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Higher

Mathematics

Differentiation

Contents

Differentiation

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

Introduction to Differentiation

Finding the Derivative

Differentiating with Respect to Other Variables

Rates of Change

Equations of Tangents

Increasing and Decreasing Curves

Stationary Points

Determining the Nature of Stationary Points

Curve Sketching

Differentiating sinx and cosx

The Chain Rule

Special Cases of the Chain Rule

Closed Intervals

Graphs of Derivatives

Optimisation

1

RC

RC

RC

RC

RC

RC

RC

RC

RC

RC

RC

RC

RC

EF

A

CfE Edition

This document was produced specially for the HSN.uk.net website, and we require that any

copies or derivative works attribute the work to Higher Still Notes.

For more details about the copyright on these notes, please see

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.5/scotland/

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Higher Mathematics

Differentiation

Differentiation

1

Introduction to Differentiation

RC

From our work on Straight Lines, we saw that the gradient (or steepness)

of a line is constant. However, the steepness of other curves may not be the

same at all points.

In order to measure the steepness of other curves, we can use lines which

give an increasingly good approximation to the curve at a particular point.

On the curve with equation y = f ( x ) ,

suppose point A has coordinates ( a, f ( a ) ) .

At the point B where x= a + h , we have

=

y f (a + h ).

y

f (a + h )

f (a )

f (a + h ) f (a )

a+ha

f (a + h ) f (a )

=

.

h

y = f (x)

mAB =

B

A

a+h x

y = f (x)

f (a + h )

then B moves closer to A. This means that

mAB gives a better estimate of the steepness

of the curve at the point A.

f (a )

B

A

a+h x

f ( a ) = lim

h 0

f (a + h ) f (a )

.

h

derivative and the process of finding this is called differentiation.

It is possible to use this definition directly to find derivates, but you will not

be expected to do this. Instead, we will learn rules which allow us to quickly

find derivatives for certain curves.

hsn.uk.net

Page 1

CfE Edition

Higher Mathematics

Differentiation

RC

n

The basic rule for differentiating f ( x ) = x , n , with respect to x is:

n

=

If f ( x ) x=

then f ( x ) nx n1 .

Stated simply: the power (n) multiplies to the front of the x term, and the

power lowers by one (giving n 1 ).

EXAMPLES

4

1. Given f ( x ) = x , find f ( x ) .

f ( x ) = 4x 3.

3

2. Differentiate f ( x ) = x , x 0 , with respect to x.

f ( x ) = 3 x 4 .

For an expression of the form y = , we denote the derivative with respect

dy

.

to x by

dx

EXAMPLE

1

4

dy

= 13 x 3 .

dx

d .

notation dx

EXAMPLE

3

( )

1

3

d x2 = 3 x2.

2

dx

Preparing to differentiate

It is important that before you differentiate, all brackets are multiplied out

and there are no fractions with an x term in the denominator (bottom line).

For example:

1

= x 3

3

x

hsn.uk.net

3

= 3x 2

2

x

1

1

=x 2

x

Page 2

1

= 14 x 5

5

4x

5

5 x 23 .

=

2

4

43 x

CfE Edition

Higher Mathematics

Differentiation

EXAMPLES

1. Differentiate

1

x = x2

( )

d x 12 = 1 x 12

2

dx

2. Given y =

1

2 x

Note

It is good practice to

tidy up your answer.

dy

1

, where x 0 , find

.

2

dx

x

y = x 2

dy

= 2 x 3

dx

2

= 3.

x

For any constant a,

if f ( x )= a g ( x ) then f ( x )= a g ( x ) .

Stated simply: constant coefficients are carried through when differentiating.

So if f ( x ) = ax n then f ( x ) = anx n1 .

EXAMPLES

3

1. A function f is defined by f ( x ) = 2 x . Find f ( x ) .

f ( x ) = 6x 2 .

2. Differentiate y = 4 x

dy

= 8 x 3

dx

8

= 3.

x

3. Differentiate

2

, x 0 , with respect to x.

x3

d 2 x 3 = 6 x 4

dx

hsn.uk.net

6

.

x4

Page 3

CfE Edition

Higher Mathematics

4. Given y =

y = 32 x

3

2 x

Differentiation

, x > 0 , find

dy

.

dx

12

dy

3

= 34 x 2

dx

3

=

3.

4 x

The following rule allows us to differentiate expressions with several terms.

( x ) g ( x ) + h ( x ) .

( x ) g ( x ) + h ( x ) then f =

If f =

Stated simply: differentiate each term separately.

EXAMPLES

3

2

1. A function f is defined for x by f ( x ) = 3 x 2 x + 5 x .

Find f ( x ) .

f ( x ) = 9 x 2 4 x + 5.

4

3

2

2. Differentiate y = 2 x 4 x + 3 x + 6 x + 2 with respect to x.

dy

= 8 x 3 12 x 2 + 6 x + 6.

dx

Note

3 x ) is always a constant.

The derivative of an x term (e.g. 3x , 12 x , 10

For example:

d 6 x = 6,

d 1 x =

12 .

dx ( )

dx ( 2 )

For example:

( )

d ( 3 ) = 0,

dx

hsn.uk.net

d 1 =

0.

3

dx

Page 4

CfE Edition

Higher Mathematics

Differentiation

We will now consider more complex examples where we will have to use

several of the rules we have met.

EXAMPLES

1. Differentiate y =

1

, x > 0 , with respect to x.

3x x

3

1

1 x 2

=

3

3

3x 2

=

y

dy 1

5

= 3 23 x 2

dx

Note

You need to be

confident working with

indices and fractions.

= 12 x 2

1

=

5.

2 x

dy

when y =

( x 3 )( x + 2 ) .

dx

y=

( x 3 )( x + 2 )

2. Find

Remember

Before differentiating,

the brackets must be

multiplied out.

= x 2 + 2 x 3x 6

= x2 x 6

dy

= 2 x 1.

dx

)

x 1

+ . Find f ( x ) .

5 x2

f ( x=

) 15 x + x 2

f ( x )= 15 2 x 3

2

= 15 3 .

x

x 4 3x 2

4. Differentiate

with respect to x, where x 0 .

5x

x 4 3x 2 x 4 3x 2

=

5x

5x 5x

= 15 x 3 35 x

d 1 x3 3 x = 3 x2 3 .

5

5

5

dx 5

hsn.uk.net

Page 5

CfE Edition

Higher Mathematics

Differentiation

x 3 + 3x 2 6 x

5. Differentiate

, x > 0 , with respect to x.

x

x 3 + 3x 2 6 x x 3 3x 2 6 x

= 1 + 1 1

x

x2 x2 x2

=x

3 12

5

2

+ 3x

2 12

3

2

1 12

6x

=x + 3 x 6 x

1

2

5

3

3

d x 2 + 3 x 2 6 x 12 = 5 x 2 9 x 12 3 x 12

2

2

dx

Remember

xa

x ab .

b

x

3

3

= 52 x 92 x

.

x

of y

1

y =x 2 x 2 + x 3 =x 2 + x 6

Remember

x a x b x ab .

3

dy

1

= 52 x 2 + 65 x 6

dx

5

3

= 52 x + 6 .

6 x

RC

However, the rules we have been using still apply if we differentiate with

respect to any other variable. When modelling real-life problems we often use

appropriate variable names, such as t for time and V for volume.

EXAMPLES

d 3t 2 2t =6t 2.

dt

2

2. Given A ( r ) = r , find A ( r ) .

A ( r ) = r 2

Remember

is just a constant.

A ( r ) = 2r .

When differentiating with respect to a certain variable, all other variables are

treated as constants.

EXAMPLE

2

3. Differentiate px with respect to p.

d px 2 = x 2 .

dp

hsn.uk.net

Page 6

Note

Since we are

differentiating with

respect to p, we treat x2

as a constant.

CfE Edition

Higher Mathematics

Differentiation

Rates of Change

RC

evaluated for specific values by substituting them into the derivative.

EXAMPLES

5

1. Given f ( x ) = 2 x , find the rate of change of f when x = 3 .

f ( x ) = 10 x 4

f ( 3 ) = 10 ( 3 )4 = 10 81 = 810.

2. Given y =

1

x

2

3

23

y=x

dy

5

= 23 x 3

dx

2

= 5

3x 3

2

= 3 5.

3 x

At x = 8,

2

dy

= 3 5

dx

3 8

2

=

3 25

2

= 96

1 .

= 48

The velocity v of an object is defined as the rate of change of displacement s

with respect to time t. That is:

ds

v= .

dt

Also, acceleration a is defined as the rate of change of velocity with respect to

time:

dv

a= .

dt

EXAMPLE

s (=

t ) 12t 5t 2 .

Find its velocity after 2 seconds.

v (t ) = s (t )

12 10t by differentiating s ( t ) =

12t 5t 2 with respect to t .

=

Substitute t = 2 into v ( t ) :

v (2) =

23 10 ( 2 ) =

3.

After 2 seconds, the ball has velocity 3 metres per second.

hsn.uk.net

Page 7

CfE Edition

Higher Mathematics

Differentiation

Equations of Tangents

RC

determine the gradient of a curve, at a particular point, by considering a

straight line which touches the curve at the point. This line is called a tangent.

tangent

The gradient of the tangent to a curve y = f ( x ) at x = a is given by f ( a ) .

This is the same as finding the rate of change of f at a.

To work out the equation of a tangent we use y b= m ( x a ) . Therefore

we need to know two things about the tangent:

value of x at the required point.

EXAMPLES

y x2 3

1. Find the equation of the tangent to the curve with equation =

at the point ( 2,1) .

We know the tangent passes through ( 2,1) .

To find its equation, we need the gradient at the point where x = 2 :

=

y x2 3

dy

= 2x

dx

At x = 2, m = 2 2 = 4.

Now we have the point ( 2,1) and the gradient m = 4 , so we can find the

equation of the tangent:

y b= m ( x a )

y =

1 4( x 2)

y 1= 4 x 8

4x y 7 =

0.

hsn.uk.net

Page 8

CfE Edition

Higher Mathematics

Differentiation

y x 3 2x

2. Find the equation of the tangent to the curve with equation =

at the point where x = 1 .

We need a point on the tangent. Using the given x-coordinate, we can

find the y-coordinate of the point on the curve:

=

y x 3 2x

=

( 1)3 2 ( 1)

=1 + 2

= 1

So the point is ( 1, 1) .

=

y x 3 2x

dy

= 3x 2 2

dx

At x =1, m =3 ( 1)2 2 =

1.

Now we have the point ( 1,1) and the gradient m = 1 , so the equation of

the tangent is:

y b= m ( x a )

y 1= 1( x + 1)

0.

x y +2=

1

.

x

Find the equation of the tangent to the curve y = f ( x ) at P.

y

y = f (x)

find the x-coordinate of the point P:

f (x) = 2

1

=2

x

x = 12

So the point is ( 12 , 2 ) .

hsn.uk.net

Page 9

CfE Edition

Higher Mathematics

Differentiation

f ( x ) = x 1

f ( x ) = x 2

1

= 2.

x

1

1, m =

=

4.

At x =

2

1

4

of the tangent is:

y b= m ( x a )

y 2 =4 ( x 12 )

y 2 =4 x + 2

4x + y 4 =

0.

2

where x = 8 .

We need a point on the tangent. Using the given x-coordinate, we can

work out the y-coordinate:

y=

= ( 2 )2

= 4

So the point is ( 8, 4 ) .

We also need the gradient at the point where x = 8 :

2

2

2

=

y 3=

x

x3

8, m =

At x =

3

3 8

dy 2 13

2

=3x

=

dx

32

2

= 3

= 13 .

3 x

Now we have the point ( 8, 4 ) and the gradient m = 13 , so the equation

of the tangent is:

y b= m ( x a )

y 4= 13 ( x + 8 )

3 y 12 =x + 8

x 3 y + 20 =

0.

hsn.uk.net

Page 10

CfE Edition

Higher Mathematics

Differentiation

Find the coordinates of the points on the curve where the tangent has

gradient 4.

The derivative gives the gradient of the tangent:

dy

= x 2 x + 2.

dx

We want to find where this is equal to 4:

x2 x + 2 =

4

Remember

Before solving a

quadratic equation you

need to rearrange to get

quadratic 0 .

x2 x 2 =

0

0

( x + 1)( x 2 ) =

x=

1 or x =

2.

Now we can find the y-coordinates by using the equation of the curve:

y = 13 ( 2 )3 12 ( 2 )2 + 2 ( 2 ) + 5

y = 13 ( 1)3 12 ( 1)2 + 2 ( 1) + 5

= 13 12 2 + 5

= 83 24 + 4 + 5

= 7 + 83

= 3 56

= 13

6

= 29

3 .

and 2, 29

So the points are 1, 13

3 .

6

hsn.uk.net

Page 11

CfE Edition

Higher Mathematics

Differentiation

A curve is said to be strictly increasing when

RC

dy

> 0.

dx

dy

> 0 , tangents will slope upwards

dx

from left to right since their gradients are positive. This

means the curve is also moving upwards, i.e. strictly

increasing.

Similarly:

A curve is said to be strictly decreasing when

dy

< 0.

dx

y

strictly

decreasing

strictly

increasing

dy

>0

dx

dy

<0

dx

strictly

increasing

dy

>0

dx

EXAMPLES

2

.

x

Determine whether the curve is increasing or decreasing at x = 10 .

y 4x 2 +

1. A curve has equation=

=

y 4x 2 + 2x

12

dy

3

= 8x x 2

dx

1

= 8x

3.

x

When x = 10 ,

Since

dy

1

=8 10

3

dx

10

1

= 80

10 10

> 0.

Note

1

10 10

1.

dy

> 0 , the curve is increasing when x = 10 .

dx

hsn.uk.net

Page 12

CfE Edition

Higher Mathematics

Differentiation

dy

= x 2 + 2x + 1

dx

= ( x + 1)2

Remember

The result of squaring

any number is always

greater than, or equal to,

zero.

0.

Since

dy

is never less than zero, the curve is never decreasing.

dx

Stationary Points

RC

that the curve is stationary at these points.

This means that the gradient of the tangent to the curve is zero at stationary

dy

points, so we can find them by solving=

f ( x ) 0=

or

0.

dx

The four possible stationary points are:

Turning point

Maximum

y

Minimum

y

Rising

y

Falling

y

to its left and right. This is often done using a nature table.

hsn.uk.net

Page 13

CfE Edition

Higher Mathematics

Differentiation

RC

To illustrate the method used to find stationary points and determine their

nature, we will do this for the graph of f ( x ) = 2 x 3 9 x 2 + 12 x + 4 .

Step 1

Differentiate the function.

Step 2

Find the stationary values by solving

f ( x ) = 0 .

f ( x ) = 6 x 2 18 x + 12

f ( x ) = 0

6 x 2 18x + 12 =

0

6 ( x 2 3 x + 2 ) = 0 ( 6)

( x 1)( x 2 ) =

0

or x 2

x 1=

=

Step 3

Find the y-coordinates of the stationary

f (1) = 9 so (1, 9 ) is a stat. pt.

points.

f ( 2 ) = 8 so ( 2, 8 ) is a stat. pt.

Step 4

x

1 2

Write the stationary values in the top row

of the nature table, with arrows leading in f ( x )

and out of them.

Graph

Step 5

x

1 2

Calculate f ( x ) for the values in the table,

and record the results. This gives the

0

0

f ( x )

gradient at these x values, so zeros confirm Graph

that stationary points exist here.

Step 6

x

1 2

Calculate f ( x ) for values slightly lower

f ( x ) + 0 0 +

and higher than the stationary values and

Graph

record the sign in the second row, e.g.

f ( 0.8 ) > 0 so enter + in the first cell.

Step 7

We can now sketch the graph near the

stationary points:

+ means the graph is increasing and

means the graph is decreasing.

Step 8

The nature of the stationary points can

then be concluded from the sketch.

hsn.uk.net

Page 14

x

1 2

f ( x ) + 0 0 +

Graph

(1, 9 ) is a max. turning point.

( 2, 8 ) is a min. turning point.

CfE Edition

Higher Mathematics

Differentiation

EXAMPLES

Find the stationary points on the curve and determine their nature.

Given y = x 3 6 x 2 + 9 x 4,

dy

= 3 x 2 12 x + 9.

dx

dy

= 0:

dx

3 x 2 12 x + 9 =

0

3 ( x 2 4 x + 3 ) = 0 ( 3)

x 2 4x + 3 =

0

0

( x 1)( x 3 ) =

=

x 1 0

or

=

x 3 0

=

x 1=

x 3.

When x = 1 ,

y =(1)3 6 (1)2 + 9 (1) 4

When x = 3 ,

y = ( 3 )3 6 ( 3 ) 2 + 9 ( 3 ) 4

=1 6 + 9 4

= 0.

Therefore the point is (1, 0 ) .

= 27 54 + 27 4

Nature:

x

dy

dx

= 4.

Therefore the point is ( 3, 4 ) .

1 3

+

Graph

So (1, 0 ) is a maximum turning point,

( 3, 4 ) is a minimum turning point.

hsn.uk.net

Page 15

CfE Edition

Higher Mathematics

Differentiation

2. Find the stationary points of=

y 4x 3 2x 4,

Given=

dy

= 12 x 2 8 x 3 .

dx

12 x 2 8 x 3 =

0

dy

= 0:

dx

4x 2 (3 2x ) =

0

4x 2 0

or =

3 2x 0

=

x 0=

x 32 .

=

When x = 0 ,

=

y 4 ( 0 )3 2 ( 0 ) 4

= 0.

When x = 32 ,

( )

=

y 4 23

( )

2 23

81

= 27

2 8

= 27

8 .

Nature:

x

dy

dx

( 32 , 278 ) .

0 32

+

Graph

hsn.uk.net

Page 16

CfE Edition

Higher Mathematics

Differentiation

1

for x 0 . Find the x-coordinates of the

x

stationary points on the curve and determine their nature.

y 2x +

3. A curve has equation =

Given=

y 2 x + x 1,

dy

= 2 x 2

dx

1

= 2 2.

x

1

=

0

x2

2x 2 = 1

dy

= 0:

dx

x 2 = 12

Nature:

x

dy

dx

x=

1 .

2

1

2

1

2

Graph

2

1

where x =

is a minimum turning point.

2

Curve Sketching

RC

y-axis intercept find y for x = 0 ;

stationary points and their nature.

hsn.uk.net

Page 17

CfE Edition

Higher Mathematics

Differentiation

EXAMPLE

y 2 x 3 3x 2 .

Sketch the curve with equation=

x-axis intercepts i.e. y = 0 :

=

y 2 ( 0 )3 3 ( 0 ) 2

2 x 3 3x 2 =

0

= 0.

x 2 (2x 3) =

0

x2 = 0

or

x =0

( 0, 0 )

Given=

y 2 x 3 3x 2 ,

dy

= 6x 2 6x.

dx

6x 2 6x =

0

2x 3 =

0

x = 32

( 32 , 0 ).

dy

= 0:

dx

6 x ( x 1) =

0

or

6x = 0

x 1 =

0

x =0

x = 1.

When x = 0 ,

When x = 1 ,

=

y 2 (1)3 3 (1)2

= 23

= 1.

Therefore the point is (1, 1) .

=

y 2 ( 0 )3 3 ( 0 ) 2

= 0.

Therefore the point is ( 0, 0 ) .

Nature:

x

dy

dx

0 1

point.

Graph

y

=

y 2 x 3 3x 2

O

3

2

(1, 1)

hsn.uk.net

Page 18

CfE Edition

Higher Mathematics

Differentiation

RC

the following rules:

d ( cos x ) = sin x .

dx

d ( sin x ) = cos x ,

dx

These rules only work when x is an angle measured in radians. A form of these

rules is given in the exam.

EXAMPLES

dy

= 3cos x .

dx

2. A function f is defined by f =

( x ) sin x 2cos x for x .

( )

Find f 3 .

f ( =

x ) cos x ( 2sin x )

= cos x + 2sin x

Remember

The exact value triangle:

( )

f =

cos 3 + 2sin 3

3

= 12 + 2 23

= 12 + 3.

( )

, y sin

1 . So the point is , 1 .

=

When x ==

2

6 2

6

6

We also need the gradient at the point where x = 6 :

dy

= cos x .

dx

( ) 23 .

Now we have the point ( 6 , 12 ) and the gradient m

=

cos

=

When x = 6 , m

tangent

6

tangent

y b= m ( x a )

2 x6

2 y 1 = x 6

x 2 y 6 + 1 =

0.

1

y =

2

hsn.uk.net

= 23 , so:

Page 19

CfE Edition

Higher Mathematics

Differentiation

RC

f ( g ( x ) ) . If the functions f and g are defined on suitable domains, then

f ( g ( x )) g ( x ) .

d f=

g ( x ) )

dx (

Stated simply: differentiate the outer functions, the bracket stays the same,

then multiply by the derivative of the bracket.

This is called the chain rule. You will need to remember it for the exam.

EXAMPLE

=

If y cos 5 x + 6 , find

=

y cos 5 x + 6

dy

.

dx

Note

The 5 comes from

d

.

dx 5 x + 6

dy

=

sin 5 x + 6 5

dx

=

5sin 5 x + 6 .

RC

We will now look at how the chain rule can be applied to particular types of

expression.

Powers of a Function

n

simpler version of the chain rule:

n 1

n

d =

f ( x ) ) n [ f ( x )] f ( x ) .

dx (

Stated simply: the power ( n ) multiplies to the front, the bracket stays the

same, the power lowers by one (giving n 1 ) and everything is multiplied by

the derivative of the bracket ( f ( x ) ).

hsn.uk.net

Page 20

CfE Edition

Higher Mathematics

Differentiation

EXAMPLES

(x)

Find f ( x ) .

f ( x )=

2 x 2 + 3x =

2 x 2 + 3x .

( 2 x 2 + 3x )2

1

f ( x=

) 12 ( 2 x 2 + 3 x ) 2 ( 4 x + 3 )

1

=12 ( 4 x + 3 ) ( 2 x 2 + 3 x )

=

4x + 3

2 2 x + 3x

2

12

4

=

=

y 2sin

x 2 ( sin x )

dy

3

=

2 4 ( sin x ) cos x

dx

= 8sin3 x cos x .

4

n

and n are constants, is as follows:

d ax + b )n = an ( ax + b ) n 1 .

dx (

EXAMPLES

3. Differentiate=

y ( 5 x + 2 )3 with respect to x.

=

y (5x + 2 )

dy

2

= 3 (5x + 2 ) 5

dx

2

= 15 ( 5 x + 2 ) .

3

hsn.uk.net

Page 21

CfE Edition

Higher Mathematics

4. If y =

=

y

Differentiation

dy

1

.

3 , find

dx

(2x + 6)

1

=

( 2 x + 6 )3

(2x + 6)

dy

4

=

3 ( 2 x + 6 ) 2

dx

4

=

6 ( 2 x + 6 )

6

=

4 .

(2x + 6)

5. A function f is defined by f=

(x)

( 3 x 2 )4 for x . Find f ( x ) .

f ( x ) = 3 (3x 2 ) = (3x 2 ) 3

4

1

f ( x )= 34 ( 3 x 2 ) 3 4

3

= 16

3 (3x 2 ).

Trigonometric Functions

The following rules can be used to differentiate trigonometric functions.

d sin ax + =

b ) a cos ( ax + b ) ,

dx (

d cos ax + b ) =

a sin ( ax + b ) .

dx (

EXAMPLE

6. Differentiate

=

y sin ( 9 x + ) with respect to x.

dy

= 9cos ( 9 x + ) .

dx

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Page 22

CfE Edition

Higher Mathematics

Differentiation

13 Closed Intervals

RC

using a closed interval (also called a restricted domain).

The maximum and minimum y-values can either be at stationary points or

at the end points of the closed interval.

Below is a sketch of a curve with the closed interval 2 x 6 shaded.

y

maximum

x

minimum

Notice that the minimum value occurs at one of the end points in this

example. It is important to check for this.

EXAMPLE

Find the maximum and minimum value of f ( x ) .

Given f ( x ) = 2 x 3 5 x 2 4 x + 1,

f ( x ) = 6 x 2 10 x 4.

6 x 2 10 x 4 =

0

2 ( 3 x 2 5x 2 ) =

0

0

( x 2 )( 3 x + 1) =

=

x 2 0

or

=

3x + 1 0

x= 2

x = 13 .

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Page 23

CfE Edition

Higher Mathematics

Differentiation

( ) ( ) ( ) 4 ( 13 ) + 1

1 5 1 4 1 +1

=2 ( 27

) (9) (3)

f 13 = 2 13

f ( 2 ) = 2 ( 2 )3 5 ( 2 ) 2 4 ( 2 ) + 1

= 16 20 8 + 1

= 11.

Therefore the point is ( 2, 11) .

5 13

2 5 + 4 +1

=

27

9 3

46 .

= 27

46 .

Therefore the point is 13 , 27

Nature:

x

13 2

f ( x ) + 0 0 +

Graph

f ( 1) = 2 ( 1)3 5 ( 1)2 4 ( 1) + 1

=2 5 + 4 + 1

= 2.

( 4, 33 )

( 13 , 2746 )

O

( 1, 2 )

= 128 80 16 + 1

= 33.

Therefore the point is ( 4, 33 ) .

Now we can make a sketch:

f ( 4) = 2 ( 4) 5( 4) 4 ( 4 ) + 1

Note

A sketch may help you

to decide on the correct

answer, but it is not

required in the exam.

( 2, 11)

The minimum value is 11 which occurs when x = 2 .

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Page 24

CfE Edition

Higher Mathematics

Differentiation

14 Graphs of Derivatives

EF

example, the derivative of a cubic (where x 3 is the highest power of x) is a

quadratic (where x 2 is the highest power of x).

When drawing a derived graph:

All stationary points of the original curve become roots (i.e. lie on the xaxis) on the graph of the derivative.

graph of the derivative will lie below the x-axis it will take negative values.

graph of the derivative will lie above the x-axis it will take positive values.

Quadratic

Cubic

Quartic

y

dec.

dec.

inc.

dec.

inc.

inc.

+

O

Linear

hsn.uk.net

dec.

inc.

inc.

Quadratic

Page 25

Cubic

CfE Edition

Higher Mathematics

Differentiation

EXAMPLE

x = 1 and x = 4 .

y

y = f (x)

O

Sketch the graph of y = f ( x ) .

y = f ( x ) crosses the x-axis at x = 1 and x = 4 .

y

Note

The curve is increasing

between the stationary

points so the derivative is

positive there.

y = f ( x )

15 Optimisation

and minimum values of a function.

This is often useful in applications; for example a company may have a

function P ( x ) which predicts the profit if x is spent on raw materials the

management would be very interested in finding the value of x which gave

the maximum value of P ( x ) .

The process of finding these optimal values is called optimisation.

Sometimes you will have to find the appropriate function before you can start

optimisation.

hsn.uk.net

Page 26

CfE Edition

Higher Mathematics

Differentiation

EXAMPLE

1. Small wooden trays, with open tops and square bases, are being designed.

They must have a volume of 108 cubic centimetres.

The internal length of one side of the base is x centimetres, and the

internal height of the tray is h centimetres.

(a) Show that the total internal surface area A of one tray is given by

A

= x2 +

432

.

x

(b) Find the dimensions of the tray using the least amount of wood.

(a)=

Volume area of base height

=x 2 h.

particular value of x :

A

= x 2 + 4 xh.

108

We have h = 2 , so:

x

A

= x 2 + 4 x 108

x2

= x 2 + 432 .

x

is 108 cm3, so:

Volume = 108

( )

x 2 h = 108

h=

108

.

x2

(b) The smallest amount of wood is used when the surface area is minimised.

432

dA

= 2x 2 .

dx

x

dA

Stationary points occur when

= 0:

Nature:

dx

x

6

432

2x 2 =

0

dA

0 +

x

dx

3

x = 216

Graph

x = 6.

So the minimum surface area occurs when x = 6 . For this value of x :

108

3.

=

h =

62

So a length and depth of 6 cm and a height of 3 cm uses the least amount

of wood.

hsn.uk.net

Page 27

CfE Edition

Higher Mathematics

Differentiation

In practical situations, there may be bounds on the values we can use. For

example, the company from before might only have 100 000 available to

spend on raw materials. We would need to take this into account when

optimising.

Recall from the section on Closed Intervals that the maximum and minimum

values of a function can occur at turning points or the endpoints of a closed

interval.

2. The point P lies on the graph of f ( x ) =x 2 12 x + 45 , between x = 0

and x = 7 .

y

y = f (x)

P ( p, f ( p ) )

7 x

(a) Show that the area, A square units, of this triangle is given by

A = 12 p 3 6 p 2 + 45

2 p.

(b) Find the greatest possible value of A and the corresponding value of p

for which it occurs.

(a) The area of the triangle is

1 base height

A =

2

= 12 p f ( p )

=

=

1

2

1

2

p ( p 2 12 p + 45 )

p 3 6 p 2 + 45

2 p.

hsn.uk.net

Page 28

CfE Edition

Higher Mathematics

Differentiation

At stationary points

dA

=

dp

3

2

dA

= 0:

dp

p 2 12 p + 45

2 = 0

3 p 2 24 p + 45 =

0

p 2 8 p + 15 =

0

0

( p 3 )( p 5) =

=

p 3=

or p 5.

when p = 0 , A = 0 ;

when p = 3 , A = 12 33 6 32 + 45

2 3 = 27 ;

when p = 5 , A = 12 53 6 52 + 45

2 5 = 25 ;

when p = 7 , A = 12 7 3 6 7 2 + 45

2 7 = 35 .

hsn.uk.net

Page 29

CfE Edition

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