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# CHAPTERS 2 AND 4

## Goals for Chapter 2

To describe straight-line motion in terms of velocity and
acceleration
To distinguish between average and instantaneous velocity and
average and instantaneous acceleration
To interpret graphs of position versus time, velocity versus
time, and acceleration versus time for straight-line motion
To understand straight-line motion with constant acceleration
To examine freely falling bodies

## Position, Distance and Displacement

In order to solve a kinematics problem, you must set up a coordinate system
define an origin and a positive direction.

Distance: the total length of travel; if you drive from your house to the grocery
store and back, you have covered a distance of 8.6 mi.
Displacement: the change in position. If you drive from your house to the
grocery store and then to your friends house, your displacement is (-) 2.1 mi
and the distance you have traveled is 10.7 mi.
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## Position, Distance and Displacement

Example: You walk from your house to the library and then to the park.
What is the (a) distance traveled and (b) displacement?
Example: If you walk from library to your house and then to the park,
what is the (a) distance traveled and (b) displacement?
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Average Velocity
The change in the particles coordinate is x = x2 x1.
The average x-velocity of the particle is vav-x = x/t.

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Negative Velocity
The average x-velocity is negative during a time interval if the
particle moves in the negative x-direction for that time interval.

## A Position-Time (x-t) Graph

A position-time graph (an x-t graph) shows how the average x-velocity
is related to the slope of an x-t graph.

## At any point on an x-t graph, the instantaneous x-velocity is

equal to the slope of the tangent to the curve at that point.

Motion Diagrams

## A motion diagram shows the position of a particle at various instants, and

arrows represent its velocity at each instant.

Figure shows the x-t graph and the motion diagram for a moving particle.

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Average acceleration
Acceleration describes the rate of change of velocity with time.
The average x-acceleration is aav-x = vx/t.

An astronaut, attached to a
maneuvering unit, has velocities
recorded over 2 sec time durations as
shown in the figure. Calculate the
avg. acceleration for each 2 sec
duration and state whether the speed
increases or decreases over each of
those?

## As shown in Figure, the x-t graph may be used to find

the instantaneous acceleration and the average
acceleration.

## A vx-t graph and a motion diagram

Figure shows the vx-t graph and the motion diagram for a
particle.

## For a particle with constant acceleration, the velocity

changes at the same rate throughout the motion.

## Two bodies with different accelerations

Example: A motorist travelling with a constant speed of 15 m/s passes a
school crossing where speed limit is 10 m/s. At the school-crossing sign
a policer office, at rest, starts pursuing the motor car with a constant
acceleration of 3.0 m/s2. (a) How much time elapses before the officer
crosses the motorist? At that time (b) what is the officers speed and (c)
how far has each vehicle traveled?

## The Equations of Motion with Constant Acceleration

Example 2.14: A lightning is observed in the sky. 3.5 sec later a thunder is
heard. If the speed of sound is 343 m/s, how far away from the observer was
the lightning bolt?
Example 2.25: The position of a particle as a function of time is given by x = (6
m/s)t + (-2 m/s2)t2. Plot x vs t for o to 2 sec. Also, find (a) average speed and
(b) average velocity, from t = 0 to 1 sec.
Example 2.55: A 27 pound meteorite struck a car leaving a dent of 22 cm. If the
meteorite struck the car with a speed of 130 m/s, what was the magnitude of its
acceleration?

## Freely Falling Objects

Free fall is the motion of
an object under the
influence of only gravity.
In the figure, a strobe
light flashes with equal
time intervals between
flashes.
The velocity change is
the same in each time
interval, so the
acceleration is constant.

## Freely Falling Objects

Aristotle thought that heavy bodies fall faster than light ones, but
Galileo showed that all bodies fall at the same rate.
If there is no air resistance, the downward acceleration of any freely
falling object is g = 9.8 m/s2 = 32 ft/s2.

VIDEO

## Up-and-Down Motion in Free Fall

An object is in free fall even when it is moving upward.

Example 2.88: You shoot an arrow into the air. Two seconds later the arrow has gone
straight upwards to a height of 30.0 m above the launch point. (a) What was the arrows
initial speed? (b) How long did it take for the arrow to first reach a height of 15 m. from
above the launch point?
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Position vector
The position vector from the origin to point P has
components x, y, and z.

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Average velocity
The average velocity
between two points is
the displacement
divided by the time
interval between the
two points, and it has
the same direction as
the displacement.

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Instantaneous velocity
The instantaneous velocity
is the instantaneous rate of
change of position vector
with respect to time.
The components of the
instantaneous velocity are
vx = dx/dt, vy = dy/dt, and
vz = dz/dt.
The instantaneous velocity
of a particle is always
tangent to its path.

## A frame of reference is a coordinate system plus a time scale.

Two frames of references: Train (T) and Ground (G)
Observer is on the ground while a person is on the train
Velocity of the person with respect to the train: vPT (along x-direction)
Velocity of the train with respect to the ground: vTG (along x-direction)
Combining, velocity of the person with respect to the ground: vPG = vPT + vTG
vPG = vPT + vTG = 1.2 + 15 = 16.2 m

## Relative Velocity: One Dimension

You are driving north at a constant speed
of 88 km/h. A truck is traveling in the
opposite lane, south bound, at 104 km/h.
(a) What is the trucks velocity relative to
you, (b) what is your velocity with respect
to the truck and (c) how do the relative
velocities change after passing?

## Relative Velocity: Two Dimensions

Velocity of the person with respect to the train: vPT (along y-direction)
Velocity of the train with respect to the ground: vTG (along x-direction)
vPG = (vPT2 + vTG2) = (1.22 + 152) = 15.05 m
Direction of vPG = tan-1 (vPT/vTG) = 4.6.

## Relative Velocity: Two Dimensions

Part 1
The compass of an airplane indicates that it is headed due
north and its airspeed indicator shows that it is moving through
the air at 240 km/h. if there is a wind of 100 km/h from west to
east, what is the velocity of the airplane with respect to the
ground?

Part 2
In what direction should the
pilot head to travel due north?
What will be the velocity of
plane relative to the earth?
Assume the same airspeed and
the velocity of the wind are the
same as part 1.

## Calculating Average and Instantaneous Velocity

The co-ordinates of a Mar rovers position are given by, x = 2 (m) 0.25 (m/s2)t2, y =
1 (m/s)t + 0.025 (m/s3)t3. Using the coordinates at 0 and 2 sec, find the displacement
and avg. velocity vectors during the interval from 0 to 2 sec. Derive instantaneous
velocity vector to calculate velocity at 2 sec.

## Calculating Average and Instantaneous Velocity

The co-ordinates of a Mar rovers position are given by, x = 2 (m) 0.25 (m/s2)t2, y =
1 (m/s)t + 0.025 (m/s3)t3. Using the coordinates at 0 and 2 sec, find the displacement
and avg. velocity vectors during the interval from 0 to 2 sec. Derive instantaneous
velocity vector to calculate velocity at 2 sec.

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Average Acceleration
The average acceleration during a time interval t is
defined as the velocity change during t divided by t.

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Instantaneous Acceleration
The instantaneous
acceleration is the
instantaneous rate of change
of the velocity with respect
to time.
Any particle following a
curved path is accelerating,
even if it has constant speed.
The components of the
instantaneous acceleration
are ax = dvx/dt, ay = dvy/dt,
and az = dvz/dt.

## Calculating Average and Instantaneous Acceleration

Return to the Mars rover example. Calculate average acceleration
between 0 to 2 sec and instantaneous acceleration at 2 sec.

## Two Dimensional Motion

Example 4.3: You are walking with a constant speed of 1.75 m/s, in a
direction, 18 deg north of east. How much time does it take to change
your displacement by (a) 20 m east or (b) 30 m north?

Example 4.4: Starting from rest a car accelerates at 2 m/s2 up a hill that
is inclined 5.5 deg above the horizontal. How far horizontally and
vertically has the car traveled in 12 s?

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Projectile Motion
A projectile is any body given an initial velocity that then follows a path
determined by the effects of gravity

## The x and y Motions are Separable

The red ball is dropped at
the same time that the
yellow ball is fired
horizontally.
The strobe marks equal time
intervals.
We can analyze projectile
motion as horizontal motion
with constant velocity and
vertical motion with
constant acceleration: ax = 0
and ay = g.

## The Symmetry of Projectile Motion

The trajectory is a symmetric parabola
Horizontally: equal distances in equal time intervals, vx is constant (ax = 0 m/s2)
Vertically: Velocity changes by equal amounts in equal time intervals (ay = 9.8 m/s2)

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Projectile Motion
Example 4.6: An electron in a cathode ray tube is moving horizontally at 2 x 109 cm/s
when deflection plate gives it an upward acceleration of 5.3 x 1017 cm/s2. (a) How long
does it take for the electron to cover a horizontal distance of 6.2 cm? (b) What is its
vertical displacement during this time?

Example 4.25: A ball rolls off a table and falls 0.75 m to the floor, landing with a speed
of 4 m/s. (a) What is the acceleration of the ball just before it strikes the ground, (b)
what was the initial speed of the ball and (c) what initial speed must the ball have if it is
to land with a speed of 5.0 m/s?

Example 4.35: Snowballs are thrown with a speed of 13 m/s from a roof 7 m above the
ground. Snowball A is thrown straight downward, while snowball B is thrown in a
direction 25 deg above the horizontal. (a) How does the landing speed of snowball A
compare to B?
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Projectile Motion

## Uniform Circular Motion

For uniform circular motion, the speed is constant
and the acceleration is perpendicular to the velocity.

## Acceleration for Uniform Circular Motion

For uniform circular motion,
the instantaneous acceleration
always points toward the
center of the circle and is
called the centripetal
acceleration.
The magnitude of the
acceleration is arad = v2/R.
The period T is the time for
one revolution, and arad =
42R/T2.
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## Example 4.21: A Ferris wheel

with a radius of 5.00 m completes
one revolution every 32 sec. (a)
What is the average speed of the
rider on this ferris wheel, (b) what
is
the