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# Chapter 3

Thermodynamic Properties
3.1 Phase and Pure Substance
A phase is a quantity of matter characterized by both uniform physical structure and uniform
chemical composition. A phase can be solid, liquid, vapor or gas. The atoms in a solid phase
are fixed relative to other atoms in the solid. They are however can vibrate about this fixed
position. Like a solid, molecules within the liquid phase are in close proximity to one another
due to intermolecular forces. However, the molecules in a liquid are not fixed relative to
other molecules in the liquid. They are constantly in motion, free to move relative to one
another. More than one liquid phase can coexist such as oil and water. They are considered
separate liquid phases since they are not miscible. Similarly, solids can coexist in different
phases. For example, solid carbon can exist in the diamond phase or the graphite phase. Gas
molecules move randomly to fill the entire volume of the container in which they are housed.
The molecules continuously change direction as they colide with each other and bounce off
the container surface creating the measurable pressure p.
A substance that has a fixed chemical composition throughout the system is called a pure
substance. Water, hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon monoxide, for example, are all pure
substance. A pure substance can also be a mixture of various chemical elements or
compounds as long as the mixture is homogeneous. Air, a mixture of several compounds, is
often considered to be a pure substance because it has a uniform chemical composition. A
mixture of two or more phases of a pure substance is still a pure substance as long as the
chemical composition of all phases is the same. A mixture of ice and liquid water, for
example, is a pure substance because both phases have the same chemical composition.1
The state of a system at equilibrium is defined by the values of its thermodynamic properties.
System of pure substances or simple compressible systems are defined by two intensive
properties such as temperature and pressure. For any homogeneous, pure substance, all
thermodynamic functions or properties may be expressed in terms of any two given
independent properties.
v = f(T, p) or

v = v(T, p)

u = u(T, p) or

u = u(T, v)

s = s(T, p) or

s = s(T, v)

The functional relations for these properties must be developed from experimental data and
are dependent on the particular chemical molecules making up the system. Only expansion or
pdV are permissible in simple compressible systems
compression works given by
undergoes quasiequilibrium processes.
1

Cengel Y. A., Boles M. A., Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, Mc-Graw Hill, 1998, pg. 48.

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Pressure can be expressed as a function of temperature and specific volume: p = p(T, v). The
plot of p = p(T, v) is a surface called p-v-T surface. Figure 3.1 shows the p-v-T surface of a
substance such as water that expands on freezing.

Figure 3.1-1 p-v-T surface and projections for a substance that expands on freezing.
(a) 3-D view (b) p-T diagram (c) p-v diagram2.
The location of a point on the p-v-T surface gives the values of pressure, specific volume, and
temperature at equilibrium. The regions on the p-v-T surface labeled solid, liquid, and vapor
are single-phase regions. The state of a single phase is determined by any two of the
properties: pressure, temperature, and specific volume. The two-phase regions where two
phases exist in equilibrium separate the single-phase regions. The two-phase regions are:
liquid-vapor, solid-liquid, and solid-vapor. Temperature and pressure are dependent within
the two-phase regions. Once the temperature is specified, the pressure is determined and vice
versa. The states within the two-phase regions can be fixed by specific volume and either
temperature or pressure.
The projection of the p-v-T surface onto the p-T plane is known as the phase diagram as
shown in Figure 3.1 (b). The two-phase regions of the p-v-T surface reduce to lines in the
phase diagram. A point on any of these lines can represent any two-phase mixture at that
particular temperature and pressure. The triple line of the p-v-T surface projects onto a point
on the phase diagram called the triple point. Three phases coexist on the triple line or the
triple point.

## Moran, M. J. and Shapiro H. N., Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics, Wiley, 2008, p. 83

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The constant temperature lines of the p-v diagram are called the isotherms. For any specified
temperature less than the critical temperature, the pressure remains constant within the twophase region even though specific volume changes. In the single-phase liquid and vapor
regions the pressure decreases at fixed temperature as specific volume increases. For
temperature greater than or equal to the critical temperature, there is no passage across the
two-phase liquid-vapor region.

## Figure 3.1-2 T-v diagram for water (to scale).

Figure 3.1-2 is a T-v diagram for water. For pressure greater than or equal to the critical
pressure, temperature increases continously at fixed pressure as the specific volume increases
and there is no passage across the two-phase liquid-vapor region. The isobaric curve marked
50 MPa in Figure 3.1-2 shows this behavior. For pressure less than the critical value, there is
a two-phase region where the temperature remains constant at a fixed pressure as the twophase region is traversed. The isobaric curve with values of 20 MPa or less in Figure 3.1-2
shows the constant temperature during the phase change.

At 100oC, the saturated volumes of liquid and vapor water are 1.0434 cm3/g and 1,673.6

cm3/g, respectively. The quality of steam is the mass fraction of water vapor in a mixture of
liquid and vapor water. The specific volume of 100oC steam with a quality of 0.65 is given
by
v = (1 0.65)vL + 0.65 vV = (0.35)(1.0434) + (0.65)(1,673.6) = 1088.2 cm3/g

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## 3.2 Phase Behavior

We will consider a phase change of 1 kg of liquid water contained within a piston-cycinder
assembly as shown in Figure 3.2-1a. The water is at 20oC and 1.014 bar (or 1 atm) as
indicated by point (1) on Figure 3.2-2.

## Figure 3.2-2 Sketch of T-v diagram for water4

As the water is heated at constant pressure, the temperature increases with a slight increase in
specific volume until the system reaches point (f). This is the saturated liquid state
corresponding to 1.014 bar. The saturation temperature for water at 1.014 bar is 100oC. The
liquid states along the line segment 1-f are called subcooled or compressed liquid states.
When the system is at the saturated liquid state (point f in Figure 3.2-2) any additional heat
will cause the liquid to evaporate at constant pressure as shown in Figure 3.2-1b. When a
mixture of liquid and vapor exists in equilibrium, the liquid phase is a saturated liquid and
the vapor phase is a saturated vapor. Liquid water continues to evaporate with additional heat
until it becomes all saturated vapor at point (g). Any further heating will cause an increase in
both temperature and specific volume and the saturated vapor becomes superheated vapor
denoted by point (s) in Figure 3.2-2. For a two-phase liquid-vapor mixture, the quality x is
defined as the mass fraction of vapor in the mixture
x=
3
4

mvapor

(3.2-1)

mvapor + mliquid

## Moran, M. J. and Shapiro H. N., Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics, Wiley, 2008, p. 87

Moran, M. J. and Shapiro H. N., Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics, Wiley, 2008, p. 86

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The properties of pure subtances can be obtained from tables such as Table 3.2-1 for
saturated properties of water and Table 3.2-2 for properties of superheated water vapor.
Thermodynamic properties can also be obtained from softwares, which are more convenient
since interpolations for values not directly available in the tables are not necessary.
Table 3.2-1 Thermodynamic properties of saturated water5.
Specific Volume Internal Energy
m3/kg
kJ/kg
Sat.
Liquid
vf
103

Sat.
Vapor
vg

Enthalpy
kJ/kg

Sat.
Sat.
Sat.
Liquid Vapor Liquid Evap.
hfg
uf
ug
hf

Entropy
kJ/kgK
Sat.
Sat.
Sat.
Vapor Liquid Vapor Temp.
hg
sf
sg
C

Temp.
C

Press.
bar

.01

0.00 2375.3

.01

16.77 2380.9

20.97 2382.3

25.19 2383.6

33.59 2386.4

10

42.00 2389.2

10

11

0.01312 1.0004

99.857

46.20 2390.5

11

12

0.01402 1.0005

93.784

50.41 2391.9

12

13

0.01497 1.0007

88.124

54.60 2393.3

13

14

0.01598 1.0008

82.848

58.79 2394.7

14

15

0.01705 1.0009

77.926

62.99 2396.1

15

16

0.01818 1.0011

73.333

67.18 2397.4

16

17

0.01938 1.0012

69.044

71.38 2398.8

17

18

0.02064 1.0014

65.038

75.57 2400.2

18

19

0.02198 1.0016

61.293

79.76 2401.6

19

20

0.02339 1.0018

57.791

83.95 2402.9

20

21

0.02487 1.0020

54.514

88.14 2404.3

21

22

0.02645 1.0022

51.447

92.32 2405.7

22

23

0.02810 1.0024

48.574

96.51 2407.0

23

24

0.02985 1.0027

24

25

0.03169 1.0029

## 43.360 104.88 2409.8 104.89 2442.3 2547.2 0.3674 8.5580

25

Moran, M. J. and Shapiro H. N., Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics, Wiley, 2008, p. 817

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T
C

v
m3/kg

u
kJ/kg

h
kJ/kg

s
v
kJ/kgK m3/kg

## p = 0.06 bar = 0.006 MPa

(Tsat = 36.16C)
Sat. 23.739 2425.0 2567.4

h
s
kJ/kg kJ/kgK

(Tsat = 72.69C)

8.3304

7.7158

7.7564

7.9644

8.1519

8.3237

8.4828

8.6314

8.7712

8.9034

9.0291

9.1490

9.3194

(Tsat = 99.63C)

(Tsat = 89.95C)

u
kJ/kg

7.3594

7.3614

7.4668

7.6597

7.8343

7.9949

8.1445

8.2849

8.4175

8.5435

8.6636

## 3.565 3131.6 3488.1

8.8342

Moran, M. J. and Shapiro H. N., Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics, Wiley, 2008, p. 821

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## Example 3.2-1 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------.

(a) Determine the specific volume for saturated water vapor and internal energy for saturated
liquid at 4.4oC from the following data
Specific Volume Internal Energy
m3/kg
kJ/kg
Sat.
Liquid
vf
103

Sat.
Vapor
vg

Sat.
Sat.
Liquid Vapor Temp.
uf
C
ug

Temp.
C

Press.
bar

16.77 2380.9

## 0.00872 1.0001 147.120

20.97 2382.3

(b) Determine the specific volume and the internal energy for superheated water vapor at
90oC and 0.20 bar from the following data
T
C

v
m /kg
3

u
kJ/kg

h
s
v
u
3
kJ/kg kJ/kgK m /kg kJ/kg

(Tsat = 36.16C)

h
s
kJ/kg kJ/kgK

(Tsat = 72.69C)

7.7564

## 120 30.219 2544.7 2726.0 8.7840 5.163 2542.4 2723.1

7.9644

Solution -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------(a) Determine the specific volume for saturated water vapor at 4.4oC.
y2

y
y1
x

x1

x2 x

y y1
y y
= 2 1
x x1
x2 x1
Using linear interpolation we have
vg 157.232
4.4 4

147.120 157.232
54

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## We can also use Matlab interpolation command interp1.

>> vg=interp1([4 5],[157.232 147.12],4.4)
vg =
153.1872
Determine the internal energy for saturated liquid at 4.4oC

ul 16.77
20.97 16.77
=
4.4 4
54
ul = 16.77 + (0.4)(20.97 16.77) = 19.29 kJ/kg
We can also use Matlab interpolation command interp1.
>> ul=interp1([4 5],[20.97 16.77],4.4)
ul =
19.2900
Properties of water can also be obtained from the Steam4 program written by T.K. Nguyen.
You should note that the values from the software might be different than the values obtained
from linear interpolation since the software does not assume linear relation between the
variables. The values calculated from software are in general more accurate.

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## The Catt2 program (Computer-Aided Thermodynamic Table 2) produced by Sonntag

contains properties of other compounds beside water.

Figure 3.2-4 Propterties of saturated liquid and vapor water from Catt2.
(b) Determine the specific volume for superheated water vapor at 90oC and 0.20 bar
T
C

v
m3/kg

v
m3/kg

## 0.06 bar 0.35 bar

80

27.132

4.625

120 30.219

5.163

We first need to determine v1(90oC, 0.06 bar) and v2(90oC, 0.35 bar)

v1 27.132
30.219 27.132
=
90 80
120 80
v1 = 27.132 + (10)(30.219 27.132)/30 = 27.90 m3/kg

v2 4.625
5.163 4.625
=
90 80
120 80
v2 = 4.625 + (10)(5.163 4.625)/30 = 4.760 m3/kg
We now determine v(90oC, 0.20 bar) from v1(90oC, 0.06 bar) and v2(90oC, 0.35 bar)

v 27.9
4.76 27.9
=
0.20 0.06
0.35 0.06
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## v = 27.9 + (0.14)(4.76 27.9)/0.29 = 16.73 m3/kg

We can also use the following Matlab commands.
>> v1=interp1([80 120],[27.132 30.219],90);
>> v2=interp1([80 120],[4.625 5.163],90);
>> v=interp1([.06 .35],[v1 v2],.2)
v = 16.7307
Determine the internal energy for superheated water vapor at 90oC and 0.20 bar
T
C

u
kJ/kg

u
kJ/kg

80

2487.3

2483.7

120 2544.7

2542.4

## Use the following Matlab commands, we obtain u = 2500.1 kJ/kg

>> u1=interp1([80 120],[2487.3 2544.7],90);
>> u2=interp1([80 120],[2483.7 2542.4],90);
>> u=interp1([.06 .35],[u1 u2],.2)
u = 2.5001e+003
The internal energy for superheated water vapor at 90oC and 0.20 bar can also be obtained
directly from thermodynamic property software.

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