309 views

Uploaded by Araman Tanvir

A good description

- Lecture Notes for Illumination Engineering
- 761 C. Velzel a Course in Lens Design - 2014
- Optics Bench
- messenger-no102
- The Slit Lamp Exam
- Optical Communication
- Practice Exam 1
- Self 1983 Focusing Gaussian Beams AWC
- How Everything Works
- Dispersion of Light
- AISEE-Scholarship-2017-UserManual-Syllabus.pdf
- FHSC1034 Tutorial 6
- Nikon Forestry Pro Manual
- Tmt Segment Polishing Principles Rel03
- The Glendora Happy Book
- Planks
- 10622_iss1_140509
- JNTUH MSc Entrance Exam Syllabus
- handout1
- Weapons of Mass Creation

You are on page 1of 36

PHY F213

Dr. Manjuladevi.V

Assistant Professor

Department of Physics

BITS Pilani 333031

manjula@bits-pilani.ac.in

OPTICS

Optics by Ghatak, 3rd Edition, Tata Mcgraw Hill (2003)

Principles of Optics, B. K. Mathur

Optical Physics by A. Lipson, S. G. Lipson, H. Lipson,

cambridge university press, 2010

Introduction to Electrodynamics, David J.Griffiths, 3rd Ed.,

Pearson, 1999.

Lecture notes

Lasers and non-linear optics, B. B. Laud, 2nd Ed., Wiley

Eastern Ltd

Lecture No.

Learning Objectives

Topics to be covered

Reference

Chap./ Sec. #

1-2

Introduction

1&2

3-6

eigenvalues and eigenvectors of transformation matrices

7-10

Aberrations

5.1-5.3

11

Huygens theory

10.1-10.5

12-18

Origin of refractive index and scattering Origin of refractive index, Rayleigh Scattering, Dynamic 6.11-6.15,

theory and applications

light scattering

notes

19-23

dispersion

24-25

group velocity

26-27

Polarization

28-32

Maxwells equations and Electromagnetic Wave Equation, Poynting vector, oscillating dipole, wave 20.3-20.5,

19.12,

waves, Plane wave propagation in propagation in anisotropic media, Reflection and 21.1-21.2 & RB 3

anisotropic

media,

Reflection

and transmission coefficients

Refraction of EM waves

33-36

Lasers

23.1-23.5, RB 5

37-38

Holography

RB 5

39-40

Lecture notes

Lecture

19.1-19.8

Evaluation Scheme

Component

Duration

Weightage (%)

Mid-sem Test

90 mins

25 %

Quiz/Viva/Assignment

----

30%

Compre. Exam

3 hrs

45%

Venue

08/10/12

10-11:30AM

Closed Book

------

04/12/12

FN

Open book

Closed Book

&

Geometrical Optics: Matrix Methods, Aberrations

Scattering

Wave Optics: Fresnel and Fraunhoffer Diffraction

Dispersion

Polarization, Crystal Optics

Propagation of EM waves in different media

Lasers & Applications

OPTICS

1642-1747

OPTICS

O

TIK

( Ancient Greek): appearance or look

OPTICKS - 1704 -English- Isaac Newton

OPTICS: properties and behavior of light and interaction of EM waves

with matter, fabrication of instruments that detect or use light.

Geometrical Optics: Ray optics- light is considered to be a collection of

rays that travel in straight lines and bend whenever they encounter

obstacles (pass through or reflect from surfaces)

Physical Optics: wave nature : diffraction, interference

Quantum Optics: wave-particle dual nature

:

:

:

:

:

:

140 AD Ptolemy table: angle of refraction in water for different angle of incidence in air

1608 Lippershey: first telescope with a converging objective lens and diverging eye lens

1609 Galieleo: Telescope with Magnification 9

1621 Snell: law of refraction

1637 Descarts derived snells law: corpuscular model of light

1657: Fermat: Principle of least time

1864 Maxwell : EM waves and light is a EM wave

1887 Hertz: photoelectric effect

1905: Einstein: light quanta- photelectric effect

1960 : First laser fabrication by Maiman

2006: Invisibility cloak(possibility)

reflect on what light is

Albert Einstein, 1917

conscious brooding have

brought me no close to the

answer to the question,

What are light quanta? Of

course today every rascal

thinks he knows the

answer, but he is deluding

himself. --Albert Einstein

1951

1879-1955

Geometric Optics

Outline

Basics

Reflection

Mirrors

Plane mirrors

Spherical mirrors

Concave mirrors

Convex mirrors

Refraction

Lenses

Concave lenses

Convex lenses

Geometric optics

Snells law:

n1sin

1 = n2sin

2

Corpuscular theory

Newton 1704- OPTICKS

Particles or corpuscles: tiny so that a collision between

particles rarely occurs

Once collision occurs, the ray of light will not travel in

straight line

Different colors ascribed to different corpuscules

Corpuscular theory

A particle is incident at a plane surface y=0

Conserving x-component of the momentum

p1 sin 1 = p2 sin 2

sin 1 p2

=

sin 2 p1

sin 1 v 2

=

sin 2 v1

a denser medium) its speed will be higher which is inconsistent with

experimental observations

Corpuscular theory

p1 sin 1 = p2 sin 2

I

sin 1 p2

=

sin 2 p1

sin 1 v 2

=

sin 2 v1

a denser medium) its speed will be higher which is inconsistent with

experimental observations

Fails to explain:

Snells law

Diffraction

Interference

Polarisation

Huygens wave theory

Explains all these.

Belief on corpuscular

theory:

Rectilinear propagation of

light

Light could propagate

through vacuum i.e. it is

not an elastic wave which

requires medium for

porpagation. So if light is

composed of corpuscules

it will propagate through

vacuum

Geometrical Optics

S

A

Optical components: ~10-3m

Wavelength of light : ~ 10-6m

P

0 geometrical optics

S

Geometrical optics : find the path of rays as it travels through optical components

Fermats Principle

Principle of least time or Fermats principle:

"The actual path between two points taken by a

beam of light is the one which is traversed in

the least time ".

Or

"A light ray, in going between two points, must

traverse as optical path length which is

stationary with respect to variations of the

path.

ds ni dsi

=

v

c

1

1

= ni dsi = nds

c

c A B

ti =

B

E

ds

c

D

A

For a homogeneous medium

refractive index n(x,y,z) is constant,

so the minimum optical path length

corresponds to a straight line

nds

is an extremum

B

c

nds = 0

A

B

the one for which the optical path length is

stationary with respect to variations of the path.

L op =

a2 + x2 +

dL op

dx

a +x

sin i = sin r

i = r

Law of Reflection

http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu

b 2 + (d x) 2

(d x)

2

b + (d x)

=0

2

Lop = n1 h1 + x 2 + n2 h2 + (d x) 2

dLop

=0

dx

n1 x

d-x

h1 + x

sin 1=

d

sin 2 =

n2 ( d x )

h2 + (d x)

x

2

h1 + x 2

( d x)

2

h2 + (d x) 2

n1 sin 1 = n2 sin 2

=0

medium

n( x ) cos ( x ) = n( x) sin ( x)

~

n( x ) cos ( x ) = n1 cos 1 =

~

n ( x ) cos ( x ) =

ds

= dz

ds

dz

+ dx

2

2

dx

=

+1

dz

~

dz

= cos =

ds

n(x)

dx

dz

n 2 (x)

=

~2 1

dx d x

1 dn dx

2

= ~2

2

dz dz

dx dz

d 2x

1 dn 2

= ~2

2

dz

2 dx

Consider a medium characterized by refractive index

variation of type: n(x)=n0+kx

d 2x

1 dn 2

= ~2

2

dz

2 dx

d 2x

k

= ~ 2 (n0 + kx )

2

dz

d2X k2

= ~ 2 X ( z)

2

dz

Where,

X = x+

n0

k

Consider a medium characterized by refractive index

variation of type: n(x)=n0+kx

2

d x

1 dn

= ~2

2

dz

2 dx

x( z ) = C1e

d 2x

k

= ~ 2 (n0 + kx )

2

dz

dx

dz

d2X k2

= ~ 2 X ( z)

2

dz

Where,

X = x+

n0

k

( k ~)z

+ C2 e

(k ~) z

n0

x( z = 0) = x1

= tan 1

z =0

1

1

C1 = {x1 + (n0 + n1 sin 1 )}

2

k

1

1

C2 = {x1 + (n0 n1 sin 1 )}

2

k

Artificial Mirage

solutions to simulate the

inversion layers. A cat is seen

looking through a glass, which

has three layers of solution, with

decreasing refractive index from

bottom to top. The cat appears in

multiple images. This simulates

an atmosphere with two

inversion layers.

http://en.wikipedia.org/

Consider a parabolic index medium characterized by

refractive index variation of type: n2(x)=n12-2x2

~2

n ( x)

dx

=

~

dz

dx

1

=

n 2 ( x) ~ 2 ~ dz

dx

= ~ dz

( x02 x 2 )

~

n12 2

x0 =

Consider a parabolic index medium characterized by

refractive index variation of type: n2(x)=n12-2x2

~2

n ( x)

dx

=

~

dz

dx

1

=

n 2 ( x) ~ 2 ~ dz

dx

= ~ dz

( x02 x 2 )

~

n12 2

x0 =

x = x0 sin

= ~ ( z z0 )

x = x0 sin{ ~ ( z z0 )}

- Lecture Notes for Illumination EngineeringUploaded byVishal Narkhede
- 761 C. Velzel a Course in Lens Design - 2014Uploaded bySolidWorks
- Optics BenchUploaded byLeo Tolentino
- messenger-no102Uploaded byEuropean Southern Observatory
- The Slit Lamp ExamUploaded byrapid73
- Optical CommunicationUploaded byKrishan Pandya
- Practice Exam 1Uploaded byjklam115
- Self 1983 Focusing Gaussian Beams AWCUploaded byprocuste
- How Everything WorksUploaded byClaudemir Stenico
- Dispersion of LightUploaded byEmmanuel Cuasay Revilla
- AISEE-Scholarship-2017-UserManual-Syllabus.pdfUploaded byRicha Nahar
- FHSC1034 Tutorial 6Uploaded byKrishnaah Smuglerzz
- Nikon Forestry Pro ManualUploaded byD Rider Casanova
- Tmt Segment Polishing Principles Rel03Uploaded byNicolas Rousselet
- The Glendora Happy BookUploaded byBill Huston
- PlanksUploaded byGanesh Kumar
- 10622_iss1_140509Uploaded byAle Nqn
- JNTUH MSc Entrance Exam SyllabusUploaded byAnweshaBose
- handout1Uploaded byRalph Nakad
- Weapons of Mass CreationUploaded bynihalmehta
- Angle Encoder 365C PS 2010 ENG NeuUploaded byNishanth.M nishu
- Nuneral Network Laser Radar AO 1994Uploaded byDug Young Kim
- D-R290allUploaded byKhaled Bahbah
- Meinel Optical Sciences BuildingUploaded byZohodanica
- FlowcitytometryUploaded byabrahan
- Integrador-FBGUploaded bympreciado78
- LightUploaded byMarlene Luna
- International Journal of Engineering Research and Development (IJERD)Uploaded byIJERD
- TR Panorama pyrometer_201510_en.pdfUploaded byVanbever
- 104523 rUploaded byDavid Hinostroza Vargas

- FLUORIMETERUploaded bySnape the Prince
- Trs-398 Iaea Ingles 2004Uploaded byHigino Zars
- Tute-Interference-SEM-I-2014-July-December.docxUploaded bygourisankar
- Igcse 71 Atoms&RadioactivityUploaded byHany ElGezawy
- electromagnetic spectrum.pdfUploaded byismun nadhifah
- Fundamentals of Packaging TechnologyUploaded byRohit Chawla
- NLE2010 training manual draftUploaded byHussein Said
- uema 3oooo ask59Uploaded byiolkos11
- the invisibility cloak 1Uploaded byapi-286662071
- Medical Electronics - Lecture Notes, Study Material and Important Questions, AnswersUploaded byM.V. TV
- upcmet2014Uploaded byAbhishek Chourha
- file_47101Uploaded byMubarak Ahmad
- Makna Kata Healing EarthUploaded byMonica Wulanda Astari
- E404Uploaded byJan Ebenezer Moriones
- Electromagnetic SpectrumUploaded byAndres Galarraga
- SET4523 Final TutorialUploaded byHilmi Mujahid
- In-Vivo Dosimetry Using Mosfets, Diodes and TldsUploaded byzderciuc
- NIR (Near Infra Red)Uploaded byjorgecappetta
- Sơ đồ liều trong X-quang y tếUploaded byTruc Kim
- Science NotesUploaded byquixoticepiphany
- Fluorescent Screens 1 1Uploaded bySiddhu Araganji
- Miracles of the Holly Quran PakUploaded byapi-19973496
- A Monte Carlo Study of IMRT Beamlets in Inhomogeneous MediaUploaded byAmbreen Khan
- twoUploaded byapi-340425056
- cylindrical source.pdfUploaded byrammar147
- Radiation LabUploaded bymuzammalsafdar
- PhysicsAtomic&Nuclear102512Uploaded bypfreda
- The Basic Physics of SpectroscopyUploaded byReynan Toledo
- SpectroscopyUploaded bySube Singh Insan
- AS level PhysicsUploaded byArthur Wong