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VECTOR

CALCULUS
Prepared by
Engr. Mark Angelo C. Purio

Differential Length, Area, and Volume

Differential Length, Area, and Volume


Differential elements in length, area, and
volume are useful in vector calculus.
They are defined in the Cartesian,
Cylindrical, and Spherical coordinate
systems

Differential Length, Area, and Volume


A. Cartesian Coordinates
1. Differential Displacement

2. Differential Normal Area


3. Differential Volume

Differential Length, Area, and Volume

Differential Elements in the Right-handed


Cartesian Coordinate System

Differential Length, Area, and Volume

Differential Normal Areas in


Cartesian Coordinates

Differential Length, Area, and Volume


A. Cylindrical Coordinates
1. Differential Displacement

2. Differential Normal Area


3. Differential Volume

Differential Length, Area, and Volume

Differential Elements in
Cylindrical Coordinates

Differential Length, Area, and Volume

Differential Normal Areas in


Cylindrical Coordinates

Differential Length, Area, and Volume


A. Spherical Coordinates
1. Differential Displacement

2. Differential Normal Area


3. Differential Volume

Differential Length, Area, and Volume

Differential Elements in
Spherical Coordinates

Differential Length, Area, and Volume

Differential Normal Areas in


Spherical Coordinates

EXAMPLE 3.1

Consider the object


shown. Calculate:
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)

The distance BC
The distance CD
The surface area
ABCD
The surface area ABO
The surface area
AOFD
The volume ABDCFO
a) 10
b) 2.5
c) 25

d) 6.25
e) 50
f) 62.5

EXERCISE 3.1

Disregard the differential


lengths and imagine that the
object is part of a spherical
shell. It may be describe as
3 5, 60 90,
45 60 where surface
= 3 is the same as
,
surface = 60 is
, and
surface = 45 is
.
Calculate
a)
The distance DH
b)
The distance FG
c)
The surface area AEHD
a) 0.7854
d) The surface area ABDC
b) 2.618
e)
The volume of the
c) 1.179
object

d) 4.189
e) 4.276

Line, Surface, and Volume Integrals

Line, Surface, and Volume Integrals


By a line we mean the path along a curve
in space.
Line, curve, and contour can be used
interchangeably.
The line integral
is the of the
tangential component of A along curve
L.

Line, Surface, and Volume Integrals


Given a vector field A and a
curve L, we define the
integral

as the line integral of


A around L.

Path of integration of a
vector field

Line, Surface, and Volume Integrals


If the path of integration is a closed curve such
as abcba
Becomes a closed contour integral

which is called circulation of A around L

Line, Surface, and Volume Integrals


Given a vector field
A, continuous in a
region containing
the smooth surface
S, we define the
surface integral or
the flux of A
through S as

The flux of a vector field A


through surface S

Line, Surface, and Volume Integrals


where at any point
on S ,
is the unit
normal to S.
For a closed
surface (defining a
volume):
The flux of a vector field A
through surface S

Which is referred to a the


net outward flux of A from
S.

Line, Surface, and Volume Integrals


We define

as the volume integral of the scalar


the volume .

over

The physical meaning of the line, surface, or


volume integral depends on the nature of the
physicsl quantity represented by A or .

EXAMPLE 3.2

Given =

,
calculate the circulation of F around a
closed path shown.

EXERCISE 3.2

Calculate the circulation of


= cos + sin

around the edge L of the


wedge defined by 0 2,
0 60, = 0 and
shown.

DEL OPERATOR

Del Operator
The del operator, written as ,
is a vector differential operator.
In Cartesian coordinates,

a.k.a gradient operator

Del Operator
It is not a vector in itself,
Useful in defining the following:
1.
2.
3.
4.

The gradient of a scalar V, ( )


The divergence of a vector A,( )
The curl of a vector A, ( )
The Laplacian of a scalar V, (
)

Del Operator
In Cylindrical coordinates,

In Spherical coordinates,

Gradient of a Scalar
The gradient of a
scalar field V is a
vector that represents
both the magnitude
and the direction of
the maximum space
rate of increase of V.

Gradient of a Scalar
In Cartesiancoordinates,

In Cylindrical coordinates,

Gradient of a Scalar
In Spherical coordinates,

Gradient of a Scalar
The following
computation
formulas on
gradient,
which are
easily
proved,
should be
noted:

where U and V are


scalars and n is an
integer

EXAMPLE 3.3

Find the gradient of the following


scalar fields:
a) =
b) =
c) =

EXERCISE 3.3

Determine the gradient of the


following scalar fields:
a) =
+
b) =
+
+
c) =
+

EXAMPLE 3.4

Given
=
+
,
compute
and the direction
derivative
/ in the direction
+4 + 12 at (2, -1, 0).

EXERCISE 3.4

Given =
+
+ . Find
gradient at point (1, 2, 3) and the
directional derivative of at the same
point in the direction toward point
(3, 4, 4).

EXAMPLE 3.5

Find the angle at which line


= =
intersects the ellipsoid
+
+ 2 = 10.

EXERCISE 3.5

Calculate the angle between the


normal to the surfaces
+ = 3 and log
= 4
at the point of intersection (-1, 2, 1)

Divergence of a Vector and Divergence Theorem


The divergence of A at a given point P is
the outward flux per unit volume as the
volume about P.

where is the volume enclosed by the


closed surface S in which P is located

Divergence of a Vector and Divergence Theorem

a) The divergence of a vector field at point P is positive


because the vector diverges (spreads out) at P.
b) A vector field has negative divergence (convergence)
at P
c) A vector field has zero divergence at P.

Divergence of a Vector and Divergence Theorem


In Cartesian coordinates,

In Cylindrical coordinates,

Divergence of a Vector and Divergence Theorem


In Spherical coordinates,

Note the following properties of the


divergence of a vector field:

Divergence of a Vector and Divergence Theorem


The divergence theorem states that the
total outward flux of a vector field A
through a closed surface S is the same as
the volume integral of the divergence of
A.

Otherwise known as
Gauss-Ostrogradsky theorem

EXAMPLE 3.6

Find the divergence of these vector


fields:
a)
=
+
b)
c)

EXERCISE 3.6

Determine the divergence of the


following vector fields and evaluate
them at the specified points,:

EXAMPLE 3.7

If

= 10

),

determine the flux of G out


of the entire surface of the
cylinder
= 1, 0 1.
Confirm the result using
the divergence theorem.

EXERCISE 3.7

Determine the flux of


=

cos

+ sin

over the closed surface of the cylinder


0 1, = 4.
Verify the divergence theorem for this case.

Curl of a Vector and Stokes Theorem


The curl of A is an axial (or rotational)
vector whose magnitude is the
maximum circulation of A per unit area
as the area tends to zero and whose
direction is the normal direction of the
area when the area is oriented so as to
make a circulation maximum.

Curl of a Vector and Stokes Theorem


In Cartesian
coordinates

Curl of a Vector and Stokes Theorem


In Cylindrical
coordinates

Curl of a Vector and Stokes Theorem


In Spherical coordinates

Curl of a Vector and Stokes Theorem


Note the following properties of the curl:

Curl of a Vector and Stokes Theorem


The curl provides the maximum value of
the circulation of the field per unit area
(or circulation density) and indicates the
direction to which this maximum value
occurs.
Measures the circulation of how much
the field curls around P

Curl of a Vector and Stokes Theorem

a) Curl at P points out of the page


b) Curl at P is zero.

Curl of a Vector and Stokes Theorem


Stokess theorem states
that the circulation of a
vector field A around a
(closed) path L is equal
to the surface integral
of the curl of A over the
open surface S
bounded by L
provided that A and
are continuous
on S.

EXAMPLE 3.8

Determine the curl of these vector


fields:
a)
=
+
b)

c)

EXERCISE 3.8

Determine the curl of the following


vector fields and evaluate them at the
specified points,:

EXAMPLE 3.9

If =
+
, evaluate
around the path shown.
Confirm using Stokess theorem.

4.941

EXERCISE 3.9

Confirm the circulation of


= cos + sin

around the edge L of the wedge


defined by 0 2, 0 60, =
0 and shown using Stokes Theorem

EXAMPLE 3.10

For the vector field A,


show explicitly that
= 0;
that is, the divergence of the curl of
any vector field is zero.

EXERCISE 3.10

For a scalar field V, show that

= 0;
that is, the curl of the gradient of
any scalar field vanishes.

Laplacian of a Scalar
The Laplacian of a scalar field V, written
as
, is the divergence of the gradient
of V.
In Cartesian:

Laplacian of a Scalar
In Cylindrical coordinates,

In Spherical coordinates,

EXAMPLE 3.11

Find the Laplacian of the following


scalar fields:

a) =

b) =
c)

EXERCISE 3.11

Determine the Laplacian of the


following scalar fields:
a) =
+

b)
c)

Classification of Vector Fields


A vector field is uniquely characterized by its
divergence and curl.
Neither the divergence nor curl of a vector
field is sufficient to completely describe a
field.
All vector fields can be classified in terms of
their vanishing or non vanishing divergence or
curl

Classification of Vector Fields

Classification of Vector Fields


A vector field A is said to be solenoidal
(or divergenceless) if =

Examples:
incompressible fluids,
magnetic fields
conduction current density
under steady state conditions.

Classification of Vector Fields


A vector field A is said to be irrotational
(or potential) if =
Also known as conservative field.
Examples:
electrostatic field
gravitational field

SUMMARY

Reference:
Elements of Electromagnetics
by Matthew N. O. Sadiku