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CANopen in trains

Holger Zeltwanger

61375-3-3

CiA

European standardization
UIC
Union Internationale
de Chamins de Fer

UIC

Mission:
Definition of the
interoperability
constituents

Leaflets

Train Bus Steering

IEC TC9

Group

International
Electrotechnical

ERA
CER ET5

European Railway

Communication

Agency

Commission

CENELEC TC9X

between vehicles

European
Electrotechnical

UNIFE
UNIFE
European
Railway
Industries
Association

Commission

TCMS Topical
Group

Parallel
voting

UNIFE
InteGRail
Project

Railway actors

Harmonisation

TSI
European Union

STANDARDS
Standardisation
CiA

Switch to CANopen!
CANopen is the mainstream embedded network not only for industrial
machine building but also in medical devices, off-road vehicles, etc.
In locomotive, power-car, tram, rail-car, train-set as well as cargo train
applications, CANopen is used as class B, class A, and sub-class A
network according to the IEC classification.

CiA

Multi-purpose vehicle
GPS

Train-bus
GSM
Vehicle HMI

Driver terminal

Vehicle
controller

Data
acquisition
unit

Add-on machinery
HMI

I/O controller

CANopen

RAILTRACK

HVAC and
lighting

Motion
controller 1

Pneumatic
unit

Hydraulic
controller

Motion
controller 2

CiA

CANopen devices for


cranes

Rotary CANopen encoder

The crane mounted on rail vehicle by Kirow


(Germany) is controlled by CANopen system

CANopen inclinometer
CiA

1
FEBIS

research project
Sensors +
Actuators

230 VDC

LON train network

Accu
Energymanagement

Sensors +
Actuators

Transc.

Transc.

Neuron

Neuron

mC
communication

CAN

Gatewa
y

CANopen vehicle network

Pneumatics

Brake
control

other
subsystem

end of train
config. C

Brake-Pipe

CiA

Flirt train by Stadler


Train and vehicle networks
are based on CANopen
(EN 50325-4)

Anti-slipping
Motor control
CPU 854

CPU 725-L
CPU 727

CPU 723
J1939

CPU 723

CPU 725-L

CPU 854

CPU 727

CPU 723
CPU 727-CT

CPU 727-CT

CiA

Monorail in Las Vegas


All networks are based on CANopen (EN 50325-4)

Car A

Car C1

Car C2

Car B

Train Network

Bridge

PLC

VOBC

HVAC

HVAC

DOOR

DOOR

RS 232

Bridge

PLC

Roof

HVAC

HVAC

DOOR

DOOR

PLC

RS 232

TPM

Under Car

Bridge

PLC

PA

PLC

VOBC

HVAC

HVAC

HVAC

HVAC

DOOR

DOOR

DOOR

DOOR

RS 232

Drivers Cab

APU
EHU

Bridge

APU

APU

APU

EHU

EHU

EHU

PLC

PLC

PLC

CiA

Zagreb tramcar

CiA

S-type railcar (RO)


Train bus (CAN-based power-line transmission)

Electrical cabinet

Driver cab #1
HMI

Driver cab #2
HMI

Gateway
CANopen
CANopen NMT master

CANopen

Gateway
CANopen/J1939

CANopen

RS-232
Converter
RS-485/RS-232
J1939 (CAN-based)

RS-485
Speedometer

System designer: Tehmin-Brasov (RO)

Diesel engine

Gear box

CiA

LINT network architecture


WTB (wired train bus)

Gateway

Selectron
MVB (multi vehicle bus)

Display
(2)

Drive
(4)

Brake
(2)

Inverter
(3)

PLC CAN MVB

CANopen (IEC CDV 61375-3-3)


Door
(8)

Trip odometer

Air-condition (5)

DieselGen (2)

Passenger info

IFE

Deuta

Liebherr

Tognum

GSP

I/Os
(14)

Brake
lever (2)

Selectron Schaltbau

CiA

Dont miss the train!


Members of the CAN in Automation (CiA) non-profit organization have
developed jointly the CANopen application layer and communication
profile. The internationally standardized application layer (EN 50325-4)
provides basic communication services and protocols. Additional CiA
specifications define safety-related communication as well as bus-line
redundancy and Flying NMT master functionality.

CiA

CANopen history
1994: First multi-vendor show on CiA Hanover fair booth
1995: Commercial off-the-shelf CANopen protocol stacks
1995: Commercial off-the-shelf CANopen devices available
1995: First CANopen device profiles (CiA 401, etc.)
1996: Commercial off-the-shelf CANopen tools
1996: CANopen control systems in serial machines
1998: First CANopen application profile (CiA 407)
1998: CANopen (CiA 301) certification
2000: CANopen safety (CiA 304) specification
2006: CANopen application profile (CiA 421, etc.) for rail vehicles
2008: CANopen EDS in XML

CiA

CiA 301 history

1994

2009

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Dekompressor
communication profile)
1993: ESPRIT project
ASPIC (CAL-based
bentigt.
November 1994: CAL-based communication profile version 1.0
January 1995: CAL-based communication profile version 1.1
September 1995: CANopen CiA 301 version 2.0 (DSP)
October 1996: CiA 301 version 3.0 (DS)
June 1999: CiA 301 version 4.0 (DS)
November 2007: CiA 301 version 4.2 (DSP)
CiA

CANopen data link layer


Producer

CAN-ID: prioritized unique


message identification

Consumer(s)
indication(s)

Data frame
request

SOF Arbitration F. Control F. Data F. CRC F. ACK EOF


1 bit

6 Bit

12 (32) bit

0 to 64 bit

16 bit

2 bit 7 bit

Remote frame
indication

SOF Arbitration F. Control F. CRC F. ACK EOF


1 bit

6 Bit

12 (32) bit

16 bit

2 bit 7 bit

Data frame
response

request(s)

confirmation(s)

SOF Arbitration F. Control F. Data F. CRC F. ACK EOF


1 bit

12 (32) bit

6 Bit

0 to 64 bit

16 bit

2 bit 7 bit

Compliant to ISO 11898-1 (CAN data link layer)

CiA

CANopen data link layer


11-bit (2048 CAN-IDs) or optionally 29-bit message identifier
PDO/NMT/EMCY/SYNC/Heartbeat broadcast transmission
Up to 8 byte payload per PDO (no protocol overhead)
Hamming distance of 6 (detects 5 randomly distributed errors)
Globalization of Zur
local
failures
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Dekompressor
bentigt.

Automatic retransmission of faulty messages


Error counters for received and transmitted messages
Very low probability of non-detected faulty messages
Fault confinement (inclusive bus-off)
Hint: Dont use remote frames
Remark: Dont transmit relative data
CiA

Basic CANopen protocols

Network management
NMT protocol (controls the NMT slave state machine transitions)
Error control protocols (provides NMT slave state machine status)

Confirmed configuration/diagnostic
Expedited SDO protocol (max. 4-byte configuration/diagnostic data)
Normal SDO protocol (segmented transfer, each segment confirmed)
SDO block protocol (segmented transfer, each block confirmed)

Unconfirmed process data and other information


PDO protocol (no protocol overhead, up to 8-byte process data)
EMCY protocol (pre-defined failure information)
TIME protocol (standardized system time information)
SYNC protocol (schedules process data capturing and actuation)

CiA

NMT protocol
NMT slaves(s)

NMT master

indication(s)
request

DLC = 2

CS

Node-ID

CAN-ID = 000h

Command specifier (CS) values:


1 = Enter NMT operational (Start remote node)
2 = Enter NMT stopped (Stop remote node)
128 = Enter NMT pre-operational
129 = Enter NMT initialization at Reset application sub state (Reset node)
130 = Enter NMT initialization at Reset communication sub state (Reset communication)
Node-ID:
0 = Command is valid for all CANopen devices?? (WO IN CiA 301??)
1 to 127 = Command is only valid for CANopen device with that node-ID

CiA

Heartbeat protocol
Heartbeat producer

Heartbeat consumer(s)
DLC = 1

request
Heartbeat
producer
time (1017h)
in ms

request

Node state

indication(s)

CAN-ID = 700h + node-ID

Node state

indication(s)
Heartbeat
consumer
time (1016h)
in ms

Node state values:


4 = Stopped
5 = Operational
127 = Pre-operational

Heartbeat
event

indication

CiA

Expedited SDO protocol


Client

initiate SDO download


CS

MUX

Server

DATA

initiate SDO download response


CS

MUX

Not used

initiate SDO upload


CS

MUX

Not used

initiate SDO upload response


CS

MUX

DATA

DLC = 8
CAN-ID client-to-server for Default-SDO = 600h + node-ID
CAN-ID server-to-client for Default-SDO = 580h + node-ID

CS = command specifier
MUX = 16-bit index and 8-bit sub-index

CiA

PDO protocol
Producer
request

Write PDO
DLC = 1 to 8

Consumer(s)
indication(s)

Application object(s)
CAN-ID = pre-defined or user-specific

indication

Read PDO
CAN Remote Frame

response

DLC = 1 to 8

Application object(s)

request(s)
confirmation(s)

CAN-ID = pre-defined or user-specific

CiA

PDO scheduling modes


consumer(s)

producer
1.

Event (change of
state) or eventtimer driven

Internal
event

PDO

Remote frame
2.

Remote requested

3.

Synchronous
transmission
(cyclic)

4.

Synchronous
transmission
(acyclic)

PDO

Sync message
PDO

Internal
event

Sync message
PDO

Sync
producer

Sync
producer

CiA

PDO configuration

CiA

PDO mapping

CiA

Additional CANopen
functions
CANopen manager

CiA 302

NMT master (controls the NMT slave state machines)


SDO manager (serves SDO requesting devices)
Configuration manager (configures NMT slave devices)
Flying NMT master (provides NMT master redundancy)

Programmable device

CiA 304
CiA 305

Network variables (to be mapped in PDOs)


IEC 61131 function blocks

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Bus-line redundancy
Dekompressor
and vice versa
Switches from Default CAN
to Redundant CAN
bentigt.
Safety-related communication
SRDO protocol (transmits process data conform to SIL3)

Layer setting services


Node-ID or bit-timing configuration via the CANopen network
Identifying not configured CANopen device

CiA 309

CANopen bridge/router (up to 127 networks)


Remote SDO
Remote Emergency
System variables (to be mapped into PDOs)

CiA

CANopen specifications
CiA301 CiA302 CiA303 CiA304 CiA305 CiA306
CiA307 CiA308 CiA309 CiA310 CiA311 CiA312
CiA313 CiA401 CiA402 CiA404 CiA405 CiA406
CiA408 CiA410 CiA412 CiA413 CiA414 CiA415
CiA416 CiA417 CiA418 CiA419 CiA420 CiA421
CiA422 CiA423 CiA424 CiA425 CiA426 CiA427
CiA428 CiA429 CiA430 CiA431 CiA432 CiA433
CiA434 CiA435 CiA436 CiA438 CiA439 CiA440
CiA441 CiA442 CiA443 CiA444 CiA445 CiA446
CiA447 CiA448 CiA449 CiA450 CiA451 CiA452

1994: 60 pages

2009: more than 8000 pages


CiA

IEC 61375-3-3 outline

Foreword
Introduction
1 General
1.1 Scope
1.2 References
1.3 Terms and definitions
1.4 Abbreviations
1.5 Conventions
2 Architecture
2.1 Content
2.2 Logical CANopen-based consist
network
2.3 Network topology
2.4 Addressing
2.5 Data classes

3 Physical layer
3.1 Content
3.2 Cabling
3.3 Connector
3.4 Physical medium attachment
3.5 Physical signaling
4 Data link layer
4.1 Content
4.2 CANopen data link layer
5 CANopen application layer
5.1 Content
5.2 Reference model
5.3 Field device model
5.4 CANopen communication object
5.5 CANopen object dictionary
5.6 Pre-defined CANopen
communication objects

61375-3-3
CiA

IEC 61375-3-3 outline

6 Application data
6.1 Content
6.2 CANopen application data
representation
6.3 Recommended representation
principle
7 CANopen network management
7.1 Content
7.2 CANopen NMT slave functionality
7.3 CANopen manager functionality
7.4 CANopen NMT start-up
7.5 Boot NMT slave
7.6 Error control
7.7 Additional NMT master services
and protocols
7.8 Object dictionary entries

8 Gateway functions
8.1 Content
8.2 Gateway architecture
8.3 General principles and services
8.4 Network access service
specification
8.5 ASCII mapping of network
access services
9 Train network management
9.1 Content
9.2 Manager, Agents and interfaces
9.3 Management message protocol
9.4 Object interfaces
9.5 CANopen-specific management
services
9.6 TNM CANopen services

61375-3-3
CiA

IEC 61375-3-3 outline

10 CANopen management message data handling


10.1 Content
10.2 Message data format
10.3 Requirements for message data communication within CANopen networks
10.4 Object 1F78h: CANopen message data reception
11 Conformance testing

61375-3-3
CiA

Physical layer
Topology according ISO 11898-2

CANopen
device 1

CANopen
device n

Controller

Controller

Opto coupler

Opto coupler

Transceiver

Transceiver

Features:
Default bit rate:

125 kbit/s

Max. extension:

450 m1

Max stubs:

110 m1

Galvanic isolation!
Node-ID assignment: not defined
1 apply

only for default data

CAN bus lines

120

120

CAN H

CAN L

CAN GND

61375-3-3
CiA

Low-layer requirements
CiA 301 bit-timing table
Physical layer:
Bit rate

Cabling: ISO 11898-2


Connector: 9-pin D-sub9or M12

Nominal
time
tb

bit Valid range for


location of sample
point

1 Mbit/s

1 s

75% to 90%

Transceiver: ISO 11898-2 (high-speed)

800 kbit/s

1,25 s

75% to 90%

Bit-timing: ISO 11898-1 and CiA 301

500 kbit/s

2 s

85% to 90%

250 kbit/s

4 s

85% to 90%

Data link layer:

125 kbit/s

8 s

85% to 90%

Compliant to ISO 11898-1

50 kbit/s

20 s

85% to 90%

11-bit CAN-ID recommended

20 kbit/s

50 s

85% to 90%

10 kbit/s

100 s

85% to 90%

Sample point as close as possible


to 87,5% of the bit time.

61375-3-3
CiA

Its time for CiA 421!


The CANopen application profile family for rail vehicle control systems
simplifies system integration and maintenance.
Standardized profiles are the key for saving financial and human
resources; they allow the design of interoperable and even (partly)
interchangeable devices.

CiA

Train vehicle control system


Virtual device architecture based on DIN 25002-2

Power
(drive)
system
(421-5)

Train
operation
system
(421-2)

Monitoring
and safety
system
(421-3)

Door
control
system
(421-12)

Exterior
lighting
system
(421-10)

Train-toground
communication
(421-17)

Slip/slide
control
system
(421-18)

Interior
lighting
system
(421-11)

Vehicle
linking
(421-16)

HVAC
system
(421-13)

Running
gear
(421-6)

CiA 421
Auxiliary
operating
system
(421-4)

Ancillary
equipment
system
(421-8)

Brake
control
system
(421-7)

Passenger
info
system
(421-14)

Cargo
superstructure
system
(421-15)

CiA

Analog value representation


All analog values are represented as data type INTEGER32.
All analog values of the same SI-unit are represented in the same resolution
No special scaling is required

Examples of analog value representation:

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Dekompressor
bentigt.

Pressure:
Temperature:
Engine speed:
Power:
Torque:

0,01 mbar
0,01 C
0,01 rpm (rotation per minute)
0,1 kW
1 Nm

CiA

Power (diesel) system


CiA 421

Traction
Controller
423-2

Diesel
engine
control
unit
423-3

Diesel
engine
safety
unit
423-5

Gear
control
unit
423-9

Particle
filter
controller
unit
423-10

AC/DC
drive
control
unit

Diesel
engine
signal
unit
423-7

etc.

CiA 423

Speed
sensor
unit
423-6
CiA Draft Stand ard Prop osal 423

Starter
unit
423-11

HD (1)
transmission
control
unit
423-4

Clutch
control
unit
423-8

App lic a tio n p r o file fo r ra il ve hic le p o w er


d riv e sy s te ms
P art 6: S peed sensor unit

This DS P is for CiA me m ber s only an d m ay be changed

without notification.

V er sion: 1.0
18 August 2006

CAN in Autom atio n (CiA) e. V.

(1) hydro-dynamic

CiA

Auxiliary operating system


Battery
module

CiA 421

Auxiliary
power
system
Controller
430-2

CiA 418/419

Coolant
Engine
expansion
pre-heating
tank
unit
unit
430-6
430-4

Battery
charger
unit
430-8

Hydraulic
control
unit

Pneumatic
control
unit

Generator
control
unit

Electricity
train
line
control
unit

Inverter
control
unit

CiA 430

Power
train
cooling
control
unit
430-3

Power
train
c-fan
control
unit
430-5

Hydrostatic
signal
interface
unit
430-7

CiA

Ancillary equipment system


CiA 421

Ancillary
operating
system
controller

Wheel
flank unit
431-4

CiA 431

Sanding
unit
431-3

CiA

Door control system


CiA 421-12

Door
controller

CiA 424-1..3

Door unit
01
right front
exterior

Door unit
03
right back
exterior

Door unit
02
left front
exterior

Door unit
05
right center
exterior

Door unit
07
front
interior

Door unit
09
toilet
interior

Door unit
04
left back
exterior

Door unit
06
left center
exterior

Door unit
08
back
interior

Door unit
10 to nn
(additional
doors)

CiA

Interior lighting system


CiA 421-11

Interior
lighting
controller

Light unit
01

Light unit
02

Light unit
03

Light unit
04

CiA 433-1..3
Light unit
05

Light unit
06

Light unit
07

Light unit
08 to nn

CiA

Exterior lighting system


CiA 421-10

Exterior
lighting
controller

Light unit
01

Light unit
02

Light unit
03

Light unit
04

CiA 426-1..3
Light unit
05

Light unit
06

Light unit
07

Light unit
08 to nn

CiA