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CALCULUS

Prepared by

Engr. Mark Angelo C. Purio

Differential elements in length, area, and

volume are useful in vector calculus.

They are defined in the Cartesian,

Cylindrical, and Spherical coordinate

systems

A. Cartesian Coordinates

1. Differential Displacement

3. Differential Volume

Cartesian Coordinate System

Cartesian Coordinates

A. Cylindrical Coordinates

1. Differential Displacement

3. Differential Volume

Differential Elements in

Cylindrical Coordinates

Cylindrical Coordinates

A. Spherical Coordinates

1. Differential Displacement

3. Differential Volume

Differential Elements in

Spherical Coordinates

Spherical Coordinates

EXAMPLE 3.1

shown. Calculate:

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

f)

The distance BC

The distance CD

The surface area

ABCD

The surface area ABO

The surface area

AOFD

The volume ABDCFO

a) 10

b) 2.5

c) 25

d) 6.25

e) 50

f) 62.5

EXERCISE 3.1

lengths and imagine that the

object is part of a spherical

shell. It may be describe as

3 5, 60 90,

45 60 where surface

= 3 is the same as

,

surface = 60 is

, and

surface = 45 is

.

Calculate

a)

The distance DH

b)

The distance FG

c)

The surface area AEHD

a) 0.7854

d) The surface area ABDC

b) 2.618

e)

The volume of the

c) 1.179

object

d) 4.189

e) 4.276

By a line we mean the path along a curve

in space.

Line, curve, and contour can be used

interchangeably.

The line integral

is the of the

tangential component of A along curve

L.

Given a vector field A and a

curve L, we define the

integral

A around L.

Path of integration of a

vector field

If the path of integration is a closed curve such

as abcba

Becomes a closed contour integral

Given a vector field

A, continuous in a

region containing

the smooth surface

S, we define the

surface integral or

the flux of A

through S as

through surface S

where at any point

on S ,

is the unit

normal to S.

For a closed

surface (defining a

volume):

The flux of a vector field A

through surface S

net outward flux of A from

S.

We define

the volume .

over

volume integral depends on the nature of the

physicsl quantity represented by A or .

EXAMPLE 3.2

Given =

,

calculate the circulation of F around a

closed path shown.

EXERCISE 3.2

= cos + sin

wedge defined by 0 2,

0 60, = 0 and

shown.

DEL OPERATOR

Del Operator

The del operator, written as ,

is a vector differential operator.

In Cartesian coordinates,

Del Operator

It is not a vector in itself,

Useful in defining the following:

1.

2.

3.

4.

The divergence of a vector A,( )

The curl of a vector A, ( )

The Laplacian of a scalar V, (

)

Del Operator

In Cylindrical coordinates,

In Spherical coordinates,

Gradient of a Scalar

The gradient of a

scalar field V is a

vector that represents

both the magnitude

and the direction of

the maximum space

rate of increase of V.

Gradient of a Scalar

In Cartesiancoordinates,

In Cylindrical coordinates,

Gradient of a Scalar

In Spherical coordinates,

Gradient of a Scalar

The following

computation

formulas on

gradient,

which are

easily

proved,

should be

noted:

scalars and n is an

integer

EXAMPLE 3.3

scalar fields:

a) =

b) =

c) =

EXERCISE 3.3

following scalar fields:

a) =

+

b) =

+

+

c) =

+

EXAMPLE 3.4

Given

=

+

,

compute

and the direction

derivative

/ in the direction

+4 + 12 at (2, -1, 0).

EXERCISE 3.4

Given =

+

+ . Find

gradient at point (1, 2, 3) and the

directional derivative of at the same

point in the direction toward point

(3, 4, 4).

EXAMPLE 3.5

= =

intersects the ellipsoid

+

+ 2 = 10.

EXERCISE 3.5

normal to the surfaces

+ = 3 and log

= 4

at the point of intersection (-1, 2, 1)

The divergence of A at a given point P is

the outward flux per unit volume as the

volume about P.

closed surface S in which P is located

because the vector diverges (spreads out) at P.

b) A vector field has negative divergence (convergence)

at P

c) A vector field has zero divergence at P.

In Cartesian coordinates,

In Cylindrical coordinates,

In Spherical coordinates,

divergence of a vector field:

The divergence theorem states that the

total outward flux of a vector field A

through a closed surface S is the same as

the volume integral of the divergence of

A.

Otherwise known as

Gauss-Ostrogradsky theorem

EXAMPLE 3.6

fields:

a)

=

+

b)

c)

EXERCISE 3.6

following vector fields and evaluate

them at the specified points,:

EXAMPLE 3.7

If

= 10

),

of the entire surface of the

cylinder

= 1, 0 1.

Confirm the result using

the divergence theorem.

EXERCISE 3.7

=

cos

+ sin

0 1, = 4.

Verify the divergence theorem for this case.

The curl of A is an axial (or rotational)

vector whose magnitude is the

maximum circulation of A per unit area

as the area tends to zero and whose

direction is the normal direction of the

area when the area is oriented so as to

make a circulation maximum.

In Cartesian

coordinates

In Cylindrical

coordinates

In Spherical coordinates

Note the following properties of the curl:

The curl provides the maximum value of

the circulation of the field per unit area

(or circulation density) and indicates the

direction to which this maximum value

occurs.

Measures the circulation of how much

the field curls around P

b) Curl at P is zero.

Stokess theorem states

that the circulation of a

vector field A around a

(closed) path L is equal

to the surface integral

of the curl of A over the

open surface S

bounded by L

provided that A and

are continuous

on S.

EXAMPLE 3.8

fields:

a)

=

+

b)

c)

EXERCISE 3.8

vector fields and evaluate them at the

specified points,:

EXAMPLE 3.9

If =

+

, evaluate

around the path shown.

Confirm using Stokess theorem.

4.941

EXERCISE 3.9

= cos + sin

defined by 0 2, 0 60, =

0 and shown using Stokes Theorem

EXAMPLE 3.10

show explicitly that

= 0;

that is, the divergence of the curl of

any vector field is zero.

EXERCISE 3.10

= 0;

that is, the curl of the gradient of

any scalar field vanishes.

Laplacian of a Scalar

The Laplacian of a scalar field V, written

as

, is the divergence of the gradient

of V.

In Cartesian:

Laplacian of a Scalar

In Cylindrical coordinates,

In Spherical coordinates,

EXAMPLE 3.11

scalar fields:

a) =

b) =

c)

EXERCISE 3.11

following scalar fields:

a) =

+

b)

c)

A vector field is uniquely characterized by its

divergence and curl.

Neither the divergence nor curl of a vector

field is sufficient to completely describe a

field.

All vector fields can be classified in terms of

their vanishing or non vanishing divergence or

curl

A vector field A is said to be solenoidal

(or divergenceless) if =

Examples:

incompressible fluids,

magnetic fields

conduction current density

under steady state conditions.

A vector field A is said to be irrotational

(or potential) if =

Also known as conservative field.

Examples:

electrostatic field

gravitational field

SUMMARY

Reference:

Elements of Electromagnetics

by Matthew N. O. Sadiku

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