THEORY OF GASES
or P1V1 = P2V2

(i)

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

## Avogadros principle: At constant temperature and pressure, Volume of gas,

V number of moles,
Where = N/Na [N = number of molecules in the sample
and NA = Avogadros number = 6.02 x 1023/mole]
=

(iv)

M sample

## The pressure on the wall : P =

mN
mN
1 mN 2
1
< v 2x > =
< v2 > =
v rms = v 2rms
V
3V
3 V
3

RMS speed:
2
2
(a)
rms = (v1 + v2 + + v 2N /N);
(b)
rms = (3P/) ;
(c)
rms = (3KT/m);
(d)

(vi)

## [Msample = mass of gas sample and M = molecular weight]

Kinetic Theory:
(a)
Momentum delivered to the wall perpendicular to the xaxis, P = 2m v x
(b)
Time taken between two successive collisions on the same wall by the same molecule: t =
(2L/v x)
(c)
The frequency of collision: coll. = (x/2L)
(d)
Total force exerted on the wall by collision of various molecules: F = (MN/L) <v x2>
(e)

(v)

( rms )1
( rms )2

m2
=
m1

M2
M1

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## Call 1600-111-533 (toll-free) for info.

(ix)

(x)

(a)
(1/2) Mv2 rms = (3/2) RT ;
2
(b)
(1/2) mv rms = (3/2) KT
(c)
Kinetic energy of one molecule = (3/2) KT ;
(d)
kinetic energy of one mole of gas = (3/2) RT
(e)
Kinetic energy of one gram of gas (3/2) (RT/M)
Maxwell molecular speed distribution:

KT

3/2

v 2 e - mv

/ 2 KT

(a)

n (v) = 4N

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

## Speed relations: (I) vp < v < vrms

(II) v p : v : vrms = (2) : (8/) : (3) = 1.41 : 1.60 : 1.73

8KT
8 RT
RT
=
= 1.60
m
M
M
3kT
=
m

3RT
RT
= 1.73
M
M
2 KT
=
m

2RT
RT
= 1.41
M
M

Internal energy:
(a)
Einternal = (3/2)RT (for one mole)
(b)
Einternal = (3/2 RT (for mole)
(c)

(xi)

## Pressure exerted by a gas P =

2 E 2
= E
3 V 3

Degrees of freedom:
(a)
Ideal gas: 3 (all translational)
(b)
Monoatomic gas : 3 (all translational)
(c)
Diatomic gas: 5 (three translational plus two rotational)
(d)
Polyatomic gas (linear molecule e.g. CO2) : 7 (three translational plus two rotational plus two
vibrational)
(e)
Polyatomic gas (nonlinear molecule, e.g., NH3, H2O etc): 6 (three translational plus three
rotational)
(f)
Internal energy of a gas: Einternal = (f/2) RT. (where f = number of degrees of freedom)

(xii) Daltons law: The pressure exerted by a mixture of perfect gases is the sum of the pressures
exerted by the individual gases occupying the same volume alone i.e., P = P1 + P2 + .
(xiii) Van der Walls gas equation:
(a)

P + a (V - b ) = R

V 2

(b)

## P + a (V b ) = RT (where Vm = V/ = volume per mole);

m

Vm2

(c)

b = 30 cm3/mole

(d)

Critical values: Pc =

(e)

a
27 b 2

, VC = 3b, TC =

8a
;
27 Rb

PC VC 3
= = 0.375
RTC
8

1
2 d 2 n

## Where n = (N/V) = number of gas molecules per unit volume and

d = diameter of molecules of the gas

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## Formula Booklet Physics XI

FLUID MECHANICS
(i)
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)

The viscous force between two layers of area A having velocity gradient (dv/dx) is given by: F =
A (dv/dx), where is called coefficient of viscosity
In SI system, is measured I Poiseiulle (Pl) 1Pl = 1Nsm2 = 1 decapoise. In egs system, the unit
of is g/cm/sec and is called POISE
When a spherical body is allowed to fall through viscous medium, its velocity increases, till the sum
of viscous drag and upthrust becomes equal to the weight of the body. After that the body moves
with a constant velocity called terminal velocity.
According to STOKEs Law, the viscous drag on a spherical body moving in a fluid is given by: F =
6r v, where r is the radius and v is the velocity of the body.
The terminal velocity is given by: v T =

2 r 2 ( ) g
9

where is the density of the material of the body and is the density of liquid
(v)

## Rate of flow of liquid through a capillary tube of radius r and length l

V=

pr 4
p
p
=
=
4
8l
R
8 l/r

where p is the pressure difference between two ends of the capillary and R is the fluid resistance
(=8 l/r4)
(vi) The matter which possess the property of flowing is called as FLUID (For example, gases and
liquids)
(vii) Pressure exerted by a column of liquid of height h is : P = hg ( = density of the liquid)
(viii) Pressure at a point within the liquid, P = P0 + hg, where P0 is atmospheric pressure and h is the
depth of point w.r.t. free surface of liquid
(ix) Apparent weight of the body immersed in a liquid Mg = Mg Vg
(x)
If W be the weight of a body and U be the upthrust force of the liquid on the body then
(a)
the body sinks in the liquid of W > U
(b)
the body floats just completely immersed if W = U
(c)
the body floats with a part immersed in the liquid if W < U
(xi)
(xii)

## Volume of immersed part of a solid density of solid

=
total volume of solid
density of solid

## Equation of Continuity: a1v1 = a2v2

1 2
v = constant
2
a
(xiv) Accelerated fluid containers : tan = x
g

(xv)

ax

Fig. 4

2gh

a 12

a 22

## (xvi) Velocity of efflux of liquid from a hole:

v = (2gh), where h is the depth of a hole from the free surface of liquid

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(i)

## L2 L1 = L1(T2 T1); A2 A1 = A2 (T2 T1); V2 V1 = V1(T2 T1)

where, L1, A1, V1 are the length, area and volume at temperature T1; and L2, A2, V2 are that at
temperature T2. represents the coefficient of linear expansion, the coefficient of superficial
expansion and the coefficient of cubical expansion.

(ii)
(iii)
(iv)

## If dt be the density at t0C and d0 be that at 00C, then: dt = d0 (1T)

: : = 1 : 2 : 3
If r, a be the coefficients of real and apparent expansions of a liquid and g be the coefficient of the
cubical expansion for the containing vessel (say glass), then
r = a + g

(v)
(vi)

The pressure of the gases varies with temperature as : Pt = P0 (1+ T), where = (1/273) per 0C
If temperature on Celsius scale is C, that on Fahrenheit scale is F, on Kelvin scale is K, and on
Reaumer scale is R, then
(a)
(c)

(vii)

C F 32 K 273 R
=
=
=
5
9
5
4
5
C = (F 32)
9

(b)

F=

9
C + 32
5

(e)

K=

5
(F + 459.4)
9

(d)

K = C + 273

(a)
(b)

## Triple point of water = 273.16 K

0
Absolute zero = 0 K = 273.15 C

(c)

(d)

## For a resistance thermometer, R = R0 [1+ ]

P
(Kelvin )
Ptriple

(viii) If mechanical work W produces the same temperature change as heat H, then we can write:
W = JH, where J is called mechanical equivalent of heat
(ix) The heat absorbed or given out by a body of mass m, when the temperature changes by T is: Q
= mcT, where c is a constant for a substance, called as SPECIFIC HEAT.
(x)
HEAT CAPACITY of a body of mass m is defined as : Q = mc
(xi) WATER EQUIVALENT of a body is numerically equal to the product of its mass and specific heat
i.e., W = mc
(xii) When the state of matter changes, the heat absorbed or evolved is given by: Q = mL, where L is
called LATENT HEAT
(xiii) In case of gases, there are two types of specific heats i.e., cp and cv [cp = specific heat at constant
pressure and Cv = specific heat at constant volume]. Molar specific heats of a gas are: Cp = Mcp
and Cv = Mcv, where M = molecular weight of the gas.
(xiv) Cp > Cv and according to Mayers formula Cp Cv = R
(xv)

## For all thermodynamic processes, equation of state for an ideal gas: PV = RT

V
=Constant
(a)
For ISOBARIC process:
P = Constant ;
T
P
(b)
For ISOCHORIC (Isometric) process:
V = Constant; =Constant
T
(c)
For ISOTHERMAL process
T = Constant ; PV= Constant
(d)
For ADIABATIC process:
PV = Constant ; TV1=Constant
1
and P( ) T = Constant

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(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

## For isobaric process:

zero
For isochoric process:
infinite
For isothermal process:
slope = (P/V)
For adiabatic process:
slope = (P/V)
Slope of adiabatic curve > slope of isothermal curve.

## (xvii) Work done

(a)
For isobaric process: W = P (V2 V1)
(b)
For isochoric process: W = 0
(c)
For isothermal process: W=RT loge (V2/V1)
RT x 2.303 x log10 (V2/V1)
P1V1 x 2.303 x log10 (V2/V1)
RT x 2.303 x log10 (P1/P2)

R (T1 T2 ) (P1V1 P2 V2 )
=
( 1)
( 1)

(d)

(e)

W=

(f)

## In compression from same initial state to same final volume:

W adiabatic < W isothermal < W isobaric

## (xviii) Heat added or removed:

(a)
For isobaric process: Q = CpT
(b)
For isochoric process = Q = CvT
(c)
For isothermal process = Q = W = Rt loge (V2/V1)
(d)
For adiabatic process: Q = 0
(xix) Change in internal energy
(a)
For isobaric process = U = CvT
(b)
For isochoric process = U = CvT
(c)
For isothermal process = U = 0
R (T2 T1 )
(d)
For adiabatic process: U = W =
( 1)
(xx) Elasticities of gases
(a)
Isothermal bulk modulus = BI = P
(b)
Adiabatic bulk modulus BA = P
(xxi) For a CYCLIC process, work done W = area enclosed in the cycle on PV diagram.
Further, U = 0 (as state of the system remains unchanged)
So, Q = W
(xxii) Internal energy and specific heats of an ideal gas (Monoatomic gas)
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

3
RT (for one mole);
2
3
U = RT (for moles)
2
3
U = RT (for moles);
2
1 U 3
Cv=
= R
2

U=

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(e)

Cp = Cv + R =

(f)

Cp
C
v

5
= R
2

3
5
R+R= R
2
2
3 5
R = = 1.67
2 3

## (xxiii) Internal energy and specific heats of a diatomic gas

5
RT (for moles);
2
5
U = RT (for moles)
2
1 U 5
Cv =
= R;
T 2

(a)

U=

(b)
(c)
(d)

Cp = Cv + R =

(e)

C p 7R
=
=

Cv 2

5
7
R+R= R
2
2
5R 7
= = 1.4
2 5

## (xxiv) Mixture of gases: = 1 + 2

M=

1M1 + 2 + M 2 N1m1 + N 2 m 2
=
1 + 2
N1 + N 2

Cv =

1C v1 + 2 C v 2
1 + 2

and C p =

1C p1 + 2 C p 2
1 + 2

## (xxv) First law of thermodynamics

(a)
(b)
(c)

Q = U + W
or
U = Q W
Both Q, W depends on path, but U does not depend on the path
For isothermal process: Q = W = RT log | V2/V1|, U = 0, T = Constant, PV = Constant
and Ciso =

(d)

## For adiabatic process: W =

R (T2 T1 )
, Q = 0, U = Cv (T2T1), Q = 0,
(1 )
Cp
2
PV = constant, Cad = 0 and =
= 1+
Cv

(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)

## For isochoric process: W = 0, Q = U = CvT, V = constant, and Cv = (R/1)

For isobaric process: Q = CpT, U = CvT., W = RT, P = constant and
Cp = (R/1)
For cyclic process: U = 0, Q = W
For free expansion: U = 0, Q = 0, W = 0
n
For polytropic process: W = [R(T2T1)/1n], Q = C (T2T1), PV = constant and
C=

R
R
+
1 1 n

## (xxvi) Second law of thermodynamics

(a)
There are no perfect engines
(b)
There are no perfect refrigerators

## QUEST - Power Coaching for IITJEE

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Q 2 Q 2 T2
,
=
Q1 Q1 T1

(c)

(d)

## Coefficient of performance of a refrigerator:

=

Q2
T2
Heat absorbed from cold reservoir Q 2
=
=
=
Work done on refrigerator
W Q1 Q 2 T1 T2

or

Q1 = Q2

or

x

## (xxvii) The amount of heat transmitted is given by: Q = KA

conductivity, A is the area of cross section, is the difference in temperature, t is the time of heat
flow and x is separation between two ends
(xxviii)

d
KA

## (xxix) Flow of heat through a composite conductor:

(K11 / d1 ) + (K 2 2 / d 2 )
(K1 / d1 ) + (K 2 / d 2 )

(a)

Temperature of interface, =

(b)

(c)

## Thermal resistance of the composite conductor

R TH =

(d)
(xxx) (a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Q
A(1 2 )
=
t (d1 / K1 ) + (d 2 / K 2 )

d1
d
+ 2 = (R Th )1 + (R Th )2
K 1A K 2 A

## Equivalent thermal conductivity, K =

d1 + d 2

(d1 / K1 ) + (d 2 / K 2 )

## Radiation absorption coefficient:

a = Q0/Q0
Reflection coefficient:
r = Qr/Q0
Transmission coefficient:
t = Qt/Q0
Emissive power:
e or E = Q/A .t

[t = time]
ee0

(e)

## Spectral emissive power:

Q
and e =
e =
At (d )

(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)

Emissivity:
Absorptive power:
Kirchhoffs law:
Stefans law: (a)
For a black body:
For a body:

(j)

## Rate of loss of heat:

= e/E ; 0 1
a = Qa/Q0
(e/a)1 = (e/a)B = = E
4
8
2 4
E=T (where =5.67x10 Wm K )
4
4
E = (T T0 )
4
4
e = (T T0 )
dQ

= A ( 4 0 4 )
dt

(k)

(dQ / dt )1
(dQ / dt )2

d A 4
A 4
=
04 =
04
dt
ms
V s

(d/dt )1
(d/dt )2

r12
r22

A1 V2 r2
x
=
A 2 V1 r1

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(l)

(m)

(n)

## Weins radiation law:

(o)

Solar Constant:

d
= K (0) or (0) eKT
dt
3
mT = b
(where b = 2.9 x 10 m K)
A
A a/T
d
Ed= 5 (T) d= 5 e

2

1/ 4
RS
R
4
S
T or T = ES

R S
R ES

S =

1/ 2

## QUEST - Power Coaching for IITJEE

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WAVES
1.

2.

3.

## Velocity of longitudinal waves:

(a)
In rods: v = (Y/) (Y Youngs modulus, = density)
(b)
In liquids: v = (B/)
(B = Bulk modulus)
(c)
In gases: v = (P/)
(Laplace formula)

4.

Effect of temperature:
(a)
v = v0 (T/273)
or
(b)
(vsound/vrms) = (/3)

5.

T
=
m

T
r 2 d

v = v0 + 0.61t

2
(vtx)

t x
(b) y = a sin 2
T

= n
k

## (a) vparticle = (y/t)

(b) maximum particle velocity, (vparticle)max = a

6.

Particle velocity:

7.

Strain in medium
(a) strain = (y/x) = ka cos (t kx)
(b) Maximum strain = (y/dx)max = ka
(c) (vparticle/strain) = (/k) = wave velocity
i.e., vparticle = wave velocity x strain in the medium

8.

Wave equation:

9.

## Intensity of sound waves:

(a)
I = (E/At)
(b)
If is the density of the medium; v the velocity of the wave; n the frequency and a the
2
2 2
i.e. I n2a2
amplitude then I = 2 v n a
12
2
(c)
Intensity level is decibel: 10 log (I/I0). Where, I0 =Threshold of hearing = 10 Watt/m

10.

Principle of superposition: y = y1 + y2

11.

2
2
Resultant amplitude: a = (a1 + a2 + 2a1a cos )

12.

## Resultant intensity: I = I1 + I2 + 2(I1I2 cos )

2
(a)
For constructive interference: = 2n, amax = a1 + a2 and Imax = (I1 + I2)
2
(b)
For destructive interference: = (2n1) , amin = a2 a2 and Imin = (I1=I 2)

13.

(a)
(b)

14.

## Stationary waves: The equation of stationary wave,

(a)
When the wave is reflected from a free boundary, is:

2y
t

2y

= v2
x 2

## Beat frequency = n1 n2 and beat period T = (T1T2/T2T1)

If there are N forks in successive order each giving x beat/sec with nearest neighbour, then
nlast = nfirst + (N1)x

y = + 2a cos

2x
2t
sin
= 2a cos kx sin t

## QUEST - Power Coaching for IITJEE

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(b)

Y + 2a sin

15.

2x
2t
cos
=2a sin kx cos t

1

T
m

(a)

## For fundamental tone: n1 =

(b)

For p th harmonic : np =

(c)

## The ratio of successive harmonic frequencies: n1 : n2 : n3 :.. = 1 : 2 : 3 :

(d)

Sonometer: n =

(e)

Meldes experiment:

l
2l

T
m

T
m

(m = r2 d)
(i) Transverse mode: n =

16.

2p
2l

p
2l

T
m

T
m

v

4L

(a)

(b)
(c)

## For first overtone (third harmonic): n2 = 3n1

Only odd harmonics are found in the vibrations of a closed organ pipe
and n1 : n2 : n3 : ..=1 : 3 : 5 :

17.

## Vibrations of open organ pipe:

(a)
For fundamental tone: n1 = (v/2L)
(b)
For first overtone (second harmonic) : n2 = 2n1
(c)
Both even and odd harmonics are found in the vibrations of an open organ pipe and
n1 : n2 : n3 : =1 : 2 : 3 : .

18.

## End correction: (a) Closed pipe : L = Lpipe + 0.3d

(b) Open pipe: L = Lpipe + 0.6 d
where d = diameter = 2r

19.

Resonance column:

20.

Kundts tube:

21.

## Longitudinal vibration of rods

(a)
Both ends open and clamped in middle:
(i) Fundamental frequency, n1 = (v/2l)
(ii) Frequency of first overtone, n2 = 3n1
(iii)Ratio of frequencies, n1 : n2 : n3 : = 1 3: 5 : ..
(b)

3
;
(b) l2 + e =
4
4
v
l 2 3l1
; (d) n =
or = 2 (l 2 l 1 )
(c) e =
2 (l 2 l 1 )
2

(a) l1 +e =

v air

= air
v rod rod

## One end clamped

(i) Fundamental frequency, n1 = (v/4l)
(ii) Frequency of first overtone, n2 = 3n1

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22.

t
l2

23.

## Doppler Effect for Sound

(a)
Observer stationary and source moving:
(i) Source approaching: n =

(b)

v
x n
v vs

v vs
x
v

v + vs
v
x n and =
x
v + vs
v

## Source stationary and observer moving:

(i) Observer approaching the source: n =

v + v0
xn
v

(c)

and

and

v v0
x n and
v

## Source and observer both moving:

(i) S and O moving towards each other: n =

v + v0
xn
v vs

v v0
xn
v + vs

v v0
xn
v vs

v + v0
xn
v + vs

v v m v0
v vm vs

(d)

(e)

For vs <<v, , =

xn

2vs
xn
v

(f)

2 vv s
v 2 v s2

2v 0
xn
v

## Source moving towards or away from hill or wall

(i) Source moving towards wall
(a) Observer between source and wall
n =

v
xn
v vs

n =

v
x n (for reflected waves)
v vs

## QUEST - Power Coaching for IITJEE

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## (b) Source between observer and wall

n =

v
xn
v + vs

n =

v
x n (for reflected waves)
v vs

## (ii) Source moving away from wall

(a) Observer between source and wall
n =

v
xn
v + vs

n =

v
xn
v + vs

## (for direct waves)

(for reflected waves)

(g)

n =

v
xn
v vs

n =

v
xn
v + vs

## (for direct waves)

(for reflected waves)

Moving Target:
(i) S and O stationary at the same place and target approaching with speed u
v+u
xn
vu

n =

or

n = 1 +

2u
xn
v

(for u <<v)

(ii) S and O stationary at the same place and target receding with speed u
vu
xn
v+u

n =

(h)

SONAR: n =

or

n = 1

2u
xn
v

(for u <<v)

v v sub
2 v sub

x n 1
xn
v v sub
v

(upper sign for approaching submarine while lower sign for receding submarine)
(i)

Transverse Doppler effect: There is no transverse Doppler effect in sound. For velocity
component vs cos
n=

24.
(a)

v
xn
v v s cos

## Doppler Effect for light

Red shift (when light source is moving away):
n =

1 v / c
xn
1+ v / c

or

v
For v << c, n = x n or
c

(b)

1+ v / c
x
1 v / c
v
= x
c

v
c

(c)

Doppler Broadening = 2 = 2

(d)

For light, n = 1

## Blue shift (when light source is approaching)

n =

1+ v / c
xn
1 v / c

or
v
c

For v << c, n = n

or

1 v / c
x
1+ v / c

(e)

v2
c

1 v2
x n = 1

2 c2

xn

(for v << c)

2v
n
c

RADAR: n =

v
c

## QUEST - Power Coaching for IITJEE

1, Vigyan Vihar, Near Anand Vihar, Delhi 92. Ph: 55270275, 55278916
E-16/289, Sector 8, Rohini, Delhi 85, Ph: 55395439, 30911585

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