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You are on page 1of 40

Direct-Current Circuit (D.C.)

SF027

{

as shown in figure 5.1a.

r

Fe

r

E

SF027

Area, A

Fig. 5.1a

From the figure,

z

Direction of electric field or electric current : Positive to negative

terminal.

z

Direction of electron flows : Negative to positive terminal.

z

The electron accelerates because of the electric force acted on it.

Definition is defined as the total (net) charge, Q flowing through

the area per unit time, t.

Mathematically,

dQ

Q

Instantaneous

I=

or I =

current

dt

t

2

SF017

{

{

{

The S.I. unit of the electric current is the ampere (A

A).

Its dimension is given by

[I ] = A

through the surface area in one second.

{

per unit crosscross-sectional area.

Mathematically,

I where

J=

{

{

{

I : electric current

A A : cross - sectional area of the conductor

It is a vector quantity.

Its unit is amperes per square metre (A

A m-2)

The direction of current density, J always in the same direction of the

Area, A

current I. e.g.

r

J

r

J =0

SF027

{

in figure 5.3a and 5.3b.

rL

vd A

L I

r

vd

r

vd

r

Er

J

r

E

r

J

Fig. 5.3a : Semiconductor

Figure 5.3a shows the charges carrier is positive, the electric force is in

the same direction as E and the drift velocity vd is from left to right.

Figure 5.3b shows the charges carrier is negative (electron), the

electric force is opposite to E and the drift velocity vd is from right to

left.

Consider a situation of figure 5.3a, a semiconductor with crosssectional area A and length L.

z

SF027

A vd

n=

N

V

and

V = AL

SF017

N = nAL

Therefore the total charge Q that passes through the area A along

the conductor is

Q = Ne

Q = (nAL )e

The time required for the charge moving along the conductor is

t=

z

L

vd

Q

then the drift velocity vd is given by

t

I

I

(nAL )e = nAev

vd =

and

=J

I=

d

nAe

A

L

or

Definition

vd

Since

I=

vd =

where

J

ne

Density of the

charge carrier

e : magnitude of the positive charge (electron)

5

SF027

wire, the electron feel a force and initially begin to accelerate. The

acceleration a due to electron is given by

Fe = eE

ma = eE

a=

eE

m

and

Fe = F = ma

where

m : mass of the electron

5.4.1 Electrical conduction in the metal

In metal the charge carrier is free electrons and a lot of free electrons

are available in it.

{

They move freely and randomly throughout the crystal lattice structure

of the metal but frequently interact with the lattices.

{

When the electric field is applied to the metal, the freely moving

electron experience an electric force and tend to drift towards a

direction opposite to the direction of the field.

{

Then an electric current is flowing in the opposite direction of the

electron flows.

{

SF027

SF017

{

In a pure semiconductor such as silicon, the charge carriers is free

electrons and free positive holes.

{

When an electron moves from the valence band into the conduction

band by increases the temperature of the semiconductor, it leaves

behind a vacant site called a hole.

hole

{

An electron from a neighbouring atom can move into this hole and

leaving the neighbour with the hole. In this way, the hole can travel

through the semiconductor as an additional charge carrier.

{

In a pure or intrinsic semiconductor, valence band holes and

conduction band electrons are always present in equal numbers.

{

When an electric field is applied, they move in opposite directions as

shown in figure 5.4a.

Ie

Conduction electron

Fig. 5.4a

hole

Energy gap

Ih

r

Applied E field

SF027

Conduction band

Valence band

7

particle, even though the moving charges in that band are electrons.

The drifting of electrons produce a current Ie while the drifting of holes

semiconductor is given by

I = I e + I h where I e > I h

{

When the temperature of a semiconductor increases, the number of

free electrons and holes increases. Hence the current flowing also

increase.

5.4.2 Electrical conduction in the superconductor

{

Superconductor is a class of metals and compound whose resistance

decreases to zero when they are below the critical temperature Tc.

{

Table below shows the critical temperature for various

superconductors.

SF027

Material

Tc (K)

Pb

7.18

Hg

4.15

Sn

3.72

Al

1.19

Zn

0.88

SF017

molecular structure.

The remarkable features of superconductors is that once a current is

set up in them, it persists without any applied potential difference

(because R=0).

Example 1 :

A current of 2.0 A flows through a copper wire. Calculate

a. the amount of charge, and

b. the number of electrons

flow through a cross-sectional area of the copper wire in 30 s.

(Given the charge of electron, e=1.60x10-19 C)

Solution: I=2.0 A, t=30 s

a. From the definition of electric current, thus the amount of charge is

Q

t

I=

Q = 60 C

Q = Ne

60

1.6 x10 19

N=

SF027

9

Example 2 :

A silver wire 2.6 mm in diameter transfers a charge of 420 C in 80 min.

Silver contains 5.8 x 1028 free electrons per cubic metre. Determine

a. the current in the wire.

b. the magnitude of the drift velocity in the wire.

c. the current density in the wire

(Given the charge of electron, e=1.60x10-19 C)

Solution: d=2.6 x 10-3 m, t=80x60=4800 s , n=5.8 x1028 m-3, Q=420 C

a. From the definition of electric current, thus

I=

Q

t

I = 8.75 x10 2 A

vd =

vd =

I

nAe

4I

nd 2 e

and

A=

d 2

4

vd = 1.78 x10 6 m s 1

J=

SF027

4I

I

= 2

A d

J = 1.65 x10 4 A m 2

10

SF017

Example 3 :

A high voltage transmission line with a diameter of 2.00 cm and a length

of 200 km carries a steady current of 1000 A. If the conductor is copper

wire with a free charge density of 8.49 x 1028 electrons m-3, find the time

taken by one electron to travel the full length of the line.

(Given the charge of electron, e=1.60x10-19 C)

(Serway & Jewett,pg.855,no.56)

Solution: d=2.00

L=200x103 m

vd =

I

d 2

and A =

nAe

4

4I

nd 2 e

vd = 2.34 x10 4 m s 1

vd =

Therefore the time taken for one electron travels through the line is

vd =

L

t

t = 8.55 x10 8 s

SF027

11

5.5.1 Resistance, R

{

Definition is defined as the ratio of the potential difference across

an electrical component to the current passing through

through

it.

Mathematically,

V where

R=

{

{

I : current

electric charge.

It is a scalar quantity and its unit is ohm ( ) or V A-1

In general, the resistance of a metallic conductor increases with

temperature, whereas the resistance of a semiconductor decreases

with temperature.

Note that if the temperature of the metallic conductor is constant

hence its resistance also constant.

constant

5.5.2 Resistivity,

{

Definition is defined as the resistance of a unit crosscross-sectional

area per unit length of the material.

material

Mathematically,

RA where

SF027

A : cross - sectional area

12

SF017

{

{

{

It is a measure of a materials ability to oppose the flow of an electric

current.

It also known as specific resistance.

resistance

5.6.1 Conductance, G

{

Definition is defined as the reciprocal of electrical resistance in a

directdirect-current circuit.

Mathematically,

V

1

and R =

G=

or

G=

{

I

V

SF027

13

5.6.2 Conductivity,

{

Definition is defined as the reciprocal of the resistivity of a

material.

Mathematically,

RA

1

and =

=

or

=

{

{

l

RA

Example 4 :

What diameter must an aluminium wire have if its resistance is to be

same as that of an equal length of copper wire with diameter 2.20 mm.

(Given (aluminium) is 2.75x10-8 m and (copper) is 1.72x10-8 m)

Solution: RCu=RAl, dCu=2.20x10-3 m , lCu=lAl

Rearrange the equation of resistivity, thus the resistance is given by

R=

SF027

l

A

14

SF017

Since

Al l Al Cu lCu

d 2

and A =

=

4

AAl

ACu

Al

Cu

=

2

2

d Al d Cu

4 4

d Cu = 2.78 mm

Example 5 :

When 115 V is applied across a wire that is 10 m long and has a

0.30 mm radius, the current density is 1.4 x 104 A m-2. Find the

resistivity of the wire. (Halliday,Resnick&walker,pg.631,no.23)

Solution: V=115

l

V

where I = JA and R =

I

A

l

V

= 8.2 x10 4 m

=

A JA

R=

SF027

15

{

proportional to the current flowing through it if its temperature

temperature is

constant.

Mathematically,

V I where T = constant

where

V = IR R : resistance a conductor

Ohms law also can be stated in term of electric field E and current

density J.

z

Consider a uniform conductor of length l and cross-sectional area

A. A potential difference V maintained across the conductor sets

up an electric field E and this field produce a current I that is

Then

l

A

SF027

Fig. 5.7a

r

E

I

16

SF017

related to the field through the relationship below :

V = El

then

l

V = IR where I = JA and R =

A

l

El = JA

A

1

E = J and =

or

J = E

where

J : current density

: resistivity of the conductor

: conductivity of the conductor

SF027

17

material can be shown in figure 5.7b, 5.7c, 5.7d and 5.7e.

Gradient M

=R

0

V

SF027

I0

V

I0

I

Fig. 5.7e : Electrolyte

18

SF017

Example 6 :

A wire 4.00 m long and 6.00 mm in diameter has a resistance of 15 m.

A potential difference of 23.0 V is applied between the end. Determine

a. the current in the wire.

b. the current density.

c. the resistivity of the wire material.

(Halliday,Resnick&walker,pg.630,no.16)

Solution: d=6.00x10-3

V

R

I = 1.5 x10 3 A

I=

J=

I

A

and

A=

d 2

4

4I

d 2

J = 5.3 x107 A m - 2

J=

SF027

19

RA

l

and

d 2

A=

4

Rd 2

=

4l

= 1.1x10 7 m

{

Example 7 : (exercise)

The rod in figure below is made of two materials. The figure is not

drawn to scale. Each conductor has a square cross section 3.00 mm on

a side. The first material has a resistivity of 4.00 103 m and is

25.0 cm long, while the second material has a resistivity of 6.00 103

m and is 40.0 cm long. Find the resistance between the ends of the

rod. (Serway & Jewett,pg.853,no.24)

Ans. : 378

SF027

20

SF017

Quantities.

{

there are 4 assumption we need to considered.

z

Each metal atom contributes one free electron.

z

The free electron are in constant random motion, colliding with

each other and the metal ions in the crystal lattice.

z

The mean velocity of the free electrons is zero.

z

There is no net transfer of free electrons in any direction before a

potential difference is applied across the metal.

When the electric field E is applied to the metal, each electron

experiences a electric force F=eE. According to the Newtons second

law, F=mea, then the acceleration

of the electron is given

r

r eE

a=

me

collision is v01, its final velocity just before the next collision v1 is given

by

v1 = v01 + at1

SF027

21

Similarly for the other N free electrons in the metal, their respective

velocities just before the next collision are

The drift velocity vd of the free electron is defined as the mean of

v1,v2,v3,,vN. Hence the drift velocity is given by

vd =< v1 , v2 , v3 ,..., v N >

vd =< v0 i > + a < ti >

But < v0 i >= 0 because the mean of the random motion velocities

before applied the electric field is zero and the mean time interval

between successive collision is

< ti >=

vd = a

eE

vd =

me

SF027

J = nevd

and

(Ohms law)

J = E (Ohm

22

SF017

E = nevd

eE

E = ne

me

where

=

me e : charge of the electron

me : mass of the electron

{

Note:

From the formula of the conductivity in terms of microscopic

quantities, we get

is 1029 and then metals are good conductors of electricity.

small compared to metal, hence semiconductors are poor

conductors of electricity.

From that formula, conductivity do not depend on the strength

of electric field applied to the metal.

{

SF027

23

{

temperature according to the expression below

= 0 (1 + T )

0 : initial resistivity

: temperature coefficient of resistivity (unit : K -1 )

T : temperature difference = (T-T0 )

Since R then the expression above can be written as

R = R0 (1 + T )

R0 : initial resistance

5.9.1 Metal

{

When the temperature increases,

increases the number of free electrons per

unit volume in metal remains unchanged.

{

Metal atoms in the crystal lattice vibrate with greater amplitude and

cause the number of collisions between the free electrons and metal

atoms increase. Hence the resistance in the metal also increases.

increases

SF027

24

SF017

5.9.2 Semiconductor

{

When the temperature increases,

increases the semiconductor atoms acquire

the extra energy and cause the valence electron escapes from the

covalent bond.

{

Thus the number of free electrons per unit volume in the

semiconductor increases and cause its resistance decreases.

decreases

5.9.3 Superconductor

{

Superconductor is a class of metals that have zero resistance at lower

temperature (below critical temperature).

{

When the temperature of the metal decreases, its resistance

decreases to zero at critical temperature e.g. mercury acquire the

zero resistance at temperature of 4 K.

5.9.4 Resistance R against Temperature T graph for various materials.

a. Metal

b. Semiconductor

R0

SF027

c. Superconductor

Tc

25

T

d. Carbon

Example 8 :

A certain resistor has a resistance of 1.48 at 20.0 C and a

resistance of 1.512 at 34.0 C . Find the temperature coefficient

of resistivity. (Young & Freedman,pg.974.no.25.26)

Solution: R0=1.48 , T0=20.0C , R=1.512 , T=34.0C

By applying the equation of resistance varies with temperature, thus

R = R0 (1 + T ) and T = T T0

R = R0 [1 + (T T0 )]

SF027

= 1.54 x10 3 K 1 @ o C 1

26

SF017

Example 9 :

A 5.00 m length of 2.0 mm diameter wire carries a 750 mA current when

22.0 mV is applied to its end. If the drift velocity of the electron has been

measured to be 1.7 x 10-5 m s-1, determine

a. the resistance of the wire.

b. the resisitivity of the wire.

c. the current density.

d. the electric field inside the wire.

e. the number of free electrons per volume.

f. the conductivity of the wire.

g. the mean time interval between successive collision of the electron.

(Given the charge of electron, e=1.60x10-19 C and me= 9.11 x10-31 kg)

Solution: l=5.00

m, d=2.0x10-3 m , I=750x10-3 A,

V = 22.0x10-3 V, vd=1.7 x 10-5 m s-1

V = IR

R = 2.9 x10 2

SF027

RA

l

and

A=

d 2

4

27

Rd 2

=

4l

= 1.8 x10 8 m

J=

I

A

and

A=

d 2

4

4I

d 2

J = 2.4 x10 5 A m - 2

J=

E=

V

l

E = 4 .4 x10 3 V m 1

e. By applying the equation of drift velocity, then

J

ne

J

n=

vd e

n = 8 .8 x10 28 electrons m -3

vd =

SF027

28

SF017

= 5.6 x107 1 m -1

g. By applying the equation of conductivity in terms of microscopic

quantities,

ne 2

me

m

= e2

ne

= 2.3 x10 14 s

{

Example 10 : (exercise)

A 2.0 m length of wire is made by welding the end of a 120 cm long

silver wire to the end of an 80 cm long copper wire. Each piece of wire

is 0.60 mm in diameter. A potential difference of 5.0 V is maintained

between the ends of the 2.0 m composite wire. Determine

a. the current in the copper and silver wire.

b. the magnitude of the electric field in copper and silver wire.

c. the potential difference between the ends of the silver section of wire.

(Given (silver) is 1.47x10-8 m and (copper) is 1.72x10-8 m)

(Young & Freedman,pg.976.no.25.56)

SF027

29

5.10.1 Energy

{

Consider a circuit consisting of a battery that is connected by wires to

an electrical device (such as a lamp, motor or battery being charged)

as shown in figure 5.10a where the potential different across that

electrical device is VAB.

{

A current I flows from the terminal A

Electrical device

t, the charge Q which it carries from

B to A is given by

Q = It

VAB

Q from B to A is

WBA = QVAB

SF027

= V It

BA

AB

Fig. 5.10a

{

This work represents electrical energy supplied to the electrical device.

{

If the electrical device is passive resistor (device which convert all

the electrical energy supplied into heat),

heat the heat H dissipated is

given by

V 2t

2

=

H

or

H = W = VIt

H = I Rt or

30

SF017

{

Definition is defined as the energy liberated per unit time in the

electrical device.

{

P=

W VIt

=

t

t

P = IV

{

When the electric current flows through wire or passive resistor, hence

the potential difference across it is

V = IR

P = I 2R

or

V2

P=

R

I : current

R : resistance of the resistor (wire)

V : potential difference (voltage)

It is scalar quantity and Its unit is watts (W).

where

{

SF027

31

Potential Difference and Internal

Resistance

{

Consider a circuit consisting of a battery (cell) that is connected by

wires to an external resistor R as shown in figure 5.11a.

Battery (cell)

to the terminal B.

For the current to flow continuously

from terminal A to B, a source of

electromotive force (e.m.f.), is

required such as battery to

maintained the potential difference

between point A and point B.

Fig. 5.11a

Electromotive force (e.m.f.), is defined as the energy provided by

the source (battery/cell) to each unit charge that flows from the

the

source.

{

SF027

done in bringing a unit (test) charge from point B to point A.

32

SF017

The unit for both e.m.f. and potential difference is volt (V).

When the current I flows naturally from the battery there is an internal

drop in potential difference (voltage) equal to Ir. Thus the terminal

potential difference (voltage), VAB is given by

VAB = Ir

Vt = Ir

and Vt = IR

then

(5.11)

= I (R + r )

: e.m.f.

Vt : terminal potential difference (voltage)

Ir : Internal drop in potential difference @ Vr

R : total external resistance

r : Internal resistance of a cell (battery)

where

Note :

Equation (5.11) is valid if the battery (cell) supplied the current to

the circuit where

Vt <

SF027

33

battery Vt

becomes

>

Vt = + Ir

flows in the circuit (open circuit),

circuit) then equation (5.11) can be

written as

Vt =

{

Definition is defined as the resistance of the chemicals inside the

cell (battery) between the poles and is given by

where

{

{

Vr

when the cell (battery) is used.

I

Vr : potential difference across internal resistance

I : current in the circuit

material in the cell (battery).

The symbol of e.m.f. and internal resistance in the circuit can be shown

in figure 5.11b.

SF027

Fig. 5.11b

or

34

SF017

Example 11 :

A battery of internal resistance 0.3 is connected across a 5.0

resistor. The terminal potential difference measured by the voltmeter is

2.15 V. Calculate the e.m.f. of the battery.

Solution: r=0.3

, R=5.0 , Vt=2.15 V

Vt = IR

I=

Vt

R

I = 0.43 A

By applying the equation of terminal potential difference, thus the e.m.f.

is given by

V = Ir

t

= 2.28 V

{

Example 12 :

When a 10 resistor is connected across the terminals of a cell of

resistor. If the 10 resistor is replaced with a 3.0 resistor the current

increases to 0.24 A. Find and r.

SF027

35

Solution:

Initially:

R = 10.0

By applying the equation of e.m.f.,

= I (R + r )

I = 0.10 A

Finally :

= 0.10(10.0 + r )

(1)

R = 3.0

By applying the equation of e.m.f.,

= 0.24(3.0 + r )

I = 0.24 A

(2)

r = 2.0

Substituting for r in either eq. (1) or (2)

= 1.2 V

SF027

36

SF017

Example 13 :

For the circuit shown below, given = 12 V, r = 2.0 and R = 4.0 .

R

A

r

V

Solution:

By applying the equation of e.m.f., the current flows in the circuit is

= I (R + r )

I=

(R + r )

I = 2.0 A

The voltmeter reading is given by

Vt = IR

SF027

Vt = 8.0 V

37

5.12.1 Cells in Series

{

Consider two cells connected in series as shown in figure 5.12a.

r1

r2

Fig. 5.12a

The total e.m.f., and the total internal resistance, r are given by

Note:

= 1 + 2

and

r = r1 + r2

others, then = 1 2 but the total internal resistance remains

unaltered.

5.12.2 Cells in Parallel

{

Consider two equal cells connected in parallel as shown in figure

5.12b.

{

The total e.m.f., and the

r1

z

1

SF027

Fig. 5.12b

given by

r1

= 1

and

1 1 1

= +

r r1 38 r1

SF017

Note:

If different cells are connected in parallel, there is no simple formula

for the total e.m.f. and the total internal resistance where Kirchhoffs

laws have to be used.

{

or

Fig. 5.13a

5.13.1 Resistors in Series

{

Consider three resistors are connected in series to the battery as shown

in figure 5.13b.

R1

R2

R3

V1

V2

V3

V

Fig. 5.13b

SF027

39

z

I = I1 = I 2 = I 3

z

potential difference, V is given by

V = V1 + V2 + V3

z

(5.13a)

Substituting for V1, V2 , V3 and V in eq. (5.13a) gives

Req = R1 + R2 + R3

where

SF027

40

SF017

{

Consider three resistors are connected in parallel to the battery as

shown in figure 5.13c and 5.13d.

I3

R3

I2

V3

R2

I1

I

I3

I1

V1

V2

R1

V1

I2

R2

R1 V2

R3

V3

Fig. 5.13d

Fig. 5.13c

The properties of resistors in parallel are given below.

z

where

V = V1 = V2 = V3

SF027

41

given by

(5.13b)

I = I1 + I 2 + I 3

From the definition of resistance,

V

V

V

V

; I2 =

; I3 = ; I =

R1

R3

Req

R2

Substituting for I1, I2 , I3 and I in eq. (5.13b) gives

I1 =

V

V V V

=

+

+

Req R1 R2 R3

1

1

1

1

=

+

+

Req R1 R2 R3

{

Example 14 :

For the circuit shown below,

2. 0

12

4.0

6.0 V

SF027

42

SF017

Calculate :

a. the total resistance of the circuit.

b. the total current in the circuit.

c. the potential difference across 4.0 resistor.

Solution: R1=2.0

1

1

1

=

+

R23 R2 R3

R23 = 3.0

the total resistance Rtotal in the circuit is given by

Rtotal = R1 + R23

Rtotal = 5.0

b. The total current I is given by

V

Rtotal

I = 1.2 A

I=

SF027

43

V1 = IR1

V1 = 2.4 V

V3 = V V1

V3 = 3.6 V

Example 15 :

For the circuits shown below, calculate the equivalent resistance

between points x and y.

a.

b. (exercise)

x

1.0

2.0

1.0

3.0

8.0

16.0

2.0

16.0

9.0

18.0

SF027

20.0

Ans. : 8.0

6.0

44

SF017

R2 = 2.0

Solution:

a.

R3 = 1.0

R5 = 1.0

R1 = 2.0

R4 = 3.0

Rx = R1 + R2

Rx = 4.0

x

R3 = 1.0

R5 = 1.0

Rx = 4.0

R4 = 3.0

y

SF027

45

1

1

1

=

+

R y Rx R3

R y = 0.8

R y = 0.8

R5 = 1.0

R4 = 3.0

Rz = R y + R4

Rz = 3.8

x

R5 = 1.0

SF027

Rz = 3.8

46

SF017

given by

1

1

1

=

+

Req Rz R5

Req = 0.79

{

Example 16 : (exercise)

a. Find the equivalent resistance between points a and b in figure

below.

b. A potential difference of 34.0 V is applied between points a and b.

Calculate the current in each resistor. (Serway & Jewett,pg.885,no.6)

Ans. :17.1 , 1.99 A for 4.00 and 9.00 , 1.17 A for 7.00 ,

0.818 A for 10.0

SF027

47

{

{

{

This laws consist of two statements.

Kirchhoff

Kirchhoffs first law (junction/current law)

z

states the algebraic sum of the currents entering any

junctions in a circuit must equal the algebraic sum of the

currents leaving that junction.

or

I = I

For example :

I1 + I 2 = I 3

in

I1

out

I3

I2

{

I3

I4

b

I5

I3 = I4 + I5

Kirchhoff

Kirchhoffs second law (loop/voltage law)

z

states in any closed loop, the algebraic sum of e.m.f.s is equal

to the algebraic sum of the products of current and resistance.

or In any closed loop,

= IR

SF027

48

SF017

Note :

a. For e.m.f :

Travel

Travel

- +

+ -

Travel

Travel

+ IR

IR

(Kirchhoffs Laws):

Choose and labeling the current at each junction in the circuit

given.

z

Choose any one junction in the circuit and apply the Kirchhoffs

first law.

z

Choose any two closed loops in the circuit and designate a

direction (clockwise

clockwise or anticlockwise)

anticlockwise to travel around the loop in

applying the Kirchhoffs second law.

z

Solving the simultaneous equation to determine the unknown

49

currents and unknown variables.

z

SF027

E

I1

D

I3

I1

I2

2 L1

R2

L3

I1 F

I1

I2

L2

3

R3

C

R1

A

I3

I3 B

I3

Fig. 5.14a

At junction A or D (applying the Kirchhoffs first law) :

in

= I out

I1 = I 2 + I 3

SF027

(1)

For the closed loop (either clockwise or anticlockwise), apply the

Kirchhoffs second law.

50

SF017

I1

E

I1

R1

I1 F

I1

L1

I2

R2

I2

= IR

1 + 2 = I 2 R2 + I 1 R1

{

= IR

R2

R3

L2

3

I3

2 3 = I 2 R2 I 3 R3

(3)

SF027

I2

(2)

I2

A

I3

I 351 B

I3

I1

R1

I1 F

I1

I1

L3

I3

R3

C

I3

I3

= IR

I3 B

1 + 3 = I 3 R3 + I 1 R1

{

SF027

(4)

By solving equation (1) and any two equations from the closed

loop, hence each current in the circuit can be determined.

52

SF017

Example 17 :

For the circuits shown below.

12 V ,2

4 V ,4

b. Calculate the currents I1,I2 and I3. Neglect the internal resistance in

R1 = 1

each battery.

I1

1 = 15 V

R2 = 0.5

I2

2 = 10 V

R3 = 0.1

SF027

3 = 3.0 V

53

I3

12 V ,2

Solution: I

a.

I

b.

I1

L1

4 V ,4

L2

I1

2

Applying KIrchhoffs 2nd law :

12 4 = 3 I + 4 I + 7 I + 2 I

I = 0.5 A

I

I1

= 10 VR = 0.5

2

I2

= IR

= 15 V R = 1

I1 1

1

I2

I3

in

= I out

I1 = I 2 + I 3

(1)

2nd

By applying Kirchhoffs

law :

From closed loop L1 :

= IR

I 3 1 + 2 = I 2 R2 + I 1 R1

25 = I 1 + 0.5 I 2

3 = 3.0 V

(2)

R3 = 0.1

SF027

I3

I3

54

SF017

2 3 = I 2 R2 I 3 R3

7 = 0.5 I 2 0.1I 3

(3)

Example 18 : (exercise)

For the circuit shown below.

I1

Given 1=8V,

R1

I2

Calculate

a. the currents I1 and I2.

b. the e.m.f. 2.

Ans. : 1 A, 4 A , 17 V

R2

R3

I

{

R2=2 , R3=3 ,

R1 =1 and I=3 A. Ignore the

Note :

From the calculation, sometimes we get negative value of current.

This negative sign indicates that the direction of the actual current is

opposite to the direction of the current drawn.

SF027

55

5.15.1 Potential (voltage) Divider

{

A potential divider produces an output voltage that is a fraction of the

supply voltage V. This is done by connecting two resistors in series as

shown in figure 5.15a.

{

Since the current flowing through

V

each resistor is the same, thus

V

and Req = R1 + R2

Req

V

I=

R1 + R2

I=

R1

R2

V1

V2

Fig. 5.15a

Therefore, the potential difference (voltage) across R1 is given by

V1 = IR1

{

SF027

Similarly,

R1

V

V1 =

+

R

R

2

1

R2

V

V2 =

+

R

R

2

1

56

SF017

as shown in figure 15.5b.

I

a

l1

l2

b{

V2

V1

the wire is the same, thus

V

Rab

I=

(l1 + l2 )

A

Therefore, the potential difference (voltage) across the wire with length

l1 is given by

l1

V

V1 = 1 V

V1 =

l1 + l2

(l1 + l2 ) A

A

Important

V1 = IRac

{

l l

Rab = 1 + 2 = (l1 + l2 )

A

A

A

I=

Fig. 5.15b

{

is

l

Rab = Rac + Rcb and R =

Similarly,

l

V2 = 2 V

l1 + l2

SF027

l

V = IR = I

A57

V l

5.15.2 Potentiometer

{

Consider a potentiometer circuit is shown in figure 5.15c.

(Driver cell

V -accumulator)

I

A

G

+ Vx

I

Jockey

I

B{

when the jockey (sliding contact) is

at such a position on wire AB that

there is no current through the

galvanometer.

galvanometer Thus

Galvanometer reading = 0

When the potentiometer in

balanced, the unknown voltage

(potential difference being

measured) is equal to the voltage

across AC.

(Unknown Voltage)

Fig. 5.15c

{

Potentiometer can be used to

z

Compare the e.m.f.s of two cells.

z

Measure an unknown e.m.f. of a cell.

z

Measure the internal resistance of a cell.

SF027

Vx = VAC

58

SF017

In this case, a potentiometer is set up as illustrated in figure 5.15d,

in which AB is a wire of uniform resistance and J is a sliding contact

(jockey) onto the wire.

z

An accumulator X maintains a steady

l2

l1

I

A

z

terminal (1) and the jockey moved

the potential difference (p.d.) from the

accumulator (galvanometer reading is

zero) at point C. Hence

(1)

S

where

(2)

then

z

Fig. 5.15d

(1)

to the terminal (2) and the jockey

where

then

I

2 = l2

A

l2

A

(2)

I

l

1 A 1

=

2 I

l2

A

{

I

1 = l1

A

p.d. from the accumulator at point D.

59

Hence

2 = VAD

SF027

1 = VAC

l

VAC = IRAC and R AC = 1

1 l1

=

2 l2

e.m.f. of a cell.

By using the same circuit shown in figure 5.15d, the value of

unknown e.m.f. can be determined if the cell 1 is replaced with

standard cell.

z

A standard cell is one which provides a constant and accurately

known e.m.f. Thus the e.m.f. 2 can be calculated by using

equation below.

z

SF027

l

2 = 2 1

l1

60

SF017

Consider a potentiometer circuit as shown in figure 5.15e.

l0

1 r

Iz

AB.

Initially, a switch S is opened and the

then

z

Fig. 5.15e

where

I

B

z

I 1 1 r

I1

S

I1

z

SF027

I

1 = l0

A

(1)

Hence

1 = VAC

l

VAC = IRAC and R AC = 0

resistance box R and the jockey J

moved until the galvanometer reading

is zero (balanced condition) at point D

61

as shown in figure 5.15f.

SF027

the accumulator (galvanometer

reading is zero) at point C. Hence

where

I1

I1

R

then

Vt = VAD

I

Vt = l

A

(2)

1 = Vt + I 1r

V

V

r = 1 t and I 1 = t

I1

R

1 Vt

R

r =

Vt

Fig. 5.15f

By substituting eq. (1) and (2) into eq. (3), we get

l l

r = 0 R

l

l

r = 0 1 R

l

l

A

(4)

62

(3)

SF017

graph of 1/l against 1/R .

{

Rearranging eq. (4) :

1 r1 1

= +

l l0 R l0

{

=M X + C

1

l

Gradient, M =

1

l0

0

Fig. 5.15g

r

l0

1

R

SF027

63

Example 19:

Cells A and B and centre-zero galvanometer G are connected to a

uniform wire OS using jockeys X and Y as shown in figure below.

1.00 m and its resistance is 12 .

When OY is 75.0 cm, the

galvanometer does not show any

deflection when OX= 50.0 cm. If Y

touches the end S of the wire, OX =

62.5 cm when the galvanometer is

balanced. The e.m.f. of the cell B is

1.0 V. Calculate

b. the potential difference across OY when Y touches S and the

galvanometer is balanced.

c. the internal resistance of the cell A.

d. the e.m.f. of cell A.

SF027

64

SF017

A Ia

Ia

a.

Ia

O

, B=1.0 V.

lOY(1)=75.0 cm, lOX(1)=50.0 cm

lOY (1)

lOX (1)

Ia

G =0

ROX (1) =

lOX (1)

ROS

lOS

ROX (1) = 6.0

lOY (1)

ROS

and ROY (1) =

lOS

ROY (1) = 9.0

B = VOX (1)

B

Ia =

and

ROX (1)

1

Ia = A

6

VOY (1) = 1.5 V

SF027

65

Ib

b.

Ib

O

lOX (2 )

Ib

A Ib

lOY (2 )

Y

ROX ( 2 ) =

ROX ( 2 )

and

G =0

B = VOX ( 2 ) and VOX ( 2 ) =

Ib =

ROX ( 2 )

lOX ( 2 )

lOS

= 7.5

ROS

ROY ( 2 ) = ROS

ROY ( 2 ) = 12

I b ROX ( 2 )

I a = 0.13 A

VOY ( 2 ) = I b ROY ( 2 )

VOY ( 2 ) = 1.6 V

SF027

66

SF017

A = I (R + r )

A = I a ( ROY (1) + r )

A = (9.0 + r )

6

A = I b ( ROY ( 2 ) + r )

A = 0.13(12 + r )

(1)

(2)

By equating eq. (1) and eq. (2), hence the internal resistance of cell

1

A is

(9.0 + r ) = 0.13(12 + r )

r = 1.5

1

(9.0 + 1.5 )

6

A = 1.75 V

A =

SF027

67

In the potentiometer circuit shown below, PQ is a uniform wire of length

1.0 m and resistance 10.0 .

1 is an accumulator of e.m.f. 2.0 V

S1

and negligible internal resistance. R1

1

is a 15 resistor and R2 is a 5.0

R1

resistor when S1 and S2 open,

galvanometer G is balanced when

QT is 62.5 cm. When both S1 and S2

are closed, the balance length is

10.0 cm. Calculate

T

P a. the e.m.f. of cell 2.

b. the internal resistance of cell 2.

c. the balance length QT when S2

2

is opened and S1 closed.

G

d. the balance length QT when S1

is opened and S2 closed.

R2

S2

SF027

68

SF017

{

It is used to measured the unknown resistance of the resistor.

{

Figure 5.15h shows the Wheatstone bridge circuit consists of a cell of

e.m.f. (accumulator), a galvanometer , know resistances (R1, R2 and

R3) and unknown resistance Rx.

{

The Wheatstone bridge is said to

be balanced when no current

flows through the galvanometer.

galvanometer

I

C I1

Hence I AC = I CB = I 1

I

R1

R2

and

I1

I2

G =0

R3

D I2

I AD = I DB = I 2

B{

RX

Then

Potential at C = Potential at D

Therefore

VAC = VAD and VBC = VBD

= IR thus

I 1 R1 = I 2 R3 and I 1 R2 = I 2 RX

Since V

Fig. 5.15h

{

Dividing gives

R

RX = 2 R3

R1

I 1 R1 I 2 R3

=

I 1 R2 I 2 RX

SF027

69

{

{

Bridge

Figure 5.15h shows the Metre bridge circuit.

(Unknown

(resistance box)

RX resistance) R

Thick copper

strip

I

I

1

0=

l1

I2

l2

Accumulator

Wire of uniform

resistance

{

Jockey

Fig. 5.15h

on wire AB that there is no current through the galvanometer.

galvanometer Thus

the current I1 flows through the resistance RX and R but current I2

flows in the wire AB.

Let

z

SF027

At balance condition,

VX = VAJ

and

V = VJB

70

SF017

I 1 RX = I 2 RAJ and I 1 R

Dividing gives

I 1 RX I 2 RAJ

=

I1R

I 2 RJB

l1

RX A

=

R l2

Example 21:

= I 2 RJB

where

RAJ =

l1

A

and

RJB =

l2

A

l

RX = 1 R

l2

the unknown resistance in a Wheatstone bridge as shown in figure

below.

Resistors R1 and R2 have resistance of

38.0 and 46.0 respectively. Balance

is achieved when the switch closed and

R3 is 3.48 . Find the length of the

platinum wire if its resistivity is

10.6 x 10-8 m. (Giancoli,pg.683.no.70)

SF027

71

m, R1=38.0 , R2=46.0 ,

R3=3.48 , =10.6x10-8 m

Solution: d=0.923x10-3

the platinum wire is given by

R3 R1

=

RX R2

RX = 4.21

From the definition of resistivity, hence the length of the platinum wire is

2

RX A and A = d

=

4

l

2

d RX

l=

4

(0.923 x10 3 ) 2 (4.21)

l=

4(10.6 x10 8 )

l = 26.4 m

SF027

72

SF017

5.15.4 Ohmmeter

{

It is used to measure the unknown resistance of the resistor.

{

Figure 5.15I shows the internal connection of an Ohmmeter.

where

P

{

{

SF027{

Rs : variable resistance

RX : unknown resistance

RM

Rs

RX

Fig. 5.15I

When nothing is connected to terminals P and Q, so that the circuit is

open (that is, when R ), there is no current and no deflection.

When terminals P and Q are short circuited (that is when R = 0), the

ohmmeter deflects full-scale.

For any value of RX the meter deflection depends on the value of RX.73

5.15.5 Ammeter

{

It is used to measure a current flows in the circuit.

{

Ammeter is connected in series with other elements in the circuit

because the current to be measured must pass directly through the

ammeter.

ammeter

{

An ammeter should have low internal resistance (RM) so that the current in

the circuit would not affected.

{

The maximum reading from the ammeter is known as full scale deflection

(fs). If the full scale current passing through the ammeter then the p.d.

across that ammeter is given by

V fs = I fs RM

RM : meter(coil) resistance

I fs : full scale current

V fs : full scale potential difference (p.d.)

If the meter is used to measure currents that are larger than its full scale

deflection (I >Ifs), some modification has to be done.

z

A resistor has to be connected in parallel with the meter (coil)

resistance RM so that some of the current will bypasses the meter

(coil) resistance.

z

SF027

where

74

SF017

in parallel.

max

I fs

IS

RM

RS

Fig. 5.15J

z

then

V =V

RM

RS

I fs RM = I S RS

and

I fs RM = (I I fs )RS

I S = I I fs

SF027

I fs

R

RS =

I I M

fs

75

5.15.6 Voltmeter

{

It is used to measure a potential difference (voltage) across electrical

elements in the circuit.

{

Voltmeter is connected in parallel with other elements in the circuit

therefore its resistance must be large than the resistance of the element so

that a very small amount of current only can flows through it. An ideal

voltmeter has infinite resistance so that no current exist in it.

{

To measure a potential difference that are larger than its full scale

deflection (V > Vfs), the voltmeter has to be modified.

z

SF027

series with the meter (coil)

0

resistance RM so that only a

fraction of the total p.d. appears

across the RM and the remainder

V

appears across the serial

I fs

resistor.

This serial resistor is called a

RB RM

multiplier or bobbin denoted as

RB.

Figure 5.15K shows the internal

V

I1

connection of a voltmeter with a I

Electrical

multiplier in series.

element

Fig. 5.15K

max

76

SF017

then the current through them are the same, Ifs.

The p.d. (voltage) across the electrical element is given by

V = VRB + VRM

V = I fs RB + I fs RM

V I fs RM

RB =

I fs

Note :

To convert a galvanometer to ammeter,

ammeter a shunt (parallel resistor) is

used.

z

To convert a galvanometer to voltmeter,

voltmeter a multiplier (serial resistor)

is used.

SF027

77

Example 21:

A milliammeter with a full scale deflection of 20 mA and an internal

(coil/metre) resistance of 40 is to be used as an ammeter with a full

scale deflection of 500 mA. Calculate the resistance of the shunt

required.

Solution: Ifs=20x10-3 A, RM=40 ,

By applying the equation of shunt, thus

I=500x10-3 A

I fs

R

RS =

I I M

fs

RS = 1.7

Example 22:

A galvanometer has an internal resistance of 30 and deflects full

scale for a 50 A current. Describe how to use this galvanometer to

make

a. an ammeter to read currents up to 30 A.

b. a voltmeter to give a full scale deflection of 1000 V.(Giancoli,pg.682.no.50)

Solution: Ifs=50x10-6 A, RM=30

a. We make an ammeter by putting a resistor in parallel (RS) with the

internal resistance, RM of the galvanometer as shown in figure below.

SF027

78

SF017

Given I

= 30 A.

I fs

RM

IS

G

RS

VRM = VRS and I S = I I fs

I fs RM = (I I fs )RS

RS = 50 x10 6 in parallel.

RB

RM

I fs

Given V

= 1000 V

I fs

are the same, Ifs.

SF027

Therefore

SF027

79

V = VRB + VRM

V = I fs RB + I fs RM

V I fs RM

RB =

I

fs

6

RB = 20 x10 in series.

A milliammeter of negligible resistance produces a full scale deflection

when the current is 1 mA. How would you convert the milliammeter to a

voltmeter with full scale deflection of 10 V?

Ans. :1.0 x 104 in series

Example 24: (exercise)

A moving-coil meter has a resistance of 5.0 and full scale deflection is

produced by a current of 1.0 mA. How can this meter be adapted for

use as :

a. a voltmeter reading up to 10 V,

b. a ammeter reading up to 2?

Ans. :9995 in series, 2.5 x10-3 in parallel.

80

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