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To describe straight-line motion in terms of velocity and

acceleration

To distinguish between average and instantaneous velocity and

average and instantaneous acceleration

To interpret graphs of position versus time, velocity versus

time, and acceleration versus time for straight-line motion

To understand straight-line motion with constant acceleration

To examine freely falling bodies

In order to solve a kinematics problem, you must set up a coordinate system

define an origin and a positive direction.

Distance: the total length of travel; if you drive from your house to the grocery

store and back, you have covered a distance of 8.6 mi.

Displacement: the change in position. If you drive from your house to the

grocery store and then to your friends house, your displacement is (-) 2.1 mi

and the distance you have traveled is 10.7 mi.

Copyright 2012 Pearson Education Inc.

Example: You walk from your house to the library and then to the park.

What is the (a) distance traveled and (b) displacement?

Example: If you walk from library to your house and then to the park,

what is the (a) distance traveled and (b) displacement?

Copyright 2012 Pearson Education Inc.

Average Velocity

The change in the particles coordinate is x = x2 x1.

The average x-velocity of the particle is vav-x = x/t.

Negative Velocity

The average x-velocity is negative during a time interval if the

particle moves in the negative x-direction for that time interval.

A position-time graph (an x-t graph) shows how the average x-velocity

is related to the slope of an x-t graph.

equal to the slope of the tangent to the curve at that point.

Motion Diagrams

arrows represent its velocity at each instant.

Figure shows the x-t graph and the motion diagram for a moving particle.

Average acceleration

Acceleration describes the rate of change of velocity with time.

The average x-acceleration is aav-x = vx/t.

An astronaut, attached to a

maneuvering unit, has velocities

recorded over 2 sec time durations as

shown in the figure. Calculate the

avg. acceleration for each 2 sec

duration and state whether the speed

increases or decreases over each of

those?

the instantaneous acceleration and the average

acceleration.

Figure shows the vx-t graph and the motion diagram for a

particle.

changes at the same rate throughout the motion.

Example: A motorist travelling with a constant speed of 15 m/s passes a

school crossing where speed limit is 10 m/s. At the school-crossing sign

a policer office, at rest, starts pursuing the motor car with a constant

acceleration of 3.0 m/s2. (a) How much time elapses before the officer

crosses the motorist? At that time (b) what is the officers speed and (c)

how far has each vehicle traveled?

Example 2.14: A lightning is observed in the sky. 3.5 sec later a thunder is

heard. If the speed of sound is 343 m/s, how far away from the observer was

the lightning bolt?

Example 2.25: The position of a particle as a function of time is given by x = (6

m/s)t + (-2 m/s2)t2. Plot x vs t for o to 2 sec. Also, find (a) average speed and

(b) average velocity, from t = 0 to 1 sec.

Example 2.55: A 27 pound meteorite struck a car leaving a dent of 22 cm. If the

meteorite struck the car with a speed of 130 m/s, what was the magnitude of its

acceleration?

Free fall is the motion of

an object under the

influence of only gravity.

In the figure, a strobe

light flashes with equal

time intervals between

flashes.

The velocity change is

the same in each time

interval, so the

acceleration is constant.

Aristotle thought that heavy bodies fall faster than light ones, but

Galileo showed that all bodies fall at the same rate.

If there is no air resistance, the downward acceleration of any freely

falling object is g = 9.8 m/s2 = 32 ft/s2.

VIDEO

An object is in free fall even when it is moving upward.

Example 2.88: You shoot an arrow into the air. Two seconds later the arrow has gone

straight upwards to a height of 30.0 m above the launch point. (a) What was the arrows

initial speed? (b) How long did it take for the arrow to first reach a height of 15 m. from

above the launch point?

Copyright 2012 Pearson Education Inc.

Position vector

The position vector from the origin to point P has

components x, y, and z.

Average velocity

The average velocity

between two points is

the displacement

divided by the time

interval between the

two points, and it has

the same direction as

the displacement.

Instantaneous velocity

The instantaneous velocity

is the instantaneous rate of

change of position vector

with respect to time.

The components of the

instantaneous velocity are

vx = dx/dt, vy = dy/dt, and

vz = dz/dt.

The instantaneous velocity

of a particle is always

tangent to its path.

Two frames of references: Train (T) and Ground (G)

Observer is on the ground while a person is on the train

Velocity of the person with respect to the train: vPT (along x-direction)

Velocity of the train with respect to the ground: vTG (along x-direction)

Combining, velocity of the person with respect to the ground: vPG = vPT + vTG

vPG = vPT + vTG = 1.2 + 15 = 16.2 m

You are driving north at a constant speed

of 88 km/h. A truck is traveling in the

opposite lane, south bound, at 104 km/h.

(a) What is the trucks velocity relative to

you, (b) what is your velocity with respect

to the truck and (c) how do the relative

velocities change after passing?

Velocity of the person with respect to the train: vPT (along y-direction)

Velocity of the train with respect to the ground: vTG (along x-direction)

vPG = (vPT2 + vTG2) = (1.22 + 152) = 15.05 m

Direction of vPG = tan-1 (vPT/vTG) = 4.6.

Part 1

The compass of an airplane indicates that it is headed due

north and its airspeed indicator shows that it is moving through

the air at 240 km/h. if there is a wind of 100 km/h from west to

east, what is the velocity of the airplane with respect to the

ground?

Part 2

In what direction should the

pilot head to travel due north?

What will be the velocity of

plane relative to the earth?

Assume the same airspeed and

the velocity of the wind are the

same as part 1.

The co-ordinates of a Mar rovers position are given by, x = 2 (m) 0.25 (m/s2)t2, y =

1 (m/s)t + 0.025 (m/s3)t3. Using the coordinates at 0 and 2 sec, find the displacement

and avg. velocity vectors during the interval from 0 to 2 sec. Derive instantaneous

velocity vector to calculate velocity at 2 sec.

The co-ordinates of a Mar rovers position are given by, x = 2 (m) 0.25 (m/s2)t2, y =

1 (m/s)t + 0.025 (m/s3)t3. Using the coordinates at 0 and 2 sec, find the displacement

and avg. velocity vectors during the interval from 0 to 2 sec. Derive instantaneous

velocity vector to calculate velocity at 2 sec.

Average Acceleration

The average acceleration during a time interval t is

defined as the velocity change during t divided by t.

Instantaneous Acceleration

The instantaneous

acceleration is the

instantaneous rate of change

of the velocity with respect

to time.

Any particle following a

curved path is accelerating,

even if it has constant speed.

The components of the

instantaneous acceleration

are ax = dvx/dt, ay = dvy/dt,

and az = dvz/dt.

Return to the Mars rover example. Calculate average acceleration

between 0 to 2 sec and instantaneous acceleration at 2 sec.

Example 4.3: You are walking with a constant speed of 1.75 m/s, in a

direction, 18 deg north of east. How much time does it take to change

your displacement by (a) 20 m east or (b) 30 m north?

Example 4.4: Starting from rest a car accelerates at 2 m/s2 up a hill that

is inclined 5.5 deg above the horizontal. How far horizontally and

vertically has the car traveled in 12 s?

Projectile Motion

A projectile is any body given an initial velocity that then follows a path

determined by the effects of gravity

The red ball is dropped at

the same time that the

yellow ball is fired

horizontally.

The strobe marks equal time

intervals.

We can analyze projectile

motion as horizontal motion

with constant velocity and

vertical motion with

constant acceleration: ax = 0

and ay = g.

The trajectory is a symmetric parabola

Horizontally: equal distances in equal time intervals, vx is constant (ax = 0 m/s2)

Vertically: Velocity changes by equal amounts in equal time intervals (ay = 9.8 m/s2)

Projectile Motion

Example 4.6: An electron in a cathode ray tube is moving horizontally at 2 x 109 cm/s

when deflection plate gives it an upward acceleration of 5.3 x 1017 cm/s2. (a) How long

does it take for the electron to cover a horizontal distance of 6.2 cm? (b) What is its

vertical displacement during this time?

Example 4.25: A ball rolls off a table and falls 0.75 m to the floor, landing with a speed

of 4 m/s. (a) What is the acceleration of the ball just before it strikes the ground, (b)

what was the initial speed of the ball and (c) what initial speed must the ball have if it is

to land with a speed of 5.0 m/s?

Example 4.35: Snowballs are thrown with a speed of 13 m/s from a roof 7 m above the

ground. Snowball A is thrown straight downward, while snowball B is thrown in a

direction 25 deg above the horizontal. (a) How does the landing speed of snowball A

compare to B?

Copyright 2012 Pearson Education Inc.

Projectile Motion

For uniform circular motion, the speed is constant

and the acceleration is perpendicular to the velocity.

For uniform circular motion,

the instantaneous acceleration

always points toward the

center of the circle and is

called the centripetal

acceleration.

The magnitude of the

acceleration is arad = v2/R.

The period T is the time for

one revolution, and arad =

42R/T2.

Copyright 2012 Pearson Education Inc.

with a radius of 5.00 m completes

one revolution every 32 sec. (a)

What is the average speed of the

rider on this ferris wheel, (b) what

is

the

radial

(centripetal)

acceleration acting on the

passengers and (c) if a rider

accidentally drops a stuffed

animal at the top of the wheel,

where does it land relative to the

base of the ride?

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