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Training Note

Assessing Risk
Risk: A combination of the probability of occurrence of harm and the severity of that harm. (ANSI B11 TR3)
Probability vs. Severity Matrix (based on ANSI B11.TR3)

Risk Reduction Decision Matrix (based on ANSI/RIA R15.06-1999)
Severity of Injury Exposure

Severity of Harm
Probability of
Occurrence

Minor

Moderate

Serious

Catastrophic

Remote

Low

Low

Unlikely

Low

Medium

Medium

Likely
Very Likely

Low

Medium

High

High

Medium

High

High

High

Serious injury
(more than
first aid)

Slight injury
(first aid)

Avoidance Safeguard Performance Circuit Performance
Not Likely

Frequent

Likely
Not Likely
Likely
Not Likely
Likely

Infrequent
Frequent

Eliminate or substitute
hazard through design

Control Reliable
Safeguard the hazard
with safety devices

Not Likely
Likely

Infrequent

Control Reliable
Single Channel
with Monitoring
Single Channel

Barriers, clearance,
procedures and
equipment
Awareness

Single Channel
Simple
Simple

Implementing the Catagories (based on ISO 13849-1/EN 954-1)

S1

F = Frequency and/or duration of exposure to the hazard
F1: Seldom short exposure time
F2: Frequent long exposure time

P1

F1

P2

S2

P1

F2

Generic

S = Severity of injury
S1: Slight injury
S2: Serious injury, including death

Categories
B 1 2 3 4

Selection of Categories B, 1 to 4
Preferred categories for the risk
Possible categories (may require additional measures)
Measures may be over-dimensioned for risk

P = Possibility of avoiding the hazard
P1: Possible under specific conditions
P2: Nearly impossible

P2

Basic

Single

Single with Monitoring

Dual with Monitoring

Stop Command

Safety Stop Command

Safety Stop Command

Redundant Safety
Stop Commands

MACHINE
STOP

SIMPLE
DEVICE

MACHINE
STOP

SAFEGUARDING
DEVICE

MACHINE
STOP

SAFEGUARDING
DEVICE

MACHINE
STOP

Possible loss of safety function.

Greater reliability, but possible loss of
safety function.

Fault detected at each test.

Very Low

Low

Mid Range

High or Very High

Category B
ISO 13849-1/EN 954-1

Category 1
ISO 13849-1/EN 954-1

Category 2
ISO 13849-1/EN 954-1

Category 3 & 4
ISO 13849-1/EN 954-1

ANSI / RIA

ANSI B11 ISO / EN

Fault

Monitoring Signal

Risk

Monitoring Signal

SAFEGUARDING
DEVICE

MS_T9_T2_E.pdf

Simple

Single Channel

Single Channel w/ Monitoring

Safety function is ensured with a single
fault. An accumulation of faults is not
possible or detected.

Control Reliable ANSI B11.19
(Clause 6.1 and Annex C)
Not directly comparable to the requirements of
ISO 13849-1 and exceeds a Category 2

Control Reliable ANSI/RIA R15.06
(Clause 4.5) (control reliability for robots
typically exceeds a Cat 3 but is not
necessarily intended to be a Cat 4)

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