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- Unit 4 Guided Notes
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You are on page 1of 32

CONTENTS

Description

Page Number

1.

03

2.

04

3.

Vectors

06

4.

07

5.

09

6.

12

7.

14

8.

Gravitation

18

9.

Properties of Matter

20

25

11. Waves

30

35

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(i)

SI Units:

(a)

Time-second(s);

(b)

Length-metre (m);

(c)

Mass-kilogram (kg);

(d)

Amount of substancemole (mol); (e) Temperature-Kelvin (K);

(f)

Electric Current ampere (A);

(g)

Luminous Intensity Candela (Cd)

(ii)

(a)

To check the accuracy of a given relation

(b)

To derive a relative between different physical quantities

(c)

To convert a physical quantity from one system to another system

a

n1u 2 = n 2 u 2

or

M

L

T

n 2 = n1 1 x 1 x 1

M2

L2

T2

X1 X 2 + ... + X N

N

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

(vi)

(vii)

| Xi |

N

X

X

X

x 100

Percentage error =

X

Fractional error =

Xa Y b

Zc

X

Y

=| a |

+| b|

+|c|

X

Y

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(i)

(ii)

Average speed: v =

(iii)

(iv)

s1 + s 2

s +s

= 1 2

s

s

t1 + t 2

1

+ 2

v1 v 2

(a)

If s1 = s2 = d, then v =

(b)

If t1 = t2, then v =

2 v1 v 2

= Harmonic mean

v1 + v 2

v1 + v 2

=arithmetic mean

2

r2 r1

; (b) | v av | v

t 2 t1

dr

Instantaneous velocity: v =

and | v | = v = instantaneous speed

dt

v v

= 2 1

t 2 t1

(v)

Average acceleration: a av

(vi)

Instantaneous acceleration: a = d v / dt

dv

v

dx

(vii)

(a)

v = u + at;

1 2

at ;

2

(b)

x = ut +

(c)

v2 u2 + 2ax;

(d)

x = vt

(e)

1 2

at ;

2

v+u

x=

t;

2

1 2

at ;

2

(f)

s = x x 0 = ut +

(g)

2

2

v = u + 2a (xx0)

a

(2n1)

2

(ix)

(b) when dropped: v = (2gh)

and t = (2h/g)

(x)

(xi)

(xii)

Lamis Theorem:

P

Q

R

=

=

sin ( ) sin ( ) sin ( )

(xv)

Fdt

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(1)

(a)

F12 = F12

(b)

m

F = F21

M+m

F

Acceleration: a =

M+m

(c)

(2)

F21

Fig. 1

(xvii) Gravitational mass: mG =

F12

F FR 2

=

; m I = mG

g GM

(xviii) Non inertial frame: If a 0 be the acceleration of frame, then pseudo force F = m a 0

Example: Centrifugal force =

mv 2

= m 2 r

r

(+ sign is used when lift is moving up while sign when lift is moving down)

m1

(xx)

Pulley Problems:

(a)

For figure (2):

Tension in the string, T =

m1m 2

g

m1 + m 2

The force on the pulley, F =

(b)

m2

g

m1 + m 2

Frictionless

surface

T

m2

Fig. 2

m 2g

2 m1m 2

g

m1 + m 2

Tension in the string, T =

2m1m 2

g

m1 + m 2

m 2 m1

g

m 2 + m1

T

T

4m1m 2

g

m1 + m 2

T

T

a

m1

Fig. 3

m2

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VECTORS

(i)

(ii)

Unit vector: A = ( A/ A)

(iii)

Magnitude: A = (A 2x + A 2y + A 2z )

(iv)

(v)

Projection:

(b)

Component

of B along A = A . B

1

(c)

If A = A x i + A y j, then its angle with the xaxis is = tan (Ay/Ax)

Dot product:

A . B = AB cos ,

(a)

(vii)

Component of A along B = A . B

(vi)

(a)

(b)

A . B = A x B x + A y B y + A z Bz

Cross product:

(a)

A x B = AB

(b)

sin n ;

A x A = 0;

Ax B=

(c)

i

Ax

j

Ay

k

Az

Bx

By

Bz

(viii) Examples:

(a)

W= F. r;

(e) v = w x r ;

(b) P = F . v ;

(f) = x F ;

(c) = E . A;

(x)

(xii)

(g) F m = q v x B

(ix)

(xi)

(d) = B . A;

1

|Ax B |

2

^

^

^

Gradient operator: V = i

+j

+k

x

y

z

Volume of a parallelopiped: V = A . B x C

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(i)

(a)

v = r;

2

2

(b)

a = (v /r) = r ;

2

(c)

F = (mv /r);

(d)

(e)

r . v = 0;

v.a =0

(ii)

2

Cyclist taking a turn: tan = (v /rg)

(iii)

(iv)

2

Banking of Roads: tan = v /rg

(v)

(vi)

Overloaded truck:

(a)

Rinner wheel < Router wheel

(b)

maximum safe velocity on turn, v = (gdr/2h)

(vii)

(a)

Centripetal acceleration ar = (v2/r);

(b)

Tangential acceleration at = (dv/dt);

(c)

Resultant acceleration a= (a 2r + a 2t )

(a)

For lowest point A and highest point B, TA TB = 6 mg; v2A = v2B + 4gl ; vA (5gl); and vB

(gl)

(b)

Condition for Oscillation: vA < (2gl)

(c)

Condition for leaving Circular path: (2gl) < vA < (5gl)

(ix)

Relative velocity: v BA = v B v A

(x)

(xi)

Crossing a River:

(a)

Beat Keeps its direction perpendicular to water current

(1)

vR =( ( v 2w + v 2b ) ; (2) = tan1 ( v w / v b );

(3)

t=(x/vb) (it is minimum) (4) Drift on opposite bank = (v w/vb)x

(b)

Boat to reach directly opposite to starting point:

(xii)

x

v b cos

g x2

(a)

(b)

time of flight: T =

(c)

(d)

2

2

Maximum height attained, H = (u sin /2g)

2 u sin

g

2u 2 cos 2

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(e)

(f)

(g)

(h)

(i)

0

Ranges are same for projection angles and (90 )

Velocity at the top most point is = u cos

2

tan = gT /2R

2

(H/T ) = (g/8)

(a)

T = (2h/g);

(b)

R = v(2h/g);

2

2

(c)

y = h (gx /2u )

(d)

2

Magnitude of velocity at the ground = (u + 2gh)

(e)

2gh

u

2u sin ( 0 )

g cos 0

(a)

Time of flight, T =

(b)

Horizontal range, R =

2 u 2 sin ( 0 ) cos

g cos 2 0

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E-16/289, Sector 8, Rohini, Delhi 85, Ph: 55395439, 30911585

FRICTION

(i)

Force of friction:

(a)

s sN (self adjusting); (s)max = sN

(b)

k = kN (k = coefficient of kinetic friction)

(c)

k < s

(ii)

(iii)

2

Acceleration of a body sliding on an inclined plane: a = g sin (1 k cot t )

(iv)

(v)

DYNAMICS OF RIGID BODIES

2 1

=

t 2 t1

t

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

2

2

Instantaneous angular acceleration: = (d/dt) = (d /dt )

(vi)

(a)

aT = r and aR = (v2/r) = 2R

(b)

Resultant acceleration, a = (a 2T + a 2R )

(c)

In vector form,

2 1

=

t 2 t1

t

a = a T + a R , where a T = x r and a R = x u = x x r

(vii)

(a)

= 0 + t;

1

(b)

= 0t + t2;

2

(c)

2 02 = 2

(a)

x CM =

m 1x 1 + m 2 x 2

;

m1 + m 2

(b)

v CM =

m1 v1 + m 2 v 2

m1 + m 2

(c)

a CM =

m 1a 1 + m 2 a 2

m1 + m 2

Also v CM =

(ix)

dx CM

dv

d 2 x CM

and a CM = CM =

dt

dt

dt 2

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(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

(g)

X CM =

mi x i

;

M

m i r i

;

M

d r CM

;

dt

d v CM

;

dt

r CM =

v CM =

a CM =

P CM = M v CM = m i v i ;

2

(x)

Moment of Inertia:

(a) I = mi ri

2

(b) I = r , where = m1m2/(m1 + m2)

(xi)

2

2

2

Radius of gyration: (a) K = (I/M) ; (b) K = [(r1 + r2 + + rn )/n] = root mean square distance.

(xii)

1

I2

2

or I = (2K/2)

(xv)

1 2

I = L2/2I

2

(a)

= I,

(b)

If = 0, then (dL/dt)=0 or L=constant or, I=constant i.e., I11= I22

(Laws of conservation of angular momentum)

=

(xix) Rotational work done: W

(xx)

d = av

Rotational Power: P = .

(xxi) (a)

(b)

2

Parallel axes theorem: I = Ic + Md

(a)

Ring:

I = MR2 (axis); I =

2

1

MR2 (Diameter);

2

2

I = (3/2) MR (tangential to rim and parallel to diameter)

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10

(b)

(c)

1

1

MR2 (axis); I = MR2 (diameter)

2

4

1

Cylinder: I = MR 2 (axis )

2

Disc: I =

(d)

(e)

(f)

Thin rod: I = (ML /12) (about centre); I = (ML /3) (about one end)

Hollow sphere : Idia = (2/3) MR2; Itangential = (5/3) MR2

Solid sphere: Idia = (2/5) MR2 ; Itangential = (7/5) MR2

(g)

Rectangular: I C =

(h)

Cube: I = (1/6) Ma

(i)

(j)

(k)

(l)

Triangular lamina: I = (1/6) Mh2 (about base axis)

Elliptical lamina: I = (1/4) Ma2 (about minor axis) and I = (1/4) Mb2 (about major axis)

M l2 + b2

(centre)

12

2

K2

1

1

1

K = MV 2 + I 2 = MV 2 1 +

2

2

2

2

R

( Q V = R and I = MK2)

(a)

(b)

Acceleration, a = g sin

(c)

2gh

K2

1 +

K2

1 +

r 2

K2

2s 1 + 2

g sin

2

2

(xxv) Compound Pendulum: T = 2 (I/Mg l), where l = M (K + l )

Minimum time period, T0 = 2 (2K/g)

Minimum time period for disc, T = 2 (1.414R/g)

(xxvii) Time period for a rod of length L pivoted at one end: T = 2(2L/3g

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11

(i)

1

(ii)

F . d r ab(b)

Path 1

F . d r ;(c)

F .d r = 0

closed

path

Path 2

Potential energy: (a) VU = W; (b) F = (dU/dX ) ;

(iv)

(v)

(vi)

2 =

(vii)

Kx 2 ; (b ) 2U =

1

2

mv

2f

mv i2 ;

(c)

(iii)

F = VU

GMm

(R + h )

K x 2 2 x1 2

(b ) 12 K =

mv 2

or, K + U = Ki + Ui

(ix)

(x)

(xi)

Equilibrium Conditions:

(a)

For equilibrium, (dU/dx) = 0

(b)

For stable equilibrium: U(x) = minimum, (dU/dx) = 0 and (d2U/dx2) is positive

2

2

(c)

For unstable equilibrium: U(x) = maximum, (dU/dx) = 0 and (d U/dx ) is negative

2

2

(d)

For neutral equilibrium: U(x) = constant, (dU/dx) = 0 and (d U/dx ) is zero

(xii)

2

[E U(x )]

m

(xiii) Momentum:

(a)

(b)

p = m v;

F = d p / dt ,

(b)

(c)

mB

x vB

mG

(xiv) Impulse: p = F av t

(xv)

(a)

Momentum conservation : m1u1 + m2u2 = m1v1 + m2v2

(b)

For elastic collision,1 e = 1 =1 coefficient

of restitution

1 2

1

2

2

2

2 1v 1 + m 2v 2

2

(c)

Energy conservation:

m1u21 + m22u2 = m

(d)

st

nd

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12

m m2

v1 = 1

m1 + m 2

(e)

(f)

(g)

2 m1

2m 2

u1 +

m + m u 2 ; v2 = m + m

1

2

1

2

m m1

u1 + 2

m + m u2

1

2

If m1 = m2 = m, then v1 = u2 and v2 = u1

Coefficient of restitution, e = (v2v1/u1 = u2)

e = 1 for perfectly elastic collision and e=0 for perfectly inelastic collision. For inelastic

collision 0 < e < 1

2n

(a)

Height attained after nth impact, hn = e h0

2

2

(b)

Total distance traveled when the ball finally comes to rest, s = h0 (1+e )/(1e )

(c)

2h 0 1 + e

g 1 e

m m2

= 1

K i m1 + m 2

and

K lost

K lost

4m1m 2

=

= 100%

; If m1 = m 2 ,

Ki

Ki

(m1 + m 2 )2

1 m1 m 2

(u1 u2)2 (1e2)

2 m1 + m 2

m em 2

v1 = 1

m1 + m 2

m (1 + e )

u 1 and v 2 = 1

u1

m1 + m 2

m1u1 = m1v1 cos 1 + m2v2 cos 2 and m1v1 sin 1 = m2v 2 sin 2

Solving, we get: m1u12 = m1v12 + m2v22

(xx)

dV

dM

= v el

dt

dt

M0 mb

[M0 = original mass of rocket plus fuel and mb = mass of fuel burnt]

V = vrel loge

M0

(b)

(c)

If we write M = M0 mb = mass of the rocket and full at any time, than velocity of rocks at

that time is:

V = vrel loge (M0/M)

(a)

If ext = 0, then L = Li

v max rmax

=

v min

rmin

(b)

For planets,

(c)

I

Spinning skater, I11 = I2W 2 or = i i

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13

(i)

(a)

F = Kx ;

K

x or a = 2x, where = (K/m);

m

(b)

a=

(c)

d2x

+ 2 x = 0

(ii)

Equation of motion:

(iii)

Displacement: x = A sin (t + )

(a)

If = 0, x = A sin t ;

(b)

If = /2, x = A cos t

2

2

1

(c)

If x = C sin t + D cos t, then x = A sin (t + ) with A= (C +D ) and = tan (D/C)

(iv)

Velocity:

(a)

v = A cos (+ );

(b)

If =0, v = A cos t;

(c)

vmax =A

2

2

(d)

v = (A x );

(e)

x2

A

v2

2 A 2

dt 2

=1

(v)

Acceleration:

(a)

a = 2 x = 2A sin (t+) ;

2

(b)

If =0, a= A sin t

2

(c)

|amax| = A;

2

(d)

Fmax = m A

(vi)

(a)

= (K/m) ;

(vii)

1

2

(K / m );

(b)

(c)

T = 2

m

K

(a)

U = 2 Kx2 ;

dU

;

dx

(b)

F=

(c)

Umax = 2 m A ;

(d)

U =2 m A sin t

1

(a)

K = 2 mv2;

(b)

K= 2 m2 (A2x2);

(c)

2 2

2

K =2 m A cos t ;

(d)

Kmax =2 m2A2

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14

(ix)

Total energy:

(a)

E = K + U = conserved;

2 2

(b)

E = (1/2) m A ;

(c)

E = Kmax = Umax

(x)

(a)

< U > = (1/4) m2A2 ;

2 2

(b)

< K > = (1/4) m A ;

(c)

(E/2) = < U > = < K >

(xi)

Some relations:

(a)

v12 v 22

x 22 x 12

(b) T = 2

x 22 x 12

v12 v 22

; (c) A =

(v1x 2 )2 (v 2 x1 )2

v12 v 22

(a)

mg = Kx0;

(b)

x0

m

= 2

K

g

T = 2

m + (m s / 3)

K

(xiv) Cutting a spring:

(a)

K = nK ;

(b)

T = T0/(n) ;

(c)

= (n) 0

(d)

n +1

K, K2 =

n

If spring is cut into two pieces of lengths l1 and l2 such that l1 = nl2, then K1 =

(n +1) K and K1l1 = K2l2

(xv)

Springs in parallel:

(a)

K = K1 + K2 ;

(b)

T = 2 [m/(K1 + K2)]

(c)

If T1 = 2 (m/K1) and T2 = 2(m/K2), then for the parallel combination:

1

T2

1

T12

or T =

T22

T1T2

T12

+ T22

and 2 = 12 + 22

(a)

K1x1 = K2x2 = Kx = F applied

(b)

(c)

(d)

1

1

1

=

+

K K1 K 2

1

12

T = 2

K=

or

22

K 1K 2

K1 + K 2

or T 2 T12 + T22

m(K1 + K 2 )

K 1K 2

or

1

2

K 1K 2

m (K 1 + K 2 )

(a)

I=C

or

(b)

(c)

=0 sin (t+);

= (C/I) ;

d 2

dt

C

=0;

I

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15

1

2

C

;

I

(d)

(e)

4

T = 2(I/C), where C = r /2l

(a)

I = = mgl sin or

(b)

= (g/l) ;

(c)

(d)

T = 2 (l/g)

1

2

d 2

d 2 g

g

+ sin = 0 or

+ =0;

dt

l

dt 2 l

2

(g/l ) ;

(a)

T = 2 sec ;

(b)

l = 99.3 cm

(xx)

(a)

T = 2

(b)

T=2

1

;

1

1

g +

l Re

Re

(when l)

g

A 2

(xxi) Anharmonic pendulum: T T0 1 + 0 T0 1 +

2

16

16 l

(xxiii) Conical Pendulum:

(a)

v = (gR tan ) ;

(b)

T = 2 (L cos /g)

(xxiv) Compound pendulum: T = 2

(a)

(b)

(l + K / l)

2

For a disc : T = 2 (3R/2g)

(a)

K = Ag ;

(b)

T = 2(m/Ag) = 2(Ld/g)

(xxvi) Liquid in Utube:

(a)

K = 2A g and m = AL ;

(b)

T = 2(L/2g) = 2(h/g)

(xxvii) Ball in bowl: T = 2[(R r)/g]

(xxviii) Piston in a gas cylinder:

A2E

;

V

(a)

K=

(b)

T = 2

mV

A2E

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16

(c)

T = 2

(d)

T = 2

Vm

A 2P

Vm

2 P

AY

;

l

(a)

K=

(b)

T = 2

lm

AY

(xxxi) Magnetic dipole in magnetic field: T = 2(I/MB)

(xxxii) Electrical LC circuit: T = 2 LC or

(xxxiii) Lissajous figures

Case (a): 1 = 2 =

1

2 LC

or 1 : 2 = 1 : 1

x2

General equation:

y2

b2

2 xy

cos = sin 2

ab

For = /4 :

For = /2 :

x2

a

x2

a2

+

+

y2

b

y2

b2

2 xy 1

= ; oblique ellipse

ab

2

= 1 ; symmetrical ellipse

Case (b): For 1 : 2 = 2:1 with x = a sin (2t + ) and y = b sin t

For = 0, : Figure of eight

3

,

: Double parabola

4 4

3

For = , : Single parabola

2 2

For =

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GRAVITATION

(i)

(a)

11

(ii)

(iii)

Variation of g:

(a)

due to shape ; gequator < gpole

2

(b)

due to rotation of earth: (i) gpole = GM/R (No effect)

(ii) gequator =

GM

R2

dF

2 dr

=

F

r

(b) Weight W = mg

2 R

2

2

(iv) R = 0.034 m/s

(v) If 17 0 or T = (T0/17) = (24/17)h = 1.4 h, then object would

float on equator

(c)

(iv)

2h

, if h < < R

g

(d)

At a depth of below earths surface: g = g 1

R

GM m 1

g earth

Acceleration on moon: gm =

6

R 2m

GM ^

r (outside) ;

r2

(b)

r r (inside)

(vi)

(a)

At a distance r : U(r) = GMm/r

(b)

At the surface of the earth: U0 = GMm/R

(c)

At any height h above earths surface: U U0 = mgh (for h < < R)

or

(vii)

g =

GM

(v)

(ix)

(a)

Two particles: U = Gm1m2/r

(b)

(x)

(xi)

Three particles: U =

Gm1m 2 Gm1m 3 Gm 2 m 3

r12

r13

r23

Escape velocity:

2GM

or ve = (2gR) = (gD)

R

(a)

ve =

(b)

ve = R

8G

3

h=

(v e / v)

or v = v e

h

h

ve

R+h

R

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(xii)

(a ) v 0 =

GM

;

r

(b) v 0 = v e

R

;

2 (R + h )

(c) v0 ve/2

(R + h )3

GM

(b)

(c)

(d)

(xv)

(if h<<R)

; (b ) T =2

(if h << R )

1

1 GMm

mv 20 =

2

2 r

GMm

= 2K ;

r

1 GMm

;

Total energy E=K + U=

r

2

1 GMm

E = U/2 = K ; (e) BE = E =

2

r

Potential energy U =

(c)

R

g

GMT 2

h =

4 2

4 2

(R + h )3 ;

GM

1/ 3

R ;

(a)

Law of orbits: Orbits are elliptical

(b)

Law of areas: Equal area is swept in equal time

2

3

2

2

3

(c)

Law of period: T r ; T = (4 /GM)r

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SURFACE TENSION

Force

F

= ;

Length l

(a)

(ii)

T=

(b) T =

Surface energy W

=

Surface area

A

(i)

(b)

2

2

1/3

Ei = n(4r T), E = 4R T, (E/Ei) = n ,

(c)

1

r

(iii)

Increase in temperature: =

(iv)

(v)

E

1

= 1

1/3

E i n

3T 1 1

or

s r R

3T

sJ

1 1

r R

Fcohesive

(a)

(b)

(c)

2

Fcohesive

2

Fcohesive

2

Angle of contact:

(a)

Acute: If Fa> Fc/2 ;

(b)

obtuse: if Fa<Fc/2 ;

0

(c)

c=90 : if Fa=Fc/2

(d)

cos c =

Tsa Tsl

, (where Tsa, Tsl and Tla represent solid-air, solid- liquid and liquid-air

Tla

surface tensions respectively). Here c is acute if Tsl < Tsa while c is obtuse if Tsl > Tsa

(vi)

Excess pressure:

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(vii)

+

R1 R 2

For a liquid drop: Pexcess = 2T/R

For an air bubble in liquid: Pexcess = 2T/R

For a soap bubble: Pexcess = 4T/R

Pressure inside an air bubble at a depth h in a liquid: Pin = Patm + hdg + (2T/R)

Forces between two plates with thin water film separating them:

(a)

(b)

(c)

1

r

P = T

1

;

R

1 1

F = AT ;

r R

(ix)

Capillary rise:

(a)

h=

2T cos

;

rdg

(b)

h=

2T

(For water = 00)

rdg

rR

Rr

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(c)

(d)

(x)

rdg h +

3

2 cos

2T cos ( )

Capillary depression, h

rdg

(a)

If V is the increase in volume and S is the increase in surface area, then 3P0V + 4TS =

0 where P0 is the atmospheric pressure

(b)

If the bubbles combine in environment of zero outside pressure isothermally, then S = 0 or

R3 = R 12 + R 22

ELASTICITY

(i)

2

(b) Tensile or longitudinal stress = (F/ r );

(c) Tangential or shearing stress = (F/A);

(d) Hydrostatic stress = P

(ii)

(b) Shearing strain = ;

(c) Volume strain = (V/V)

(iii)

Hooks law:

FL

A(L)

(a)

(b)

(c)

(V/V )

(iv)

Compressibility: K = (1/B)

(v)

(vi)

(vii)

Thermal stress = Y (t) and force = YA (t)

1 MgL 1 L2 g

=

2 YA 2 Y

(a)

r = l (where = angle of twist and = angle of shear);

(b)

restoring torque = c

(c)

restoring Couple per unit twist, c = r4/2l (for solid cylinder)

and C = (r24 r14)/2l (for hollow cylinder)

(ix)

1 (stress )

1

1

x stress x strain x volume = Y (strain)2 x volume =

x volume

2

2

Y

2

1

Potential energy stored, U = W =

x stress x strain x volume

2

1

x stress x strain

Potential energy stored per unit volume, u =

2

2

(a)

(b)

(c)

(x)

W=

Loaded beam:

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(xi)

(xii)

Wl 3

(a)

depression, =

(b)

Depression, =

(rectangular )

4Ybd 3

Wl 3

12Yr 2

(cylindrical )

Positions ratio:

D r

=

D

r

(a)

Lateral strain =

(b)

(c)

Poissons ratio =

(d)

lateral strain

r/r

=

longitudinal strain L / L

(a)

Y = 3B (12) ;

(b)

Y = 2 (1+ );

1

1

1

=

+

Y 9 B 3

(c)

(xiii) Interatomic force constant: k = Yr0 (r0 = equilibrium inter atomic separation)

KINETIC THEORY OF GASES

or P1V1 = P2V2

(i)

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

V number of moles,

Where = N/Na [N = number of molecules in the sample

and NA = Avogadros number = 6.02 x 1023/mole]

=

(iv)

M sample

mN

mN

1 mN 2

1

< v 2x > =

< v2 > =

v rms = v 2rms

V

3V

3 V

3

RMS speed:

2

2

(a)

rms = (v1 + v2 + + v 2N /N);

(b)

rms = (3P/) ;

(c)

rms = (3KT/m);

(d)

(vi)

Kinetic Theory:

(a)

Momentum delivered to the wall perpendicular to the xaxis, P = 2m v x

(b)

Time taken between two successive collisions on the same wall by the same molecule: t =

(2L/v x)

(c)

The frequency of collision: coll. = (x/2L)

(d)

Total force exerted on the wall by collision of various molecules: F = (MN/L) <v x2>

(e)

(v)

( rms )1

( rms )2

m2

=

m1

M2

M1

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(ix)

(x)

(a)

(1/2) Mv2 rms = (3/2) RT ;

2

(b)

(1/2) mv rms = (3/2) KT

(c)

Kinetic energy of one molecule = (3/2) KT ;

(d)

kinetic energy of one mole of gas = (3/2) RT

(e)

Kinetic energy of one gram of gas (3/2) (RT/M)

Maxwell molecular speed distribution:

KT

3/2

v 2 e - mv

/ 2 KT

(a)

n (v) = 4N

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(II) v p : v : vrms = (2) : (8/) : (3) = 1.41 : 1.60 : 1.73

8KT

8 RT

RT

=

= 1.60

m

M

M

3kT

=

m

3RT

RT

= 1.73

M

M

2 KT

=

m

2RT

RT

= 1.41

M

M

Internal energy:

(a)

Einternal = (3/2)RT (for one mole)

(b)

Einternal = (3/2 RT (for mole)

(c)

(xi)

2 E 2

= E

3 V 3

Degrees of freedom:

(a)

Ideal gas: 3 (all translational)

(b)

Monoatomic gas : 3 (all translational)

(c)

Diatomic gas: 5 (three translational plus two rotational)

(d)

Polyatomic gas (linear molecule e.g. CO2) : 7 (three translational plus two rotational plus two

vibrational)

(e)

Polyatomic gas (nonlinear molecule, e.g., NH3, H2O etc): 6 (three translational plus three

rotational)

(f)

Internal energy of a gas: Einternal = (f/2) RT. (where f = number of degrees of freedom)

(xii) Daltons law: The pressure exerted by a mixture of perfect gases is the sum of the pressures

exerted by the individual gases occupying the same volume alone i.e., P = P1 + P2 + .

(xiii) Van der Walls gas equation:

(a)

P + a (V - b ) = R

V 2

(b)

m

Vm2

(c)

b = 30 cm3/mole

(d)

Critical values: Pc =

(e)

a

27 b 2

, VC = 3b, TC =

8a

;

27 Rb

PC VC 3

= = 0.375

RTC

8

1

2 d 2 n

d = diameter of molecules of the gas

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FLUID MECHANICS

(i)

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

The viscous force between two layers of area A having velocity gradient (dv/dx) is given by: F =

A (dv/dx), where is called coefficient of viscosity

In SI system, is measured I Poiseiulle (Pl) 1Pl = 1Nsm2 = 1 decapoise. In egs system, the unit

of is g/cm/sec and is called POISE

When a spherical body is allowed to fall through viscous medium, its velocity increases, till the sum

of viscous drag and upthrust becomes equal to the weight of the body. After that the body moves

with a constant velocity called terminal velocity.

According to STOKEs Law, the viscous drag on a spherical body moving in a fluid is given by: F =

6r v, where r is the radius and v is the velocity of the body.

The terminal velocity is given by: v T =

2 r 2 ( ) g

9

where is the density of the material of the body and is the density of liquid

(v)

V=

pr 4

p

p

=

=

4

8l

R

8 l/r

where p is the pressure difference between two ends of the capillary and R is the fluid resistance

(=8 l/r4)

(vi) The matter which possess the property of flowing is called as FLUID (For example, gases and

liquids)

(vii) Pressure exerted by a column of liquid of height h is : P = hg ( = density of the liquid)

(viii) Pressure at a point within the liquid, P = P0 + hg, where P0 is atmospheric pressure and h is the

depth of point w.r.t. free surface of liquid

(ix) Apparent weight of the body immersed in a liquid Mg = Mg Vg

(x)

If W be the weight of a body and U be the upthrust force of the liquid on the body then

(a)

the body sinks in the liquid of W > U

(b)

the body floats just completely immersed if W = U

(c)

the body floats with a part immersed in the liquid if W < U

(xi)

(xii)

=

total volume of solid

density of solid

1 2

v = constant

2

a

(xiv) Accelerated fluid containers : tan = x

g

(xv)

ax

Fig. 4

2gh

a 12

a 22

v = (2gh), where h is the depth of a hole from the free surface of liquid

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(i)

where, L1, A1, V1 are the length, area and volume at temperature T1; and L2, A2, V2 are that at

temperature T2. represents the coefficient of linear expansion, the coefficient of superficial

expansion and the coefficient of cubical expansion.

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

: : = 1 : 2 : 3

If r, a be the coefficients of real and apparent expansions of a liquid and g be the coefficient of the

cubical expansion for the containing vessel (say glass), then

r = a + g

(v)

(vi)

The pressure of the gases varies with temperature as : Pt = P0 (1+ T), where = (1/273) per 0C

If temperature on Celsius scale is C, that on Fahrenheit scale is F, on Kelvin scale is K, and on

Reaumer scale is R, then

(a)

(c)

(vii)

C F 32 K 273 R

=

=

=

5

9

5

4

5

C = (F 32)

9

(b)

F=

9

C + 32

5

(e)

K=

5

(F + 459.4)

9

(d)

K = C + 273

(a)

(b)

0

Absolute zero = 0 K = 273.15 C

(c)

(d)

P

(Kelvin )

Ptriple

(viii) If mechanical work W produces the same temperature change as heat H, then we can write:

W = JH, where J is called mechanical equivalent of heat

(ix) The heat absorbed or given out by a body of mass m, when the temperature changes by T is: Q

= mcT, where c is a constant for a substance, called as SPECIFIC HEAT.

(x)

HEAT CAPACITY of a body of mass m is defined as : Q = mc

(xi) WATER EQUIVALENT of a body is numerically equal to the product of its mass and specific heat

i.e., W = mc

(xii) When the state of matter changes, the heat absorbed or evolved is given by: Q = mL, where L is

called LATENT HEAT

(xiii) In case of gases, there are two types of specific heats i.e., cp and cv [cp = specific heat at constant

pressure and Cv = specific heat at constant volume]. Molar specific heats of a gas are: Cp = Mcp

and Cv = Mcv, where M = molecular weight of the gas.

(xiv) Cp > Cv and according to Mayers formula Cp Cv = R

(xv)

V

=Constant

(a)

For ISOBARIC process:

P = Constant ;

T

P

(b)

For ISOCHORIC (Isometric) process:

V = Constant; =Constant

T

(c)

For ISOTHERMAL process

T = Constant ; PV= Constant

(d)

For ADIABATIC process:

PV = Constant ; TV1=Constant

1

and P( ) T = Constant

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(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

zero

For isochoric process:

infinite

For isothermal process:

slope = (P/V)

For adiabatic process:

slope = (P/V)

Slope of adiabatic curve > slope of isothermal curve.

(a)

For isobaric process: W = P (V2 V1)

(b)

For isochoric process: W = 0

(c)

For isothermal process: W=RT loge (V2/V1)

RT x 2.303 x log10 (V2/V1)

P1V1 x 2.303 x log10 (V2/V1)

RT x 2.303 x log10 (P1/P2)

R (T1 T2 ) (P1V1 P2 V2 )

=

( 1)

( 1)

(d)

(e)

W=

(f)

W adiabatic < W isothermal < W isobaric

(a)

For isobaric process: Q = CpT

(b)

For isochoric process = Q = CvT

(c)

For isothermal process = Q = W = Rt loge (V2/V1)

(d)

For adiabatic process: Q = 0

(xix) Change in internal energy

(a)

For isobaric process = U = CvT

(b)

For isochoric process = U = CvT

(c)

For isothermal process = U = 0

R (T2 T1 )

(d)

For adiabatic process: U = W =

( 1)

(xx) Elasticities of gases

(a)

Isothermal bulk modulus = BI = P

(b)

Adiabatic bulk modulus BA = P

(xxi) For a CYCLIC process, work done W = area enclosed in the cycle on PV diagram.

Further, U = 0 (as state of the system remains unchanged)

So, Q = W

(xxii) Internal energy and specific heats of an ideal gas (Monoatomic gas)

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

3

RT (for one mole);

2

3

U = RT (for moles)

2

3

U = RT (for moles);

2

1 U 3

Cv=

= R

2

U=

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(e)

Cp = Cv + R =

(f)

Cp

C

v

5

= R

2

3

5

R+R= R

2

2

3 5

R = = 1.67

2 3

5

RT (for moles);

2

5

U = RT (for moles)

2

1 U 5

Cv =

= R;

T 2

(a)

U=

(b)

(c)

(d)

Cp = Cv + R =

(e)

C p 7R

=

=

Cv 2

5

7

R+R= R

2

2

5R 7

= = 1.4

2 5

M=

1M1 + 2 + M 2 N1m1 + N 2 m 2

=

1 + 2

N1 + N 2

Cv =

1C v1 + 2 C v 2

1 + 2

and C p =

1C p1 + 2 C p 2

1 + 2

(a)

(b)

(c)

Q = U + W

or

U = Q W

Both Q, W depends on path, but U does not depend on the path

For isothermal process: Q = W = RT log | V2/V1|, U = 0, T = Constant, PV = Constant

and Ciso =

(d)

R (T2 T1 )

, Q = 0, U = Cv (T2T1), Q = 0,

(1 )

Cp

2

PV = constant, Cad = 0 and =

= 1+

Cv

(e)

(f)

(g)

(h)

(i)

For isobaric process: Q = CpT, U = CvT., W = RT, P = constant and

Cp = (R/1)

For cyclic process: U = 0, Q = W

For free expansion: U = 0, Q = 0, W = 0

n

For polytropic process: W = [R(T2T1)/1n], Q = C (T2T1), PV = constant and

C=

R

R

+

1 1 n

(a)

There are no perfect engines

(b)

There are no perfect refrigerators

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Q 2 Q 2 T2

,

=

Q1 Q1 T1

(c)

(d)

=

Q2

T2

Heat absorbed from cold reservoir Q 2

=

=

=

Work done on refrigerator

W Q1 Q 2 T1 T2

or

Q1 = Q2

or

x

conductivity, A is the area of cross section, is the difference in temperature, t is the time of heat

flow and x is separation between two ends

(xxviii)

d

KA

(K11 / d1 ) + (K 2 2 / d 2 )

(K1 / d1 ) + (K 2 / d 2 )

(a)

Temperature of interface, =

(b)

(c)

R TH =

(d)

(xxx) (a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Q

A(1 2 )

=

t (d1 / K1 ) + (d 2 / K 2 )

d1

d

+ 2 = (R Th )1 + (R Th )2

K 1A K 2 A

d1 + d 2

(d1 / K1 ) + (d 2 / K 2 )

a = Q0/Q0

Reflection coefficient:

r = Qr/Q0

Transmission coefficient:

t = Qt/Q0

Emissive power:

e or E = Q/A .t

[t = time]

ee0

(e)

Q

and e =

e =

At (d )

(f)

(g)

(h)

(i)

Emissivity:

Absorptive power:

Kirchhoffs law:

Stefans law: (a)

For a black body:

For a body:

(j)

= e/E ; 0 1

a = Qa/Q0

(e/a)1 = (e/a)B = = E

4

8

2 4

E=T (where =5.67x10 Wm K )

4

4

E = (T T0 )

4

4

e = (T T0 )

dQ

= A ( 4 0 4 )

dt

(k)

(dQ / dt )1

(dQ / dt )2

d A 4

A 4

=

04 =

04

dt

ms

V s

(d/dt )1

(d/dt )2

r12

r22

A1 V2 r2

x

=

A 2 V1 r1

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(l)

(m)

(n)

(o)

Solar Constant:

d

= K (0) or (0) eKT

dt

3

mT = b

(where b = 2.9 x 10 m K)

A

A a/T

d

Ed= 5 (T) d= 5 e

2

1/ 4

RS

R

4

S

T or T = ES

R S

R ES

S =

1/ 2

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WAVES

1.

2.

3.

(a)

In rods: v = (Y/) (Y Youngs modulus, = density)

(b)

In liquids: v = (B/)

(B = Bulk modulus)

(c)

In gases: v = (P/)

(Laplace formula)

4.

Effect of temperature:

(a)

v = v0 (T/273)

or

(b)

(vsound/vrms) = (/3)

5.

T

=

m

T

r 2 d

v = v0 + 0.61t

2

(vtx)

t x

(b) y = a sin 2

T

= n

k

(b) maximum particle velocity, (vparticle)max = a

6.

Particle velocity:

7.

Strain in medium

(a) strain = (y/x) = ka cos (t kx)

(b) Maximum strain = (y/dx)max = ka

(c) (vparticle/strain) = (/k) = wave velocity

i.e., vparticle = wave velocity x strain in the medium

8.

Wave equation:

9.

(a)

I = (E/At)

(b)

If is the density of the medium; v the velocity of the wave; n the frequency and a the

2

2 2

i.e. I n2a2

amplitude then I = 2 v n a

12

2

(c)

Intensity level is decibel: 10 log (I/I0). Where, I0 =Threshold of hearing = 10 Watt/m

10.

Principle of superposition: y = y1 + y2

11.

2

2

Resultant amplitude: a = (a1 + a2 + 2a1a cos )

12.

2

(a)

For constructive interference: = 2n, amax = a1 + a2 and Imax = (I1 + I2)

2

(b)

For destructive interference: = (2n1) , amin = a2 a2 and Imin = (I1=I 2)

13.

(a)

(b)

14.

(a)

When the wave is reflected from a free boundary, is:

2y

t

2y

= v2

x 2

If there are N forks in successive order each giving x beat/sec with nearest neighbour, then

nlast = nfirst + (N1)x

y = + 2a cos

2x

2t

sin

= 2a cos kx sin t

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30

(b)

Y + 2a sin

15.

2x

2t

cos

=2a sin kx cos t

1

T

m

(a)

(b)

For p th harmonic : np =

(c)

(d)

Sonometer: n =

(e)

Meldes experiment:

l

2l

T

m

T

m

(m = r2 d)

(i) Transverse mode: n =

16.

2p

2l

p

2l

T

m

T

m

v

4L

(a)

(b)

(c)

Only odd harmonics are found in the vibrations of a closed organ pipe

and n1 : n2 : n3 : ..=1 : 3 : 5 :

17.

(a)

For fundamental tone: n1 = (v/2L)

(b)

For first overtone (second harmonic) : n2 = 2n1

(c)

Both even and odd harmonics are found in the vibrations of an open organ pipe and

n1 : n2 : n3 : =1 : 2 : 3 : .

18.

(b) Open pipe: L = Lpipe + 0.6 d

where d = diameter = 2r

19.

Resonance column:

20.

Kundts tube:

21.

(a)

Both ends open and clamped in middle:

(i) Fundamental frequency, n1 = (v/2l)

(ii) Frequency of first overtone, n2 = 3n1

(iii)Ratio of frequencies, n1 : n2 : n3 : = 1 3: 5 : ..

(b)

3

;

(b) l2 + e =

4

4

v

l 2 3l1

; (d) n =

or = 2 (l 2 l 1 )

(c) e =

2 (l 2 l 1 )

2

(a) l1 +e =

v air

= air

v rod rod

(i) Fundamental frequency, n1 = (v/4l)

(ii) Frequency of first overtone, n2 = 3n1

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31

22.

t

l2

23.

(a)

Observer stationary and source moving:

(i) Source approaching: n =

(b)

v

x n

v vs

v vs

x

v

v + vs

v

x n and =

x

v + vs

v

(i) Observer approaching the source: n =

v + v0

xn

v

(c)

and

and

v v0

x n and

v

(i) S and O moving towards each other: n =

v + v0

xn

v vs

v v0

xn

v + vs

v v0

xn

v vs

v + v0

xn

v + vs

v v m v0

v vm vs

(d)

(e)

For vs <<v, , =

xn

2vs

xn

v

(f)

2 vv s

v 2 v s2

2v 0

xn

v

(i) Source moving towards wall

(a) Observer between source and wall

n =

v

xn

v vs

n =

v

x n (for reflected waves)

v vs

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32

n =

v

xn

v + vs

n =

v

x n (for reflected waves)

v vs

(a) Observer between source and wall

n =

v

xn

v + vs

n =

v

xn

v + vs

(for reflected waves)

(g)

n =

v

xn

v vs

n =

v

xn

v + vs

(for reflected waves)

Moving Target:

(i) S and O stationary at the same place and target approaching with speed u

v+u

xn

vu

n =

or

n = 1 +

2u

xn

v

(for u <<v)

(ii) S and O stationary at the same place and target receding with speed u

vu

xn

v+u

n =

(h)

SONAR: n =

or

n = 1

2u

xn

v

(for u <<v)

v v sub

2 v sub

x n 1

xn

v v sub

v

(upper sign for approaching submarine while lower sign for receding submarine)

(i)

Transverse Doppler effect: There is no transverse Doppler effect in sound. For velocity

component vs cos

n=

24.

(a)

v

xn

v v s cos

Red shift (when light source is moving away):

n =

1 v / c

xn

1+ v / c

or

v

For v << c, n = x n or

c

(b)

1+ v / c

x

1 v / c

v

= x

c

v

c

(c)

Doppler Broadening = 2 = 2

(d)

For light, n = 1

n =

1+ v / c

xn

1 v / c

or

v

c

For v << c, n = n

or

1 v / c

x

1+ v / c

(e)

v2

c

1 v2

x n = 1

2 c2

xn

(for v << c)

2v

n

c

RADAR: n =

v

c

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33

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