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# VECTOR

CALCULUS
Prepared by
Engr. Mark Angelo C. Purio

## Differential Length, Area, and Volume

Differential elements in length, area, and
volume are useful in vector calculus.
They are defined in the Cartesian,
Cylindrical, and Spherical coordinate
systems

## Differential Length, Area, and Volume

A. Cartesian Coordinates
1. Differential Displacement

## 2. Differential Normal Area

3. Differential Volume

## Differential Elements in the Right-handed

Cartesian Coordinate System

## Differential Normal Areas in

Cartesian Coordinates

## Differential Length, Area, and Volume

A. Cylindrical Coordinates
1. Differential Displacement

## 2. Differential Normal Area

3. Differential Volume

## Differential Length, Area, and Volume

Differential Elements in
Cylindrical Coordinates

## Differential Normal Areas in

Cylindrical Coordinates

## Differential Length, Area, and Volume

A. Spherical Coordinates
1. Differential Displacement

## 2. Differential Normal Area

3. Differential Volume

## Differential Length, Area, and Volume

Differential Elements in
Spherical Coordinates

## Differential Normal Areas in

Spherical Coordinates

EXAMPLE 3.1

## Consider the object

shown. Calculate:
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)

The distance BC
The distance CD
The surface area
ABCD
The surface area ABO
The surface area
AOFD
The volume ABDCFO
a) 10
b) 2.5
c) 25

d) 6.25
e) 50
f) 62.5

EXERCISE 3.1

## Disregard the differential

lengths and imagine that the
object is part of a spherical
shell. It may be describe as
3 5, 60 90,
45 60 where surface
= 3 is the same as
,
surface = 60 is
, and
surface = 45 is
.
Calculate
a)
The distance DH
b)
The distance FG
c)
The surface area AEHD
a) 0.7854
d) The surface area ABDC
b) 2.618
e)
The volume of the
c) 1.179
object

d) 4.189
e) 4.276

## Line, Surface, and Volume Integrals

By a line we mean the path along a curve
in space.
Line, curve, and contour can be used
interchangeably.
The line integral
is the of the
tangential component of A along curve
L.

## Line, Surface, and Volume Integrals

Given a vector field A and a
curve L, we define the
integral

## as the line integral of

A around L.

Path of integration of a
vector field

## Line, Surface, and Volume Integrals

If the path of integration is a closed curve such
as abcba
Becomes a closed contour integral

## Line, Surface, and Volume Integrals

Given a vector field
A, continuous in a
region containing
the smooth surface
S, we define the
surface integral or
the flux of A
through S as

## The flux of a vector field A

through surface S

## Line, Surface, and Volume Integrals

where at any point
on S ,
is the unit
normal to S.
For a closed
surface (defining a
volume):
The flux of a vector field A
through surface S

## Which is referred to a the

net outward flux of A from
S.

We define

the volume .

over

## The physical meaning of the line, surface, or

volume integral depends on the nature of the
physicsl quantity represented by A or .

EXAMPLE 3.2

Given =

,
calculate the circulation of F around a
closed path shown.

EXERCISE 3.2

= cos + sin

## around the edge L of the

wedge defined by 0 2,
0 60, = 0 and
shown.

DEL OPERATOR

Del Operator
The del operator, written as ,
is a vector differential operator.
In Cartesian coordinates,

Del Operator
It is not a vector in itself,
Useful in defining the following:
1.
2.
3.
4.

## The gradient of a scalar V, ( )

The divergence of a vector A,( )
The curl of a vector A, ( )
The Laplacian of a scalar V, (
)

Del Operator
In Cylindrical coordinates,

In Spherical coordinates,

scalar field V is a
vector that represents
both the magnitude
and the direction of
the maximum space
rate of increase of V.

In Cartesiancoordinates,

In Cylindrical coordinates,

In Spherical coordinates,

The following
computation
formulas on
which are
easily
proved,
should be
noted:

## where U and V are

scalars and n is an
integer

EXAMPLE 3.3

scalar fields:
a) =
b) =
c) =

EXERCISE 3.3

## Determine the gradient of the

following scalar fields:
a) =
+
b) =
+
+
c) =
+

EXAMPLE 3.4

Given
=
+
,
compute
and the direction
derivative
/ in the direction
+4 + 12 at (2, -1, 0).

EXERCISE 3.4

Given =
+
+ . Find
gradient at point (1, 2, 3) and the
directional derivative of at the same
point in the direction toward point
(3, 4, 4).

EXAMPLE 3.5

## Find the angle at which line

= =
intersects the ellipsoid
+
+ 2 = 10.

EXERCISE 3.5

## Calculate the angle between the

normal to the surfaces
+ = 3 and log
= 4
at the point of intersection (-1, 2, 1)

## Divergence of a Vector and Divergence Theorem

The divergence of A at a given point P is
the outward flux per unit volume as the

## where is the volume enclosed by the

closed surface S in which P is located

## a) The divergence of a vector field at point P is positive

because the vector diverges (spreads out) at P.
b) A vector field has negative divergence (convergence)
at P
c) A vector field has zero divergence at P.

## Divergence of a Vector and Divergence Theorem

In Cartesian coordinates,

In Cylindrical coordinates,

## Divergence of a Vector and Divergence Theorem

In Spherical coordinates,

## Note the following properties of the

divergence of a vector field:

## Divergence of a Vector and Divergence Theorem

The divergence theorem states that the
total outward flux of a vector field A
through a closed surface S is the same as
the volume integral of the divergence of
A.

Otherwise known as

EXAMPLE 3.6

fields:
a)
=
+
b)
c)

EXERCISE 3.6

## Determine the divergence of the

following vector fields and evaluate
them at the specified points,:

EXAMPLE 3.7

If

= 10

),

## determine the flux of G out

of the entire surface of the
cylinder
= 1, 0 1.
Confirm the result using
the divergence theorem.

EXERCISE 3.7

=

cos

+ sin

## over the closed surface of the cylinder

0 1, = 4.
Verify the divergence theorem for this case.

## Curl of a Vector and Stokes Theorem

The curl of A is an axial (or rotational)
vector whose magnitude is the
maximum circulation of A per unit area
as the area tends to zero and whose
direction is the normal direction of the
area when the area is oriented so as to
make a circulation maximum.

In Cartesian
coordinates

In Cylindrical
coordinates

## Curl of a Vector and Stokes Theorem

In Spherical coordinates

## Curl of a Vector and Stokes Theorem

Note the following properties of the curl:

## Curl of a Vector and Stokes Theorem

The curl provides the maximum value of
the circulation of the field per unit area
(or circulation density) and indicates the
direction to which this maximum value
occurs.
Measures the circulation of how much
the field curls around P

## a) Curl at P points out of the page

b) Curl at P is zero.

## Curl of a Vector and Stokes Theorem

Stokess theorem states
that the circulation of a
vector field A around a
(closed) path L is equal
to the surface integral
of the curl of A over the
open surface S
bounded by L
provided that A and
are continuous
on S.

EXAMPLE 3.8

fields:
a)
=
+
b)

c)

EXERCISE 3.8

## Determine the curl of the following

vector fields and evaluate them at the
specified points,:

EXAMPLE 3.9

If =
+
, evaluate
around the path shown.
Confirm using Stokess theorem.

4.941

EXERCISE 3.9

= cos + sin

## around the edge L of the wedge

defined by 0 2, 0 60, =
0 and shown using Stokes Theorem

EXAMPLE 3.10

## For the vector field A,

show explicitly that
= 0;
that is, the divergence of the curl of
any vector field is zero.

EXERCISE 3.10

## For a scalar field V, show that

= 0;
that is, the curl of the gradient of
any scalar field vanishes.

Laplacian of a Scalar
The Laplacian of a scalar field V, written
as
, is the divergence of the gradient
of V.
In Cartesian:

Laplacian of a Scalar
In Cylindrical coordinates,

In Spherical coordinates,

EXAMPLE 3.11

scalar fields:

a) =

b) =
c)

EXERCISE 3.11

## Determine the Laplacian of the

following scalar fields:
a) =
+

b)
c)

## Classification of Vector Fields

A vector field is uniquely characterized by its
divergence and curl.
Neither the divergence nor curl of a vector
field is sufficient to completely describe a
field.
All vector fields can be classified in terms of
their vanishing or non vanishing divergence or
curl

## Classification of Vector Fields

A vector field A is said to be solenoidal
(or divergenceless) if =

Examples:
incompressible fluids,
magnetic fields
conduction current density

## Classification of Vector Fields

A vector field A is said to be irrotational
(or potential) if =
Also known as conservative field.
Examples:
electrostatic field
gravitational field

SUMMARY

Reference:
Elements of Electromagnetics