You are on page 1of 9

Chem 17 (Lec) Reviewer

/*Disclaimer: Sorry if may ibang maling stuff :


(( Read the book na lang, its more accurate
HAHA okay yun lang GOODLUCK SA EXAM <3
if may tanong rin, wala po akong alam sa
chem 17 sorry di po ako ang tamang
tanungan :D */

q=mc T
where q is the quantity of heat, m is the
mass of substance, c is the specific heat and

T is the temperature change.

qsystem =

~*~*~*~*~*~*~
I.

Thermochemistry

Thermochemistry reaction involving heat


(also interacts with surroundings)

Law of conservation of energy!! The heat


gained by a system is lost by its
surroundings :D

Enthalpy ( H) heat change associated

Calorimetry

with a given chemical reaction

heat of reaction (qrxn)- quantity of heat


exchanged between a system and its
surroundings when a chemical reaction
occurs
within
system
at
CONSTANT
TEMPERATURE.

ENDOTHERMIC

Heat is ABSORBED

EXOTHERMIC

Heat is RELEASED

H
-

Bomb calorimeter- measures the heat


evolved in a combustion reaction (an isolated
system)
Work (w):

w = -P

Types of systems:
Closed System
Open System
Isolated
System

Can exchange ENERGY only


Can exchange BOTH matter
and energy
Does not interact with
surroundings

Energy (U) capacity to do work

U = q

1 atm L = 101.325 J
**Ideal gas equation can be helpful in getting
the volume

PV=nRT

Work (w) force acting through a distance


Heat- energy transferred between a system
and its surroundings as a result of a
temperature difference.
Heat Capacity - the quantity of heat
required to change the temperature of a
system by one degree

1 cal = 4.184 J

First Law of Thermodynamics: The


energy of an isolated system is
constant.

U=q+w

+q
- q

Heat is gained by the system


Heat is released by the system
jgnoche 2015

+w
-w

In phase transitions: (exchange of heat can


be carried out reversibly)

Work is done to the system


Worrk is done by the system

State Function has a value that depends


only on the exact condition or state in which
a system is found and not on how that state
was reached (not path dependent!) (ung
mga capital letters like H, U, G, and S
(HUGS!!) are state functions, unlike q and w
na small letters lang)
Hesss Law : if a process occurs in stages
or steps, the enthalpy change for the overall
process is the sum of the enthalpy changes
for the individual steps
-

When a process is reversed,


enthalpy reverses sign
When the coeffecients are
multiplied by n, the enthalpy is also
multiplied by n. ( H is an
extensive proerty)

II.

You just add all the

H of the

individual steps.
MAKE SURE THE EQUATIONS ARE
BALANCED!!!!!!
Spontaneous Changes: Entropy
and Gibbs Free Energy

Spontaneous process process


occurs in a system left to itself.
-

that

If a process is spontaneous, the


reverse is nonspontaneous
Nonspontaneous processes require
the system to be acted on by an
external agent
Some spontneous occur very slowly
and some very rapidly

Entropy (S) the thermodynamic propert


related to the way in which the energy of a
system is distributed among the available
microscopic energy levels.
Pag mas
Entropy :))

magulo,

mas

mataas

ang

S=

H
T

Troutons rule: (may be used for most liquids)

87

H vap
kJ
=
mol T boiling pt .

Increase in entropy if:


-

Liquid or solutions are formed from


solids
Gas are formed from solids or
liquids
Number of gas molecules increases
Temperature increases

Third Law of Thermodynamics: the


entropy of a pure perfect crystal at 0
Kelvin is zero.
Gibbs Energy ( G)

G= HT S

The process is spontaneous

<0

The process is nonspontanous

>0

The process is at equilibrium

=0

Criteria for spontaneous change:

H
-

S
+

G
-

Result
Spontaneous at all
temperatures
jgnoche 2015

Spontaneous at low
temperature
Nonspontaneus at high
temp
Spontaneous at high temp
Nonspontaneous at low
temp
nonspontaneous at all temp

+
+

Rate = k[A]m[B]n

(coeffecients

exponents)
k is the rate constant, and the larger its
value, the faster a reaction goes.
If exponent is 1, reaction is first order. If 2,
second order... and so on
-Zero order: there is no effect on the initial
rate of the reaction

G= G RT ln Q

-First order- initial rate of reaction doubles

G =RT ln K

-Second order-the initial rate of the reaction


quadruples

ln

K 2 H 1 1
=

K 1 8.314 ( R ) T 2 T 1

-Third order- the initial rate of the reaction


increases 8x.

Coupled reactions- combining a pair of

G and one

reactions, one with a positive


with

negative

G,

to

obtain

Zero-order Reactions
A

products

Rate = k[A]0 = k = constant

spontaneous overall reaction.

[SEE Ellingham diagram in the lab reviewer]


III.

Chemical Kinetics (Ch. 14)

Rate of reaction
Given the reaction: aA + bB

[A]t = -kt +
[A]o
First-Order Reactions

gG + hH

(negative pag products kasi nagdidisappear


sila poof)
The Rate Law (Effect of concentration on
reaction rates)
The rate of the reaction above is:

ln [A]t = -kt + ln
[A]o
jgnoche 2015

Second-Order Reactions

HALF 1/[A]
LIFE!!!t

= kt + 1/[A]o

Zero-order

2) Transition State Theory

t1/2 =

[ A ]o
2k

t1/2 =

0.693
k

The hypothetical species that is believe to


exist in a transitory state that lies between
the reactants and products.

First Order

Second-order

t1/2 =

1
k [ A ]o

(makikita ang transition state sa peak ng


graph (reaction profile) above)
Arrhenius Equation

ln k =

Ea
RT

A is the collision frequency


R= 8.314 J/mol K
Ea is the activation energy

ln

K2
K1

Ea 1
1

R T1 T2

Reaction Mechanisms (page 658)

Theoretical Models for Chemical


Kinetics:
1) Collision theory
Only a fraction of collisions produce reaction
Activation Energy, Ea

1)
2)
3)
4)

Elementary Process
Steady State approximation
Pseudo-order reactions
Application: smog and kinetics of
environments

Catalysis
1) Homogenous Catalysis all species
in the reaction are in solution
jgnoche 2015

2) Heterogeneous Catalysis the


catalyst is in the solid state. Reactants
from gas or solution phase are
adsorbed. Active sites on the catalytic
surface are important.

IV.

Chemical Equilibrium (Ch. 15)


aA + bB

cC + dD

rate forward = rate reverse


rate forward = k[A]a[B]b
rate reverse = k[C]c[D]d

k 1 [C ]c [ D]d
=
=K eq
k 2 [ A ]a [B] b

attaining a new equilibrium that partially


offsets the impact of the change.
Recall:

G =RT ln K

V.

Acid- Base Equilibrium (Ch. 16)

Acids and bases


Arrhenius Theory- Acids give of H+ while
bases give of OH-. However, this did not
handle non OH- bases like NH3.
Bronsted-Lowry Theory- Acids are proton
donor. Bases are proton accepter.
Lewis Theory- acids are species that accept
electron. Bases donate electron pair.

Kc for molar concentrations

Autoionization of Water

Kp for gases partial pressure

H 2O

(l)

+ H 2O

(l)

H3O+ (aq) + OH- (aq)

Kw = 1.0 x 1014 = [H3O+][OH-]

RT

K p=K c

K >>1 products are favored


K <<1 reactants are favored

[H3O+] = [OH-] =1.0 x 107


*pH = -log[H3O+]
pH of water = 7
(K varies depending on temperature, thus,
pH also varies. PERO that doesnt mean na
nagiging acidic/basic ang water at some
temperature. Neutral siya lagi pero nagiiba
lang ung pH range YAY)

Factors affecting equilibrium:


1) Concentration
2) Pressure/volume
3) Temperature
**catalyst does not effect equilibrium
Le
Chateliers
PrincipleWhen an
equilibrium system is subjected to a change
in temperature, pressure or concentration of
reacting species, the system responds by

For conjugate acids or bases:

K w =K a K b
pH of salt solutions:
jgnoche 2015

Salts of strong acids and srong


bases do NOT hydrolyze pH = 7
Salts of strong bases and weak
acids hyrdolyze. pH > 7
Salts of strong acid and weak base
hydrolyze. pH < 7
Salts of weak acids and weak bases
depends on Ka and Kb.

Factors affecting Solubility


1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)

Common ion effect


Ionic strength
Ion-pair formation
Simultaneous equilibria
Fractional precipitation
pH

Strong Acids: HCl, HBr, HI, H2SO4, HClO4,


HClO3, HNO3
Strong Bases: LiOH, NaOH, KOH, RbOH,
CsOH, Mg(OH)2, Ca(OH)2, Sr(OH)2, Ba(OH)2,
Common ion effect- describes the effect on
an equilibrium by a second substance that
furnishes the ions that can participate in that
equilibrium.
Buffer Solutions- two-component systems
that change pH only slightly on addition of
acid or base. The two components must not
neutralize each other but must not neutralize
strong acids and bases.

Molar solubility (s) =

m+ n

VII.

K sp
mm n n

Complex Ions and Coordination


Compounds (Ch. 24)

Recall the theories we studied:


Valence bond
shells lang yung
reactions

theory outermost
nagpaparticipate sa

VSEPR bond angles formed depend


on lone pairs and bond formed (geometries)
Hybridization valence shells orbitals
are hybridized to accommodate more
electrons

Buffer Capacity - Amount of acid or base


that a buffer can neutralize before its pH
changes
appreciably.
Maximum
buffer
capacity exists when [HA] and [A ] are large
and approximately equal to each other.
Buffer Range

1 pH units around pKa

Werners
Theory
of
coordination
compounds- metal ions have two types of
valency-primary and secondary, where the
primary valency is said to be satisfied by
negative ions only, and the secondary
valency can be satisfied by positive ligand,
negative or neutral molecule.

*higher concentration, higher buffer capacity


Acid-base Indicators
Neutralization Reactions and Titrations

VI.

Solubility (Ch. 18)

/* wala masyado dito kasi special form of


equilibrium lang naman ang solubility (and
mas maraming calculations than terms) :D*/

Ligands- lewis bases (meaning they donate


electron pairs to central metal atoms)
Monodentate ligand- uses one pair of
electrons to form one point of attachment to
the central metal atom or ion
Bidentate ligand- uses two pairs of
electrons to form one point of attachment to
the central metal atom or ion. (e.g.
ethylenediamine)
jgnoche 2015

Isomerism

Isomers (compound of the same


chemical formula but with
different properties)
If di pa rin masyadong maget
nomenclature, this ones helpful:

yung

Structural Isomers
(atoms are
connected
differently)
Ionization
Isomers (give
different ions
in solutions)
Coordination
(different
ligand sets in
anions and
cations)
Linkage
(same ligand
connected by
different
atoms)

Stereoisomers
(same number
and types of
ligands; differ in
the postion in
space)
geometric
(diastereomers)
(different
arrangement
around a metal
ion cis/trans)
optical
(enantiomers)
(nonsuperimpo
sable mirror
images)

Crystal Field Theory- bonding in a complex


ion is considered to be an electrostatic
attraction between the positively charged
nucleus of the central metal ion and
electrons in ligands. Focuses on the
repulsions between ligand electrons and d
electrons of the central ion.
Splitting in octahedral complex ion:

jgnoche 2015

ALL SQUARE PLANAR COMPLEX IONS ARE


LOW SPIN (because square planar splitting is
maximum)
Magnetic Properties (Page 1088)
Color

o depends if ligands are weak field or

Acid-Base Reactions of Complex ions

strong field.
VIII.
To classify the ligands, the spectrochemical
series is used:

Electrochemistry (Ch. 20)

Terms:
Anode- electrode where oxidation occurs
Cathode- electrode where reduction occurs

Weak field ligands are referred to as high


spin whereas strong field ligands are
referred to as low spin.

Cell diagram:

Splitting in tetrahedral complex ion:

ALL TETRAHEDRAL COMPLEX IONS ARE HIGH


SPIN (because the tetrahedral splitting is
small)

Splittin in square planar complex ion:

*take note of the flow of electrons


Two kinds of electrochemical cells:
1) Galvanic or Voltaic cell- Spontaneous
2) Electrolytic
Cellnonspontaneous
(requires a power source)

G =nF E cell
F= 96 485 C/mol eNernst Equation:

Ecell =E cell

0.0592
logQ
jgnoche 2015
n

RECOA Reduction Cathode // Oxidation


Anode
Additional notes: Ecell is 0 for concentration
cells.
GEROA Gain
Oxidizing Agent

of

LEORA Loss
Reducing Agent

of

Electrons
Electrons

Or RED CAT , AN OX

Reduction
Oxidation

Cell notation is as easy as ABC (anode,


bridge, cathode)
/*marami pong kulang kasi po di ko na
kinaya*/

jgnoche 2015