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Trends in E lectron (electronic) Configuration

Key Concepts

Trends in number of valence electrons (electrons in the highest energy level):


o

Elements in the same Group of the Periodic Table have the same number of
valence shell electrons (electrons in the highest energy level).

Going across a period of the Periodic Table from left to right the number of
valence electrons increases.

Trends in energy of valence electrons:


o

The valence shell electrons of elements in the same Period of the Periodic Table
occupy the same energy level (shell).*

Going down a Group of the Periodic Table from top to bottom, the energy of the
valence shell electrons increases.

*This discussion excludes transition elements, actinides and lanthanides


Trends in the Number of Valence Electrons
H
1

symbol
simple electron configuration

He
2

(valence shell electrons, the number of electrons in the highest energy level,
shown in bold)

Group 1

Group 2

(IA)

(IIA)

Group
18

Group
13

Group
14

Group
15

Group
16

Group
17

(IIIA)

(IVA)

(VA)

(VIA)

(VIIA)

(VIIIA or
0)

Li

Be

Ne

2,1

2,2

2,3

2,4

2,5

2,6

2,7

2,8

Na

2,8,1

Mg

2,8,2

Al

2,8,3

Si

2,8,4

2,8,5

2,8,6

Cl

2,8,7

Ar

2,8,8

Ca

Ga

Ge

As

Se

Br

Kr

2,8,8,1

2,8,8,2

2,8,18,3

2,8,18,4

2,8,18,5

2,8,18,6

2,8,18,7

2,8,18,8

Rb

Sr

2,8,18,8,1

2,8,18,8,2

Cs

Ba

2,8,18,18,8,1

2,8,18,18,8,2

Fr

Ra

In

Sn

Sb

Te

Xe

2,8,18,18,3

2,8,18,18,4

2,8,18,18,5

2,8,18,18,6

2,8,18,18,7

2,8,18,18,8

Tl

Pb

Bi

Po

At

Rn

2,8,18,32,18, 2,8,18,32,18, 2,8,18,32,18, 2,8,18,32,18, 2,8,18,32,18, 2,8,18,32,18,


3
4
5
6
7
8

2,8,18,32,18,8, 2,8,18,32,18,8,
1
2

1 valence 2 valence

electron

valence valence valence valence valence


electron electron electron electron electron
s
s
s
s
s

electrons

valence
electron
s

(EXCEPTIO
N He has 2
valence
electrons)

Elements in the same Group have the same number of valence shell electrons.
Group
No. valence electrons

13

14

15

16

17

18

(IA)

(IIA)

(IIIA)

(IVA)

(VA)

(VIA)

(VIIA)

(VIIIA or 0)

8*

*Helium is an exception since it has only 2 valence electrons


Across a period of the Periodic Table from left to right the number of valence electrons
increases.*
1

13

14

15

16

17

18

(IA)

(IIA)

(IIIA)

(IVA)

(VA)

(VIA)

(VIIA)

(VIIIA or 0)

8*

lowest number of
valence electrons

highest number of
valence electrons

Group
No. valence electrons

*Helium is an exception since it has only 2 valence electrons


Trends in Energy of Valence Electrons
H

symbol

1s1

Period

position of valence shell electrons (energy level of valence electrons shown in bold)

Group
1
(IA)

Group
2
IIA

Group
13
(IIIA)

Group
14
(IVA)

Group
15
(VA)

Group
16
(VIA)

Group
17
(VIIA)

3
4
5

Lowest
Energy

Ne

2
(L shell)

Ar

3
(M shell)

Kr

4
(N shell)

Xe

5
(O shell)

1s2

Li

Be

Na

Mg

Ca

2s1

3s1

4s1

Rb
5s1

2s2

3s2

4s2

Sr

5s2

2s22p1

Al

3s23p1

Ga

4s24p1

In

5s25p1

2s22p2

Si

3s23p2

Ge

4s24p2

Sn

5s25p2

2s22p3

3s23p3

As

4s24p3

Sb

5s25p3

2s22p4

3s23p4

Se

4s24p4

Te

5s25p4

2s22p5

Cl

3s23p5

Br

4s24p5

5s25p5

Energy
Level of
Valence
Electrons
1
(K shell)

He

Group
18
(VIIIA
or 0)

2s22p6

3s23p6

4s24p6

5s25p6

Cs

Ba

Fr

Ra

7s1

7s2

6s1

6s2

Tl

6s26p1

Pb

6s26p2

Bi

6s26p3

Po

6s26p4

At

6s26p5

Rn

6s26p6

6
(P shell)

7
(Q shell)

Highest
Energy

The valence shell electrons of elements in the same period of the Periodic Table occupy the
same energy level:
Period

Energy Level of
Valence Electrons

Valence Shell

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

K
L
M
N
O
P
Q

Down a Group of the Periodic Table from top to bottom, the energy of the valence electrons
increases:
Energy Level of
Valence Electrons
in a Group
2
3
4
5
6
7

lowest energy

highest energy

Electron Configuration
Key Concepts

The number of electrons in an atom of an element corresponds to the element's Atomic


Number (Z) and is equal to the number of protons in the nucleus of the atom.
H atom, Z = 1.
Number of protons in H atom = Z = 1
Number of electrons in H atom = Z = 1

The number of electrons in the ion of an element corresponds to the element's Atomic
Number (Z) minus the charge on the ion:
H+, Z = 1, charge = +1. Number of electrons in ion = Z - charge = 1 - (+1) = 0
H-, Z = 1 charge = -1. Number of electrons in ion = Z - charge = 1 - (-1) = 2

Simple Electron Configuration shows the number of electrons in each energy level

Lowest Energy levels are filled first


(ie, first energy level is filled first followed by the second then the third etc)
Energy Level

Maximum Number of Electrons

First

Second

Third

18

Fourth

32

Filled energy levels correspond to the electron configuration of Group 18 (VIII)


elements
(the Noble or Inert Gases)

Subshell Electron Configuration shows the number of electrons in each subshell


(or sub-level) within each energy level

Group of the Periodic


Table

subshell being
filled

Maximum Number of
Electrons

1 and 2
(IA and IIA)

13, 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 , 18
(IIIA,IVA,VA,VIA,VIIA,VIII)

Transition Metals

10

Lanthanides and Actinides

14

Orbital Notation shows the number of electrons in each orbital within an energy level

Simple Electron Configuration


Maximum number of electrons in each energy level (shell):
1st(K)=2, 2nd(L)=8, 3rd(M)=18, 4th(N)=32
The helium atom has 2 electrons in the first energy level.
Its simple electron configuration is 2
The neon atom has 10 electrons,
2 electrons in the first energy level and 8 electrons in the second energy level.
Its simple electron configuration is 2,8
The argon atom has 18 electrons,
2 electrons in the first energy level, 8 electrons in the second energy level, 8 electrons in the
thrid energy level.
Its simple electron configuration is 2,8,8

Period

Order for Filling Energy Levels

Shell

First

Li

Be

F Ne

Second

Na Mg

Al

Si

Cl Ar

Third

Fourth

Xe

Fifth

Pb Bi Po At Rn

Sixth

He

Energy
Level

Ca

Transition Metals : third energy level


filling

Rb Sr

Transition Metals : fourth energy


level filling

Cs Ba

Transition Metals : fifth energy level


filling

Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
In Sn Sb Te
Tl