119 views

Uploaded by Sourav Dip

chemical engineering

- Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics
- Alexander I. Bobenko- Surfaces from Circles
- RhinoQuickStart[1]
- Principles of Differential Geometry
- RGB-D Fusion
- C4L8 Surface Area
- 1
- Chinese Physics Vocabulary
- Additional Problems on Polar Coordinates
- Chemical Thermodynamics1
- h81_Vector_and_Parametric_Equations_of_a_Line_in_R2.pdf
- How Does Euclid's Geometry Differ From Current Views of Geometry
- pchem1hndout2010
- Balt van Rees- Wormholes in 2+1 dimensions
- u3cea06 Engineering Mechanics Key
- 04-1del
- VDW
- 04-Roy-reply-gp-32-1-142
- Ch # 3 outsider (11-02-16)
- fem10

You are on page 1of 9

So far our basic Fluid Dynamics knowledge has taught us that for a fluid surface which is

stagnant and is in mechanical equilibrium, the pressure on the two sides of the surface is equal.

For example, if we consider a tank full of water exposed to atmosphere, then at the liquid air

interface the pressure on both sides of the interface is Patm. At any point at a depth h from the

interface the absolute pressure would be Patm + gh (where is the density of the fluid), and this

situation is referred to as the pressure distribution is purely hydrostatic. The implicit

assumption that goes in when we consider the above example is that the liquid air interface is

perfectly flat. However what happens in case the interface is NOT flat, or has a curvature? We

will discuss those cases in this chapter and introduce the very important concept of Laplace

Pressure. In case you are wondering why or where can a liquid air interface be flat, then let me

remind you that in your senior school you were taught about Parallax Error and was also

cautioned how to take the correct reading, when measuring the rise of a liquid column through a

narrow capillary tube.

The discontinuity in pressure across a non planar interface was discovered by Thomas Young

(1805) and Pierre-Simon Laplace (1806). A spherical interface is a special case of a general non

planar interface. Any general curved surface at any point can be identified in terms of two local

radius of curvature (R1 and R2) orthogonal to each other at that point. For a spherical interface

the two orthogonal radius of curvature are same, and that makes calculations simpler

(R1=R2=R)! For a spherical interface, the law expresses the pressure discontinuity at a given

point (P) of an interface as

P = 2/R

(6.1)

As already discussed in earlier, in a non condensed liquid phase, the curvature is caused due to

surface tension and consequently results in a pressure imbalance. Due to inward resultant or

effective attraction, the molecules reorganize themselves and this re organization is based on

energy minimization. This is also the phenomenon that forms a meniscus and the pressure

difference on the either sides of meniscus leads to the development of a net normal force, which

is balanced by surface.

We now look at how the expression given in equation 6.1 can be obtained mathematically. Let us

consider a liquid bubble of radius R, shown in figure 6.1. Lets say the pressure inside and outside

the bubble is P// and P/ respectively. Now lets consider that the size of the bubble expands from

R to R + dR. The work necessary for the expansion W is given as

(6.2)

Now,

(6.3)

Therefore,

(6.4)

As a manifestation of increase of radius, the surface energy of the bubble increases. Consequent

to this, Es (energy of interaction of a pair of molecules at surface) changes by dEs.

(6.5)

Therefore, combining equations (6.4) and (6.5), we get

(6.6)

(6.7)

From equation (6.7), we can say that P is positive and hence the P// ie the pressure in the

concave side is higher than P/.

6.1 Expression of Young Laplace Equation for a non spherical Curved Surface

Consider a non spherical curved surface of area xy. Any point in 3-D space needs to be defined

by 3 co-ordinates and any surface in 3-D phase can be represented by 2 curvatures.

Figure 6.2: View of a segment of the expanded spherical surface along with projections along X and Y axis.

(6.8)

Change in surface energy,

(6.9)

Work done,

(6.10)

Now, assuming that the vales of the angles of the curved surface, and are very small, the two

parts of the curved surface can be treated as similar triangles and hence from figure it can be seen

that

(6.11)

and

(6.12)

(6.13)

Now comparing equation (6.9) and (6.13), we get

(6.14)

This is the expression for Young-Laplace equation for a n arbitrarily curved surface with at any

point where the two orthogonal Radii of curvature are R1 and R2 respectively. Further, R1 and

R2 may not be uniquely defined but their combination is unique and represents the curvature of

the surface. Further, if P is known, then the curvature of the surface can be determined at

equilibrium using Young-Laplace equation. However, the problem is, for any arbitrary curved

surface, at every point R1 and R2 may not be known. Thus, the following formulation of the

same equation for an axi symmetric surface becomes important.

Figure 6.3: Some examples of Axi-symmetric surfaces: (A) Cone; (B) Cylinder; (C) Cylindrical Surface; (D)

Converging Nozzle.

An axi-symmetric surface is a type of a surface that can be generated by rotating a line segment

or a curve about an axis by 360 in space. For example, if a line segment is rotated around

another vertical line, one would get a cone. In case the line segment that is rotated is parallel to

the line around which it is rotated, then one would get a cylinder. Similarly, if one rotates an arc,

one would get a curved surface. Some examples of axi-symmetric surfaces can be seen in figure

6.3. We will soon realize that some additional simplification is possible in the expression of

Laplace pressure for an axi-symmetric liquid surface.

To develop the formalism for the Laplace pressure on a curved axi symmetric surface we first

look at the Helmholtz free energy of the surface. It is the thermodynamic potential that measures

the useful work obtainable from a closed thermodynamic system at a constant temperature and

volume. It is minimized at equilibrium. It is the maximum amount of work extractable from a

thermodynamic process at constant volume and temperature. If F represents Helmholtz free

energy, U is internal energy of the system, S is the entropy and j gives the surface tension, then

F is given as

(6.15)

From the first law of thermodynamics

(6.16)

ixi gives the Gibbs free energy (G) which represents the useful or process initiating work

obtainable for an isothermal or isobaric thermodynamic system. It is the measure of maximum

non-expansion work that can be extracted from a closed reversible system. As S and V are

extensive variables,

(6.17)

From equations 6.15, 6.16 and 6.17 we get

(6.18)

Consider an axi-symmetic surface as shown in figure created by rotating any curved surface

about an axis. From x0 to xR gives the extent of the phase in x direction. If z=f(x) is known,

then we know the equation of the surface and F will represent the energy of the surface as a

function of shape. In particular, the intention is to find out a specific shape that corresponds to

the optima of energy which will also correspond to the shape of the surface at equilibrium.

For a two component system

(6.19)

Total volume, V = V + V

(6.20)

Therefore,

(6.21)

As we want to look at the variation of energy (F) as V is changed, with total volume (V)

remaining constant.

(6.22)

Now, writing in terms of the shape of the interface gives

The area of an axi-symmetric surface and volume can be given as

(6.23)

d

d

(6.24)

dx

For small values of dz and dx, dl can be assumed to be a straight line which results in the above

equations.

Now, putting equations in equation, we have

(6.25)

be optimized with respect to x. However, F is NOT an explicit function of x

Rather F is of the form

(6.26)

This is what is known as a functional. Evaluation of the optimum of a functional falls in the

branch of mathematics known as Calculus of Variations

The necessary condition of for optima for a functional F is

(6.27)

We will not discuss any more details about calculus of variation and would progress based on the

above expression.

For our system,

(6.28)

(6.29)

Therefore, we get

(6.30)

We look at the last two terms of the above expression

(6.31)

This is the general form of Young-Laplace equation for an axi-symmetric surface.

(6.32)

Which is a much simpler looking equation. However, in space it is not possible to determine R1

and R2 for an arbitrarily curved surface, and therefore though the expression is simple, obtaining

P at every point of a non planar surface/interface cannot be dome directly. In contrast, as

already mentioned, for an axi-symmetric surface it is indeed possible to express Z = f(x) and

therefore one can analytically evaluate Zx and Zxx and therefore P can be calculated.

A question to ask at this point is is there a physical significance of the two terms. Of course we

understand that one of the terms corresponds to 1/R1 and the other one corresponds to 1/R2. Can

one refer to any of the term as 1/R1 and 1/R2?

However, it turns out that the choice of R1 and R2 are based on convention. Typically the 1/R1

term refers to the in plane curvature and 1/R2 is the out of plane curvature.

It turns out that the general equation for axi-symmetric surface we have

(6.33)

The utility of this equation lies in the fact that if the equation of the line/ arc is known, which has

lead to the creation of the surface; then the Laplace pressure can be calculated. This is in fact

achievable. In fact, though equation 6.32 looks simple, as we have already said, it is often not

possible to measure R1 and R2 in real situation.

- Thermodynamics and Statistical MechanicsUploaded bySohaib Azam
- Alexander I. Bobenko- Surfaces from CirclesUploaded byGremnDL
- RhinoQuickStart[1]Uploaded byEnsar Emin Kaymaz
- Principles of Differential GeometryUploaded byTaha Sochi
- RGB-D FusionUploaded byEdwin Bolivar
- C4L8 Surface AreaUploaded byesther_lim_29
- 1Uploaded byapi-386303659
- Chinese Physics VocabularyUploaded byvioletbaudelaire
- Additional Problems on Polar CoordinatesUploaded byTanuj Khandelwal
- Chemical Thermodynamics1Uploaded byKyla Canlas
- h81_Vector_and_Parametric_Equations_of_a_Line_in_R2.pdfUploaded byJashandeep Singh Kochhar
- How Does Euclid's Geometry Differ From Current Views of GeometryUploaded bybilstefan
- pchem1hndout2010Uploaded byKaaya Godfrey
- Balt van Rees- Wormholes in 2+1 dimensionsUploaded byDex30KM
- u3cea06 Engineering Mechanics KeyUploaded bykiranphd
- 04-1delUploaded byRondro Ny Aina Lucia
- VDWUploaded bySanto Gultom
- 04-Roy-reply-gp-32-1-142Uploaded byTony Walle
- Ch # 3 outsider (11-02-16)Uploaded byQaisar Riaz
- fem10Uploaded byggriff24
- Patterns & Symbols - Knotwork - Igloo.roUploaded byMargarida Sardinha
- Tutorial 1 SolutionsUploaded byteju1996cool
- 031716Uploaded byJoana Marie Perciano
- ps5sol.pdfUploaded byTaufik Rizkiandi
- Reflections and Rotations PracticeUploaded byRowel Elca
- Lecture 2.pdfUploaded byJay Patel
- New Text DocumentUploaded byjeremy
- Surface diffusion dewetting of thin solid films Numerical method and application to SiSiO[sub 2]Uploaded bykrypticide
- LaplaceNotes.pdfUploaded bybomtozor
- 7039_A008Uploaded byAmirAmiri

- SELF-CLEANING Materials Lotus EffectUploaded bySourav Dip
- GREUploaded bySourav Dip
- GRE Preparation and SuggestionUploaded bySourav Dip
- Pramod Sop EceUploaded byazebshaikh3927
- RT023Uploaded bySourav Dip
- summation_deltaUploaded byJerome Kaypee
- Young Laplace EquationUploaded bySourav Dip
- Course Outline(1)Uploaded bySourav Dip
- higher studyUploaded bySourav Dip
- SaKiUploaded bySourav Dip
- Smith Chart DerivationUploaded bySourav Dip
- Gradinfo ChE USA (2)Uploaded bySourav Dip
- JuiDipUploaded bySourav Dip
- Scarlet Terror NUploaded bySourav Dip
- Water TreatmentUploaded bySourav Dip
- Water TreatmentUploaded bySourav Dip
- Injection MoldingUploaded bySourav Dip
- Fast Breeder ReactorsUploaded byrahul9926
- t2203Uploaded byAnastasia Monica Khunniegalshottest
- Lectures 25 and 26Uploaded bySourav Dip
- Compressive Property (1)Uploaded bySourav Dip
- higher studyUploaded bySourav Dip
- Steps of Higher StudyUploaded bySourav Dip
- Compression MouldingUploaded bySourav Dip

- TN MP04 Thermal ModellingUploaded byalpha1ah
- Explanation of Cooling and Air Conditioning Terminology for IT ProfessionalsUploaded byPirozok Pirozkov
- AEESyllabusUploaded byafzal
- Chemical Equilibrium in a Liquid PhaseUploaded byPevie Anne Tenebroso
- Fundamentals of Thermodynamics solutions ch04Uploaded byCierré No'Middlename Jones
- Lecture 1Uploaded bySara El-Gendy
- BCH Technical InformationUploaded byoskarherrero
- Lecture 9Uploaded bycriscab12345
- 1-s2.0-S0196890417300316-mainUploaded byAdiKurdi
- Ch 17Uploaded byAlan Ahlawat Sumski
- Duct Insulation GuidanceUploaded bySurya Kiran K
- CHE 412 - Rankine ProbSetUploaded byCarlos Miguel Dacaimat
- Mcquay Newsletter 04063Uploaded byBrian Krug
- Junkers_monobloc_planning_guide_English.pdfUploaded byReInvie
- csm_ch13Uploaded byDedi Wahyudin
- lp gas Fisher Handbook serviceman inst.pdfUploaded byEden Frias
- Ellingham DiagramsUploaded bySumit Kumar
- Design Criteria Fo Office BuildingUploaded byAnonymous 1uQrCTY
- Una aplicacion en CFDUploaded byGaby Taipe Andagua
- HT13 _ Laws of Radiant Heat Transfer and Radiant Heat ExchangeUploaded byjoputa15
- ROTEX Brochure Thermal Store Solar EnUploaded byh2odavid
- 220801BMCHS0458_CDFE01_35Uploaded byGalih Suksmono Adi
- 1.docUploaded byManu Gupta
- VcmUploaded byBhavya Makhania
- 10 Transfer of HeatUploaded bynellai kumar
- TAB Module 1 Fundamentals_BBUploaded byWisam Ankah
- HeattUploaded byKali Das
- L24 - Rankine Cycle.pptxUploaded bymatto najij
- LNGTechnologyBrief BPUploaded byudin
- Thermodynamic SystemUploaded byDanilo Olaya