Investing in Food and Nutrition Security

Identifying Potential Investment Opportunities in the Agriculture and Food Industries in CARICOM

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Investing in Food and Nutrition Security Identifying Potential Investment Opportunities in the Agriculture and Food Industries in CARICOM

© Inter-American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture (IICA) 2009 IICA and the CTA encourage the fair use of this document. Proper citation is requested. This publication is also available in electronic (PDF) format from IICA’s Web site at http://www.iica.int and at the CTA’s website at http://www.cta.int and CaRAPN website at http://www.carapn.net Editor: Diana Francis Layout: Kathryn Duncan Cover Design: Kathryn Duncan Printed: Orange Printers The views expressed herein and not necessarily those of IICA or the CTA. All errors and omissions are the responsibility of the authors and editor.

Investing in Food and Nutrition Security - Identifying Potential Investment Opportunities in the Agriculture and Food Industries in CARICOM / Charles Carmichael, Andrew Jacque, Diana Francis – Port of Spain: IICA, 2009. p0 p.; 21.59 x 27.94 ISBN13: 978-92-9248-053-0 1. Food security 2. Nutrition 3. Nutrient improvement 4. Caribbean 5.CARICOM I. IICA II. Title AGRIS E10 DEWEY 338.19

Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago May 2009

The views expressed herein are not necessarily those of IICA or the CTA. All errors and omissions are the responsibility of the authors and editor.

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Foreword
This activity was initiated in late 2005, as part of the regional strategy to 'Alleviate nine (9) Key Binding Constraints (KBC) for Agriculture' (commonly referred to as the 'Jagdeo Initiative'). This paper, 'Investing in Food and Nutrition Security - Identifying Potential Investment Opportunities in the Agriculture and Food Industries in CARICOM', was undertaken as a key intervention in addressing KBC #1 - Inadequate Financing and Investment in the Sector. It is intended to contribute to the dialogue and decision-making of the Technical Management Advisory Committee (TMAC) responsible for this KBC with respect to defining the search for a portfolio of investment projects and as well, to inform the lending policy and regime of a proposed Agricultural Modernization Fund (AMF). Explanation on the approach is necessary. At the outset, it must be emphasized that this paper did not adopt a quantitative approach. Its aim was to outline the critical issues that must guide a more focused empirical analysis on all and inter-linked factors germane to making investment decisions, whether public or private, on the basis of the nutritional imperative that must underlie the notion of food security. This notwithstanding, effort was made to present relevant data, where appropriate, to emphasize certain issues brought out in the discussion. Firstly, the effort to obtain the relevant data was not without its challenges. This is reflected by the use, in some instances of data from the FATSTAT. Recognizing that there are concerns about the accuracy of that data set, the data used mainly to indicate the diversity and relative capacity of food production in the various food groups, as defined by the Caribbean Food and Nutrition Institute (CFNI), and not as a true representation of the capacity of Member States to produce the foods in question. Hence the opinions regarding this data should not cloud the main message - that being, most, if not all Member States have the capacity to produce a diverse range of foods in all of the food groups to meet a significant share of their food needs. Secondly, and related to the first point, the data set used is 'old'. This also reflects the general difficulties relating to availability and access to credible and updated agricultural production and trade statistics. Thirdly, and related to the second point, is that there is very little tradition or historical experience in approaching a discussion on agricultural development for food security in according to nutritional guidelines defined by the Food Groups. Further, international trade classification (Harmonized System) is not based on food groups, but rather according to industrial activity and by scale of transformation, i.e., primary, semi-processed, finished consumer goods, and categories in between. Hence 'pulling out' the individual items from import data, to obtain a true matching to a food group basket, requires a substantial level of effort and collaboration with the CFNI.

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'High regional food import bill' and 'high regional food import dependency' are generally conclusions used to substantiate the deteriorating performance of agriculture, and thus are also used as a first point of reference in the process of identifying opportunities and channeling investments in import-re/dis-placement industries in CARICOM. While this approach may have worked in the past, given the serious concerns over diet-related chronic non-communicable diseases (CNCDs) and the association with high consumption of such imported foods, the time has come to approach analysis of import data from a different perspective - by food groups and the value chain approach - from farm to table. This paper takes the food group approach, in contribution to a second stage analysis developing competitive value chains for meeting food nutrition needs. However, extracting the import data to match the food groups presented challenges. This is because trade data is classified by industrial activity and not by food needs. However a first stage attempt was made to illustrate the importance of such analysis. Limitations, notwithstanding, it is believed that the discussion provides a good base to define clear actions for addressing the food and nutrition security challenge.

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Acknowledgements
From January 2003, the Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Co-operation (CTA) and the Inter-American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture (IICA) have developed joint activities in the Caribbean. The purpose of such activities is to contribute to the development of an enabling environment for agricultural repositioning and quality of rural life in the Caribbean. In this process, the participation of stakeholders at all levels has been fully encouraged. The contributions of the CTA, through this paper on identification of potential investment opportunities for the domestic food and agriculture industry included as part of the 2005 work program, and other activities undertaken with IICA and its other partners in the Caribbean Region, are acknowledged. The direct contributions of acknowledged, specifically: Caribbean professionals to this effort are

Andrew Jacque, Ph.D for undertaking extensive analysis on the import data and the patterns of industry requests to the CARICOM Secretariat for derogation to the Common External Tariff (CET); Charles Carmichael for collating relevant aspects of research undertaken by the Caribbean Food and Nutrition Institute (CFNI) on consumption patterns and health-related impacts, food production and intra-regional distribution; Christine Bocage for the detailed review, additional information and suggestions and editing of the final draft of the paper. The Trinidad and Tobago AgriBusiness Association (TTABA) for supporting the efforts to prepare the import data in accordance with the food groups and in using the approach taken in the paper to inform the definitions of actions and national programs.

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It is hoped that the approach taken will focus dialogue and encourage more quantitative analysis on specific aspects of food and nutrition security. Further, it is also hoped that the information provided will contribute to decision-making and enhance the design of short-term and more critically, long-term policies for placing the region in a more sustainable position with respect to food and nutrition security.

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Table of Contents
Foreword...............................................................................................................................................2 Acknowledgements ............................................................................................................................4 Executive Summary .............................................................................................................................6 1. Context ...........................................................................................................................................11 1.1 Introduction 11 1.2 Background 2. 12

Food Production and Nutrition Security Issues .......................................................................17 2.1 The Changing Context 17 2.2 The CARICOM Consumer 2.3 Consequences of CARICOM's Food Choices 2.4 Linking Consumption to Nutrition 21 23 29

3. Meeting Regional Food Needs.....................................................................................................33 3.1. Producing Nutrition Needs 33 3.2 Supplementing Food Needs: the Regional Food 'Basket' 3.3 Importing Food Needs: relying on Extra-Regional sources 4. 41 43

Investing in Nutrition ..............................................................................................................51 4.1 Opportunities for Food and Nutrition Security- by Food Group 53 4.2 Potential Areas for Investing in Food and Nutrition Security 4.3 Investment Climate for Capacity Building in Food Nutrition Security 54 61

Conclusion..........................................................................................................................................64 Annex 1: ................................................................................................................................................. i Nutritional and Health Benefits of Food from Plants by Food Groups .......................................... ii Annex 2: ............................................................................................................................................... iv CARICOM: Value of Imports at 6-digit Tariff line level and Top 3 Suppliers by Rank and Percent Supply of tariff line and Intra-Regional Supply ................................................................. iv Acronyms and Abbreviations .........................................................................................................xvii References........................................................................................................................................xviii

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Executive Summary
Food and nutrition security, while always an area of priority for CARICOM countries, is currently receiving much more attention. This renewed attention is in response to the growing vulnerability of CARICOM nations to periodic trade disruptions and global food shortages and as well as, to the high incidence of diet-related diseases. The food crisis that escalated towards the latter half of 2007, brought on by sharp increases in a range of food products, has prompted a renewed interest in issues of self-sufficiency, import displacement, domestic food production and health. This paper approaches the discussion on food and nutrition security based on the nutritional guidelines for a healthy daily diet recommended by the Caribbean Food and Nutrition Institute (CFNI). These guidelines point to an undisputable fact: that staples - the source of carbohydrates (energy food), and legumes and nuts - the source of protein (growth and repair food), among other nutrients, together should account for over half (67%) of the body’s daily nutrient intake. Vegetables and fruits together, comprise the third most important food need (21%), followed by food from animals (8%). Fats and oils constitute the lowest share of nutrient needs. Ironically, the CFNI surveys reveal that the foods which are the least needed for a healthy diet are those that are the most consumed. Surveys in CARICOM, revealed that consumption of fats and oils, increasingly is almost twice the recommended consumption. A similar result was obtained for sugars and sweeteners, which also and ironically, do not form part of the CFNI’s food and nutritional guidelines. The conclusion was that CARICOM is generally over-fed on empty calories. The consequences of such food choices are being revealed in the increasing incidences of chronic non-communicable diseases (CNCDs). CNCDs, such as, diabetes, obesity, high blood pressure, stroke, heart diseases and cancer, have replaced malnutrition and infectious diseases as major public health problems. In 2001, the combined economic burden of diabetes and high blood pressure for CARICOM was extremely high. Measured in health care, such costs approximated US$89.4 million in Barbados, US$419.3 million in Jamaica, and US$496.7 million in Trinidad & Tobago, while the corresponding burden to the Bahamas in 2002 was an estimated US$58.4 million. Research has linked the rising obesity rates to corresponding increases in consumption of fatty foods, snacks, soft drinks and high-energy foods and drinks. This paper provides the context and issues that should be more seriously considered in a determination of potential investment opportunities in the agriculture and food industries in CARICOM. It begins with a brief discussion on the features of CARICOM as they relate directly to the subject matter. It discusses the key elements of the food and nutrition security debate in the context of CARICOM’s geo-political and socio-economic landscape. The main point of emphasis is that the combined resources of CARICOM – physical, human and financial - are capable of providing for a much greater level of food and nutrition security than currently obtains. A ‘profile’ of CARICOM’s consumer, what drives such consumption choices and the health and welfare consequences of same, follows. Why are these issues included in a discussion on identifying investment opportunities in the agriculture and food industry? Globally, the agriculture and food industry is big business, exhibiting rapid growth and generating billions of dollars in wealth for multinational corporations. Part of that wealth derives from the substantial share of developing countries’ agriculture and food markets, including
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CARICOM. It is the contention of many in the region, that should adequate investments be injected into domestic/regional agriculture and food industries, then some of this wealth ‘leakage’ could be retained and indirect costs of financing high and rising curative health care services could be reduced. This has become more critical in the context of the CARICOM Single Market and Economy (CSME). The key message from this discussion is that while CARICOM’s consumer has evolved and embraced Western lifestyles, CARICOM’s agriculture and food production has not. Agriculture in the region has to ‘catch-up’ in an environment where perishable food products from extra-regional sources are much more accessible than similar products produced locally. Given the serious health concerns over food choices based on imported highly-refined empty caloric ‘foods’, the region may now have a good opportunity to base the development of the agriculture and food system on the food needs of the region, as opposed to the traditional objective of satisfying export markets. Hence the opportunity now exists to more closely match agriculture’s investment needs to food and nutrition needs for a healthy and productive CARICOM population. These ‘food needs’ are defined by the CFNI’s ‘Caribbean Food Groups- A Guide to Meal Planning for Healthy Eating’, which specify six food groups that, in relative proportions, are important to a healthy daily diet. Discussing food needs and agricultural development based on CFNI’s guidelines marks a critical point of departure from other similar discussions. The issue of agriculture and food production capacity is addressed from the perspective of satisfying the recommended nutritional guidelines and not from the usual market-led approach. This shift in perspective is important to help make a determination as to whether, and how far the region can substantially meet its recommended food needs from its combined production capacity. Integrating this approach in agricultural development policies and strategies will enable the region to adopt a ‘preventive’ health care system rather than bear the burdens of costly long-term curative health care. This has direct and long-term implications for how the region’s capacity to supply foods should be developed, not only in terms of assuring health, but also, in terms of reducing wealth ‘leaked’ through high import bills. This also has direct bearings on tourism and industrial development strategies, which currently have weak linkages to agriculture. These sectors have also been major sources of the wealth ‘leakages’ due to their heavy dependence on both imported foods and raw materials and the high health burdens in terms of the rise in chronic, but avoidable, dietrelated illnesses. The main message from this aspect of the discussion is that the foods that should be most consumed are those that are the least consumed, leading to problems, not only for maintaining a dynamic agriculture and food system, but also for the nutritional status and hence health of the population. While the foods needed for a healthy daily diet are well defined, what remains a grey area in CARICOM is the capacity of the supply side to fill these needs. Since the mid-1970s, numerous projects have been implemented with national resources and significant donor funds to deal with this capacity limitation. In 2009, it remains a key binding constraint to agricultural development, regardless of whether it is to meet domestic food needs, fuel agro-industry or generate high export earnings. This part of the discussion addresses the issue of availability in terms of supply capacity, that is, physical production status and capacity in the region and intra-regional distribution of food from regional sources according to each of the CFNI food group. This approach represents yet another point of

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departure from similar regional discussions with respect to ‘what commodity or groups of commodities’ should receive priority for development resources. This discussion reinforces the point made above, that the combined resources of CARICOM are indeed capable of providing for a much greater level of food and nutrition security, once investments are made in enhancing both the physical supplies and distribution within and among countries of the region. This logically extends into a discussion on the status of the region’s agriculture and food import reliance. Ironically, the foods that rank highest in the region’s ‘food’ import bill are those that are least needed for a healthy diet – food from animals, fats and oils, and sugars and sweeteners. The question then becomes, why the strong preference for imported foods, produced with significant support from developed country governments that enables them to export competitively to developing countries, such as in CARICOM? The CARICOM Secretariat (2005) estimated that between 2000 and 2004, only about 16% of the Region’s total food imports were sourced from within the region. These comprised mainly processed cereal-based bakery products and sugar-based beverages (soft drinks) from Trinidad & Tobago. The extensive imports of such raw materials and ingredients to feed agro-industry in Trinidad & Tobago contribute, in a large part, to the high and rising food import bill in CARICOM. Food import data, combined with consumption trends beg the question of whether the recommended foods are simply not readily available, due to low production, poor quality, inadequate distribution, or whether they are simply not accessible by a large part of the population. This answer will influence the types of actions and interventions designed and implemented to efficiently address the objective of food and nutrition security. In terms of redressing the food trade and food nutrition imbalances, the CFNI food and nutrition guidelines provide definitive answers to the question of what should be consumed. It is on this basis that the discussion argues for the identification of potential investment opportunities in the agriculture and food system in CARICOM that link nutrition to food production decisions. The ultimate part of the discussion, on identifying investment opportunities, acknowledges that the food and nutrition crisis has given the Region a reason for pause and stock-taking in terms of its priorities and approach to agricultural development. It focuses on issues related to identifying potential investment opportunities that can stimulate growth in the agriculture and food industries and foster inter-sectoral linkages to curtail both the volume and rate of wealth leakages and provide a firm platform for growth and sustainable development. It contends that the current food crisis is a symptom of a crisis of agriculture that has been allowed to escalate and a crisis of rapidly urbanizing societies in a lagging development process. It also contends that the response by virtually all CARICOM Heads of State to implement short-term measures to mitigate the impact of rising food prices and improve access, needs to be backed up by adequate and well targeted investments to place the region in a much better position to manage future food crisis situations. The discussion reiterates the conclusions of many in the region, that serious investment is needed across the board in enhancing crop and animal production to secure a reasonable proportion of the region’s food needs and to supply raw material for agroindustries. In terms of potential areas for such investments driven by the food and nutrition security objective, the paper argues for prioritizing the staples and legumes/nuts food groups since they meet over half of daily food needs for a healthy diet. This

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recommendation is not only justified from a nutritional perspective, but also from a production capacity perspective. The combined resources and traditional experience in the region are capable of producing a substantial part of these particular food groups. This provides sufficient justification for prioritizing these food groups in agricultural development policies and projects. Concerns over national security should also be a key consideration in increasing investments to enhance supply capacity in these two food groups. The reason is brought into stark focus by Dr. Chelston Brathwaite, Director General of IICA, when he stated noted that "if we were to look at the bases of our human rights or the rights enshrined in our constitutions, we see health, in health we provide hospitals, we provide doctors, we provide nurses, we provide clinics. In Education, we provide universities, we provide schools, we provide kindergartens, and we provide teachers. In the area of personal security we provide policemen, we provide lawyers, we provide courts, and we provide prisons. In the area of food, what do we provide? Food as a basic right of the population, where is the food and nutrition policy that is central to development? ... The region does not risk its health services, education and security to others. Hence, why should it continue to risk its food and nutrition security – the basis of the existence of its peoples - to others?. ..the critical thing which we have to ask ourselves today, 'are we going to continue to depend on others to feed us or are we going to try to feed ourselves'?'.. (Brathwaite, 2008) It is clear that adequate investments must also be made in developing the vegetable and fruit sub-sectors for the same reasons advanced above, and also for the fact that from the late 1970s, CARICOM countries made significant investments in these industries for export markets. However for the remaining food groups, the issue of investment needs is not as clear cut. In terms of food from animals, the relatively low requirement for a healthy daily diet should provide some measure of caution and rethinking. While foods from animals, mainly poultry, rank extremely high on the consumer preference chart, high consumption cannot be considered as synonymous with good nutrition. This notwithstanding, the fact that the CFNI recommends a lower intake of food from animals does not preclude development of the animal products industry. Spending limited investment resources in developing new livestock industries that may not be in a position to survive in the absence of continued government support is also a decision that needs to be revisited. In the context of nutritional guidelines, such investment cannot be strongly justified on a food and nutrition security basis. The region does not have a comparative advantage in animal products, particularly those from large livestock. The decisions regarding small ruminants, pigs other small stock and fisheries products, will obviously have different considerations. Among the other critical considerations is the role of cultural eating patterns and food preferences of the CARICOM consumer. Fish, in particular, holds potential for investment along the entire value chain, from infrastructure to the scientific applications, technology, research and preservation and the services industry. Investment decisions should also explore production of fishing tackles, cold storage and transportation, development of fish ponds in coastal areas, swamps, where they exist, aquaculture, fish canning and packaging, boat construction and out-board engines assembly and manufacture, trawling and ancillary facilities and services. With an emerging health consciousness in CARICOM and growing demand for fishery products that are high in protein, low in fat and high in vitamins, minerals and other essential nutrients,
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Investing in Food and Nutrition Security - Identifying Potential Investment Opportunities in the Agriculture and Food Industries in CARICOM

CARICOM would be well served to focus investments towards increasing current regional capacity to supply protein needs from fish and fish products. It is well understood, that investment incentives are an important component of the domestic policy measures needed to support the farm and agro-processing sectors in CARICOM. There is sufficient scope for Governments of the region to provide incentives, of one form or another, to the agricultural production and/or processing sector under the facilities and mechanisms of the World Trade Organisation (WTO) Agriculture Agreement defined in the “green box”. This notwithstanding, the national and regional environments for competitive business are still not sufficiently conducive to attracting greater levels of investment in agriculture. The discussion concludes by emphasizing the need for CARICOM, as a region and as sovereign states, to secure the food and nutrition objectives by investing in the development of its ‘food system’. The term "food system" is a phrase used to link elements of food production (agriculture), food distribution (trade) nutrition, health and rural/community development. The food system is described as including all processes involved in keeping people fed and must address, in an equal manner, the four key components of food and nutrition security, namely, availability, household access, nutritional adequacy and stability of the three components. Agriculture is inextricably tied to the issue of availability. Using the CFNI’s food groups, the combined resources of CARICOM can reasonably supply a significant share of the most important food needs for a healthy daily diet – staples, legumes/nuts, fruits and vegetables. Therefore, for CARICOM, investment decisions that tip the scales in favour of domestic/regional production and distribution will go a long way in reducing import reliance and enhancing regional food and nutrition security. National measures that promote and facilitate household food and nutrition security also complement efforts to expand availability. Other access-enhancing measures include farmers’ markets that seek to ensure better national distribution of locally produced foods, government programmes to enhance income earning opportunities so vulnerable households can meet food needs and safety nets, such as, food stamps. Attention to food safety along the chain, but particularly from planting to farm gate, will also have some implications for the quality of the food product in terms its nutritional adequacy. Such efforts at the national level should be supported and reinforced by regional mechanisms that both strengthen the regional environment for investment and ensure a more efficacious distribution of investment resources into areas that secure the wealth of member states through the health of their populations. Increasing investment in agriculture for food and nutrition security is a stated goal of the community agricultural policy framework in the Revised Treaty establishing the Caribbean Community, including the CSME.

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1. Context
1.1 Introduction
Investment, in any sector or industry, is an essential vehicle for technology transfer, growth and development. Such investments speak to public and private sector injections of capital into public goods and private enterprise that create the national/regional environment for building competitive and integrated value chains. The lack of such value-chain development in CARICOM has been cited as the single most important factor limiting the growth and development of agriculture, and hence placing the region in this highly undesirable and unsustainable foodimport dependence situation. The agricultural development process has been fairly similar in all CARICOM countries. The process can best be described as a series of ‘shifts’ accompanied by challenging adjustments, rather than seamless development in response to market signals. These cyclical shifts were almost always in response to externally driven changes in the preferential marketing arrangements for the major export crop industries. Since the early 1980s, several attempts have been made to diversify the production base and expand value adding for fuelling exports. However, the structure of agriculture has remained virtually unchanged and is still largely described as a producer and exporter of bulk, raw materials for food and beverage value-adding industries in developed countries. The export trade data provide ample evidence of this structure. The development of domestic/regional valueadded capacity has proceeded at a relatively slow pace, with an emphasis on food and beverage manufacturing, built largely on imported raw materials and ingredients. The import trade data also provide ample evidence of this dependence, as well as the growing dependence on imports as a source of food and other agricultural materials and inputs. This extends to all types of processing and packaging, agro-chemicals, equipment and machinery and research, technology and development. The emergence of non-food agroindustries, such as, fertiliser and other agro-chemicals, has been also limited to a few companies in a few CARICOM countries, notably, Trinidad & Tobago. The only notable exception of this dependence is labour. However, within the last ten years, the challenges in obtaining labour for
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farms and processing plants have been worsening, and the need to explore migrant labour for agriculture now forms part of the regional agricultural development dialogue. The results of this agri-structure has been an industry – both primary and value-adding – that is now heavily dependent on external sources for the majority of its inputs and a regional society that is also heavily dependent on external sources for food supplies. With the rising prices phenomenon over the last five years, the cost of such dependency, particularly the impact on food and nutrition security, has raised alarm bells and is now a major cause of concern at all levels of industry, civil society and the political directorate. As a consequence, agriculture is back on centre stage, with expectations of assuring adequate supplies of wholesome and nutritious food, providing raw material for industrial development and generating an alternative and renewable source of affordable and clean fuel. While each of these areas offers potential opportunities for investments in developing agriculture and its linked industries in CARICOM, the focus of this paper will be on investment in building food production capacities. The reasons are obvious. As CARICOM countries pursue economic development strategies, there are real concerns that agriculture is ‘losing ground’ to other activities, ‘losing position on the national development agenda’, and ‘losing currency’ in the public and private sector investment portfolios. The combined outcomes of such losses have significant current and future implications for the food and nutrition security and health status of the region’s populations and the sustainable development of CARICOM nations. While agriculture offers investment opportunities beyond the area of food production, the unfolding global situation with respect to rising levels of hunger and malnutrition, environmental challenges (including climate change) and the impacts on assuring food and nutrition security, makes it imperative to maintain a focus on food production.

1.2

Background

The CARICOM region, collectively, has moved from a food-surplus to a food-deficit situation, with a growing reliance on food imports for the welfare of its people. While weakened performance of major agricultural export industries contributed to this shift, the growing preference for imported foods and rapidly expanding tourism, are by far, the major drivers of import growth. Over the last five years, the food deficit situation has worsened as prices of basic food items escalated and costs of transactions increased. The situation now borders on a crisis. A crisis measured, more often than not, in financial terms, that is, by the capacity to pay for imports and purchase food. Unfortunately, a major and often hidden aspect of this crisis is the impact on health of a significant number of the region’s population. This ‘hidden’ impact is being revealed through a significant increase in the number of CARICOM nationals afflicted by health-threatening, diet-related illnesses and diseases. The current search for solutions to avert and mitigate a threatening food and health crisis has brought the role and future of agriculture back on the CARICOM development agenda. Since the mid-1990s, agriculture’s measured contribution to the gross domestic product (GDP), foreign exchange earnings and job creation in several CARICOM countries has declined. This situation has not always been so, which provides fuel to the debates that the current predicament could be reversed and CARICOM returned to a food-surplus region if adequate investments were injected into agricultural development.

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This was the conclusion of the Heads of Government in 2004, when President Bharrat Jagdeo, Lead Head for Agriculture in CARICOM, led a regional effort to re-activate the sector. This CARICOM Alleviation of Key Binding Constraints (KBC) Initiative is focused on nine (9) issues (Box 1). It is instructive, that even while these nine KBCs are not listed in any particular order of priority, the one related to ‘Limited Financing and New Investments’ emerged on top. It is the general conclusion that many previous efforts at agricultural development at national and regional levels have been frustrated by inadequate financial and investment resources, particularly in establishing the infrastructure necessary to stimulate, enable and sustain productive and competitive business.
Box 1: CARICOM Alleviation of Key Binding Constraints (KBCs) Initiative 1. Limited financing and inadequate levels of new investments 2. Outdated/inefficient agricultural health and food safety systems 3. Inadequate research and development 4. Fragmented and disorganised private sector 5. Weak land and water distribution and management measures 6. Deficient and uncoordinated risk management measures 7. Inadequate transportation systems, particularly for perishables 8. Weak and non-integrated information and intelligence systems and weak linkages and participation in growth market segments 9. Lack of skilled and quality human resources.

The CARICOM region is fortunate in terms of its geography and climate that enables yearround agricultural production. It has a rich biodiversity and sufficient arable land distributed across islands and mainland states that endow the region with the capability to undertake the successful cultivation of a wide range of crops. Water resources, while not as evenly distributed across member states, are generally available, fed by high levels of rainfall, riversystems and under-ground water reservoirs. There is a base of agricultural raw material on which agro-industry can be developed. Also, it is often said that Ministries of Agriculture have a higher number of ‘degreed’ personnel compared to other Ministries in member states, which provides a pool of human capital, complemented by institutions of learning and research, such as, the Universities of the West Indies (UWI), Guyana (UoG) and Surname, and the Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development Institute (CARDI) that have made commendable efforts in developing and adapting new production systems and crop and animal varieties to enhance the productive base and provide the foundation for growth and development in agriculture and its linked industries. All these assets, however, have not always been harmoniously mobilized for optimal results. Agricultural development in CARICOM has historically been organized and managed to service extra-regional markets in developed countries, mainly in Europe. As a consequence, the bulk of financing and investments in agricultural development were almost always tied to developing and expanding capacity for exports of bulk primary commodities. In a post- WTO era, when the European-CARICOM trade and economic relationship was forced to incorporate the principles of free trade, CARICOM countries were similarly forced to revisit their policy options with respect to the priorities for agricultural development. Priorities for agricultural development, as articulated in the Revised Treaty of Chaguaramas, emphasizes, competitiveness, food security and sustainability in the use of natural resources. Achieving these development objectives will require considerable financial and investment
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resources that go beyond the traditional dependence on public-sector budgets and donor financing, and beyond objectives of export-led diversification and growth. In the new context for agricultural development, with more intense demands on global food production systems, greater uncertainty regarding security of food supplies, more intense competition for physical and financial resources, and the deepening of regional integration, it becomes even more imperative that the region engage in efforts to continuously identify opportunities with good investment potential in agriculture and its linked food and non-food products and services industries. 1.3 Features of CARICOM 's Landscape

The socio-economic and physical landscape of CARICOM countries is well documented. For ease of reference, the key elements as they relate directly to the topic will be briefly discussed in this section. …tropical zones, taking the good with the bad The Caribbean’s geography and tropical climate favour a diverse biodiversity that supports wide ranging crop production, animal husbandry, forest and fisheries. In most CARICOM territories, with the exception of the drier Leeward Islands and Barbados, surface and ground water resources are also abundant. This resource capacity is an essential base for supporting and sustaining the supply capacity of food, fuel, fiber and services associated with agriculture and its linked industries. However, the location of the Caribbean region, in the path of tropical weather systems, exposes fragile ecosystems and increases the physical vulnerability of the region. As indicated in the previous section, disaster risk mitigation is receiving priority attention. …progress in human development, but challenges for households and agriculture Changes in demographics have had a major impact on the region's emerging food and nutrition landscape. The regional population moved from 15.1million in 2005, to 15.3 million in 2005. Haiti, Jamaica and Trinidad &Tobago, in that order, accounted for over 85% of this total. This growth resulted, in part, from enhanced life expectancy, which has also contributed to a slow, but steady ageing of the population. This links directly to the oft-cited limitation of an ageing farming population. There has also been a shift in terms of an increasing number of women entering the work place and business sector. Importantly, this includes running small and home-based enterprises, which account for a large share of food processing establishments in rural and urban areas. Urbanisation and more women-inthe-workplace have reduced the numbers of persons available for rural-based business and farm labour, with consequences for efforts to fuel rural prosperity. Expansion in urban populations has been more pronounced in a number of the small OECS islands (St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines and Grenada). This is associated largely with the displacement of farmers and farm workers due to the decline in the banana and sugar industries over the past two decades. The overall average urbanisation for CARICOM increased from 40.7% to 54.7% for the period 1985-2005. Bahamas, whose urban population has increased from 79.7% to 90% between 1985 and 2005, experienced the highest concentration of population in urban areas. Rapid urbanisation has implications, not only for the stagnation in rural areas and carrying capacity of urban-related services and infrastructure, but importantly, for driving changes in consumption choices and habits, often away from traditional foods and patterns. The impact in terms of demand for locally

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produced foods has been profound and detrimental to the sustainable development of agriculture and resilience of the region to external shocks. …rising GDP indicators, but falling output Figure 1: CARICOM—Real GDP Growth, 1997-2006 (2000 prices) Source: FAO/CFNI, 2007 from agriculture CARICOM countries achieved relatively Caribbean: Real GDP Growth strong real growth rates in GDP over the 8 years 2002-2006 (Fig.1). Trinidad & Tobago 7 and Antigua & Barbuda in particular, Growth Rate 6 recorded the highest growth rates in 2006, 5 the former continuing a decade-long boom 4 driven by its energy production and the latter 3 reflecting strong demand for tourism and Trend Line 2 related services and investments in 1 construction related to the Cricket World 0 Cup. Haiti, Guyana and Jamaica showed 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 some growth improvement in 2006 compared to 2005. Such growth is being supported mainly by services, with the goods sector still relatively concentrated in a narrow range of industries, including food and beverage manufacturing (Table 1). “The manufacturing sector, which caters largely to the protected sub-regional and United States (US) markets, in the case of the free trade zones, has not, by and large, attained the level of efficiency to compete successfully on international markets. It is still largely made of offshore processing plants, producing mainly garments and electronics for export to the US, import-substituting plants involved in assembly type operations, that is, appliances essentially targeting the local markets and agro processing plants catering primarily for the CARICOM market.” (FAO/Bynoe, 2007) However, the region’s diversity, both in resource endowment and evolution of economic activity renders it difficult to compare growth achievements. Thus, a 4% growth rate in the Bahamas is considered “unparalleled” according to the Prime Minister; in Barbados it represents a slight reduction from the previous two years; in St Vincent and the Grenadines it is only just above average, whereas Jamaica’s estimated 2.5% growth in 2006 reflects the best performance in 15 years and motivated the announcement that the economy is “out of the doldrums”; the same performance in Belize is disappointing against several years of very high growth (FAO/CFNI, 2007).”1 In almost all growth scenarios, with the exception of Guyana and Suriname, agriculture's growth trended in the opposite direction - downwards, or at best, stagnant. This has been going on for a while and is cause for much concern given the region's high food import dependence, rising costs of production and business transactions, and the impacts of climate change. This outcome is often blamed on the trade liberalization from 1994 and the eventual erosion of the value of preferential market access for leading agriculture export industries. Notwithstanding its overall performance, agriculture remains vital to a number of these economies in terms of supplying foods for domestic consumption, providing employment and income for a number of poor rural households, and supporting agroprocessing industrial development by providing the raw materials to support these industries. Against this backdrop, critical issues for agricultural development in CARICOM centre on the securing adequate supplies of safe and wholesome food.
1

Extract from FAO/CFNI, 2007

%

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Countries Antigua/ Barbuda Agriculture Industry Services Belize Agriculture Industry Services Barbados2 Agriculture Industry Services Dominica Agriculture Industry Services Dominican Republic Agriculture Industry Services Grenada Agriculture Industry Services Guyana Agriculture Industry Services Source: FAO/ CFNI, 2007

Table 1: Structure of Economies—CARIFORUM Countries 1980 1990 2000 2005 Countries 1980 % of GDP Haiti2 7.1 4.2 3.9 3.7 Agriculture na 18.1 20.1 19.8 22.9 Industry na 74.8 75.7 76.3 73.4 Services na Jamaica 27.4 20.0 17.2 16.2 Agriculture 8.3 30.9 22.2 21.1 18.0 Industry 15.1 41.7 57.8 61.7 65.8 Services 58.8 St. Kitts/Nevis 7.0 7.0 6.3 5.8 Agriculture 15.9 20.4 20.1 20.2 20.0 Industry 26.6 72.6 72.9 73.5 74.2 Services 57.5 St. Lucia 30.7 25.0 18.1 18.7 Agriculture 14.4 20.9 18.6 23.4 23.0 Industry 23.6 48.4 56.4 58.4 58.3 Services 62.0 St. Vincent/ Grenadines 20.1 13.4 11.1 15.1 Agriculture 14.3 28.3 31.4 33.9 30.9 Industry 26.5 51.6 55.2 54.6 69.2 Services 59.2 Suriname2 24.7 13.4 7.7 8.5 Agriculture 10.1 13.1 18.0 24.3 23.1 Industry 17.1 62.2 68.6 68.0 68.4 Services 72.8 Trinidad/Tobago 23.4 38.1 31.1 26.0 Agriculture 3.0 35.8 24.9 29.0 23.0 Industry 43.9 40.9 37.0 39.9 35.0 Services 53.1

1990 2000 % of GDP na na na 6.2 21.1 48.2 6.5 28.9 64.6 14.5 18.1 67.3 21.2 22.9 55.9 9.5 17.5 73.0 2.3 45.0 52.7 na na na 6.7 31.3 62.0 2.7 28.9 68.4 7.4 19.6 73.0 10.8 24.0 65.2 9.2 12.7 80.1 0.9 48.0 51.1

20051 28 20 52 5.0 29.8 56.8 3.0 28.3 68.7 5.4 18.0 76.6 8.9 24.2 66.8 9.6 14.5 75.9 0.8 46.0 53.2

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2.
2.1

Food Production and Nutrition Security Issues
The Changing Context
In 2005, the CARICOM Secretariat was driven to emphasize that “food security is not only an important issue because of the need to ensure that there are sufficient food supplies to meet the consumption needs of the population; it is critical also that the Region be in a position to support its tourism industry with its food requirements for the approximately five million visitors each year who contribute in excess of US$3 billion to the annual income.” …the context of food production has changed Since 2003 the rising fuel and food prices have been cited as a major contributing factor to the escalating costs of living and poverty in the region. The reasons for same are well documented and discussed globally and in the region.2 These include climate change, which has disrupted global supply patterns, increased demand, especially by the rapidly urbanizing and industrializing China and India, a shift in agricultural commodities from food to bio-fuels in the face of higher energy prices, increased cost of business transactions and distribution as a result of higher oil prices and the depreciation of the US dollar against other major traded currencies. For CARICOM, the national context for agricultural production has also changed. The 1970s to 80s saw an aggressive thrust towards agricultural diversification, driven by the need to secure overseas markets and earn foreign currency. However, progress towards this objective has been particularly slow, yielding limited and un-stainable results. By the 1990s, production capacity had contracted as most CARICOM countries favored expansion in services as the lead growth sector. In the transition from an agrarian to services-led economy, the capacity gap in food production widened, with obvious consequences. …the situation with food insecurity has worsened: In the last five years and during the last 12 months of 2007 in particular, the data show rising prices of specific food commodities, most of which are consumed by the poor and vulnerable. “The data for Trinidad &Tobago show the highest increases in food prices over the period. A more detailed look at some recent data published by the Central Bank of Trinidad & Tobago on

2

CARICOM Secretariat (2007): “The Escalating Cost of Living and Poverty in the Caribbean” Technical Report

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core and headline inflation, confirm that meat, vegetables, fruits and milk and cheese continued to be areas of significant increase among food prices.” (CARICOM Secretariat 2007) A significant volume of such food supplies are imported, which explains a large part of the food price inflation in the region. The poor are more likely to feel the effects of changes in the price of food, as expenditures on food accounts for usually between 35 and 40% of household financial resources. As these financial resources decline, so too do expenditures on food, and in particular, health foods. …the impacts of food dependence are expanding The high and rising food import bill, which at the end of 2007, approximated US$3 billion, is evidence of the increasing and the growing reliance of the region on external food supplies. Trade liberalization has resulted in easier access to a wider range of food products. In the context of the projected continued instability in global geo-politics and more frequent occurrences of severe natural events, there has been an increased anxiety regarding the state of food and nutrition security within the region. This anxiety is even more acute given the recent data regarding the high and rapidly rising levels of diet-related illnesses and diseases among a wider cross-section of CARICOM’s populations. There has been a rapid transition of the dominant health problems from under nutrition to the chronic non-communicable diseases, such as, heart disease, diabetes, obesity and hypertension. …the focus on food and nutrition security is sharpening Consequently, the need to ensure food and nutrition security and even food sovereignty is being strongly advocated by all the leaders in the region, not only from an import bill reduction perspective, but more so, from a preventive health care and cost perspective. This has placed the agri-food sector and its various industries under increasing pressure to provide for and sustain an acceptable level of food production for the region. Achieving this objective requires that the region collectively and urgently resolves some critical issues that relate to the growth and development prospects for the agri-food sector. High among these issues is the current and projected food production and consumption patterns. The 2006 World Food Summit defined the concept of food security as “all people at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food which meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life.” Embodied in this definition is that food security is a continuous process of nutrition and health development that depends on a mix of availability, household access, nutritional adequacy (consumption/biological utilization and care practices) and stability of the three components. Over the 2005 to 2006 period, through the implementation of the FAO/CARICOM Food Security Project in the Caribbean, key issues related to the situation of each of the above factors were identified. - assuring availability: With respect to availability, the main issues revolve around supplies and distribution, specifically uncompetitive and declining primary agriculture and agro processing sectors and high dependence on extra-regional imported commodities. These two issues are inter-related and the severity of the deficiencies in the former, will determine the extent of import reliance as indicated in the latter. The main limiting factors for an uncompetitive agriculture and food processing sector are well documented and include domestic deficiencies related to risk mitigation, financial resources, infrastructure and institutions, production structure and systems and competition for physical resources. The resulting weakness in domestic agriculture has given rise to conditions that encouraged and eventually drove the rapid expansion in imports. These include a

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general perception of low quality of locally and regionally produced commodities, limited promotion marketing information on locally/regionally produced products, uneven application of common external tariff (CET) and inadequate intra-CARICOM trade due, in part, to inefficient intra-regional transportation. - facilitating access: In terms of factors affecting access, issues relating more to purchasing power (wages and income) and unequal distribution of resources and assets were major limiting factors. The minimum wage and tax burdens, as they reduce disposable incomes, make it difficult for persons to afford, the often higher priced, healthy foods. Figure 2 indicates that for Guyana, Jamaica and Grenada, for example, about 31% of the minimum wage was required to purchase the food basket in 2004 compared to 41-57% in 1999. The situation in 2004 indicated a Figure 2: % of Minimum Wage Required to Purchase a Low-Cost, general trend towards increased Nutritionally Balanced Basket of Food (Selected Countries) accessibility to food insofar as the countries saw declines in the percentage of the minimum wage required to purchase the food basket. Limiting incomes also impact the incidence of poverty, which in turn, limits access to food. Despite considerable economic progress in post-independence CARICOM, poverty and inequalities in income and access to resources are at Source: CFNI. unacceptably high levels, and continue to be major challenges in this region. An estimated 25% of the population of CARICOM is said to be living below the poverty line. This means that these persons do not have adequate income to purchase a standard basket of goods that meet daily dietary energy requirement. Food consumption patterns among the poor are often characterized by the utilization of diets that have a high proportion of the relatively more affordable processed carbohydrates and limited quantities of fruits and vegetables and meat and dairy products. Soft drinks, sweet biscuits, pastries and cakes are among the highly consumed products – often described as ‘empty calories’. Inefficient and inequitable distribution networks due to inadequate national and regional marketing, transportation infrastructure and marketing information systems limit the flow of local foods internally and trade around the region. Vulnerable segments of the population are the most severely affected.
Percentage of Minimum Wage Required to purchase well-balanced low cost diet 1999 and 2004
60 50 40 percent 30 1999 2004 20 10 0 Antigua Montserrat St. Kitts Nevis Grenada Jamaica Guyana

- improving utilization Apart from physical availability and capacity to access food, issues related to proper utilization of food are sometimes as equally limiting on food and nutrition as lack of availability. Among these are poor food choices due to lack of education on food nutritional properties, dietary requirements, limited knowledge of preparation methods, cultural and traditional practices and habits, and unacceptable food quality, resulting from poor production, storage and distribution safety processes. It is often thought, that access to nutritious and healthy foods is hindered by the fact that prices tend to be higher than for foods of lower nutritional value. This has been shown to be the case in several countries, as the more 'reasonably priced' empty caloric foods are more readily

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available, with variety size packs and hence more easily accessed compared to healthy foods. The research shows that on average an estimated 10% of CARICOM’s population is unable to meet daily dietary energy requirement. This has a direct impact on the kinds of foods purchased and consumed by the more vulnerable groups. - enhancing policy and institutional efficiencies These limiting factors are all impacted by the inadequate institutional systems and policy framework to deal with food and nutrition security related issues. This is especially so with respect to the low levels of real linkages and connections between the agriculture, food production, health and education sectors of the economy. This situation has been blamed on the lack of effective and on-going mechanisms at the regional and national levels to facilitate dialogue on critical issues related to food and nutrition security and limited knowledge and awareness of the concepts, indicators and issues by decision and policy makers. Food and nutrition insecurity in CARICOM is a major challenge and governments and civil society alike, are increasingly pressured to develop immediate and adequate responses. Among the priority concerns is the need to develop an appropriate policy framework that would address the major components, as discussed above, including opportunities for household food production and sustainable livelihoods which can reduce the pressure on national production systems and employment. An effective policy must go beyond the traditional focus on expanding food production, to include providing efficient internal and intra-regional distribution networks, promoting good nutrition and effective utilization and providing safety nets for the most vulnerable. When the region’s natural resources and biodiversity capacities are combined with the long history of political-institutional ties, the region is well placed to satisfy a significant share of its food and nutrition requirements from local sources. However, traditionally, the focus of ‘organized’ agricultural development in the region has been oriented towards satisfying external demand for tropical products. Therefore the pattern that has developed has been production and export of bulk raw material for value-adding, both through ripening and processing, in industrialized countries and local consumption of what is referred to as ‘food crops’, grown under largely small scale, low technology and disorganized conditions. In the process of integrating with the rest of the world, cultures have assimilated and societies have matured. Consumption patterns have also moved away from traditional food crops and fresh commodities towards highly refined and processed food products. However, agriculture’s production patterns and structure have remained largely unchanged. As agricultural production capacity has failed to keep pace with changing consumer demands and industry needs, the result has been a marked, rapid and growing dependence on imports as a preferred source of food and raw material supplies. The resulting situation where CARICOM countries, individually and as a region, have shifted from net food exporters, to net food importers, has far reaching consequences for meeting the challenges of food and nutrition security, with consequent impacts on human health and welfare in the region. In 2008, several Heads of Government took the decision to reduce and in some instances, remove the CET, to alleviate the price-based difficulties associated with availability and access. However, another fundamental element of the food and nutrition security issue in CARICOM remains largely un-addressed. This relates to the widening gap between production capacity and consumption patterns and the consequent and adverse impact on the nutritional and health status of the population.

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2.2

The CARI COM Consumer

Agricultural production in CARICOM is often characterized as a dual system: the planned and supported production to satisfy the needs of extra-regional export markets and the ‘free and disorganized’ production to feed local and regional consumers. It is often argued that CARICOM, as a region, has not invested in the internal infrastructure or systems to ‘feed’ itself and hence this has been the cause of the shifting habits of the CARICOM consumer and the origin of the region’s food import dependency. Who is the CARICOM consumer and how has this consumer impacted the regional food and nutrition profile? …ethnic melting pot and cultural diversity A major aspect of CARICOM's socio-cultural landscape that has influenced the development of agriculture and its linked industries is the ethnic composition of its populations. CARICOM is often described as a multi-ethnic society, with the fusion of various cultures arising from its colonial past, with the dominant ethnic groups made up of persons of African and East Indian origin. The ethnic composition has influenced the type of agriculture practices, particularly among small holders, and as well, food consumption choices and patterns. The Caribbean’s indigenous peoples ‘cultivated’ a range of root crops, mainly cassava, ‘gathered’ their food needs from fruit and other trees growing in the wild and hunted and fished to satisfy needs for animal products. The major defining periods of the development of CARICOM’s multi-ethnic society has been the infusion of African and East Indian cultures during the different phases of colonialization. These cultural ‘introductions’ influenced the prominence of certain foods in countries with largely Afro-based and Indo-based populations and cultures. For example, in countries with a predominantly African culture, domestic production and consumption of root crops and other staples, such as banana and plantains, and poultry and small livestock (pigs, sheep and goats) rearing has been common. In countries with a predominant East Indian culture, such as Suriname, Guyana and Trinidad & Tobago, rice cultivation for domestic use evolved into a major export industry. Also in these larger CARICOM territories, the movement of other ethnic groups, from Asian and Pacific countries, also added new foods and flavor to CARICOM culture, now evident in the diversity of the cuisine. Although various ethnic groups tend to maintain specific cultural practices, over the years there has been an infusion of the cultures into the CARICOM cuisine, also influenced by the growing exposure and access to a diverse range of processed food and beverage products from industrialized countries. CARICOM’s emigrants, and hence culture, have also found its way into the cities and metropoles of developed and rapidly developing countries across the globe. These oftenreferred to 'diaspora' are looked on to generate high demand and secure lucrative markets for Caribbean foods and cuisine. The widening diaspora has been regarded by some commentators as positive, in that it is creating niche market opportunities abroad for Caribbean products and well as ‘showcasing’ CARICOM’s culture in North America and Europe. Annual remittances from abroad are estimated at about US$4 billion, and are considered a significant source of foreign currency into the region. …growing populations feed growing demand As population grows, food demand also grows. Population size is a basic driver of food intake. As indicated previously, CARICOM’s population has been growing relatively slowly, comprising mostly youth, with a relatively large percentage between the ages of 15 and 35.
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Investing in Food and Nutrition Security - Identifying Potential Investment Opportunities in the Agriculture and Food Industries in CARICOM

Undoubtedly this has a significant impact on the kinds of food demanded and consumed. Young people’s choice of food is also more easily influenced by the trends in ‘Western’ countries. Available information shows that in Barbados for example, the consumption of fast foods and the trend of eating away from home are entrenched among young people. This largely explains the results of an anthropometric survey that shows the prevalence of overweight and obesity of over 50% for the both men and women between the ages of 18 and 29 years. Box 2 highlights the main results of that study. It is noted that these trends largely mirror that in most other CARICOM countries as urbanization and ‘food retailing’ expands into what was previously defined as ‘rural’ areas.
BOX 2: Food Purchasing and Consumption Habits in Barbados 45.3% of men and 31% of women eat-out and consume ready-to-eat meals at least once or twice a week. Fast-food outlets, followed by canteens and restaurants are the more popular sources. Young adults (<30 years) were more likely to eat out: more than 76% of young men and 66% of young women ate out once or twice a week. Use of fast-food outlets was highest in this age group. 14% of respondents actually consumed the daily amount of fruits and vegetables recommended by the World Health Organization (370 g). The percentage of calories derived from fat (close to 25%) was below the recommended WHO maximum of 30%, but well above the recommended Caribbean maximum of 15 to 20%. Nearly onethird of the respondents were consuming high-fat diets and exceeding the recommended WHO maximum of 30%. A significantly higher proportion of younger (<50 years) than older (≥50 years) Barbadians exceeded the WHO maximum, indicating a disturbing trend towards higher-fat diets. The contribution of carbohydrates to the calorie intake is acceptable, at about 59%. The consumption of sugar and high-sugar beverages are high: carbonated beverages are among the six highest ranked sources of energy and carbohydrates. Such consumption by younger adults (<30 years) –both men and women – exceeds by far their consumption by all other age groups.
Source: FAO, 2000

• • • •

• •

The rapidly ‘urbanizing’ CARICOM consumer has been driven by and is in turn driving the rise of modern retailing, which has enabled the shifts in consumption patterns. It has been observed in a number of these food retail outlets, the offerings of wheat, white potato and rice based staples, to a large extent has replaced traditional staples of roots and tubers, bananas and plantains. Consequently, food supplies, diets and body composition have all changed (Ballayram et. al., 2002). There is also the observation that the capacity to access these ‘fast food’ restaurants is becoming increasingly popular among many low-income group since it provides the opportunity to ‘eat out’ as a family. …development measured by social affluence or quality of life? Economic theory and development experience show that the more affluent a society becomes, the greater the demand for high value foods, leading to higher demand for highly processed foods and especially those of animal origin. In the choice-preference process, there could be a strong and steady movement away from choices based on the ‘nutritional’ content of food to that driven by the search for the ‘gourmet experience’, taste, convenience and novelty, among others. This change in choices and preferences has both driven and is driving food production, marketing and distribution globally. CARICOM member states are not isolated from this global phenomenon, and as a result of trade liberalization, access to ‘new’ food products has improved substantially. The result,
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food consumption in the Caribbean increasingly bears little or no resemblance to regional food production capacities. Instead, Caribbean consumption patterns are often described as one that simulates the lifestyle and habits of developed Western societies, with serious consequences for the health status of the population.

2.3

Consequences of CARICOM's Food Choices

Survey information on food consumption patterns in the Caribbean is somewhat limited. However based on the information available from the anthropometric and consumption surveys conducted in selected Caribbean countries as well as the analysis of food import data, some generalizations can be made. This discussion will proceed from the most to the least consumed foods among CARICOM population. CARICOM consumers obtain a substantial amount of their energy supplies from Fats and Oils. (Figure 3) In fact, their consumption of oils and fats are increasingly well above the recommended level. For the period 2000-2002 the supply of energy from fats was estimated at 800 calories/per caput/day. This was twice what is recommended as the population goal. “The Region consumed an estimated 130,000 tons of vegetable oils annually in 2000/02. The highest consumption was reported in Haiti at 61,000 tons, followed by Jamaica 33,000 tons and Trinidad & Tobago 17,000 tons.”3 (UWI, 2006) Vegetable oils are widely used for cooking and in particular the preparation of fried foods (deep fried chicken, fried fish, floats, French fries, etc), which has become extremely popular with CARICOM consumers. Margarine, butter and shortening are important ingredients of cakes and pastries. Margarine and butter are also used as spreads on bread.

Figure 3: CARIFORUM Energy Supply from Fats (per caput/day)
the Supply of Energy (per Caput per Day) from Fat: The Cariforum Region 1961-2002
900

800

700

600

Calories/caput/day

500
Supply Population goal

400

300

200

100

0 1961-1963 1971-1973 1981-1983 1991-1993 2000-2002

Source: CFNI

A similar situation was obtained with respect to sugars and sweeteners. Figure 4 shows that the Caribbean population is consuming more than twice the amount of sweeteners that is recommended level. This derives from a substantial consumption of an increasingly widening variety of single strength, concentrate juices, nectars, drinks, flavored waters and beverages, in particular, carbonated beverages. Such consumption is particularly high among the young population. It is interesting to note that in a number of Caribbean
UWI, 2006: The Coconuts Industry in CARICOM: Global Market Intelligence Report, December 2006

3

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countries, beverage, confectionary and bakery products are major food processing activity. The CFNI concluded that CARICOM is generally over-fed on empty calories. This is evident in the relative choices made with respect to the various food groups, as discussed below.
Figure 4: CARIFORUM Energy Supply from Sweeteners (per caput/day)
the Supply of Energy (per Caput per Day) from Sweeteners: The Cariforum Region 1961-2002
450

400

350

300

Calories/caput/day

250

Local Imported Population goal

200

150

100

50

0 1961-1963 1971-1973 1981-1983 1991-1993 2000-2002

Source: CFNI

Energy supply from staples in CARICOM though relatively high, is still under the recommended level (Figure 5). However, the fact that the bulk of staples consumed are based on products from highly processed white-flour based wheat and rice products is cause for concern. White rice, in particular, contains very little Vitamin B1 and Vitamin E. Staple foods provide the bulk of dietary energy and were traditionally obtained from roots and tubers, plantains and bananas. Consumption surveys revealed that there was some difference between ethnic groups in consumption patterns. In Guyana for example, Afro-Guyanese generally eat more white bread, rice and ground provision, while the preferred foods of people of East Indian origin is wheaten flour cooked as roti and eaten with a variety of vegetables and beans. The main staple among the Amerindians in Guyana is cassava. In Jamaica the most commonly consumed stapes are white rice, boiled yellow yams and boiled dumplings made from white wheaten flour. In Dominica the main staples are green bananas and ground provisions (especially tannia), bread and rice. Consumption patterns in Belize reflect the influence of culture and class, with Maya and rural Mestizos consuming large amounts of corn. The national dish however consists of rice and beans.

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Figure 5: CARIFORUM Energy Supply from Staples (per caput/day)
the Supply of Energy (per Caput per Day) from Staples: The Cariforum Region 1961-2002
1200

1000

800

Calories/caput/day

Local

600

Imported Population goal

400

200

0 1961-1963 1971-1973 1981-1983 1991-1993 2000-2002

Source: CFNI

The CFNI consumption research revealed that, while CARICOM countries produce a variety of seasonal fruits and vegetables year round, consumption levels are far from desirable (Figure 6). While the per caput daily supply of energy from fruit and vegetables in CARIFORUM has increased significantly over the past four decades, several surveys have revealed a general perception that they are consuming adequate quantities of fruit and vegetables when in fact they are not. This underlines the need for appropriate education on the nutritional value of various fruits and vegetables and the most effective method of preparation in order for this food group to provide adequate nourishment.
Figure 6: CARIFORUM Energy Supply from Fruits and Vegetables (per caput/day)
the Supply of Energy (per Caput per Day) from Fruits and Vegetables: The Cariforum Region 1961-2002
700

600

500

Grams/caput/day

400
Local Imported Population goal

300

200

100

0 1961-1963 1971-1973 1981-1983 1991-1993 2000-2002

Source: CFNI

There is no comparative data for consumption of the other food groups. However, observations suggest that legumes are an important source of protein and fiber in the CARICOM diet. Red beans, normally combined with rice (white) or prepared as a stew or soup, are among the most popular legumes consumed. Other legumes commonly consumed include black-eye peas, pigeon peas and lentils. Split peas, gungo beans/channa (chick peas) are very popular in the East Indian cuisine. Consumption of
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fresh legumes, such as, bora/bodi, butterbeans and a large amount of dried beans and peas is commonplace. However, use of canned beans is increasing. Chicken, beef, fish, pork, mutton, goat and ‘wild’ meats are the main sources of food from animals in CARICOM. The quantity and quality consumed, to a large extent, reflect the income and purchasing power of households. Chicken is, by far, the most consumed meat, accounting for an estimated 86% and averaging an estimated 40 kg per person annually. In a number of urban areas across CARICOM, chicken products have become very common in street vending and in the large fast foods chains. Beef and pork are generally less popular in the Caribbean partly related to religious practices. ‘Wild meat’ such as labba, deer, iguana and wild hog, is an important source of the protein in the diet of many rural and hinterland households. Ethnic, cultural and religious factors are observed as the main factors influencing consumption patterns for goat and sheep meat in the region. Fresh goat and sheep meat are consumed throughout the year with peaks associated with various celebrations and religious events, such as, Christmas, Eid Ul Adha and Eid Ul Fitr. In Jamaica, the consumption of goat meat is widespread in the local community and the product is being readily introduced to the tourist trade as part of the local cuisine. CARICOM consumption of sheep and goat meat in 2003/04 was about 2 kg per capita. Overall the per capita consumption of sheep meat was approximately twice that of goat - 0.6 kg versus 1.4 kg per capita.” (UWI, 2006) 4 Milk and dairy products are consumed throughout the region. In most countries the imported product is either in its powdered form, evaporated and/or condensed. Reconstituted pasteurized milk is also available in most countries and infant formula is very widely used. Fish and other marine products are consumed by large segments of the population. In recent years, the price of fish has increased significantly. This has had a negative impact on consumption. Increasing prices are attributed to a decrease in supply, due to smaller catches, and also to an increasing demand for fish by segments of the population who have become more aware of the healthful benefits of fish in the diet. …changing consumption patterns Recently, the CFNI concluded that CARICOM countries are experiencing rapid dietary/nutritional, epidemiological and demographical transitions. The dietary/nutritional transition is observed in the shift from diets based on indigenous staples, local fruits, vegetables, and legumes, to more varied energy-dense diets based on more processed foods/beverages, imported items many of which may be genetically modified, more of animal origin, more added sugar, fats and often more alcohol. This so-called “overnutrition” problem is associated with a rise in obesity and its co-obidities—nutrition-related non-communicable diseases such as diabetes, high blood pressure, stroke, heart diseases and cancer. (FAO/CFNI, 2007) In addition to increasing urbanization, more women in the workforce and increasing incomes, the supermarket phenomenon and its penetration into ‘poorer’ communities, driving mass marketing of brands and huge investments in advertising targeting specific consumer types has had a huge impact on consumption choices. In Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), growth in supermarkets moved from a 10-20% share in 1990 to 50-60% of the retail sector in 2000, making, in one globalizing decade, the change which took the US
4

UWI, 2006: The Small Ruminant Meat Industry in CARICOM: Competitiveness & Industry Development Strategies, December 2006

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retail sector 50 years. The evidence also points to increased consumption of foods higher in salt and concentrations of fat amongst the poorest segments of the population in some developing countries. This has had a powerful effect on altering consumer tastes and continues to drive changes in consumption towards Western diets. In CARICOM, the aggressive thrust to expand tourism, and the associated practice to import the tourism industry’s food needs, has also served to consolidate these shifts towards Western diets. It is estimated that between 10 – 20% of tourist expenditure is on food, and therefore countries with higher tourist arrivals and strong growth rates are likely to import more food products and have more modern food markets. In absolute terms, the highest arrivals are in the Bahamas (1.5 million), Jamaica (1.3 million), Barbados (498,000), and Trinidad & Tobago (384,000) (ECLAC, 2007). The evidence with respect to modern retailing bears out this conclusion. Changes in consumption patterns have had an adverse effect on the health of the Caribbean population. With respect to the epidemiological transition, nutrition-related CNCDs, have replaced malnutrition and infectious diseases as major public health problems. Unbalanced diets and sedentary lifestyles have increased the prevalence of CNCDs even among the poor. For the past two and a half decades there has been an increase in the prevalence of obesity throughout the region, principally in adults, but also to some extent in adolescents and infants. The data show that the highest proportion of obesity is among the three upper age groups. The two lower age groups (18-24 and 25-34), those who are expected to be the most active, show obesity rates that range between 8-20 % (Figure 7). Associated with obesity is the concomitant increase in nutrition-related chronic diseases. Further, the burden of disease, disability, and premature death has shifted from young children to adults in the productive years of their life. Table 2 provides data on the changes in the incidence of nutrition-related CNCDs in the Caribbean from 1980 to 2000.
Table 2: Main Causes of Death in the Caribbean, 1980, 2000 1980 % 2000 % Heart Disease* 20 Heart Disease* 16 Cancer* 12 Cancer* 15 Stroke* 11 Stroke* 10 Injuries 8 Diabetes* 10 Hypertension* 6 Injuries & Violence 7 ARI 5 HIV/AIDS 6 Diabetes* 4 Hypertension* 6 *Nutrition Related =53% *Nutrition Related =53% Source: Caribbean Epidemiology Center. www.carec.org

While global prevalence of overweight amongst preschool children is estimated at 3.3%, regional data show higher rates such as 3.9% for Barbados and 6.0% for Jamaica (Henry, 2004). CFNI surveillance data on children and adolescents show that overweight and obese children account for up to 15% of this group in various countries (CFNI, 2001). Moreover, obesity has an inter-generational implication. Adult obesity is associated with child obesity and this risk increases when the mother or father of the obese child are obese. The risk of adult obesity is 2.0-2.6 times greater for obese pre-school children than non-obese preschool children.” (CFNI 2002)

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Figure 7: Prevalence of Obesity (Body Mass Index > 30) by Age Group (Selected Countries)

Obestiy (BMI>30) by age groups 50 40 30 20 10 0
St Kitts/Nevis Trinidad Belize Jamaica Guyana

18-24 yrs

25-34 yrs

35-44 yrs

45-54 yrs

55+ yrs

Source: CFNI (Most recent data)

The consequences of the epidemiological transition to the “Western diet” have meant significantly higher costs to the healthcare systems than those of malnutrition, and the burden has shifted towards the poor, in both developed and developing countries. Health problems arising from over-nutrition and sedentary lifestyles coexist with malnutrition and under-nutrition in a broader spectrum of food-related diseases. (Ford. D, 2003) The CARICOM consumer is predominantly young, between 15 – 35 years in age. This is the age that is most prone to external influences. In CARICOM, among these pervasive influences has been exposure to developed countries’ lifestyles as a result of globalization, expanding tourism and the meteoric rise, in just one decade, in the retailing phenomenon in LAC that took the US retail sector 50 years. The result is that CARICOM countries are experiencing rapid dietary, nutritional and epidemiological transitions, as indicated by the relative consumption among the various foods that comprise CARICOM diet. While addressing these issues, in the short-term, will emphasize curative measures built on promoting lifestyle changes, the need to engender a preventive approach, with a redirection of agriculture and food production systems built on nutritional needs, must form part of the long-term solution set. Hence the dialogue and decision-making with respect to increasing financing and new investments in agriculture must take into consideration issues related to building capacity to meet the nutritional needs of CARICOM population from the foods produced in the region.

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2.4

Linking Consumption to Nutrition

Quality of life that includes nutritious food is a human right. Agriculture is the primary source of nutritious foods. The issue of nutrition has been subject to much research over time, increasingly so as the association between illness and diet choices is becoming more direct and clear. In its simplest terms, nutrition is about eating healthily - consuming an adequate and balanced supply of vitamins, proteins, carbohydrates, fiber, minerals, fats and water daily. …Vitamins: the word ‘vita’ means life. However, while the human body needs only small amounts of vitamins, an inadequate supply leads to stunted growth, low resistance to infection, nervous diseases, skin problems, anemia and weakened bones and teeth. …Proteins: are needed for growth, to build and repair body tissue and to protect from disease. They also supply heat and energy. Good sources of protein are from animal products, vegetable fats, rice, nuts, legumes and other pulses. …Carbohydrates: provide heat and energy and in some foods, also supply roughage, or fiber, which supports healthy digestion. Most foods, except meat, fish, poultry and cheese, contain some carbohydrates in the form of either starch or sugar. …Minerals: such as calcium, phosphorus, iron, sodium, potassium, iodine, magnesium, zinc, copper and selenium are found in most foods and are essential to a healthy diet. …Fats: are essential to the diet as it is the main source of energy and is one of the components from which all body cells are made. It also helps carry vitamins through the bloodstream. Of the three main types of fats – saturated (in butter, meat), mono-saturated (in olive oil) and polyunsaturated (in avocado, nuts, fish) – saturated fats should be the least consumed. The concentration of their different nutrients contained form the basis for defining food groups. Dietary guidelines, built on foods for healthy lifestyles, are increasingly being promoted to influence consumption patterns. The US, in particular, has continuously revised its dietary guidelines in response to the escalating diet-related illnesses and diseases affecting all age and ethnic groups in its population. Fiber, though not a nutrient, is important to a healthy daily diet. It helps the digestive system work properly and helps get rid of body wastes. Fiber is found in beans, nuts, root crops, fruit and vegetables and wholemeal bread. The Caribbean region has also issued its own dietary guidelines based on the research of the CFNI (Figure 8). These guidelines are based on the production capacity of the region and foods that have traditionally been consumed. The CFNI categorizes the ‘food needs’ into six (6) groups and specifies the relative proportions of each based on the nutritional content of a healthy daily diet. These categories are Staples, Foods from Animals, Legumes, Vegetables, Fruits and Fats and Oils. A brief discussion on each group, starting with those most important in the diet, is provided for information and as well as a basis for discussing the production capacity of the region to supply same. The nutritional properties of foods contained in each group are discussed in Annex 1.

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Figure 8: CFNI’s Caribbean Food GroupsA Guide to Meal Planning for Healthy Eating

Staples: The role of tropical starchy staples as an inexpensive source of cheap food for the socio-economically disadvantaged is well established. The consumption of complex carbohydrates has been recommended as a preventive measure against coronary heart disease and non-insulin-dependent diabetes. The CFNI recommends that approximately 45% of the daily diet should comprise staples, such as, starchy fruits, roots, tubers/ground provisions (green banana, plantain, breadfruit, yam, potato, dasheen, coco/ eddo, cassava, corn, etc). They provide complex carbohydrates, an important source of energy. Processed staples are cereals and bread (from whole grain or enriched flour), wheat flour, corn-meal, dried cereals, macaroni, spaghetti, rice, cereal porridges. Consumption patterns vary across the region with respect to the extent of use of these crops. Staple foods are good examples of the Caribbean’s diversity. They are the most affordable, easily available and the most widely used. But achieving and maintaining good nutritional status and health requires eating more than staple foods. Legumes and Nuts: The CFNI recommends this as the second most important food group that should make up about 22% of the daily diet. ‘Legumes’ is the term used to identify plants that grow as a vine or bush bearing pods with one or more edible seeds. Legumes and nuts are classified as beans (Phaseolus), peas/edible seeds and lentils (Lens). This grouping may also include peanuts (Arachis) and soy beans. Legumes are the best source of concentrated protein in the plant kingdom and are close to animal meat in quality when combined with a cereal staple. Legumes have traditionally been
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Investing in Food and Nutrition Security - Identifying Potential Investment Opportunities in the Agriculture and Food Industries in CARICOM

identified as meat extenders primarily because of their contribution to overall dietary protein. At a small fraction of the cost of meat protein, one cup of cooked beans provides 17% to 31% protein averaging about 25% of daily requirement for amino acids. Nuts are just as widespread. Legumes and nuts consumed in CARICOM include kidney beans, black-eye beans, pigeon peas, cashew nut, sesame seeds and pumpkin seeds. Legumes are an important source of non-animal protein. Beans are very rich in soluble fiber, which helps to prevent constipation and lower blood cholesterol levels. Beans are ideal for those with high blood pressure because they are low in sodium and high in potassium. In countries like Guyana where more than 40% of the population lives below the poverty line, legumes/pulses, whether grown locally or imported, represents a valuable source of proteins and other vital nutrients. For a large majority of the population living in an impoverished situation and unable to purchase meat and dairy products, the daily consumption of a bowl of split peas dhall or a plate of black-eye peas cook-up rice may be the primary protein source. “In the Caribbean, fruits and vegetables are the names of two of the Caribbean Six Food Groups. Foods included in these groups are primarily because of their nutritional contribution. Caribbean fruits and vegetables are special. They provide more than eye appeal to the plate and the palate. They are endowed with a range of vitamins and minerals and are also important protective foods for maintaining health and preventing many diseases that continue to affect our populations”. (CFNI Cajanus, Vol. 39. N0. 1, 2006) Vegetables: the CFNI recommends that vegetables should comprise about 12% of the daily diet. These should include: dark green leafy and yellow vegetables, such as, callaloo/spinach, dasheen leaves, cabbage bush, pakchoi, string beans, pumpkin and carrot, squash, cho-cho, (christophene, chayote), cucumber, tomato and melongene/eggplant. Fruits: the CFNI recommends that fruits should account for approximately 9% of the daily diet. This includes all tropical fruits grown in CARICOM countries, such as, mango, guava, citrus (orange, grapefruit, limes, tangerine), pineapple, West Indian cherry, pawpaw/papaya, golden apple/Jew/June plum, and sugar apple/sweet sop which have excellent nutritive values and processing qualities. From a health perspective ensuring adequate supplies of fruits and vegetable at an affordable price is important. This is so particularly in the context of the rising incidence of CNCDs and the emerging link between the consumption of tropical fruits and the treatment of diabetes. Foods from Animal: the CFNI recommends that meat, eggs and dairy products should comprise about 8% of the daily diet. A number of animal and fish products are consumed in CARICOM, including meat, poultry, fish (fresh, canned, dried, pickled), milk, cheese, yoghurt, eggs, liver, kidney, tripe, trotters, feet. Fats and Oil: The CFNI recommends that foods in this group should be least needed and should contribute just about 4% of the daily diet. Coconut and Palms oils are the main sources of fats and oils in the region. The nutritional properties indicate that the fatty acids that make up coconut fat are saturated; these are a special fatty acid called short and medium chain, which do not promote cholesterol production. Other largely imported fats and oils include cooking and salad oil, butter, margarine, shortening, ghee, coconut cream/milk, meat fat, nuts, avocado pears, and Jamaican ackee.
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Of interest, is that the CFNI dietary guidelines define no specific food group for ‘Sugars and Sweeteners’, although the previous discussion indicated that this category comprised a large part of the CARICOM diet. Further, and ironically, sugars and sweeteners also form a substantial part of the global agriculture and food trade – comprised largely of extracted sugars and artificial sweeteners. Also of interest, is the presentation of dietary guidelines as a pie-chart, proving clarity with respect to the relative balance of each food group in a healthy diet. It is also instructive to observe the relative hierarchy of the food groups and to especially note the relative low positioning of foods from animals and fats and oils. This is also ironic since animal products have accounted for the largest increase in global food production and share of global agriculture and food trade. An interesting exercise would be to contrast the nutritional positioning of these food groups to past development strategies and current supply capacity of the agriculture and food system in CARICOM.

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3.
3 .1 .

Meeting Regional Food Needs
Producing Nutrition Needs
The issue of the physical capacity to produce food in CARICOM has been the subject of much assessment and debate since the 1970s. The geography of CARICOM is important to this discussion from the point of view that, with the exception of three mainland territories, the region comprises largely small islands states, with varying land use patterns as it relates to agricultural area (Table 3). As shown in Table 3, the mainland states of Belize and Guyana have relatively larger areas allocated for agricultural production. In 2002, the total agricultural land in Guyana was twice the sum of the total agricultural land for all the other CARICOM countries together, reiterating the fact that Guyana was once referred to as the bread basket of the Caribbean. The potential of agricultural production on the mainland states of Guyana, Belize and Suriname is further emphasized by the fact that in 2002 the average total agricultural land accounted for an estimated 5.4% of land area, while for the other CARICOM countries the average total agricultural land accounted for an estimated 32% of land area. Apart from land, water is undisputedly, a critical resource for successfully assuring availability of food supplies. Water supply and utilization data indicate an abundance of water resources in Guyana and Suriname and relatively limited water supply on the islands of the Bahamas, Barbados and Antigua & Barbuda. On these islands there is also greater competition for the use of water by the domestic and industrial sectors. CARICOM, particularly the small islands states, is also in the category of highly vulnerable to climate related events, mainly hurricanes, which have wreaked havoc on agriculture. In addition to the adverse effects of natural phenomenon, agriculture is rapidly losing its natural resource base as a result of the accelerated shift in land use over the last five years, towards industrial use and construction, blamed on expanding urbanization and its attendant social/recreational facilities. In land-strapped island countries, especially the smaller countries of the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS), transiting from agriculture towards services, led by tourism, such loss of land has dire consequences for the ability to successfully secure the base of food production to assure availability.

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Table 3: Land Resources and Use (percentage of total land area) 2002 Land Area Total Agricultural Permanent Pasture Arable and Permanent Country (Sq. km) Area Crop Sq km % Sq km % Sq km % Antigua & Barbuda 440 140 31.8 40 9.1 100 22.7 Bahamas 10,000 120 1.4 20 0.2 120 1.2 Barbados 430 190 44.2 20 4.7 127 29.5 Belize 22,810 1,369 6.7 502 2.2 1,026 4.5 Dominica 750 180 29.3 20 2.7 200 26.7 Grenada 340 120 38.2 10 2.9 120 35.3 Guyana 196,850 17,323 8.8 12,205 6.2 5,118 2.6 Jamaica 10,830 4,765 47.4 2,285 21.1 2,837 26.2 St Kitts & Nevis 360 100 27.8 20 5.6 80 22.2 St Lucia 610 200 32.8 20 3.3 180 29.5 St. Vincent & Grenadines 390 160 41.0 20 5.1 140 35.9 Suriname 15,600 94 0.6 16 0.1 62 0.4 Trinidad & Tobago 5,130 1,329 25.9 108 2.1 1,221 23.8 Source: USAID,2006

The decline in arable land for food production coupled with generally low and declining levels of productivity present challenges for assuring availability. The overall manifestation of these challenges is summarized in the conclusion that availability problems in CARICOM result from uncompetitive and declining primary agriculture and agro processing sectors. The main limiting factors for this uncompetitive agriculture and food processing are well documented and include domestic deficiencies related to risk mitigation, financial resources, infrastructure and institutions, production structure and systems and competition for physical resources. This underscores the challenge in the region, of assuring availability and the urgent need to adopt modern technologies, including appropriate irrigation and water management practices, to mitigate physical limitations and enhance efficiencies. Challenges aside, the issue of ‘availability’ is discussed according to specific food group to shed clarity on regional capacity to meeting recommended nutritional needs. Staples: Rice is the primary staple produced in the Caribbean, mainly by Guyana, Suriname and Belize (Table 4). Some CARICOM countries have either lost or severely diminished their productive capacity in rice production, such as, Haiti and Trinidad & Tobago. Production data in 2005 indicated an estimated rice production in the region of 217,555 tons, led by Guyana (67%). Rice is the largest user of agricultural lands in Guyana with an estimated 300,000 acres currently double cropped annually. Although rice production is fairly well mechanized, the average cost of production in CARICOM is still much higher than that of many major rice exporting countries. While the degree of importance varies from country to country, virtually all CARICOM countries produce a mix of staple products. Specifically, tropical root crops are known to generate relatively large yields per unit area of land or labor input and to yield under conditions where agricultural inputs are not used, where technological levels are low and where land is marginal through low soil water levels (cassava) or swampy conditions (wetland dasheen). Tropical staples, mainly root crops, (yam, dasheen, eddo, cassava, tannia, coco-yams, eddo and sweet potato), banana and plantain, are well adapted to the Caribbean environment. They offer good opportunities for satisfying a larger share of carbohydrate requirements from local production. With the exception of bananas and yam, production data for root crops and other staples are not as well documented.

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The bulk of these non-banana/yam staples are consumed regionally, and are generally available in-season.
Table 4: CARICOM Rice production, Imports, exports and net quantities (ton) 2005 Calculated milled rice Imports Total Exports production Antigua and Barbuda 650 650 Bahamas 8620 8620 Barbados 6253 6253 Belize 3500 502 4002 Dominica 604 604 Grenada 2056 2056 Guyana 147110 10778 157888 182175 Jamaica 46358 46358 St. Lucia 9740 9740 St. Kitts & Nevis 498 498 St Vincent & Grenadines 35508 35508 4575 Suriname 64845 116 64961 35877 Trinidad & Tobago 2100 36330 38430 1594 Caribbean 217555 158013 375568 224221 Source: FAO Country Quantities for domestic use 650 8620 6353 4002 604 2056 46358 9740 498 30961 29084 36836 175762

However, there has been some reduction in the production of staples over the past decade, particularly as the demand for wheat and wheat-based products has increased. This trend has serious implications for availability of basic staples in the face of both the rising prices of imported wheat and wheat based products and the cost associated with importing same. In this context, the need to accelerate value-adding in staples becomes critical. Table 5 presents information on a number of products processed from starchy staples. In most cases, some of these products are in the rudimentary stages of product development and are prepared primarily on small farms and at the small scale cottage industry level.
Table 5: Current Status of Processing Starchy Staples in the Caribbean Products Made Processing Scale Chips, Flour, Punch, Dried/Baked Snacks, Wine, Small to Medium Vinegar, Liquor, Hot Sauce, Milk-based Banana Drinks, Banana-Flavored Biscuits (Bulla Cakes), Jam, Ketchup, Baby food with Bananas Plantain Flour, Chips Small to Medium Arrowroot Starch, Roots drink, Flour (Thickener in soups and Small to Medium sauces). Breadfruit Flour, Chips, Roasted and vacuum packed, Canned, Small to Medium frozen Breadnut Wines, flour for baking, Small Yams Flour, Frozen pieces, Small Cassava Bread, Farine, Starch, Casareep, Flour, Bammy, Cassava Medium to Large pone Dasheen Chips, Frozen dasheen Small Source: Extract from FAO, 2001 Crop Bananas Markets Domestic and limited Export Domestic Domestic and limited Export Domestic and Export Domestic Domestic Domestic Export Domestic

Legumes and Nuts: A variety of fresh legumes is grown on small acreages and sold on the local markets in a number of CARICOM countries (Table 6). These include string beans, bora/bodi, snow peas, saim, red kidney beans and pigeon peas. Belize is one of the few countries that produce significant quantities of dried legumes for domestic consumption as well as for export. In 2002s for example, Belize exported over US$2 million in red kidney beans and
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black eye beans. During the 1970s large quantities of black-eye beans were produced in Guyana (in the Intermediate savannas) and the potential still exists to produce large quantities of red beans, minica, black-eye beans, soya beans and peanuts.
Table 6: Production of Selected Legumes in CARICOM (2000-2002 avg.) FAO Code Product Quantity (MT) **Per Capita Production (kg) 176 Beans, Dry 38,283 2.5 195 Cow Peas, Dry 37,291 2.5 414 Beans, Green 8,371 0.6 197 Pigeon Peas 6,390 0.4 242 Groundnuts in Shell 27,626 1.8 187 Peas, Dry 5,279 0.3 423 String Beans 5,768 0.4 Source: FAOSTAT; * Consultant’s calculation

The production of legumes and in particular dried pulses is particularly low in the region. FAO estimates of per capita consumption of dried pulses for CARICOM is approximately 11 kg. That gap between consumption and local production is met by imports. CFNI notes that tree nuts such as almonds, brazils, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamias, pecans, pistachios and walnuts are included in many ethnic and cultural cuisines. They provide rich flavors that complement many herbs, spices, fruits, vegetables, cheese or meat. Though somewhat seasonal, all nuts are available in CARICOM. Fruits: The regional landscape has traditionally been dotted with a variety of tropical fruits. In the late 70s and 80s, significant amounts of external financing under diversification projects supported expansion of what was then termed ‘exotic’ fruits for niche export markets and for expanding value adding of juices, jams, jellies and preserves. This enabled several countries to expand production of citrus, mango, avocado and papaya among others, and to experiment with commercial production of West Indian cherry, passion fruit, soursop, sapodilla, golden apple and guava. There have been reasonable success stories, such as, golden apple in Grenada, papaya in Trinidad & Tobago and mango (Julie) in St. Lucia. However, production remains small with limited commercial operations. Citrus is by far the largest non-traditional fruit crop produced, in terms of acreage and output. (Table 7)
Table 7: Production of Selected Fruits in CARICOM (2000-2002 Avg.) FAO Code Product Quantity (MT) 490 Oranges 398,228 571 Mangoes 305,172 507 Grapefruit and Pomelos 141,280 497 Lemons and Limes 60,762 572 Avocados 51,542 574 Pineapples 33,797 567 Watermelons 19,733 600 Papayas 16,118 568 Cantaloupes & other Melons 3,864 Source: FAOSTAT

Production is dominated by Belize, Jamaica and Trinidad & Tobago. Belize is one of the few CARICOM countries that have shown positive trends in the production and export of
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fruits. Citrus now ranks among the top four exported commodities. Trinidad & Tobago, once a significant producer of citrus and locally canned juices, today imports the bulk of concentrates for processing. Further, as citrus orchards in the region continue to be affected by pest and disease, in particular the citrus tristeza virus, the volumes available for use are contracting. Vegetables: All CARICOM countries produce a wide range of vegetables, mostly for local consumption (Table 8). Over the last fifteen years, the range of production has expanded due to influences from the growing tourism industry and greater demand from the hospitality services for fresh vegetables. Such an experience is well documented in Nevis with the linkage of vegetable farmers supplying the Four Seasons Hotel, a movement which has expanded in the rest of CARICOM, both in terms of number of vegetables produced and the number of major participating hotels. In the OECS, expansion of vegetable varieties was also enabled through bi-lateral technical cooperation projects, for example, with Taiwan (Republic of China) and the Chinese government. Some CARICOM countries have invested in expanding production of selected and high demand vegetables, such as carrots in Barbados. Vegetable production has also increased in order to capture the export market for ‘winter vegetables’.
Table 8: Production of Selected Vegetables in CARICOM (2000-2002 Avg.) FAO Code Product Quantity (MT) 388 Tomatoes 38,011 358 Cabbages 35,946 397 Cucumbers and Gherkins 29,919 426 Carrots 21,721 373 Spinach 13,189 401 Chillies & Peppers, Green 10,779 399 Eggplants 6,800 430 Okra 6,584 372 Lettuce 5,979 393 Cauliflower 1,844 402 Onions & Shallots, Green 402 Source: FAOSTAT

Foods from Animals: With the exception of the mainland countries of Belize, Guyana and Suriname, expansive livestock production has been relatively limited in CARICOM. By far, the most produced and consumed meat in the region is poultry. The Caribbean Poultry Association (CPA) concludes that while ‘several CARICOM countries may be less selfsufficient in poultry than is often appreciated, over the past decade poultry production experienced remarkable growth, particularly in Trinidad & Tobago, Jamaica, Barbados and Guyana. Over the past five years production capacity in Guyana has expanded to the level of meeting domestic requirements, and to supply other CARICOM countries.” The CPA estimated that “in 2004 the industry produced 130,000,000 broilers valued at US$410 million in ex-factory sales which makes it the largest agro industry in CARICOM. In 2000 the contribution to manufacturing and agricultural GDP has estimated to be US$135 million. Moreover, unlike many other agro-industries the poultry sector has grown by over 30% in the last 10 years.” The rapid expansion of poultry production, relative to other animal meats is associated with the expansion of the ‘fast food’ culture and the popularity of poultry in these food service establishments. The CPA estimated that some 265,000 MT of chicken meat is consumed in the Caribbean
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annually, of which 65% is met from regional production. This is enabled by the fact that poultry operations are relatively well integrated, with the regional industry estimated to comprise 3,000 commercial poultry farms and some 12,000 small scale chicken farms. Guyana, Belize and to a lesser extent Jamaica are fairly self-sufficient in cattle production and have developed their beef cattle industries more so than other CARICOM countries. Guyana in particular has vast areas of land in the Intermediate and Rupununi Savannas that is suitable for extensive cattle production. For a number of years during the 70s and 80s the Livestock Development Company (LIDCO) operated a number of large cattle ranches in these areas. This made a significant contribution to Guyana being fairly self–sufficient in beef production. However, the industry is still relatively weak in terms of high yielding varieties, technological and marketing platforms and business practices. This has affected their capacity to supply neighboring CARICOM countries and particularly to satisfy port health certification requirements. Other CARICOM countries have taken steps to develop a beef industry, such as the ‘buffalypso’ in Trinidad & Tobago, but results and growth have not been sustained. Consequently production of beef products falls far short of domestic demands. Almost all countries have traditionally had small scale and scatted production of small ruminants reared to augment incomes, satisfy household and culturally-related demand for goat, sheep and pig products. However, the current supply capacity is far below demand and quite apart from sanitary and health port requirements, incapable of driving a vibrant intra-regional trade in meat products. CARICOM countries have, in the past, established dairy operations for the production of fresh cow’s milk. However, these operations were highly subsidized based on a food and nutrition security policy objective. During the 1980s and 1990s IICA, in collaboration several governments in the region (Guyana, Suriname, Trinidad & Tobago) worked on developing models for small and medium scale dairy production system. Guyana is among the largest domestic producers of milk in the region, producing about 60% of the national requirement for milk. The success in Guyana was one of the major achievements of research efforts which led to the introduction in 1985, of the dairy production system at the St. Stanislaus College Farm. This was an attempt to improve dairy production on the existing farm and at the same time to provide a model system for the then declining dairy sector in Guyana. After three decades the dairy unit at the St. Stanislaus College Farm is still being run as an economically viable enterprise. In 2003-2004 with the assistance of a CARTF grant, a small-scale dairy processing unit was established on the farm, utilizing equipment and technology out of Costa Rica. The unit is still in operation today, processing soft cheese, yogurt, and flavored milk. However, as land for pastures became less and less available, and imported milk, in both liquid and powder form, became more readily available and accessible, domestic dairy cattle operations contracted and many small-scale operations have terminated. For example, several commercial diary producing areas in Trinidad have been significantly down-sized. Consequently, the region is heavily dependent on foreign multinational corporations, particularly Nestlé, for meeting their dairy products requirements and on extra regional imports of other dairy products including cheese from as far as New Zealand. Other forms of milk imported include evaporated, condensed and UHT.

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Fish: Fishing is common in coastal rural communities and contributes to the food and nutrition security status in CARICOM. Marine fisheries dominate, with limited commercial aquaculture and inland operations, concentrating on tilapia. Jamaica is the leading CARICOM producer and exporter of tilapia. The Caribbean Fisheries Mechanism indicates a regional capacity in marine fish production of roughly 117 thousand MT, with Guyana producing almost half of that volume (Table 9). Fats and Oils As, indicated in the guidelines, fats and oils should occupy a relatively small share in a healthy daily diet. Up until the late 1980s, several Caribbean countries had a thriving oil industry based on coconuts and palms. The CARICOM Secretariat estimated that over the 1999-2002 period, the region produced, on average, 301 thousand tons of coconut annually, led by Jamaica, followed by Guyana, Trinidad & Tobago and Dominica. Guyana is one of the few CARICOM countries that produce refined coconut oil on a commercial basis. It should however be noted that a relatively small proportion of coconuts in CARICOM are processed commercially into edible oil. The reason for this may lie in the unfounded, but nevertheless heavily promoted association between coconut oil and high cholesterol levels. This single action discouraged use of coconut oil and encouraged consumption of relatively cheaper and more readily available edible oils, from soya bean, corn, canola and others.

Table 9: CARICOM – Analysis of Trade Balance in Fish and Fish Products (1998) Country Production (MT) Imports (MT) Exports (MT) Antigua & Barbuda 500 394 105 Bahamas 10,127 1,239 2,641 Barbados 3,594 1,808 263 Belize 2,584 289 1932 Dominica 1,212 603 Grenada 1,713 392 450 Guyana 56,459 201 7,611 Haiti 4,769 12,016 1,215 Jamaica 6,140 13,199 2,453 Montserrat 50 St. Kitts & Nevis 285 170 1 St. Lucia 1,314 1,173 8 St. Vincent & Grenadines 1,283 207 2,333 Suriname 12,760 325 5,400 Trinidad & Tobago 14,500 3,552 6,989 Total 117290 35568 31401 Source: Caribbean Regional Fisheries Mechanism

It is widely accepted that value-adding is a pre-requisite for agricultural development, particularly given the changing consumption preferences towards convenience. The usual justifications are based on the assessment that “vibrant agro-industrial activities can expand the markets for primary agricultural products, add value by vertically integrating primary production and food processing systems and minimize post harvest losses. In addition such activities would reduce seasonality of consumption of a range processed foods, increase the viability, profitability and sustainability of production systems through their impact on increasing farm incomes, rural employment and foreign exchange earnings, while reducing marketing risks. However, with few exceptions, the agro-industrial sector remains rudimentary, underdeveloped and largely without significant institutional, technical and

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financial support.”5 Notwithstanding the well documented capacity constraints to agriculture value-added in CARICOM (Lambert, 2001)6 expanding the food and beverage industry has been a policy objective in all CARICOM member states. Information on staples, provided above provides the range of value added that can be undertaken in the region. Table 10 provides similar information on value-adding in the other food groups. As was the case with staples, these are produced by processors that span the range from cottage to large.
Table 10: Types of Value added products and Businesses in CARICOM countries Food Group Product Staples Banana, plantain, cassava & sweet potato chips; Flour; Pancake and porridge mixes (mainly from cassava and arrowroot) Legumes Canned, dried, frozen beans; Nut packs and confectionaries Vegetables Canned, dried, frozen vegetables and salad packs; Juices and carbonated beverages; Teas ; Soups and sauces Fruits Dried and dehydrated mixed fruit snacks ; Jams, jellies, cheeses, candies, chutneys, chocolates; Juices, carbonated beverages, wines and liqueur; Teas Food from Seasoned cuts and packs; Hams, sausages, salami, deli cuts etc.; Sea foods; Animals Bakery products - meat and fish patties, etc; Milk, cheese, ice-creams and yoghurts, Fats & Oils Coconut oil, dissected coconut; Cooking oils, butter and margarines; Coconut milk powder; Soaps; Animal feeds Compiled by authors

A number of these products are based on locally produced raw materials, particularly for the small scale processors. Simple processing such as drying, washing and packaging for retail can produce an enormous amount of value added. Dressed or marinated meat fetches far more than the raw product. Graded, washed and trimmed vegetables can also command a premium price. Imported raw material accounts for significant raw material content of the larger industries. This is particularly so for the multinational companies such as Nestlé, Unilever, Coca Cola, etc and also the large local companies such as, Carib Brewery Limited, Bermudez Biscuit Company Limited, National Canners Limited, Holiday Snacks Limited, Grace Kennedy, Pine Hill Marketing Company Ltd, West India Biscuit Co. (Wibisco), Goddard Enterprise Limited, Matouk’s and others. Basing this discussion on CFNI’s Nutritional Food Groups, as opposed to the traditional categories, has excluded a relatively large industry in CARICOM - sugar and confectionary. The percentage of fruit juice in several of such beverages is often quite low and their high caloric content has a serious drawback: they are ‘empty’. This means that vitamins and minerals do not accompany them. Because of this, they can foster obesity. (IADPA, 2002) The aggressive promotion of various brands on the mass media has made soft drinks more affordable and readily available in most retail outlets, offering consumers convenient choices and serving sizes. The soft-drink industry has virtually replaced what used to be common practice in most homes a few decades ago, that of making fruit beverages or ‘drinks’ from fresh fruits. If fact, in most urban centers in the region (except perhaps Guyana and Belize) it difficult to obtain traditional fruits such as West Indian cherry, carambola, tamarind, and sour-sop.

5 6

Extracts form “Problems and Constraints to the Development of the Agro-Processing Sector”- Dr Ian Lambert Lambert, I. 2001. “Problems and constraints to the development of the agro-processing sector.

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As the previous discussion implies, in the rapid development of the processed food and beverage industry, nutrition has been severely sacrificed. This situation is also evident in the major food processing industries in CARICOM. Hence, with the thrust to expand valueadding in the agriculture and food industry, the choices made in terms of food and beverage processing have also compromised the health and well-being of CARICOM populations. It is well known, that globally, making nutrition integral to food and beverage processing presents a humongous challenge, one that pits the small and politically weaker group against large and politically-influential mega transnational corporations. This challenge also applies to efforts to link nutrition more integrally in the food and beverage processing industries in CARICOM.

3.2

Suppl ementing Food Needs: the Regional Food 'Basket'

As noted earlier, the combined physical resources in CARICOM, if effectively managed, are capable of meeting a substantial share of the most important categories of food needs in the region. Historical trade patterns confirm vibrant flows of at least three major food groups - roots and tubers, fruits and vegetables – within CARICOM. Such trade, while ad hoc and unregulated, is largely responsible for the distribution and hence availability of local, fresh agricultural products within the region. As documented by a CRNM study (Best, 2007), the regional fresh produce trade, is dominated by over 200 individual Hucksters or Traffickers, mostly from Dominica, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Grenada, St. Lucia, and Guyana and to a far lesser extent, Jamaica and Haiti. Those from the OECS and Guyana purchase a wide range of produce particularly fruits and root crops directly from farmers, clean and package the products, usually at home, and then ship the products by the several small boats that provide intra-regional transport service. They then travel, usually by plane and occasionally by the boats, to the market destinations where they or their agents clear the products through Customs. The traders then take the products to the major retail and wholesale markets in the cities where they and their agents carry out wholesale actives over a one or two day period. The major regional markets for the OECS traders are Trinidad & Tobago, Barbados, Antigua, St. KittsNevis, St. Maarten, Guadeloupe and Martinique. In the case of Jamaica and Haiti, there are a few dozen such persons. Distribution systems for fresh agricultural produce within CARICOM remain relatively underdeveloped. The formal wholesale domestic sub-sector, comprising registered companies including wholesalers, importers, and exporters, is relatively well developed. However, these fresh produce wholesaling systems tend to focus mainly on the import and distribution of selected temperate fruits, such as, apples, grapes and pears, and mainstream vegetables, such as tomatoes, cabbage, carrots, lettuce and beet roots, and white potato. A previous section noted the importance of the ‘supermarket phenomenon’ in driving changes in consumption habits. This also underscores the importance of supermarkets in providing an effective distribution outlet for local/regional agricultural produce. As indicated below (Table 11), regional/local agricultural foods account for a relatively low share of the stock of foods retailed in the leading supermarkets in several CARICOM countries.

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Table 11: Source of Food Sold in Leading Supermarkets in Selected CARICOM States CARICOM Country Lead Super-markets Food sales Share (%)of Source of Food Retailed (%) Extra Regional CARICOM Local Antigua & Barbuda Epicuren 85 90 5 5 Bahamas City Markets 90 5 5 Suriname Combo Market 90 75 15 10 St. Vincent & Grenadines CK Greaves 65 30 5 St. Lucia Super Js 85 65 15 20 Belize Super Foods 90 60 20 20 Barbados Super Centre 90 50 5 45 Guyana Fogarty’s 90 50 10 40 Trinidad & Tobago Hi Lo 85 50 10 40 Grenada Food Land 45 50 5 Jamaica Hi Lo 85 35 15 50 Source: CRNM, 2006

A notable exception is Jamaica, where regional/local food products together account for 65% of total food stock in the leading supermarket, Hi Lo. Apart from the relatively vibrant domestic food production sector, the fact that Jamaica is categorized as among the CARICOM countries with transitional or emerging food retail sectors, may also explain this outcome. The relatively high share of local food products retailed in leading supermarkets in Barbados and Trinidad & Tobago is evidence of the national efforts taken to increase consumption of locally produced foods. Tourism-dependent Antigua & Barbuda and the Bahamas are among those countries having more modern food retail sectors, which largely explains the relatively higher presence of extra-regional foods retailed in these countries’ leading supermarkets. While the data presented for Grenada is understandable in terms of the relatively high share of CARICOM-origin foods retailed in its lead supermarket, the data for St. Vincent and the Grenadines are subject to further scrutiny. This suggests that while St. Vincent and the Grenadines is a major producer of roots, tubers, fruit and vegetables, much of this output either finds its way to other CARICOM markets, such as Grenada and Trinidad & Tobago, or is mainly distributed by vendors in community and municipal markets. This may indeed be the situation since St. Vincent and the Grenadines is also categorized among the CARICOM countries with transitional or emerging food retail sectors, with the established supermarkets more dependent on imports as a source of agricultural and food products. One possible explanation of the relatively low share of CARICOM-originating foods distributed in leading and established supermarkets within countries of the region is the intraregional transportation system for trade in goods. Stewart & Forgenie (2006) noted that the inadequacy of transportation services for the movement of agricultural and other products has been a major concern expressed by individual entrepreneurs and firms involved in the marketing of these products in the Community. In fact, the lack of transportation has been identified as one of the major Key Binding Constraints for alleviation. Other areas of concerns relate to the unavailability of adequate or suitable facilities for handling perishable products at some sea and airport terminals as well as the high cost of shipping and related costs, such as, handling, storage and security charges. Opinions with respect to the seriousness of the transportation issues differ. There are some who believe that the situation is grossly overstated. This belief is based on an observation that where transport services are unavailable for movement of goods, it is a reflection that the level of demand for such services is inadequate to make the provision of the services financially viable. There are others who believe that if adequate transportation services are available at affordable

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costs, then trade in agricultural and other products would be stimulated and would eventually develop to a level that makes the provision of such services viable. Stewart & Forgenie (2006) concluded based on available information on perishable products traded within the region, current volumes are unlikely to sustain a viable air or sea cargo service. This is especially where it involves several CARICOM countries, some with very small volumes of products for exports or imports. The cost of the ship or plane servicing some countries will therefore be highly uneconomical. Whether for fresh consumption, or as raw material for food and beverage processing industries, or both, the evidence point to the situation that CARICOM, as individual countries and as a region, has not developed its agricultural production capacity to substantially meet the food needs of its growing population, fuel agro-industrial development, or provide the basis for developing viable intra-regional trade. This capacity short-fall is more acute in those food groups of higher consumption, particularly food from animal, than in those of lower consumption, such as staples, fruits and vegetables, hence a growing dependence on extra-regional imports

3.3

Im porting Food Needs: relying on Extra-Regional sources

The CARICOM Secretariat admits that there has been a steady increase in food imports into the region. The data for 2000-2004 indicated that expenditures on food imports increased from approximately US$1.3 billion in 2000 to US$1.5 billion in 2004; an annual increase of approximately 3.0% over the five year period. The data also revealed that for CARICOM as a group, the importation of food was approximately 12.0% of the total import bill, accounting for approximately 11% of total imports of More Developed CARICOM countries, compared to just about 17% for the Less Developed CARICOM countries. Of course, these figures varied for individual Member States, and in the case of St. Lucia and St. Vincent and the Grenadines, almost one fifth of their total imports were food items. (CARICOM Secretariat, 2005) An indication of the extent of reliance of the region on extra-regional imports can be gleaned from the trend in agriculture and food imports. An attempt was made to 'group' trade classifications by CFNI food group (Table 12). This was challenging since there is very little tradition or historical experience in approaching a discussion on agricultural development for food security in accordance with the Food Groups. Further, international trade classification (Harmonized System) is not done according to food groups, but rather according to industrial activity and by scale of transformation, i.e., primary, semi-processed, finished consumer goods and categories in between. Hence 'pulling out' the individual items that belong to a food group basket will require a substantial level of effort and liaising with the CFNI. The time has come to approach analysis of import data from a different perspective - by food groups and the value chain approach - from farm to table.

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Table 12: CARICOM Food Import by Food Groups US$'000 2001 2000 1999 All Agriculture Imports 1,750,244 1,753,287 1,735,610 Food Agriculture - Finished products Exc. Fish (03) 1,577,208 1,581,774 1,579,176 CFNI Food % Food in total Agriculture imports 90.11 90.22 90.99 Groups Food less cereals & beverages (chpts.10 & 22) 1,276,612 1,297,077 1,295,717 HS Major Food Groups (less beverages Chp. 22) 1,380,591 1,390,338 1,408,472 Food from 02 Food from Animals - Meat & Edible offal 176,605 193,637 189,002 Animals 04 Food from Animals - Dairy, Eggs, honey 213,863 201,839 194,942 16 Meat, fish, seafood preparations 81,868 90,829 91,397 Staples 07 Edible Vegetables, certain Roots & Tubers 30,205 30,044 32,601 10 Cereals 103,979 93,261 112,755 11 Milling products 60,160 62,049 76,361 Vegetables 07 Edible Vegetables, certain Roots & Tubers 45,986 47,486 43,779 Fruits* 08 Edible Fruits, nuts, peel of citrus etc 17,149 20,772 20,647 Legumes & Nuts 08 Edible Fruits, Legumes & Nuts, peel of citrus etc 22,241 24,118 24,911 Other undifferentiated products that add to the Staples, Vegetables and Fruit Food Groups 19 Cereal, flour, starch, milk prep/products 134,987 131,602 127,725 20 Vegetable fruit, nut, food preparations 116,285 113,626 107,213 21 Miscellaneous edible prep 156,583 162,619 142,704 Fats & Oils 15 Animal & vegetable fats & oils 68,925 76,935 88,985 Others 18 Cocoa & preparations 25,328 23,002 21,428 09 Coffee, teas, mate, spices 20,405 20,712 18,580 17 Sugars & sugar confectionary 106,022 97,807 115,442 Source: extracted from 6-digit data obtained from CARICOM Secretariat; See Annex 2 for detailed 6-digit imports: * no specific information on apples or grapes could be identified in the import data. However these are major imported fruits in CARICOM. See Annex 2.

This preliminary matching between food groups and HS classification attempted in Table 12 is not intended to represent an accurate reflection of the pattern of imports and consumption. It is presented to illustrate and to reinforce two points: one - that the results of the CFNI survey that CARICOM consumers consume and hence rely more on imports of a relatively higher amount of 'foods from animals' and 'sugars and sweeteners'; and two trade data, which are often times used to identify opportunities and make decisions on investments, though necessary, are by no means a sufficient basis for such decision-making. 'High regional food import bill' and 'high regional food import dependency' are generally used to substantiate the deteriorating performance of agriculture, and thus are also used as a first point of reference in the process of justifying investments in import-re/dis-placement industries in CARICOM. While this approach may have worked in the past, consideration of the nutritional element built-into food import data needs to feature more prominently. This is even more critical given serious concerns over diet-related chronic non-communicable diseases (CNCDs) and the association with high consumption of such imported foods. Implicit in such consideration is that the structure, role and development process of the agriculture and food industry in CARICOM has not been positioned to influence eating habits or to counteract the growing ‘westernization’ of CARICOM diets. Further, in recognizing the transition of diets, the agriculture and food industry in CARICOM was also not positioned to even satisfy the demands for such ‘western-type' foods through adding value to local produce. Staples On average, cereals (mainly wheat, corn and rice) and derived products (maize, oats, bran, breakfast cereals, pastry, pasta, malt of barley, pot barley, millet, etc.,) account
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for roughly one quarter of all foods imported into CARICOM. The level of cereal production is zero or miniscule in all but three Caribbean countries. In a volatile global agricultural market, the issue of dependency on cereal imports can assume serious proportions given that cereal demand is high and relatively inelastic. (FAO, 2007) Wheat is by far the most popular cereal consumed in CARICOM. Corn is important both for human consumption and for the manufacture of animal feeds. Rice is generally imported as a final good for consumption. However, increasing quantities of husked brown rice, and broken rice are being imported by some countries as an intermediate input for agro-industry (poultry feed). In terms of monetary value, Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago and the Bahamas had the highest level of imports of staples, dominated by corn, rice and wheat and wheat-based products. However per capita value of imports was relatively high for Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas and Barbados, St. Lucia and St. Kitts and Nevis. These are all countries that have little or no domestic production of cereals and therefore are almost entirely dependent on imports. Table 13 provides an indication of the import data on select roots and tubers produced within CARICOM for the 2001 to 2004 period. The data indicate that Trinidad and Tobago, by far, dominates imports of these staples, led by imports of sweet potato and yam. These roots and tubers, described in the trade classification system as having high starch content, were sourced mainly from St. Vincent and the Grenadines and to a lesser extent, Dominica.
Table 13: Value of Imports of Staples (total for banana, yam, sweet potato, cassava) US$ Selected CARICOM Countries 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Jamaica 61,753 63,593 548,463 515,784 400,606 Trinidad and Tobago 689,468 427,752 362,435 514,897 839,703 Barbados 25,578 60,069 25,441 51,892 98,557 Guyana 484 1,968 na 16 na St. Lucia 1,136 996 3,139 2,237 1,852 Belize 549 252 704 35 513 Grenada 1,035 1,975 4,750 2,209 na St. Vincent & Grenadines 419 109 57 142 1,791 Antigua & Barbuda 184,508 na na na na Dominica 603 228 48 na na St. Kitts & Nevis 13,706 7,568 8,607 12,294 15,072 Montserrat 22,526 14,379 14,232 19,607 16,416 CARICOM 1,001,767 578,890 967,877 1,119,114 1,374,511 na: not available Source: Compiled by TTABA with data provided by the CARICOM Secretariat

Data obtained from the 6-digit import data (Annex 2), indicate that on average, imports of white potato (fresh, chilled and frozen) mainly from the US and Canada, account for over 90% of such imports, of US$27 million per annum, far surpassing extra-regional imports of major staples. Though significantly less than cereal imports, this outcome is reveals the general substitution in CARICOM consumption habits, in terms of variety and nutritional value offered by local products (cassava, yam, sweet potato and other roots and tubers) in favor of a single product - white potato. Also interesting is that consumption of such foods has traditionally been higher in Trinidad and Tobago and Jamaica, explained by their relatively more developed hotel and restaurant sector and with extensive and very well advanced fast food retailing. The data also suggest an increasing trend in Barbados and the smaller OECS countries of St. Vincent and the Grenadines and St. Kitts and Nevis. This dominance is largely associated with white potato consumption in its ‘French fries' form, a pattern closely associated with the rise in
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CNCDs. Data from the CARICOM Secretariat (Table 12) also indicated that cereal imports (HS.10) as part of the staple food group dominated that category, which also includes some products in HS.07- edible vegetables, certain roots and tubers and HS.11milling (eg. bakery products) classifications. Together, these staple imports averaged roughly US$200 million per annum over the 1999-2001period. Legumes and Nuts The data in Table 12 above indicate an average of US$ 23 million worth of imports of legumes and nuts in CARICOM per annum between 1999 and 2001. Among the relatively high import items are cashew nuts and almonds and a variety of beans and leguminous vegetables in their fresh form (HS.8). However, a considerable volume of these products are imported for further processing and/or packaging for retail under HS.20 - Vegetable fruit and nut preparations, including nuts and seeds and their mixtures, preserved ground nuts (peanuts), and canned and other peas and beans. Apart from Belize, most of CARICOM countries are dependent on imports to meet domestic demand of pulses (beans and peas) and nuts both for final consumption and agroprocessing, the latter particular in Trinidad & Tobago and Jamaica. Trinidad and Tobago is considered the largest importer of cashew nut, for further processing and packaging. In fact imports of this nut accounted for about 28% of the imports of legumes and nuts into Trinidad and Tobago during between 2001 and 2002. Generally, import data suggest that except for fruits, the value of imports of legumes and nuts was substantially lower than the other food groups, underscoring the fact that legumes are a relatively good but relatively affordable source of proteins and other valuable nutrients. Vegetables It is estimated that the region supplies approximately 75% of its vegetable needs, with the balance met from imports. As indicated in Table 14, the more developed and tourism-based CARICOM countries import the larger share of vegetables.
Table 14: Imports of Vegetables, US$ Selected CARICOM Countries 2000 2001 2002 Jamaica 3,487,517 3,016,811 3,163,911 Trinidad and Tobago 2,064,706 2,160,753 1,816,724 Barbados 2,900,551 2,470,854 2,530,882 Guyana 1,009,525 882,956 1,328,951 St. Lucia 1,059,031 980,094 975,092 Belize 673,056 818,253 780,144 Grenada 415,957 474,059 487,976 St. Vincent & Grenadines 459,288 454,481 476,967 Antigua & Barbuda 1,641,365 na na Dominica 356,985 244,910 282,807 St. Kitts & Nevis 987,250 776,567 650,159 Montserrat 78,388 56,497 76,904 CARICOM 15,133,618 12,336,236 12,570,518 na: not available Source: Compiled by TTABA with data provided by the CARICOM Secretariat 2003 3,077,822 2,305,132 2,490,847 893,610 1,061,843 840,308 471,152 502,208 na 283,756 625,890 68,402 12,620,968 2004 3,171,369 3,342,663 3,077,735 980,249 1,484,101 839,327 na 545,860 na 331,086 737,008 58,825 14,568,224

Onions, shallots, garlic, carrots, tomatoes, cauliflowers and headed broccoli, lettuce, and vegetable mixes, in that order, accounted for the higher relative share of fresh and chilled vegetable imports between 2000 and 2004. The high imports of vegetables suggest that its share in the diet is fairly high. However, when contrasted with the CFNI consumption data, the actual level of vegetables consumed falls below the daily recommended levels. Therefore a more plausible explanation of relatively high imports
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of vegetables is that this is associated more with the high demand in food service establishments, particularly in the more developed CARICOM countries. Fruits The import data suggest that a similarly high expenditure on imports of fruits products, dominated by their derived form, i.e., juice, jams and other preserves. Such expenditures were particularly high products into CARICOM between 2001 and 2002, particularly in Jamaica and the Bahamas (Table 15). It is often assumed that, with the exception of countries like the Bahamas, Barbados and St. Kitts and Nevis, which cater for a large tourist market, the region is less reliant on imports for its supply of fruits.
Table 15: Imports of Fruits, US$ Selected CARICOM Countries 2000 2001 2002 Jamaica 1,120,523 2,987,165 3,763,824 Trinidad and Tobago 214,963 182,404 368,789 Barbados 2,335,249 1,472,282 2,198,680 Guyana 505,965 1,085,750 805,655 St. Lucia 695,893 288,691 241,868 Belize 76,636 84,672 13,845 Grenada 448,307 446,603 512,339 St. Vincent & Grenadines 922,743 867,557 892,301 Antigua & Barbuda 1,131,572 NA NA Dominica 168,272 147,296 97,131 St. Kitts & Nevis 536,025 395,716 346,474 Montserrat 84,468 82,160 71,287 CARICOM 8,240,617 8,040,297 9,312,193 na: not available Source: Compiled by TTABA with data provided by the CARICOM Secretariat 2003 5,691,384 1,192,839 1,718,262 858,607 207,263 14,001 548,903 985,063 NA 122,200 376,491 92,222 11,807,234 2004 3,512,818 3,622,077 1,976,184 580,149 202,492 13,428 NA 433,946 NA 150,883 383,299 49,623 10,924,899

While this may be the situation, it can also be interpreted in the context of the CFNI consumption survey that revealed that consumption of fruits, as was the case with vegetables, appears to be below the recommended daily requirement. Hence the current fruit production capacity appears sufficient to satisfy the existing moderate consumption demands. However, fruit juices, dried fruits and fruit preparations accounted for the majority of these imports. The CFNI consumption data also indicated that between 2000 and 2002 an estimated 75% of fruits and vegetables consumed in CARICOM were obtained from local produce. It is also to be noted that as consumption increased, the importance of imported sources in the supply of fruits and vegetables became more significant. Food from Animals The CARICOM region has traditionally been a net-importer of animal and their derived products, led by meat and dairy. This category accounts for the highest share of expenditures on foods imported into the Region, reflecting the situation that the region as a whole, falls well short of being self-sufficient in the production of meat products. This is borne out in Table 12 (above) and in the 6-digit level import data provided in Annex 2. Guyana and to some extent, Belize, are among the very few Caribbean countries that produce most of their meat requirements. The import data indicate that the Bahamas, Jamaica and Trinidad & Tobago are the largest importers of meat and dairy products in CARICOM.

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Sheep and goat meat is also quite popular in some Caribbean countries. As observed in a UWI study, ‘consumption of sheep and goat meat in CARICOM is highly dependent on imports from New Zealand and Australia. Overall, the region imports approximately 75% of its consumption requirements of both meats. In 2004, imports were valued at US$23.3 million with over 88% being sheep meat. The main import product into the region was sheep cuts, bone in- frozen (HS 020442) representing 72% of imports in value terms. Jamaica is the largest importer in the Region, followed by Trinidad and Tobago. Jamaica, as do other relatively large importers (The Bahamas, Barbados), imports mostly meat of sheep while Trinidad and Tobago’s imports are mixed - about 65% sheep meat and 35% goat.” (UWI, 2006 a) A summary of imports of Sheep and Goat Meats into various CARICOM countries for 2004 is shown in Table 16.
Table 16: Summary of Sheep and Goat Meat Imports in Various CARICOM Countries in 2004 CARICOM Countries; US$’000 Meat of Sheep Meat of Goat Antigua 229 14 Bahamas 3,415 Barbados 3,024 Belize 32 Dominica 43 20 Grenada 151 Guyana 5 Jamaica 8,448 279 St. Kitts/ Nevis 299 St. Lucia 957 17 St. Vincent 27 Suriname Trinidad & Tobago 4,006 2,272 Total Imports 20,636 2,603 Source: UWI, 2006(a)

Fats and Oils According to UWI, CARICOM countries imported an estimated 72,306 tons of vegetable oil valued at USD 46.3 million in 2003 (Table 17).
Table 17: Total Vegetable Oil Imports, 2003 (Intra and Extra-regionally), including Oilseed and Copra Equivalent CARICOM Country Import Value (US$ mill.) Net Weight (Tonnes) Antigua & Barbuda 0.5 519 Bahamas 2.6 2,642 Barbados 3.1 4,897 Belize 0.06 59 Dominica 0.9 1,697 Grenada 0.7 565 Guyana 1.8 2,690 Jamaica 15.1 25,275 St. Kitts & Nevis 0.2 191 St. Lucia 0.2 140 St. Vincent & Grenadines 0.6 533 Suriname 5.9 7,846 Trinidad & Tobago 14.7 25,254 Total Imports 46.3 72,306 Source: UWI, 2006(b)

The largest importers during that year were Jamaica at 25,274 tons valued at US$15.1 million, followed by Trinidad and Tobago 25,254 tons valued at US$14.7 million. Suriname recorded the next highest import levels 7,846 tons valued at US$5.9 million, followed by
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Barbados with 4,897 tons valued at US$ 3.1 million. Except for The Bahamas and Guyana, imports into the other CARICOM countries were of volumes less than 1,000 tons, and valued at less than US$1.0 million. Data for Trinidad and Tobago and Barbados includes volumes produced from imported soybean oil seed.” (UWI, 2006 b)

The above discussion on imports by food group provide further evidence to support the CFNI's results of relatively high consumption levels of foods that do not rank as important in a healthy daily diet. Recall that while sugars and sweeteners are considered neither as a food group nor nutrients, roughly half of the relatively high levels of sugar and sweeteners consumed in CARICOM are imported from extra-regional sources. These are primarily processed and refined sugars used in the food and beverage industry. Up until the mid1980s, CARICOM was generally able to finance food imports from earnings derived from traditional crop exports. However, with declining merchandise export volumes, including agricultural products and escalation in food prices, the ability to finance food imports, from agriculture and food export earnings was significantly eroded from the early 2000s, as indicated by the food import capacity indicator (Table 18).
Table 18: Food Imports as a Ratio of Total Exports 1990/92 1993/95 1996/98 1999/01 Haiti 1.68 2.60 2.13 1.18 St. Vincent & Grenadines 0.23 0.35 0.52 0.48 St. Lucia 0.33 0.46 0.83 1.45 Suriname 0.14 0.15 0.27 0.17 Grenada 0.74 1.04 1.11 0.42 St. Kitts & Nevis 0.48 0.56 0.64 1.06 Trinidad & Tobago 0.16 0.15 0.14 0.09 Antigua & Barbuda 0.92 0.71 0.97 0.37 Dominica 0.34 0.43 0.54 0.50 Barbados 0.44 0.48 0.37 0.47 Bahamas 0.12 0.13 0.10 0.11 Jamaica 0.37 0.33 0.29 0.35 Belize 0.22 0.23 0.23 0.27 Guyana 0.22 0.10 0.12 0.15 Source: FAO/CFNI, 2007 Country 2003/04 1.09 1.10 0.99 0.90 0.81 0.69 0.60 0.60 0.55 0.48 0.40 0.25 0.20 0.13

The data indicate that the food import bill for several countries accounted for a substantial proportion of the total value of export earnings from goods. As expected in Haiti, the value of food imports has been steadily greater than exports of goods. However, with efforts at revitalizing agricultural production and exports, the situation showed signs of improvement from 1999. For St Vincent and the Grenadines, the situation worsened considerably from 2003, associated in part with the decline in banana production and exports. This was also the experience for St. Lucia, whose severe contraction in their export earnings could not offset the increase in food imports. The data thus suggest that with the exception of Guyana and Belize, the capacity of most CARICOM countries to import food from export earnings was much reduced in 2003/2004, compared to 1990/92. By 2003/2004, for most, CARICOM countries, expenditures on food imports absorbed an increasing share of their export earnings, with the situation dire in more than half of CARICOM states. As the world laments the end of the era of ‘cheap food’, CARICOM countries will expect to feel the immediate effects, which may represent a worsening of their capacity to satisfy their growing food needs from import, irrespective of the sources of supply.
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It is well known that the United States (US) is the dominant source of food imports into CARICOM as a region, and to individual Member States, except Suriname, whose main supplier is the Netherlands. Comtrade data indicate that over the 1999 to 2001 period, a little more than half of the region’s food needs (i.e. 51.87%) were sourced from the US. The supply dominance of the US ranged from as high as 93.1% of food imports in the Bahamas to a low of 30.1% in Suriname. The situation has not changed substantially in the current period. The other main, but by far, less important supplier of food supplies into CARICOM were Trinidad and Tobago, the United Kingdom (UK) and Canada, with a market share of 7.6%, 5% and 4.7%, respectively over the same period. In spite of the proximity to Latin America, supplies of food products from countries in that region was relatively low, averaging less than 3%, although CARICOM has several bi-lateral trade agreements with several Latin American countries. The CARICOM Secretariat (2005) estimated that between 2000 and 2004, only about 16% of the Region’s total food imports were sourced from within the region. Though fluctuating over the period, the absolute value of intra-regional imports of food declined from approximately US$234.5 million in 2000 to US$231.3 million in 2004. Trinidad and Tobago had the second largest import market share in nine of the 14 Member States, ranging from a high of 25.2% in Guyana to a low of 1.1% in Belize. As expected from the dominance of exports from Trinidad and Tobago, intra-regional trade in agricultural and food products is similarly dominated by bakery products (sweet biscuits and breakfast cereals) and beverages (soft drinks, beer and concentrated orange juice). In general, it is the OECS member countries, Dominica, Grenada, St. Lucia and St. Vincent and the Grenadines which acquire in excess of one-fifth of their total food requirements from the regional market. A significant part of the food and agriculture imports feeds directly into manufacturing firms. Evidence of the dependence of large manufacturing firms on imported raw material is seen in the annual requests considered by the CARICOM Secretariat for rate suspensions of the Common External Tariff (CET) which by its very design, was intended to ensure that local/regional raw material was provided with first option. It also served another important purpose - a mechanism of revenue collection on imports. Such suspensions are provided for under Paragraph 3 of Article 83 of The Revised Treaty Establishing the Caribbean Community including the CARICOM Single Market and Economy (CSME). Over the 2002-2005 period the main products which have triggered repeated requests for the suspension of CET rates have been primary and more frequently, processed agricultural products, including products from the fats and oils food group. For many of these products, the applicable CET rates are competing input rates intended to influence their sourcing by CARICOM producers/processors from within the Region. The chief products are vegetables, fruit, nuts, spices, rice, certain animal and vegetable fats and oils, sugar, fruit pulp and fruit tidbits, citrus and other fruit juice concentrates, and essential oils. The principal petitioning Member States in terms of the number and frequency of the requests have been Trinidad and Tobago and Jamaica. The products concerned have been mainly inputs for further processing in the food and beverage sectors. Ironically, for several of these products, CARICOM was deemed to have supply capacity. The trend in CET rate suspensions continued unabated over the 2002 to 2005 period as shown in Table 19. The petitions have not been limited to questions of the availability of the named products, but have involved considerations of price, quality and technical specifications of the products concerned. Apart from an increasing number of suspensions

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granted between 2002 and 2004, the fact that roughly 90% of all applications were from only four industry clusters – oil-bearing crops, other fruits and derived products, spices and condiments, and miscellaneous animal and vegetable products – provides an indication of the preference, or concentration of agro-industry in the region. As expected, Trinidad and Tobago, the major agro-industrial CARICOM country, and Jamaica, dominated such applications, each accounting for roughly 45% over 2002-2004. The fact that in CARICOM, the main source of raw material and intermediate supplies for larger agro-processing firms is imports from extra-regional sources suggests a weakness in the primary link of agriculture’s value chain. Using import data as an indicator, it would appear that efforts to develop the value chain by fostering linkages between farm agriculture and up-stream food and beverage manufacturing have not materialized as expected.
Table 19: CET Rate Suspension on Products of the Agricultural Sector Commodity Groups (2002 to Sept. 2005) Applications: Total # Applications: % Distribution 2002 2004 2005 2002 2004 2005 Oil-bearing Crops & Derived Products 77 142 60 29.06 30.60 19.74 Spices & Condiments 62 125 49 23.40 26.94 16.12 Miscel. Animal & Vegetable Products 43 99 115 16.23 21.34 37.83 Other Fruits & Derived Products 41 57 31 15.47 12.28 10.20 Pulses & Derived Products 18 8 8 6.79 1.72 2.63 Rice & Rice Products 5 5 1 1.89 1.08 0.33 Large Ruminants & Products 4 4 3 1.51 0.86 0.99 Beverage Crops 4 8 12 1.51 1.72 3.95 Cereals & Derived Products 3 2 0 1.13 0.43 0.00 Citrus & Citrus Juices 3 4 3 1.13 0.86 0.99 Sugar Crops & Sweeteners & Derived 2 2 8 0.75 0.43 2.63 Vegetables & Derived Products 2 2 5 0.75 0.43 1.64 Nuts & Derived Products 1 2 2 0.38 0.43 0.66 Feed Stuffs 0 3 0 0.00 0.65 0.00 Roots & Tubers & Derived Products 0 1 1 0.00 0.22 0.33 Water & Ice & Beverages 0 0 5 0.00 0.00 1.64 Other Animals & Products 0 0 1 0.00 0.00 0.33 Total 265 464 304 Source: Compiled by Andrew Jacque with data provided by the CARICOM Secretariat

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The CARICOM ‘Food Problem’ For Caribbean countries, a ‘food problem’ has been deemed to exist since the late 1970s, as recognized in the CARICOM 1981 Regional Food and Nutrition Strategy (RFNS). This food problem manifested itself ‘in acute nutritional and health problems’. The RFNS also concluded then, that the ‘nutrition problem in the Caribbean generally, is one of insufficient food rather than an imbalanced diet’. In the 1970s, the food issue was largely linked to availability and access related to incomes and deficiencies in the distribution system, as opposed to utilization/nutrition. Agriculture was pressed to expand food production and manufacturers were encouraged to use more local produce in food processing operations. While the issue of nutrition has generally been an invisible aspect of agricultural development and trade (food import) decisions, CARICOM countries have clear guidelines regarding nutritional needs. The CFNI, established in 1967 to improve the food and nutrition situation in its member countries, has defined and continues to develop nutritional guidelines and food baskets for a healthy and secure daily diet. However, CFNI surveys have shown that consumption patterns in the Caribbean, generally, do not match these recommendations. Unfortunately, the region has still not achieved optimum success in developing the important linkages between food, nutrition, health and education and in recognizing the important role of agriculture. This became clear as the food price crisis rapidly unfolded from 2007.

“In short, if the Caribbean’s food import bill was unsustainable before the global economic crisis, the austerity budgets that governments now have to introduce to weather the recession are making essential the development of a new Caribbean agricultural model. In response to the 2007/8 food price crisis the Caribbean held an emergency summit to try to find regional solutions. All the signs are that food prices are again set to soar. Delivering rather than discussing food security, for the people of the region, is an issue that will not go away”. (SRC, 2009)7

7

‘The View From Europe: Caribbean Agriculture & Food Security’ 05 May 2009, http://www.shridathramphalcentre.org 52

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4.1

Investing in Nutrition
Opportunities for Food and Nutrition Security- by Food Group
The food and nutrition crisis has given the region a reason for pause and stock-taking, in terms of its priorities and approach to agricultural development, food security and human health and wellness. Some key points to be considered in this dialogue with respect to the past and recent experiences are that: 1. agricultural development policies and programs can no longer just respond to external market forces and demand; they must define and pursue a national development agenda in the context of regional integration and international obligations; 2. marginalizing agriculture in the national development agenda is neither a prudent nor viable growth strategy; countries must balance industrialization policies, incentives, investments and infrastructure developments that encourage expanded agricultural production and trade; 3. the unbridled access to imported foods, in the absence of public education on nutrition, promotion of, and enhanced access to locally produced foods, has escalated the costs of food beyond just the financial value of imports, to include the equally high and rising financial and economic cost of health care from CNCDs. The current food crisis is a symptom of a crisis of agriculture that has been allowed to escalate, and a crisis of rapidly urbanizing societies in a lagging development process. Member states have been taking measures to encourage expanded production and consumption of locally-produced agricultural products. The response by virtually all CARICOM Heads of State has been to implement short-term measures to mitigate the impact of rising food prices and improve access. The more common measures have been in the areas of: adjustment to import tariffs food stamps and debit cards to the most vulnerable incentives to start and expand food production in specific crops promotion of backyard gardening to enhance household sufficiency development of ‘mega farms’ for mass production of certain food products

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Such measures, as expected, will provide temporary relief as Governments seek to define a ‘bail-out’ package to stem any further adverse impact on rising prices. However, what is needed is well-placed investment that would stimulate interest, develop capacity and expand business activity in agriculture, from farm to table and sustain growth in the long term. This is critical in securing the food and nutrition needs of a well defined and nutritionbased basket of foods for a healthy daily diet. Response at the regional level tended to focus on mobilizing resources to strengthen the enabling environment for agricultural development and to attract greater investments. This has been the rationale for the process of crafting programs and strategies to alleviate key binding constraints to a competitive agriculture in CARICOM, led by President Bharrat Jagdeo. This strategy visualizes a resuscitation of agriculture potential to contribute to economic, social and environment development of the region by 2015. The agricultural potential of the region has remained largely under-developed and barely tapped. Trade data, supported by the food crisis, both reveal that demand for agricultural produce has outstripped supply, both for direct consumption and as input into processing. There is a view, that given the physical limitations with respect to agricultural production capacity, CARICOM is not in a position, or rather, should not pursue policies to achieve food self-sufficiency. Physical limitations notwithstanding, the combined resources in CARICOM are capable of meeting the nutritional requirements of a number of food products in each of the key food groups. To enable this, serious investment is needed across the board in enhancing crop, livestock and fisheries production to secure a reasonable proportion of the region’s food needs and to supply raw materials for agro-industries. Investment is also required in distribution mechanisms, transportation and infrastructure to help stabilize prices and markets. Agriculture inputs supplies and distribution; water resource development, especially for flood control infra-structure and irrigation; development and fabrication of appropriate small-scale mechanized technologies for on-farm processing and secondary processing of agricultural produce, are also priority areas for investment.

4.2

Potential Areas for Investing in Food and Nutrition Security

Roughly thirty years ago, pre-feasibility and feasibility studies were undertaken to guide decision-making in expanding the region’s production capacity in cereals and grains, legumes, fruits and vegetables, livestock products and spices and essential oils. Some of the opportunities identified were incorporated as part of the regional food and nutrition strategy. In 2008, the region is once again or still engaged, in the same objective and process, albeit in a vastly different environment. In the context of an emerging global food crisis, the status of the region with respect to food security has taken on increased significance on the policy making agendas. There is an expectation that expanded local production and more efficient regional trade and distributions mechanisms, could minimize the region’s vulnerability to food insecurity. In the short-term and given the emerging global situation with respect to food security, the priority objective for resuscitating agriculture’s potential is to produce adequate supplies of wholesome foods to feed CARICOM’s populations. Meeting this objective provides sufficient basis for identifying potential opportunities for investing in agriculture. Such an identification take fully into consideration the recommended dietary guidelines of the CFNI,
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the urgent need to arrest further increase in CNCDs and the preference towards imports of highly processed products for human consumption. The following discussion seeks to identify potential opportunities for investment by Food Group, starting with the most important for a healthy daily diet.

4.2.1

Priority Investment Areas - Staples (Roots, Tubers, Grains)

Why staples? Unquestionably, staples as the most important food source, must be central in any investment plan to boost agriculture for food and nutrition security, in both the primary and processed segments. From a nutritional standpoint, the CFNI’s daily dietary requirement guidelines indicate that staples, such as, starchy fruits, roots, tubers/ground provisions form the base of the daily diet; that is 45%! They are a good and affordable source of dietary energy, that is, carbohydrates and dietary fiber. While they have only small amounts in most other nutrients, roots and tubers, such as, cassava, sweet potato, potato and yam, also contain some vitamin C and yellow varieties of sweet potato, yam and cassava contain beta-carotene or provitamin A. From a production standpoint, most, if not all CARICOM countries produce relatively large amounts of a range of roots and tubers, albeit on scattered small-holder unit. Farmers are well versed in the production technologies and there have been some technological upgrades in certain varieties that have boosted yields, reduced susceptibility to pest and disease (eg. control of tannia root rot disease) and improved quality (eg. the CARDI improved rice cultivar "CARDI 70" in Belize) and in terms of use as a fresh product and for processing. From a national security standpoint, roots and tubers have a relatively short production cycle and the fact that they grow under-ground, makes them a ‘super-crop’ in a region plagued by extreme weather events (eg. hurricanes). Food shortages in the aftermath of hurricanes pose serious social and political threats to CARICOM countries. The ability to quickly revitalize food production capacity, through roots and tubers – energy foods – features high in post-hurricane recovery plans. However, while staples have become a ‘staple’ in the agricultural production landscape, their development process has been stymied. This, despite emphasis placed on these two food groups in previous agricultural development plans and strategies since the mid-1970s and to present time. The major source of CARICOM’s carbohydrate nutritional requirements comes from wheat and its derived products, and white (Irish) potato. The CFNI indicates that three substitutes for flour products which can be easily grown and are readily available, are the breadfruit, green banana and cassava. From an economic standpoint, past assessments have indicated that ‘staples’ have wellestablished and excellent market potential, in both fresh and value-added products. Investments in improving production and introducing appropriate processing will be required to develop farming and processing operations and viable value chains. Trade data indicate processed staples, mainly cereals and bread (from whole grain or enriched flour), wheat flour, corn-meal, dried cereals, macaroni, spaghetti, rice, cereal porridges, are a significant component of the region food import bill. With the recent

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food crisis, there has been a renewed interest in developing the base of food security that follows a nutritional, as opposed to economic determination of value. Interest in roots and tubers industry, with cassava and sweet potato leading the pack, has resurfaced in CARICOM. From a socio-economic standpoint, the farm base in CARICOM is dominated by small producers of roots and tubers and there has been a growing movement towards organization has been an increase in the number of farmers groups organizing these commodities in the last five years. There is also evidence of an increase in the number of small establishments engaged in adding value to roots and tubers and nuts. These value added products include the familiar flours, chips and fries, and as well, more recent efforts to produce porridge, soups, pancakes, mixed nuts and other mixes. The growth in value-adding of roost and tubers indicate that some progress has been made in addressing limiting factors, such as, unavailability of suitable small-scale equipment to reduce the drudgery of manual labor and the cost and availability of appropriate packaging material. This can only auger well for a concerted and well-conceptualized investment effort to expand and secure regional capacity to produce the bulk of its energy, protein and fiber requirements from crops. The following Table 20 provides indicative areas where investments could be channeled for development of a range of staple products.
Table 20: Technological and Economic Considerations for Staples Recommended Technological Economic Aspects Market potential Product Requirement Banana and Plantain Plantain Chips Established technology Initial capital investment is Proven, well-established product. available moderate. Major costs are Excellent potential for domestic, regional equipment and packaging. and export markets. Banana Chips Established technology Initial capital investment is Proven, well-established product. available moderate. Major costs are Excellent potential for domestic, regional equipment and packaging. and export markets. Drinks/Juice Research needed-major Can be adapted easily to Excellent market potential provided that Blends challenge is product processing operations for other the banana industry survives. consistency because of juices. quality variability in the raw materials Wines Research required Initial cost of investment is not Excellent potential for use in tourist high if operations are small scale. industry and as souvenirs packaged in small attractive bottles. Cassava Farine Mechanization of Initial cost of investment is not Excellent market potential process for increased high if operations are small scale level of production Bread/bammy Mechanization of Initial cost of investment is not Excellent market potential process for increased high if operations are small scale level of production Flour Mechanization of Initial cost of investment is not Unless process is mechanized, potential is process for increased high if operations are small scale moderate due to competition from lower level of production priced products. Frozen cassava High energy input Initial cost of investment is not Market potential is moderate unless high if operations are small scale process is mechanized because of competition from products produced more cheaply Frozen grated High energy input Initial cost of investment is not Market potential is excellent cassava high if operations are small scale Quick-mix Specialized equipment Initial cost of investment is not Market potential is excellent especially powdered, soup required high if operations are small scale if marketed as a specialty product thickener

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Recommended Product Breadfruit Vacuum-packed baked/roasted breadfruit Pre-cooked microwaveable sections Chips Sweet potato Fries Flour Yam Extruded snack Flavoured chips Dasheen Soup thickeners Flavored chips (extruded) Eddo Flavoured chips Tannia Powdered soup mix Flavored chips Source: FAO, 2001

Table 20: Technological and Economic Considerations for Staples Technological Economic Aspects Market potential Requirement Vacuum sealer and appropriate packaging required Vacuum sealer and appropriate packaging required Appropriate packaging Research required for variety selection Research required for variety selection Extruder and research required Research required Initial cost of investment is moderate for equipment cost and packaging, raw material availability may be a problem Initial cost of investment is moderate for equipment cost and packaging, raw material availability may be a problem raw material availability may be a problem Relatively low initial capital investment Initial cost of investment is not high if operations are small scale High initial investment for extruder and packaging Initial cost of investment is not high if operations are small scale Raw material availability may be a problem High initial investment for extruder and packaging Initial cost of investment is not high if operations are small scale Raw material availability may be a problem Raw material availability may be a problem Excellent market potential

Excellent for single serve, convenience item for the domestic, regional and extra-regional ethnic markets Excellent market potential Excellent market potential Excellent market potential, if used for the ingredient market Market potential is moderate because of competition from similar products Good niche market for individuals familiar with yams; excellent market potential Excellent market potential Market potential is moderate because of competition from similar products Market potential is moderate because of competition from similar products Excellent potential especially if marketed as a specialty hypo-allergenic product Niche market with excellent potential for domestic, regional and extra-regional ethnic markets

Specialized equipment required Extruder and research required Research required Specialized equipment required Research required

The socio-economic returns from such investments will be increased incomes to producers, reduction in health care costs and greater food security in the aftermath of hurricanes and other such adverse weather events. Given that production of these crops is dominated by small holder operations, the production and processing of this food group also presents a good opportunity for community agriculture and development in rural areas.

4.2.2

Priority Investment Areas – Legumes and Nuts

Why legumes and nuts? From a nutritional standpoint, the CFNI’s guidelines indicate that legumes and nuts should be the second largest food consumed as part of a healthy daily diet, 22%. They are a good, important and affordable source of non-animal protein and soluble fibers. From a production standpoint, most if not all CARICOM countries have the capacity to produce a variety of legumes mainly for domestic consumption. Belize is a major producer of red kidney beans; Guyana and Suriname produce large quantities of boraInvesting in Food and Nutrition Security - Identifying Potential Investment Opportunities in the Agriculture and Food Industries in CARICOM 57

bora; and Trinidad and Tobago has a fairly large production base of string beans, bodi, pigeon peas and seim. Almost all CARICOM countries incorporate legume production in crop-rotation systems. In fact the first mechanized harvester of commercial pigeon peas was developed by the UWI faculty of Engineering in the 1960/70s. Nuts are less widely cultivated that legumes and in most instances, are found in the wild. From a national security standpoint, legumes and nuts also have a relatively short production cycle and can also become a major part on post-disaster recovery efforts at providing nutritious foods. From an economic standpoint, trade data indicate a relatively high proportion of canned and frozen legumes in the region’s food import bill. The bulk of such imports are to satisfy canning industries mainly in Trinidad and Tobago, with significant imports from the Dominican Republic. Measured in per unit of protein for the population, legumes are far more economical than protein from animal sources in terms of direct costs if production, plus the costs in terms of environmental impact. From a socio-economic standpoint, they are well adapted to subsistence, small scale and intensive production systems and can provide a major 'free' source of protein at level of households. From an environmental standpoint, legumes, in particular, are 'soil enhancers', improving soil nutrition because of their capacity to 'fix nitrogen'. For example, pigeon peas are very well adapted to growing conditions in CARICOM countries. However, their long-term soil nutrition benefits are optimized when they are incorporated into a crop rotation cycle, such as with root crops and vegetables, such as, corn, which are major 'demanders' of nitrogen. To reiterate: sixty-seven percent of the food needs for a healthy diet comes from two food groups - roots and tubers and legumes and nuts. That is significant! Of even greater significance is that the combined resources and traditional experience in the region are capable of producing a substantial part of food needs from these two food groups. Roots and tubers can be grown with some measure of comparative advantage in most CARICOM countries, such as in St. Vincent, which has proven capacities for yams, eddoes, tannia, sweet potatoes and cassava. If CARICOM were to achieve near self-sufficiency in carbohydrates and dietary fiber through root crops, and non-animal protein, through legumes and nuts, then significant resources will be released from the food import bill for investment in other areas in agriculture that require comparable attention. This provides more than sufficient justification for prioritizing crops in these food groups in developing agriculture's capacity to meet the region’s food and nutrition security objective.

4.2.3

Priority Investment Areas –Vegetables and Fruits

Why vegetables and fruits? From a nutritional standpoint, there has been a global shift towards increasing consumption of vegetables and fruits, and especially in their raw and minimally processed form. This shift is largely in response to the rapidly growing incidence of CNCDs, such as diabetes, in adult and as well, youth and infants. Based on CFNI’s guidelines, vegetables and fruits

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should comprise about 12% and 9%, respectively, of a healthy daily diet. They are a ready source of vitamins, fiber and minerals. From a production standpoint, the agricultural landscape of all CARICOM countries, whether small holdings, commercial establishments, greenhouse operations, or backyard gardeners, is dotted with a wide variety of vegetable and fruit production. Vegetables have traditionally been grown for home and domestic consumption. However, with the more aggressive promotion of the tourism and hospitality sector, including agro-tourism, both the scale and selection of vegetables grown have expanded. Some enterprising farmers in CARICOM have invested in the production of specialty vegetables for hotels, and there is a growing interested in production of the ‘baby’ variety of many commonly used vegetables, such as tomatoes, and as well, winter vegetables. Production of fruits of most tropical varieties has been a standard feature of agricultural diversification programs in CARICOM countries. However, the bulk of such products have been geared for the extra-regional market. Notwithstanding, CARICOM has both the physical and technical capacity to improve and expand vegetable and fruit production to supply a significant share of regional demands. From an economic standpoint, fruit and vegetables have formed the base for exports and several of the region’s agro-processing industries. The global market for tropical fruit and vegetable products is relatively large, with strong growth in the organic market segment. The global shift towards higher consumption of vegetables and fruits is evidenced in the most unlikely of places – the fast food restaurant segment – the fastest growing food service establishment. Vegetable and fruit-based products are increasingly become part of the offerings of such establishments, and as well, of the growing diet industry. There is also still significant scope for expanding export, regional and domestic markets for vegetables and fruit.

4.2.4

Other Food Groups: Determining their Relative Priority

Should, and if so, to what extent of investment resources be spent on further development of these industries? Animal Products What Foods from Animals? Based on import data, growth in food services using products of animal origin and observed consumption patterns, it is safe to conclude that the protein quotient of the average CARICOM consumer is reasonably well satisfied. Unfortunately, with the exception of poultry, and to some extent pork and beef products in a few countries, the region generally, has and continues to be a net importer of food from animals. This situation has increased in recent years as most livestock production in most CARICOM countries continues to fall far below demand. Up to the 80s, there were several public sector projects to expand production of sheep and goats, pigs, poultry and dairy and beef production in a few of the larger Caribbean countries. Some private sector initiatives have also resulted in some Caribbean countries significantly increasing their self-sufficiency in poultry and pork products, with an enhanced capacity in a few others for beef production. The potential for some category of livestock and fisheries production in CARICOM remains under-developed. CFNI’s guidelines recommend that food from animals should constitute

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8% of the daily diet. The decision with respect to investment in livestock products should take this into consideration, since livestock production in CARICOM is primarily geared towards domestic/regional consumption. Import displacement is also a major driver in developing capacity for livestock products. However, other critical issues that investment decisions in livestock must also take into account is the import dependence of most of the existing livestock industries on imports of the major inputs – improved breeding stock, feed and veterinary medicines. In most CARICOM states, grazing lands are not in abundance, nor are facilities for animal feed production. Hence the opportunity cost for growing crops for food or animal feed is a major factor for consideration. Fisheries products are being promoted as the ‘better’ protein. However, fishing, though widely practiced, is yet to develop into a commercial industry in most CARICOM countries. Investment decision in developing production capacity for food from animals, if based on considerations of nutrition, reducing the food import bill and as well, stimulating employment in rural areas, should take into consideration the relative cost-benefits of fishing vis-a-vis livestock. This is not, however, to suggest an either/or situation. Rather, it is to emphasize that perhaps, and pending economic analysis and environmental impact assessments, most CARICOM countries have a relatively greater comparative advantage for fish and fish products, including marine capture fishing and aquaculture, vis-a-vis some components of the livestock sector that are currently being pursed. It suggests also, that serious investment needs to be channeled into fisheries to enable its development to contribute significantly to the food and nutrition security needs of the region. Investment in fisheries development should span the entire industry, from infrastructure to the scientific applications, technology, research and preservation and the services industry. Fisheries suffer similar disincentive as food crops production as a result of wastage and spoilage due to inadequate preservation, processing and transportation to major consumption centers. Artisanal fishing has been crippled by rising costs of inputs - boats, out-board engines, fuel, etc. There are investment opportunities in production of fishing tackles, cold storage and transportation, development of fish ponds in coastal areas, swamps, where they exist, aquaculture, fish canning and packaging, boat construction and out-board engines assembly and manufacture, trawling and ancillary facilities and services. The emerging health conscious lifestyle of many consumers has created an increase in the worldwide demand for fishery products that are high in protein, low in fat and high in vitamins, minerals and other essential nutrients such as omega fatty acids. Consequently, the national and international demand for fish far exceeds the supply. Rising demand coupled with slower growing production has resulted in an increase in the prices of most fresh and frozen fish in relation to the prices of most animal-origin foods. The CARICOM population can absorb an increase in the current protein supply from fish and fish products. Fats and Oils Recall the CFNI’s nutritional guidelines recommendation that this group of foods should contribute just about 4% of the daily diet. The nutritional properties of coconut, which is the mail oil-producing tree in CARICOM, show that the fatty acids that make up coconut fat are saturated; these are a special fatty acid called short and medium chain, which do not promote cholesterol production. In CARICOM, other available sources of fats and oils include cooking and salad oil, butter, margarine, shortening, ghee, coconut cream/milk, meat fat, nuts, avocado pears and Jamaican ackee.

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This suggests that with the current production and consumption of oil-rich fruits, investment to develop capacity for fats and oils, as part of a food and nutrition strategy may not necessarily be considered a priority. This, however, does not exclude the development of this aspect of agriculture to capture export markets provided that such export opportunities are deemed to exist and that the CARICOM products is competitive enough to yield sufficient returns to such investment. Of note, are the relatively high imports of fats and oils into CARICOM for final consumption and as well for agro-processing.

4.3

Investment Climate for Capacity Building in Food Nutrition Security

A major part of the unfinished regional agenda has and continues to be limited financing and investments. In this regard, an important aspect of the discussion must be on the investment climate in the region generally and specifically, for agriculture. The 2003/2004, the Alleviation of Key Binding Constraints (Jagdeo Initiative) reiterated past documented conclusions, that lack of financing and the absence of new investments is a fundamental constraint in agriculture. Mobilizing a regional agriculture development fund to provide the much needed capital for critical public and private sector investments was proposed as a major part of the solution. The macro-economic situation plays a major role in the attractiveness of a country/region to investment resources. CARICOM countries, generally, have had fairly stable, albeit modest growth rates and a relatively stable and predictable policy environment. However, for several countries, the sustainability of debt levels is a cause for concern. With the exception of Jamaica, Guyana, Suriname and Trinidad and Tobago, exchange rates have been stable. Politically, the region is also regarded as stable, with well defined governance and institutional structures which provide some measure of accountability, transparency and confidence, particularly for foreign investors. However, as far as the financial sector is concerned, the CARICOM Secretariat concluded that the situation was not conducive to the stimulation of regional investment. While the banking system remained sufficiently sound within the last decade or so, there was some concern about excessive liquidity and yet unavailability of loans to small and micro enterprises, a general reduction of lending for productive, as against consumption type consumer purposes, and a very high, though declining rate of interest. It is obvious that agri-food investments have been less dynamic than investments in other sectors, particularly services and manufacturing. The signals transmitted by contraction in major agriculture industries and limited successes at agricultural diversification have rendered agriculture as unattractive and/or risky. Domestic deficiencies that have limited high and continuous investment in agriculture still exist. Among the main issues include environmental, financial, market and institutional risks, lack of credit and financing, especially for start-up, working capital and risk mitigation, inadequate economic and technological infrastructure including demand-driven research, development and innovation. The absence of “value chain presence” that takes effective advantage of the ‘improved market access opportunities negotiated through the trade agreements and to ‘associate or group’ to achieve economies of scale, attract resources and develop new businesses has also been a major deterrent to investment in agriculture. Further, the expectation that most economies in the region would become more service-oriented as a strategic response to trade liberalization, that has adversely reduced competitiveness and

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‘squeezed out’ opportunities for manufactures, has implications for attracting investment into agriculture. All CARICOM countries have investment promotion agencies to aggressively seek investments and facilitate the entry of investors. These focus on fiscal incentives, mainly through tax holidays and duty exemptions, industrial modernization services to upgrade facilities, and ‘free zones’ that promote export development and foreign investment projects. While these investment promotions do not exclude include farming or agroprocessing, the visibility and share of agriculture in the overall portfolio have been relatively low, compared to other manufacturing activities. Incentives to encourage farming are generally provided for by Ministries of Agriculture. Most countries offer a package of incentives to encourage investment in agriculture. It spans Finance Credit; Tax Holidays; Reduced Customs Charges on Imported Inputs; Technical Support through Research Institutions; Export Financing and Guarantee; Extension Services, and for a limited number of commodities, Agricultural Insurance Schemes. There may also be commodity specific incentives linked to major commodity development programs in individual member states. However, a general reaction from stakeholders, that the process for obtaining these incentives tends to be time consuming, explains in part the limited success and impact of these facilities. While there have been incentives at the farm level, these have not made any significant inroads into the critical limitations to investment, that is reducing or at least, managing the level of risk faced, improving access to appropriate credit, financing, infrastructure and other critical production factors. Hence the usual problems of low productivity, non-competitiveness and instability continue to challenge agriculture and the emergence of an enabling environment for investment. It is well understood, that fiscal incentives are an important component of the domestic policy measures to support the farm and agro-processing sectors in CARICOM. There is sufficient scope for Governments of the region to provide incentives of one form or another, for production and/or processing under the facilities and mechanisms of the WTO Agriculture Agreement. Domestic support commitments are defined in the “green box”, which allow Developing Countries to finance programs which relate to research and development, including market research, once these measures do not distort, or at most cause minimal distortion to trade. They have to be government-funded (not by charging consumers higher prices) and must not involve price support. They tend to be programs that are not targeted at particular products, and include direct income supports for farmers that are not related to (or “decoupled” from) current production levels or prices. They also include environmental protection and regional development programs. “Green box” subsidies are therefore allowed without limits, provided they comply with the policy-specific criteria set out in Annex 2 of the WTO Agriculture Agreement. The CSME mechanisms are expected to encourage cross-border activities, particularly capital flows, and to enhance international competitiveness of firms and small and medium sized activities. However, in 2005, the CARICOM Secretariat concluded that the incidence of cross-border (and also extra-regionally sourced) investment activity is conditioned by broad environmental and endowment related factors, as well as entrepreneurship and supply-side capabilities that would also determine the extent to which conditions are put to good use, opportunities are seized and challenges overcome. However, the differing level of need and capacity to offer fiscal incentives within Member States have raised concern

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over the level of commitments and obligations to co-ordination of policies across Member States. Increasing investment in agriculture for food and nutrition security is enshrined in the regional agricultural policy framework in the Revised Treaty establishing the Caribbean Community, including the CSME. The Revised Treaty provides an overall policy and planning framework for balancing investment resources against the multiple objectives for agriculture. The need to create the enabling environment for investments in agriculture has never been greater. The imperative to diversify and expand production and value-added through well targeted and productive investments is essential to achieve the goals of food and nutrition security, poverty alleviation, and accelerated rural development. Meaningful progress towards these goals will enable the region, collectively and as individual member states, to adjust and function effectively in a global environment characterized by competition for markets and resources.

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Conclusion
In September 2007, CARICOM Heads of Governments signed the Port of Spain Declaration Uniting to Stop the Epidemic of Chronic NCDs. Among the policy issues advocated to tackle the problem included need for closer regulation of foods, especially of the steadily increasing importation of foods with high fat content, licensing laws to ensure that consumers know the content of the foods they eat and for agricultural policies that ensure that food security is pursued in the context of incentives or subsidies for local production of the fruits, vegetables and whole grains required for a healthy diet. While this was primarily in response to the burden of diet-related health concerns, it is also, in a direct measure, targets the issue of the high foodimport dependency. The issue of a ‘healthy diet’ is at the core of food and nutrition security, which in turn, relates to a country’s or region’s food system. The term "food system" is a phrase used to tie elements of food production (agriculture), food distribution (trade) nutrition, health and rural/community development. Henrickson (2001) describes the food system as including all processes involved in keeping people fed: growing, harvesting, processing (or transforming or changing), packaging, transporting, marketing, consuming and disposing of food and food packages. It also includes the inputs needed and outputs generated at each step. The food system operates within and is influenced by social, political, economic and natural environments. Each step is also dependent on human resources that provide labor, research and education. In responding to the need to secure the food and nutrition objectives, CARICOM, as a region, and as individual member states, will need to invest in the development of its ‘food system’. That food system must address, in an equal manner, the four key components of food and nutrition security – these being availability, household access, nutritional adequacy and stability of the three components. The issue of availability is of direct concern to agriculture. The CFNI’s food groups guidelines does indicate that the combined resources of CARICOM can reasonably supply a significant share of the most important food needs for a healthy daily diet - staples and legumes/nuts. This notwithstanding, the trade data suggest that such nutritional requirements are met largely from foods cultivated and processed in extra-regional countries. Hence for CARICOM, the availability component is very closely tied to the situation with the trade sector. Any trade disruptions, regardless of how temporary, are likely to have an immediate impact on the security of food supplies. For CARICOM, therefore, investment decisions that tip the scales in favor of domestic/regional production and distribution will go a long way in enhancing food security in the region. The CFNI constantly emphasizes that food and nutrition security is, at its core, a household issue. Actions must be taken to ensure that ‘households’ have a secure access to available food supplies. While not directly an issue
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for agriculture, household access can be influenced by the type of agricultural and rural development policies pursued. All CARICOM countries have rural development and/or community development projects. All CARICOM countries also confront social problems due to urban congestion and hence have social projects in urban areas. In recent times, issues of household access and availability, through agriculture, have become inextricably linked. Governments are increasingly promoting backyard gardening as a first step to household food security. Hence agriculture and food production are no longer relegated to farms in rural areas; they are being practiced by households in urban areas, in school yards and in some instances, in office surroundings. National measures that complement household access include farmers’ markets that seek to ensure better national distribution of locally produced foods, government programs to enhance income earning opportunities so that vulnerable households can purchase food needs, and safety nets, such as food stamps. The linkage of agriculture to nutritional adequacy or consumption (biological utilization and care practices), is largely through the fact that food quality begins on the farm. Hence food safety from planting to farm gate will have some implications for the quality of the product in terms its nutritional adequacy at the point of consumption. The other elements of adequacy relates to nutritional information, food handling, preparation and storage, which combine to determine the rate of deterioration of the nutrients to the point of consumption and as well, public education on the nutritional qualities of local produce specifically and generally, of popular ‘foods’. Hence from a purely ‘availability’ perspective, opportunities exist for potentially viable investments along the primary to processed food agriculture chain that can enhance the food and nutrition security status of the region. In keeping with the CFNI nutritional guidelines, two major areas where investment can increase productivity levels in terms of primary production and the competitiveness of processed products are in staples and legumes/nuts. Such investments must, by necessity, adopt a value-chain approach to enable growth and the sustained development of the industry beyond the initial investment. There has been growth in the number of small enterprises engaged in processing of root crops and other staples for local markets. Products include porridge mixes, frozen root crops in various specialty cuts (e.g., cassava logs, fries, wedgies, grated). It is recommended that member states invest in these existing enterprises by providing the necessary support to strengthen agronomic practices and operations, improve management skills, undertake product development, enhance product marketability and strengthen market linkages. Success with this initial investment will engender greater interest among would-be entrepreneurs, thus expanding output of these key food groups. There are some emerging models in the region that could be emulated and/or adapted as needs be, to achieve this goal, such as the National Agricultural Development Program (NAPD) and the Trinidad and Tobago Agribusiness Association (TTABA). Investment opportunities also exist in the vegetables and fruits food group. This is an area in which CARICOM countries have prioritized for expansion through agricultural diversification programs, however, with a focus on export markets. Globally, consumption of fruit and vegetables is on the rise. A similar trend is observed in CARICOM countries, evidenced by the increase in fruit and vegetable offerings in fast-food establishments. However, in many instances, these fruit and vegetable products are imported. CARICOM countries have a good opportunity to invest in the production of a few key vegetables that satisfy the needs of both the export market, through the tourism and hospitality sector, and local consumers.

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High among the choices should be green leafy vegetables, tomatoes, carrots, among others. Such investment should also encourage value adding, such as, mixed veggie packs, that is being done on a small scale and facilitate platforms for market linkages. The issue with fruits is more one of availability; that is of flattening out the highly seasonal nature, improving quality through better handling and presentation, and reducing the high level of wastage due to non-use of second grade fruit. The paper argues that in terms of foods from animals and fats and oils, investing in expansion of livestock products needs to be carefully thought out. This decision-making process must take its cue from the CFNI guidelines which place a low importance on food from animals in a healthy diet, relative to crop-based products. A different type of consideration could be given to the already established poultry and pork chains and the small, but growing goat and sheep operations. Different considerations also apply to fish and sea food products, in keeping with the global recognition that they offer the healthier alternative source of animal protein. While there have been programs to develop the fisheries industry in CARICOM, including through the CARICOM Regional Fisheries Mechanism (CRFM), much more focused and sustained investment will be needed to bring the fishing activities to a level where it provides an acceptable level of food and nutrition security with respect to both availability and affordable access to animal protein. Outside of the issues related to the development of agriculture itself, there is yet another major issue that must be tackled to attract greater investments. This relates to the quality of the national and regional environment for transparent, efficient and competitive business. CARICOM countries all recognize the role of investment - private foreign direct, or domestic - in stimulating business development and expansion. In this regard, they have ‘invested’ in establishing investment agencies that woo prospective investors with generous incentive packages. While agriculture is not discriminated against, the process generally, does not appear to have attracted any significant investment in agricultural enterprises. Apart from the established and diversified CARICOM corporations, most of the investment in agriculture, and particularly for primary production, comes from loans obtained from national development banks, such as, the Agricultural Development Bank of Trinidad and Tobago, Credit Unions and small business development agencies present in all CARICOM countries. Perhaps, in the absence of any significant success in mobilizing donor funds and foreign private investments, serious consideration could be given to upgrading the financial portfolio and fund management capacity of these existing financial institutions. This upgrading would make these institutions that are already involved in agriculture, more effective in satisfying the need for start-up funds, working capital for most entrepreneurs wanting to enter agriculture and as well in providing mentoring and monitoring services to improve the success rate of start-ups and ensure a more productive loan performance. There are emerging models in the region, such as the Caribbean Business Enterprise Trust (CBET) that could be used as a base for developing and managing innovative programs. Of critical importance, is that any effort at the national level must be supported and reinforced by regional mechanisms that both strengthen the regional environment for business, trade and investment and ensure a more efficacious distribution of investment resources in areas that secure the wealth of member states through the health of their populations. Increasing investment in agriculture for food and nutrition security is enshrined in the regional agricultural policy framework in the Revised Treaty establishing the Caribbean Community, including the CSME. It is expected that the CSME integrating mechanisms will encourage cross-border activities, particularly capital flows, and to

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enhance international competitiveness of firms and small and medium sized activities, this providing a solid base for the food and nutrition security in the region.

Food for thought. . . .
The drivers and evidence of extremely rapid advances in the scientific and technological frontier, in many instances, has pushed the envelope from what was previously considered ‘science-fiction’ to reality. This was very recently brought into sharp focus with the news out of Japan on the –“Future of Food”8. In a perfectly controlled and totally sterile environment - uncontaminated by dirt, insects or fresh air - Japanese scientists are developing a new way of growing vegetables. Called plant factories, these anonymous looking warehouses have sprung up across the country and can churn out immaculate looking lettuces and green leaves 24 hours a day, seven days a week. Every part of the plant's environment is controlled - from the lighting and temperature, to the humidity and water. Even the levels of carbon dioxide can be minutely altered. Rather than the conventional scruffy clothes and dirty fingernails of vegetable growers, the producers wear gloves, surgical masks and sort of dust proof protective suits normally seen in chemical plants. The vegetables from plant factories - which include green leaf, romaine lettuce and garland chrysanthemum - are sold at a premium to Japanese shoppers. No pesticides are used - and there is no risk of contamination with food poisoning bugs. Because the plants are grown in a clean room, they can be eaten safely without washing. Lettuce grown in the factories can be cropped up to 20 times a year. Some factories are vast - and can produce three million vegetables a year. The results are hygienic, but it's about as far from real food as you can possibly get.9 The response in the electronic discussion on this article was varied, ranging from a perspective that appreciated the value of research and commercialization of same, to concerns over the impacts on the nutrition and the human form that could result from consumption of food grown without sunlight - summed up in the phrase - you are what you eat - and on the cost-benefit of investment in such highly capital- and energy-intensive scientific and 'un-natural' 'food' production systems! Many countries, especially those in the Caribbean, are a world away from this emerging reality. However, in terms of securing the nutritional content of food, there are yet unexplored frontiers of food production that may yield more productive results in terms of investment resources for the Caribbean.

Is this the future of food? Japanese 'plant factory' churn out immaculate vegetables by David Derbyshire Last updated at 9:56 AM on 03rd June 2009, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-1190392/Is-future-food-Japanese-plant-factories-churnimmaculate-vegetables-24-hours-day.html 9 Responses and opinions from contributors to circulation of this article on the e-forum at FAO-Carib-Agri@fao.org.
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ANNEXES

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Annex 1: Nutritional and Health Benefits of Food from Plants by Food Groups
Food Group/ Product Staples Banana (a traditional export crop industry) Breadfruit (importance in the agricultural development strategy is growing) Cassava (a priority in most countries food security plan) Food and their Nutritional and Health Benefits Nutritional and Health Benefits Like the other starchy fruits, roots and tubers, its main nutrient is starch and, contrary to a widely held belief, it provides very little protein or iron. It is also an important source of fiber. Breadfruit’s most ample nutrient is starch, which makes up most of its carbohydrates and fiber. The fresh breadfruit’s pulp is approximately 70% water, but once dried its composition is similar to wheat flour. Wheat flour contains more protein, but less fat, minerals and vitamins than breadfruit. The case could be made for its use as a substitute for wheat flour in tropical regions where there is a lack of bread-producing grain. It is also an important source of fiber. When combined with other animal proteins, breadfruit is an important component of a balanced diet. Except possibly for sugarcane, the cassava plant is the highest source of calories per cultivated area per day among crop plants. They are also an important source of fiber. It is noted that cassava can produce 250x103 calories/ha/day compared to 176x103 for rice, 110x103 for wheat, 200x103 for maize, and 114x103 for sorghum. The chemical composition of cassava varies in different parts of the plant, and according to variety, location, age, method of analysis, and environmental conditions. The root is very rich in carbohydrates, 64 to 72% of which is made up of starch, mainly in the form of amylose and amylopectin. About 17% sucrose is found in sweet varieties, and small quantities of fructose and dextrose have been reported. The lipid content of cassava is only 0.5%. However, the root is deficient in proteins (1-2%), fat, essential amino acids, particularly lysine, methionine, and tryptophan and other minerals and vitamins. The peel of cassava roots contains slightly more protein than is found in the edible portion. Therefore, peeling results in loss of part of the valuable protein component. Large proportions of its nutrients may be lost during processing. All of this should be taken into account in cassavaprocessing in order to retain as much as possible of these nutrients. The leaves are a good source of protein if supplemented with the amino acid, methionine. Because cassava is of lower nutritional value than are cereals, legumes, and even some other root and tuber crops such as yams, it should be combined with foods from animals to make a nutritionally balanced diet. A major source of carbohydrates (calories), approximately 21.3 % of its weight, in the form of starch and sugars (primarily saccharose). Their fat, sodium and protein content are minimal, less that white potato. It is however very rich in beta carotene (provitamin A), particularly in the more yellow varieties, which makes it very appropriate in case of arteriosclerosis. Regular sweet potato consumption is recommended in cases of arteriosclerosis, lack of adequate blood flow and hypertension. It is also an important source of fiber. Contains considerable energy (118 kcal/100g, and contains moderate amounts of B group Vitamins, Vitamin C and Minerals among which potassium is significant (814 mg/100g). However, yam lacks provitamin A. With their low fat content and their richness in potassium makes yams very appropriate for cardiovascular disorders, particularly arteriosclerosis.

Sweet Potato (a priority in most countries food security plan and regional development programs)

Yams (interest has peaked in the aftermath of the exploits of Jamaican sprinter Usain Bolt) Legumes and nuts Legumes: Being of plant origin, legumes are cholesterol-free. Their soluble fiber (guar gum) content aids in reducing serum cholesterol thus lowering one's risk of heart disease. Fiber also reduces one's risk of developing Type 2 diabetes and affords some measure of blood sugar control because legumes are low glycemic index foods. Legumes are also associated with reducing risk of some types of cancer specifically colon cancer. The presence of phytochemicals (isoflavones) has been identified as the link between diabetes and cancer. Beans have been noted for their 'anti-aging' properties due to antioxidants found in the seed coat. There are eight flavonoids in the outer bean layer, six of which are particularly strong antioxidants. New research is suggesting that beans have a perfect nutrient base for people interested in weight loss. CFNI strongly recommends combining legumes with grains to complement the amino acids that are deficient in grains thus providing complete protein. Nuts: are fairly nutritious. Raw nuts contain enzyme inhibitors which help to protect the seed, keep it from germinating too early and dying off. These enzyme inhibitors can neutralize the enzymes the body uses to control inflammation and aid in digestion. Eating nuts with these enzyme inhibitors can cause the pancreas to swell. Fortunately, there are two ways to destroy these enzyme inhibitors, namely roasting, and sprouting. These processes keep the beneficial enzymes intact. Nuts can be roasted either with or without added oil. Roasting destroys much of the Vitamin B, particularly vitamin B1 (thiamine) content.
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Food Group/ Product Beans

Peanuts

Cashew

Food and their Nutritional and Health Benefits Nutritional and Health Benefits The protein content of beans varies according to variety between 21% and 24% which is equal to or even greater than animal-based foods such as beef or chicken. Beans are very rich in rich in folates, iron, potassium, Naicin and pantothenic acid and in vegetable fiber (15.2% content), the latter helping to prevent constipation and lower blood cholesterol levels. The high iron content of legumes combined with their nutritive properties, make beans highly suitable food for anemic and the undernourished. Peanuts exceed meat and eggs in carbohydrates (particularly starch and maltose), fats (constitute half of its weight, with balanced combination of polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, and saturated fatty acids (the least abundant)), proteins (rather low in the amino acids methionine, lysine and threonine), a certain amount of B complex vitamins (B1, B2, B3, B6) and vitamin E. Peanuts reach a true record among foods in their niacin content, which is also known as B3 acts as a coenzyme within the body that facilitates the numerous chemical reactions essential to carbohydrate and fat metabolism. They are also superior in terms of minerals such as calcium, magnesium and potassium. And all this without cholesterol or excess saturated fatty acids. They are highly recommended for heart patients, since they help lower cholesterol levels, thus improving blood circulation of the coronary arteries and their low in sodium and high in potassium content protects against hypertension and fluid retention in the tissues. Peanuts should be eaten with other foods such as whole grains, or legumes to supply all necessary amino acids required for a complete protein. Cashew is rich in unsaturated fatty acids such as oleic and linoleic; in vitamins such as B1, B2 in pantothenic acid; and in minerals such as magnesium (260mg/100g), potassium, iron and phosphorous. Cashew is noted for its magnesium content, one of the highest in the vegetable kingdom, surpassed only by sunflower seeds. Scientists are finding out that it is the array of nutrients included in tomatoes, including, but not limited to lycopene, that confers it with so much health value. Lycopene, a carotenoid found in tomatoes (and everything made from them) has been extensively studied for its antioxidant and cancer-preventing properties. Tomatoes are an excellent source of vitamin C and vitamin A, a very good source of fiber, a very good source of potassium and a good source of niacin, vitamin B6, and folate. All of these nutrients work together to make tomatoes a truly heart-healthy food. 100g of tomatoes contains 18 calories. A cup of fresh tomato will provide 57.3% of the daily value for vitamin C, plus 22.4% of the DV for vitamin A, and 7.9% of the DV for fiber. Tomatoes are the most consumed vegetable in the world. Other than the largely available red, tomatoes are also available in yellow, orange, pink, black, brown and purple colors. Nutritional properties have the ability to help protect cells and other structures in the body from oxygen damage, prevention of heart disease. Tomatoes have been shown to be helpful in reducing the risk of prostate cancer, promoting colon and pancreatic health. Its antioxidants travel through the body neutralizing dangerous free radicals that could otherwise damage cells and cell membranes, escalating inflammation and the progression or severity of atherosclerosis, diabetic complications, asthma, and colon cancer. In fact, high intakes of these antioxidants have been shown to help reduce the risk or severity of all of these illnesses. Its fiber has been shown to lower high cholesterol levels, keep blood sugar levels from getting too high, and help prevent colon cancer. Ochro is highly nutritious with numerous medicinal properties. It is notable for its protein content (2%) which is quite high for a vegetable. It is also rich in provitamina A; B group vitamins particularly B1); vitamin C and Vitamin E. few vegetables surpass Ochro in magnesium and iron. Ochro is particularly recommended for stomach ulcer, gastric and stomach disorders in general. The Cauliflower contains small amounts of carbohydrates and proteins and practically no fat. It contains provitamin A (beta-carotene), vitamins B, C, and E of which C stands out with 46.4 mg/100g. As for minerals, it is very rich in potassium and low in sodium. It contains significant amounts of calcium, magnesium, phosphorous and iron. Cauliflower is rich in trace elements such as chromium, zinc, manganese, copper, and selenium. All of these perform significant functions in the body, and because it is highly digestible, it is excellent for vitalizing the digestive processes from the stomach to the colon, with many of still being investigated. Boiled of steamed, it is the perfect supper for those wishing to lose weight and diabetics due to their low carbohydrate content. A virtual lack of fat make the cauliflower one of the most effective foods for those suffering with disorders of the heart or circulatory system.

Vegetables Tomato (a standard part of farming, home gardening etc, in CARICOM)

Ochro (has a long tradition in the region) Cauliflower (cultivation is expanding in several countries)

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Food Group/ Product Sweet peppers (a standard part of farming, home gardening etc, in CARICOM)

Spinach (bhaggi, high in demand in Trinidad)

Sea weed/Sea moss (an emerging area of interest in several CARICOM countries)

Food and their Nutritional and Health Benefits Nutritional and Health Benefits Peppers contain very little protein, carbohydrates and virtually no fat. Because of this they contain only 27kcal/100g. They also contain small amounts of B group vitamins, vitamin E, and all dietary minerals. However, two vitamins are particularly noteworthy: provitamin A (beta carotene), with and vitamin C. Red peppers provide almost four times as much vitamin C as lemons or oranges. One hundred grams of red pepper contain more than triple the RDA. Peppers are beneficial for those suffering with dyspepsia (indigestion) due to scanty digestive juices. Peppers stimulate the gastric juices and reduce inflammation. Peppers are a mild laxative and are anti-flatulent. Because they contain very few carbohydrates or calories, pepper are well tolerated by diabetics and are suitable for the diet of the obese. Spinach is a green leafy vegetable with abundant vitamins - excellent levels of manganese, Vitamin K and Vitamin A are found in spinach. It also contains very good amounts of magnesium, potassium, iron and calcium. Copper, phosphorous, zinc are all found in good amounts in spinach. It is a very good source of Vitamin C and good amounts of Vitamin E, Vitamin B6 and Riboflavin. It also contains traces of selenium, Thiamin and Niacin. 100g of spinach contains 23 calories. Its health benefits include maintaining bone health (Vitamin K), lowering blood pressure due the presence of magnesium, protects against heart disease and provides anti-inflammatory benefits (Vitamin C). Flavoniods, a compound in spinach, has anti oxidant and anti cancer properties, improved eyesight and brain function. Seaweed is one of the greatest health secrets - a true "super food" - good sources of iron (most fresh seaweeds provide between 2.5 and 3 mg of iron, equal to or greater than that of meat); good source of calcium (some contain higher proportions than milk); provide magnesium and iodine (considered the best source of iodine); contain vitamins B1, B2, E and abundant niacin and folates. A handful of seaweed added to any dish more than satisfies the iodine needs of an entire family and prevent the possibility of suffering goitre. The gums and mucilage also absorbs gastric juices and act as a natural antacid, thus impeding the absorption of cholesterol in the intestine. Therefore the regular consumption of seaweeds reduces the cholesterol in the blood. Seaweeds increase metabolic rate and prevent obesity. Due to seaweed’s iodine content, it promotes hormone production in the thyroid gland. These hormones accelerate combustion of carbohydrates and fat. Since three-fourth of our planet is covered with water, many scientists believe that seaweed might be a solution to dietary needs of a large portion of humanity. In addition some types of seaweeds lend themselves very well to controlled cultivation. Bananas contain about 74% water, 23% carbohydrates, 1% proteins, 0.5% fat, and 2.6% fiber (values vary between different banana cultivars, degree of ripeness and growing conditions). Bananas are high in B vitamins that help calm the nervous system. Compared to an apple, it has 4 times the protein, 2 times the carbohydrate, 3 times the phosphorus, 5 times the vitamin A and iron, and 2 times more of the other vitamins and minerals. It is also rich in potassium and is one of the best value foods around. In the process of ripening the starches are converted to sugars; a fully ripe banana has only 1-2% starch. Besides being a good source of energy, banana is a rich source of potassium, and hence is highly recommended for patients suffering from high blood pressure. Bananas contain three natural sugars - sucrose, fructose and glucose combined with fiber. It is claimed that bananas have beneficial effect in the treatment of intestinal disorders, including diarrhea. Bananas are unusual in that they work for constipation too. They contain mucilaginous bulking substances and are easy to digest. A banana gives an instant, sustained and substantial boost of energy. Research has proven that just two bananas provide enough energy for a strenuous 90-minute workout. It can also help overcome or prevent a substantial number of illnesses and conditions, such as depression, PMS, morning sickness, heartburn, ulcers, etc, making it a must to add to a daily diet. Mango has very high vitamin A content among fresh fruits. With 27.7 mg/100g, the mango is a good source of Vitamin C. A medium size mango (300g) provides 138 % of the adult daily requirement of this vitamin. A 300g mango provides 33% of the daily requirement for Vitamin E for an adult male. This is one of the richest fresh fruits in this vitamin. Mangoes are diuretic (increase urine production). They are quite rich in potassium and low in sodium. This makes them highly recommended in the case of high blood pressure since they aid in its control. Diabetics can benefit from eating mangos because this fruit’s positive effect on the arteries helps prevent the circulatory complications associated with diabetes. Mangoes are of great benefit to the circulatory system and should be included in the diet of all who experience poor blood circulation to the extremities or in the coronary arteries.
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Fruits Banana (Ripe) (interest in developing banana ripening facilities is growing in some CARICOM countries)

Mango (part of all countries diversification into nontraditional fruits for export, there is also a growing interest seen through 'mango festivals' in the region)

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Food Group/ Product West Indian cherry (cherry is an important ingredient in the Juice processing industry in Barbados and Guyana)

Guava (while wild guava is common in most countries, there has been very little concerted development work to expand commercial production)

Passion Fruits (was an important part of agricultural nontraditional diversification and value-adding thrust in mainly the OECS countries) Papaya

Food and their Nutritional and Health Benefits Nutritional and Health Benefits The West Indian cherry was a little appreciated fruit until the 1950s when some investigators at the University of Puerto Rica analyzed its vitamin C content. They declared that they had discovered nature’s richest source of this vitamin (up to 2,520 mg/ 100g, according to the variety, in other words more than 50 times that of lemons. In addition to vitamin C, cherries also contain a whole series of natural substances that accompany it and potentiate its action: organic acids such as malic acid and flavonoids such as rutin and hesperidin. West Indian cherry is highly recommended for all types of infectious diseases, particularly those of viral origin (Flu, colds etc.) and as a complement to the prevention and treatment of cancer. Guava is low in proteins, fats and carbohydrates, but is important as a food source because of its supply of vitamin C. with 183mg /100g guava is among the richest fruits in this vitamin. The greatest concentration of vitamin C is in the pulp that surrounds the seeds just below the peel. The guava is also rich in carotenoids. 100g of pulp will supply 8% of the daily needs of vitamin A. Guava also contains significant amounts of B group vitamins (except B12), and vitamin E, as well as calcium, phosphorous, magnesium and iron. Its most abundant mineral is potassium. It is also relatively rich in trace elements such as zinc, copper and manganese. A study conducted in India and published in the American Journal of Cardiology found that adding guava to the daily diet of 61 hypertensive volunteers lowered their systolic blood pressure by 9mm/HG and the diastolic by 8mm/Hg. The equivalent of moving from 150/90mm/Hg to 141/82mm /Hg. These results were obtained over a three-month period of regular consumption. The same experiment produced a 9.9% overall cholesterol reduction and 7.7% reduction in triglycerides in the blood. This hypolipidemic (lipid-reducing effect is due to the guava’s rich content of soluble fiber (pectin), which “sweeps” the intestine and facilitates the elimination of cholesterol and the biliary salts from which it is synthesized. Guava is an excellent fruit for maintaining good arterial health. Its consumption prevents the risk factor that causes arteriosclerosis. Passion Fruits contains a considerable amount of sugar (13%), constituted of equal parts of glucose, fructose and sacharose. With 2.2 % protein passion fruit is one of the most protein-rich fresh fruits. This is possibly the most iron rich fresh fruit. 1.6mg/100g. Even though this iron is nonhaeme of vegetable origin, and is absorbed with greater difficulty than that of animal origin, the simultaneous presence of vitamin C in the passion fruit significantly enhances the absorption of this mineral. One hundred grams of passion fruit pulp provides 30 mg of vitamin C, half of the RDA. Passion fruit is quite rich in magnesium, calcium, phosphorous and potassium. 100 g of pulp provides 103% of the RDA of vitamin C and 18% of vitamin A for an adult. The B vitamin is also present in small amounts except for folates which with 38mg/100 g is as much as the mango. Where minerals are concerned the papaya is rich in potassium and significant amounts of calcium, magnesium, phosphorous and iron. The fruit is also a good source of antioxidant, a group of vitamins, minerals and enzymes that protects the body from itself – its own injured cells or particles of cells called free radicals. Contains high concentration of vitamin C. Vitamin C is an anti-oxidant or free-radical scavenger. Papaya is also rich in proteolytic enzymes. It contains the enzyme papain, which greatly aids in digestion. Aside from the famous papain, it also contains arginine, known to be essential for male fertility. Carpain is also found in papaya, which is thought to be good for the heart. It also contains fibrin, which forms part of the blood clotting process. Papaya is a famous health food most especially when it comes to digestion. Ripe papaya is easily digested by the body and aids in constipation by helping to neutralize excess gastric acid. Papaya is of value because of its effect on all digestive processes. The papaya’s emollient and antiseptic effect on the digestive mucosa makes it useful in any type of case of gastroenteritis or colitis: infectious, ulcerous, or spastic (irritable bowel). Papaya contains carotene which also helps for the prevention and treatment of cancer. Regularly eating of papaya will help a person to maintain vitality and good health. In addition to vitamin C, oranges contain about 170 phytochemicals that potentiate and complement the action of this vitamin. Oranges contain sugar in moderate amounts (9.35g/100g), easily assimilated by the body and tolerated by diabetics in controlled amounts; these are saccharose, dextrose and levulose. Oranges contain potassium, calcium and smaller but significant amounts of iron and magnesium. In addition to vitamin C (45-60 g/100 g), oranges contain carotenoids that are responsible for their typical colour (provitamin A), vitamin B1 and Vitamin B2. Oranges also contain folic acid in an amount of 30-mg/100g. Vegetable fiber in the form of pectin is the only component of the orange that is not present in orange juice. Oranges contain Phytocehmicals which are substances found in very small amounts in foods but play very
v

Oranges

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Food Group/ Product

Food and their Nutritional and Health Benefits Nutritional and Health Benefits important roles within the body. A very important property of the phyto-chemicals, which are so abundant in oranges and citrus fruits in general, is to potentiate the effect of certain vitamins such as vitamin C. The two main groups of pyto-chemicals found in the orange are Flavonoids and Limonoids. Flavonoids are powerful antioxidants, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic glucosides. It is recommended that oranges form part of the daily diet of anyone with an infectious disease. Oranges have the following effect on infection: they − increase the disease fighting capabilities of the white blood cells. They also increase their number and longevity. − slow, but do not completely halt the development of viruses within human cells. − increase the production of interferon, an antiviral protein produced within the body itself. Oranges help to make the blood more fluid and improve circulation. This effect is particularly beneficial in Thrombosis, arteriosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Oranges can help in the cure of constipation and intestinal atony.

Fats & Oils Avocado (a key crop in all agricultural nontraditional diversification program)

The avocado is among the richest fruits in fat (up to 20 % depending on the variety). The fats in avocados are of high biological value and are primarily unsaturated. They contain no cholesterol, as is the case with all plant-based foods. Avocados are among the most protein –rich of fresh fruits, which depending on variety can reach 2% of their weight. They contain all the essential amino-acids, although their proportion is not optimal. Avocado is the richest fresh fruit in Vitamin E. The avocado has the highest iron content of any fresh fruit (1.02mg/100g). With 5% or more of fiber, the avocado is the richest of any fruit in fiber. Research has shown that eating avocado regularly is highly recommended for those with excess cholesterol or triglycerides in the blood, as well as any type of hyperlipemia (increase in fats in the blood). Avocado health benefits are becoming more recognized today throughout the world as being good for health and nutrition, through the benefits from nearly 20 vitamins, minerals and plant compounds. Coconut The most abundant nutrient in the coconut is fat, which makes up a third of its mature weight. (a long-standing part of Most (up to 94.3%) of the fatty acids that make up coconut fat are saturated. However, these CARICOM agriculture are a special fatty acid called short and medium chain, which do not promote cholesterol landscape) production. A mature coconut also contains a fair proportion of carbohydrates (6.23%), protein (3.33% ), and mineral salts, particularly magnesium, calcium and phosphorus The dietary and therapeutic properties of the coconut depend on its mineral content, particularly magnesium. Mature coconuts contain 32mg/100 g, and coconut water 25mg/100g. Most of the body’s magnesium is found in the bones (60%) and the muscles (26%). It contributes to bone hardness and health cartilage in joints. In addition to a certain amount of magnesium, coconuts contain other minerals of great importance to the musculoskeletal system such as calcium and phosphorus. A food such as the coconut that provides these minerals in proper proportion contributes to healthy bones, joints, and muscles. A little of coconut water contains about 300 mg of magnesium, which is the RDA of that mineral for an adult. Source: Compiled from CFNI information as well as from information from internet searches, including http://www.whfoods.com; http://www.greenfootsteps.com/seaweed-health.html; http://www.healthmad.com/Nutrition/Nutritional-Benefits-of-Papaya.

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vi

26Ordern 84958984S 6Ba 9Td 5 1 19n fpai 80,75 55A 3ad .ra . 8 00toras ,83 , ,U .ro 8id 6 . h o e 9 bs n i 5 e o pt, 6 4 2 4 s 224hntda 51207268S 8U 1Ca 2 0 01ocaol 85,66 26A 6K 0ad . . 7Feunfo ,68 , ,U . .na 1 3 r s f 585 9 z 5 1 ies c, kn ee 349ce(tas 47677843Sn 3U 2Ara1 8 00hnesro40290448Zd 4U 2Cm 1 1 6Cee u,l84,40 76A 9S 3ub 2 . eregii52,57 62' 1K 8ol 4 . s nd ,42 , ,Nl .A .si . 4 446 , ,Ua . .la . 4 80 4 2 6oi 8 1t 6 a 479C,b 11oo 09a n ,85 3 7 2 rr m 539fupto 4302634xS27FZs.ra 6 1 29Oriif 25,36 03A :4ro 7Td . 4 00nsao a ,48ne,U .en 0id 3 . tp as 8 7 1 he e 9 1 i 9 keern d 0 9 , 9 n 3ee 8n d( a 621it,mrn 423n3737ra 5U 2U 5 6 22Wtd.ea 38654379id 9S 2K . 6 00eenil , , , ,Td .A . 6 . ascn A1 7 i rl i 3 2 r( r 5 7 7 6 ar 702aee,,; 37902925ua 5Ua 2Se 4 3 16 udaee 22,26 81y 7S 8er . 1 00hddt , , , ,G .n .Vl 6 . s) i 4 3 8 5 kb c 4A 6t' n 5 899Omrwcs 24344738Sn 5Td 3Nit2 6 15Hrnnn 82197157A 2rd 3tc . 0 00tbo)e ,21 , ,Ua .i ..e 4 . ei 1i 1hn d 1 cr-h 2C,2126S 5Td VJalu. 3 f Imports at 6-digit Tariff line level and Top 3 Suppliers by Rank ouao 514 60I,U Mi 1 ai 1e 8 mnll ,2A, 74A 2r:d 7 a 0 o nci 9 927 3 O .i .ma 8 . ooc 2 6 R C 4n 9 c 929Orss 22 ea, 00tgn hoe e 1 vbi e 3 0 8 1 n 5 a 7 bs en 115Seitasd28635320ra 3U 2Ba 8 4 093beesfa 65,27 63id 2S 8ad . 4 00wtc;ln ,25 , ,Td .A .ro 7 . es w u i 5 f 141or=ms 23232821Src.eat1Sa ppl3 of tariff line and Int ra-Regional Supply 100asril 76258167A 2Gmy0Nl 1 . 2wac ni , , d PU 3 rn .Zu 0 1 Ms< o 1 1 , ,e 5 n 4 ' . y ine d an 7 0 lda kf n 3 d e' rgn m 140fsgs,s 27212120S 9Ne 1Ga 0 0 200ieshfh 75692854A 7er .un . . 7B',er, , , , ,U .tl 8ya 3 3 roile 0 1 1 1 d 3 hd e s 123peoeoe 13408122S 6Nad7Ar 9 0 300rnnsv 94,23 49A 4 Zl1 ul . . 2Fe ebn ,22 , ,U . en .si 7 3 r bl i 0 8 2 0 o z 2 a 4t a etel ,23 , ,U ..e 3 ra . . ao nu 2 5 6 8 111mtegfl 12283821Sn 2Sia2Gn 1 5 410Wamlod 21091328ua 4Cmt4Ua 1 5 00aasis 99243836A 8tc 1 Sd 5 8 hnsii 25,23 21y 4ob .Aa 0 0 eran , , , ,Ga .Vi .e . . r 711 6 5ln 4 5 9 n 111Rcuro 571o , 01r w 8o 1 0 0 fcna 23272725S 7Ca 7Td 5 8 mase 12411128A 1ad .ra . . Imports ($000) Rank and % Share of Supplying Countries and CARICOM 123Set;e , , , ,U .na 8id 9 7 619asdu 7 0 2 3 00easi u oc 4 n i pe 179pdimsrNo.292726er 4UProduct Description 700rrn,h 21042310tl 5S 2Ca 2 0 1Oats o 23, ,HS Ne .A 4ad 4 . tptx , 3 9 , hoor 5 e 0 1 . 6 0 2001 2000 1999 Avg First % Second % Third % cacme 27030722K'2Ne 2Nl 1 1 hra il 42,27 17hd 3er 3 Za 8 . inr fi ,23 , ,U .tl .nd . 2 ldend 1 9 0 9 e as 142Ms> o 809io1 2 rf l k 7 4 hd . ' 8 ' 1a n m Code 99-01 116fexroi22101424S 3Ga 0Un 6 4 903omcwye28, 8219A 7 un .rt . . 00e(ld ,21 , ,U .na .gi . . aeo i z 929 1 5 1ea 1 0 n 215Mieshmd27,2629S 9Ca 2Au 1 4 009S-dell27208213A 9ad 0ra 0 0 00ci.) , 27, ,U .ya 1uy 0 3 mle 3 3 8 3 8 g e 214rhdooi 25240228S 4Td 3Mi 8 3 191iaedbe 07,21 11A 6ra 5 eo . 7 00rrfstd ,27 , ,U .id . x 1 . Pel a 6 3 2 0 eeo n p 2n 8 c i 7 t 212biwoeo 17274729r 4U 2An 9 0 265Pnt faf 54,28 09a 9S 8rt . . 00yrmmt ,23 , ,Bi .A .gi 1 5 ran ess p z l n bai o 5 8 8 8 e 0 9 hd ode d 4 2 5 9 a 9 3 ea vo 242oecms 27075615rn 6U 1Ne 2 0 301ini il 31,11 98l 1K 7er . . 2Man ni ,28 , ,Id . .tl 5 3 laa kf frdrm 14181010tc 4Td 2U ' 1 6 rorma 81, 9498.i 2ra 0S 9 4 maf l , 91, ,Su .id .A . . s>o t 6 3 0 0 L 3n 0 7 8 1 223Bee 20171711Sa 9Vel2Gtl0 0 420eme 00as i 215Masdi 18131017S 6Tda1Bea8 2 560Sgair 07, 6873A 4ea .ud . . 00ee i z 075 1 2ne 1bs 2 211pufsa 60, 5688A 7rz 1 am . 4 601rcdm , 81, ,U .iu .ro 2 . 00atn l , 91, ,U .nd 2aa 8 2 ue s 2i a oedhl 2 8 9 6 do 224Oa;dri 16161215S 9Vel2Td 2 2 730ruaos 63, 7672A 5eu .ra . . 00iknto , 96, ,U .ne 3id 1 4 lsoed 4 2 2 6 -s c, 1 za n i eaifnt,89,1818S 4Mi 2Nl 9 0 senras10175167A 1eo 3 Zd . . iasiu , 60, ,U . x . ' 5 9 dtof e 7 2 0 6 211feo n 891or 00r P e p 4 c 1a n r 224Wetrgr 26179717S 3Fc 3C 9 1 922u(sk)a 24, , 66A 9re 3h . . 01ripl;p , 569 ,U .a .i 0 4 inange 7 7 8 1 no 3n 3l e st i t 322mcstn 13191910ra 4U 2U 1 4 042tr cag 30, 4959id 7S 0K 6 9 00ie oi , 69, ,Td .A . . . Cw ni 9 7 5 1 n 5 8 0 3 go n ae i orfe 12171214S 7Td 7Mi 4 9 bejs 72, 2541A 4ra .eo . . asu, , 45, ,U .id 8x 8 0 329Muoi 2 7 2 7 109nmtn 00ied x ec t 9n i c fceo i 4 9 8 4 e n 314uance( 17141211S 4Td 2Cm 8 2 279Srntrn 39, 4546A 6ra 3ob . 4 00ucfoyc , 44, ,U .id .li 8 . go, l r 9n 0oa i 0 ie i . t 322wedbnf 14161512S 4Ar 2Uu 1 0 309hnioea 63, 2530A 6ul 2ra 3 . 6Flb vol , 32, ,U .si .uy . 0 rtl i 1 2 3 9 ohe z e 2t 8g 8 a a (. e x c

iv

No.

Imports ($000) HS Product Description 2001 2000 Code 34 160413 Prepared or preserved 13,421 13,063 sardines, sar 35 220830 Whiskeys 12,218 14,735 36 220890 Other spirituous beverages, 14,959 12,045 nes 37 220840 Rum and tafia 12,377 10,595 38 40291 Concentrated milk and 12,843 13,185 cream, unswee 39 150710 Crude soya-bean oil 7,499 13,149 40 120100 Soya beans 21,446 5,601 41 200410 Potatoes, preserved other 13,694 11,907 than by v 42 180690 Chocolate, etc, containing 12,475 10,978 cocoa, n 43 40500 Butter and other fats and 10,819 10,966 oils deri 44 190190 Other food preparations of 13,311 9,216 flour, e 45 210500 Ice cream and other edible 10,293 11,696 ice, whe 46 40630 Processed cheese, not 11,018 10,218 grated or pow 47 230910 Dog or cat food, put up for 10,818 10,733 retail 48 60299 Other live plants, nes 7,191 14,080 49 151710 Margarine (excl. liquid) 9,853 10,383 50 151790 Edible preparations of fats 9,530 10,964 and oil 51 110710 Malt not roasted 12,311 9,799 52 240120 Tobacco, partly or wholly 7,247 8,577 stem 53 200911 Frozen orange juice, 9,488 9,642 unferment 54 40299 Sweetened milk and cream 12,687 9,886 (excl. 55 110313 Groats and meal of maize 6,809 9,433 (corn) 56 150790 Soya-bean oil (excl. crude) 8,635 8,210 and fra 57 210410 Soups and broths and 9,924 9,572 preparation 58 190490 Prepared cereals in grain 8,942 8,921 form (exc 59 200970 Apple juice, unfermented, 8,482 11,179 not conta 60 70310 Onions and shallots, fresh or 9,952 8,621 chill 61 160415 Prepared or preserved 9,653 7,626 mackerel ( 62 220710 Undenatured ethyl alcohol, 10,410 15,724 of alcoh 63 220820 Spirits from distilled grape 8,763 9,004 wine o 64 70320 Garlic, fresh or chilled 9,462 8,054 65 20329 Frozen swine meat, nes 8,586 8,432 66 220429 Wine (not sparkling); grape 6,036 8,051 must 67 160414 Prepared or preserved tuna, 7,630 7,160 skipjac 68 210320 Tomato ketchup and other 7,462 8,276 tomato 69 190219 Uncooked pasta, not 7,677 7,628 containing eggs 70 21019 Meat of swine, salted... or 7,819 8,329 smoked, 71 20442 Frozen unboned meat of 7,597 6,799

1999 13,094 11,552 10,428 14,060 10,928 15,965 9,441 10,487 10,485 11,240 10,067 9,769 10,293 9,286 9,502 10,221 9,957 8,192 13,784 10,340 6,847 12,759 11,993 8,795 10,149 8,142 9,202 10,064 376 7,430 7,361 6,473 9,371 8,498 7,413 7,629 6,701 6,736

Rank and % Share of Supplying Countries and CARICOM Avg First % Second % Third % CARICOM 99-01 13,193 Canada 74.7 USA 8.9 Thailand 8.4 2.4 12,835 UK 12,477 USA 12,344 USA 12,319 Canada 12,204 USA 12,163 USA 12,029 Canada 11,313 USA 11,008 N Z'land 10,865 USA 10,586 USA 10,510 USA 10,279 USA 10,258 USA 10,152 Barbados 10,150 USA 10,101 UK 9,869 Brazil 9,823 Belize 9,806 Netherl'd 9,667 USA 9,613 Netherl'd 9,430 USA 9,337 Trinidad 9,268 USA 9,258 Netherl'd 9,114 Thailand 8,837 G’temala 8,399 France 8,292 China 7,830 USA 7,819 USA 7,763 USA 7,717 USA 7,645 USA 7,616 Canada 7,044 N Z'land 69.3 USA 32.8 UK 57.4 Trinidad 43.3 USA 75.3 Argentina 98.4 Trinidad 46.9 USA 49.8 Trinidad 28.4 USA 26.7 UK 59.5 Trinidad 30.8 N Z'land 94.7 Canada 87.2 Israel 37.4 Trinidad 76.4 Barbados 64.0 Canada 28.4 Colombia 40.4 USA 31.3 USA 93.8 Barbados 41.7 Trinidad 58.9 Jamaica 45.7 USA 42.1 Trinidad 59.3 USA 45.9 Chile 61.8 USA 44.9 USA 42.3 USA 72.5 Canada 32.3 France 52.6 Thailand 47.0 Trinidad 47.9 Trinidad 56.2 USA 56.0 Australia 15.3 Netherl'd 11.4 Trinidad 22.4 Jamaica 34.1 Netherl'd 24.0 Trinidad 0.9 Brazil 25.8 Netherl'd 20.7 UK 25.8 Australia 22.7 Jamaica 8.2 Barbados 21.6 Australia 3.4 Netherl'd 3.0 Honduras 32.2 USA 6.7 Trinidad 7.6 USA 14.9 USA 27.6 Trinidad 14.5 Jamaica 1.6 Canada 21.6 USA 11.6 Guatemala 42.3 Mexico 30.1 N Z'land 27.0 UK 32.6 Ireland 24.1 Singapore 36.2 Trinidad 33.4 Netherl'd 22.9 UK 24.1 Chile 36.0 Ecuador 43.5 Jamaica 21.2 Costa Rica 43.0 UK 22.4 USA 10.7 8.1 4.9 9.0 0.4 0.3 20.1 15.2 16.3 22.2 6.0 13.2 0.7 2.9 22.4 5.3 7.5 13.8 18.6 12.6 1.5 20.3 7.0 4.5 5.7 5.1 9.8 6.6 9.5 15.3 3.4 9.0 3.2 4.8 9.1 0.2 20.2 0.6 18.7 34.5 0.8 0.4 0.9 0.2 23.0 0.6 29.5 17.9 6.2 0.4 0.1 72.0 13.1 0.0 0.4 68.5 18.2 1.7 29.1 16.5 46.9 32.7 0.5 0.5 7.3 10.5 0.5 0.5 6.5 0.5 48.5 28.4 0.3 0.0

Investing in Food and Nutrition Security - Identifying Potential Investment Opportunities in the Agriculture and Food Industries in CARICOM

v

No.

HS Code

Product Description

Imports ($000) 2001 2000

1999

Avg 99-01

Rank and % Share of Supplying Countries and CARICOM First % Second % Third % CARICOM

72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107

sheep 20742 Frozen cuts and offal of turkey (ex 190120 Mixes and doughs for preparation of 150200 Fats of bovine animals, sheep or go 20220 Frozen unboned bovine meat (excl. c 200919 Unfrozen orange juice, unfermented, 170310 Cane molasses resulting from the 210110 Extracts, essences, concentrates an 220410 Champagne and sparkling wine 80300 Bananas, including plantains, fresh 200520 Potatoes, preserved other than 230250 Brans, sharps and other residues 71310 Dried peas, shelled 200590 Vegetables preserved other than by 71010 Potatoes, frozen 200819 Nuts and seeds including mixtures, 200811 Ground-nuts, preserved 151620 Vegetable fats and oils and their f 220720 Ethyl alcohol and other denatured s 180631 Chocolate, etc, containing cocoa, i 120220 Shelled ground-nuts, not roasted or 40120 Milk and cream of >1% but =<6% fat, 170390 Molasses resulting from the extract 160239 Preparations of poultry (excl. turk 70610 Carrots and turnips, fresh or chill 200290 Tomatoes, preserved otherwise than 200940 Pineapple juice, unfermented, not c 110610 Flour and meal of the dried legumin 21011 Unboned swine hams, shoulder 20322 Frozen unboned hams, shoulders 170410 Chewing gum 210210 Active yeasts 100640 Broken rice 40110 Milk and cream of =<1% fat, not 200980 Juice of other single fruit, unferm 71333 Dried kidney beans, incl. white pea 151590 Other fixed vegetable fats

7,798 7,120 6,280 6,022 5,878 8,004 7,127 4,187 4,631 5,591 5,411 4,723 5,286 4,572 5,420 5,400 3,880 6,135 5,408 4,870 4,718 2,921 4,854 4,472 4,108 3,885 3,112 4,270 4,646 4,266 4,077 2,994 2,376 3,559 3,179 3,084

6,729 7,142 5,400 7,218 5,853 4,915 6,662 5,913 5,915 5,013 6,989 4,848 5,211 5,265 5,397 4,755 4,280 2,657 4,976 4,847 5,104 1,727 4,635 4,762 4,273 3,670 4,851 4,882 3,964 4,188 3,769 5,345 3,988 4,112 3,445 3,483

6,567 6,536 7,714 5,997 7,213 5,955 4,803 8,084 6,205 5,935 3,651 6,164 5,082 5,563 4,326 4,785 6,589 5,787 3,983 4,513 4,265 9,246 4,141 4,055 4,428 4,810 4,216 2,938 3,269 3,410 3,810 3,039 4,459 3,132 3,890 3,921

7,031 USA 6,933 USA 6,465 USA 6,412 USA 6,314 USA 6,291 Mexico 6,197 USA 6,061 France 5,584 USA 5,513 USA 5,350 USA 5,245 Canada 5,193 USA 5,133 USA 5,048 USA 4,980 Trinidad 4,916 USA 4,860 Spain 4,789 USA 4,743 USA 4,696 USA 4,631 Mexico 4,543 USA 4,430 USA 4,269 USA 4,122 USA 4,059 Belgium 4,030 USA 3,960 Canada 3,955 3,885 3,793 3,608 USA Netherl'd USA USA

77.7 Canada 88.6 Canada 97.6 Jamaica 95.8 N Z'land 60.8 Trinidad 34.4 USA 37.3 Colombia 51.1 USA 44.5 St.Vincent 53.2 Trinidad 51.8 Trinidad 45.5 USA 54.8 Canada 79.1 Canada 57.5 Trinidad 67.9 USA 33.2 Netherl'd 26.9 Brazil 59.3 UK 65.6 Argentina 74.4 Trinidad 72.3 Guyana 94.9 Barbados 83.5 Canada 38.9 Chile 44.6 Thailand 93.8 UK 95.8 Canada 56.9 USA 64.4 52.2 52.6 33.1 Trinidad USA Guyana Trinidad

17.4 UK 5.4 France 1.0 Canada 1.8 Australia 29.2 Canada 22.0 Venezuela 14.8 Brazil 30.6 Italy 21.8 St. Lucia 26.6 Barbados 47.2 Turkey 27.1 Belize 32.9 Netherl'd 13.9 Netherl'd 34.7 Canada 27.6 Barbados 18.0 Norway 22.3 USA 22.0 Jamaica 20.2 China 8.7 Canada 9.2 Venezuela 2.4 Canada 12.6 Mexico 36.5 Turkey 26.8 Costa Rica 3.3 USA 3.7 Neth Antilles 41.9 UK 20.3 18.1 42.0 22.8 Netherl'd Mexico Suriname Canada

2.7 2.4 0.8 1.4 2.9 13.7 14.4 6.2 17.5 5.5 1.1 13.1 4.9 5.6 2.8 2.7 15.4 14.6 10.8 11.5 4.4 6.4 1.0 3.1 6.8 11.8 2.7 0.4 1.1 4.2 8.0 1.5 19.9 8.4 15.8 3.7

0.0 0.7 1.1 0.2 33.3 14.2 10.3 0.8 55.1 32.1 47.2 13.5 2.1 0.2 35.6 70.7 7.0 1.3 11.6 0.9 10.3 12.7 3.0 0.4 0.6 5.7 0.0 0.0 0.1 20.4 0.6 45.5 25.0 19.5 49.8 15.0

3,601 USA 3,505 Belize 3,496 USA

49.1 Trinidad 49.1 USA 75.1 Trinidad

17.8 UK 32.5 Canada 13.2 UK

Investing in Food and Nutrition Security - Identifying Potential Investment Opportunities in the Agriculture and Food Industries in CARICOM

vi

No.

HS Code

Product Description

Imports ($000) 2001 2000

1999

Avg 99-01

Rank and % Share of Supplying Countries and CARICOM First % Second % Third % CARICOM

and frac 108 70200 Tomatoes, fresh or chilled 109 220190 Other unsweetened waters; ice a 110 20130 Fresh or chilled boneless bovine me 111 21020 Meat of bovine animals, salted... o 112 20450 Fresh, chilled or frozen goat meat 113 20739 Fresh or chilled poultry cuts and o 114 160249 Preparations of swine meat, includi 115 40310 Yogurt 116 200580 Sweetcorn, preserved other than by 117 151610 Animal fats and oils and fractions, 118 40610 Fresh (unripened or uncured) cheese 119 110720 Roasted malt 120 200799 Other jams, fruit jellies, marmalad 121 210610 Protein concentrates and textured p 122 20430 Frozen lamb carcasses and half carc 123 71320 Dried chickpeas, shelled 124 170290 Artificial honey, caramel and other 125 80710 Melons and watermelons, fresh 126 20649 Frozen edible swine offal (excl. li 127 80130 Cashew nuts, fresh or dried 128 60310 Fresh cut flowers and buds 129 160241 Preparations of swine, hams and cut 130 20721 Frozen whole chickens 131 200960 Grape juice, (incl. must), unfermen 132 90240 Black tea (fermented) and partly fe 133 110311 Groats and meal of wheat 134 120991 Vegetable seed, of a kind used for 135 190230 Other pasta, nes 136 170230 Glucose and glucose syrup, containi 137 151529 Maize (corn) oil (excl. crude) and 138 71090 Mixtures of vegetables, frozen 139 160231 Preparations of turkey meat 140 70990 Other vegetables, fresh or chilled, 141 70960 Fruits of genus Capiscum or Pimenta 142 120810 Soya bean flour and meal 143 200899 Other fruit, etc, prepared or prese 144 20441 Frozen sheep carcasses and half car 145 80510 Oranges, fresh or dried 146 20422 Fresh or chilled unboned

2,839 3,000 2,901 2,507 3,339 2,549 3,410 2,846 3,052 1,923 1,036 1,865 2,728 2,192 1,867 2,705 2,626 2,416 2,574 2,659 2,816 2,324 1,169 2,450 2,266 2,779 2,404 2,191 2,244 2,529 2,121 2,527 1,978 1,990 3,514 2,492 1,900 1,834 2,458

3,495 3,186 3,762 3,405 3,025 3,454 3,374 3,056 2,812 2,439 3,018 2,284 2,664 2,541 2,763 2,715 2,280 2,788 2,687 2,376 2,814 2,657 4,371 2,308 2,684 2,160 2,704 2,884 2,251 2,236 2,457 2,486 2,619 2,594 2,260 2,205 2,521 2,148 2,971

3,307 3,422 2,880 3,583 2,761 3,027 2,224 2,799 2,755 4,135 4,425 4,011 2,621 3,272 3,276 2,346 2,856 2,439 2,348 2,520 1,892 2,478 1,850 2,630 2,438 2,437 2,235 2,210 2,787 2,385 2,508 1,978 2,364 2,369 1,125 2,183 2,436 2,844 1,203

3,214 USA 3,203 USA 3,181 USA 3,165 Canada 3,042 Australia 3,010 USA 3,003 USA 2,900 USA 2,873 USA 2,832 Norway 2,827 USA 2,720 UK 2,671 USA 2,668 USA 2,635 Australia 2,589 Mexico 2,587 USA 2,548 USA 2,536 Canada 2,518 India 2,507 USA 2,487 USA 2,464 USA 2,463 USA 2,463 Sri Lanka 2,458 Canada 2,448 USA 2,428 USA 2,427 USA 2,383 USA 2,362 USA 2,330 USA 2,320 USA 2,318 USA 2,300 USA 2,293 USA 2,286 Australia 2,275 USA 2,211 USA

95.9 Trinidad 51.5 Trinidad 94.3 N Z'land 66.1 USA 77.7 USA 98.3 Canada 33.6 Denmark 76.1 Spain 70.5 Canada 85.3 USA 41.6 N Z'land 44.2 Netherl'd 56.3 Brazil 76.2 Canada 71.4 USA 57.6 Canada 81.2 UK 94.0 Canada 42.8 UK 73.2 USA 78.8 Colombia 67.8 Denmark 94.3 Trinidad 51.8 UK 61.8 USA 35.5 USA 75.0 Japan 66.4 Trinidad 79.9 Netherl'd 89.8 UK 70.0 Canada 95.2 Canada 90.5 Trinidad 96.3 Canada 89.5 Trinidad 63.7 Netherl'd 76.8 USA 43.6 Jamaica 77.2 Australia

2.9 Netherl'd 14.1 France 1.9 Canada 33.3 Netherl'd 17.6 N Z'land 1.0 UK 33.4 Trinidad 8.1 France 25.1 Thailand 10.5 Peru 28.0 Jamaica 26.9 France 6.1 Canada 6.1 Barbados 17.9 N Z'land 18.9 USA 7.4 Ireland 2.1 Trinidad 22.9 USA 19.6 Trinidad 19.1 Netherl'd 13.1 Trinidad 2.4 Brazil 12.4 Argentina 15.5 UK 24.1 Venezuela 6.3 France 9.2 Canada 7.7 Germany 3.5 Trinidad 21.6 Belgium 1.7 Trinidad 3.1 Dominica 2.0 Trinidad 8.0 Barbados 8.5 China 11.7 N Z'land 40.7 Dominica 10.9 N Z'land

0.4 13.6 1.2 0.3 3.4 0.4 13.8 6.8 1.7 2.7 8.6 18.2 5.4 4.5 9.5 13.5 5.2 1.5 22.2 4.2 0.7 10.3 1.1 10.8 15.4 21.0 2.8 4.5 4.2 3.5 5.4 1.6 2.6 0.6 2.1 7.1 10.1 6.2 10.3

3.1 19.2 1.1 0.1 0.0 0.2 24.2 4.5 0.1 4.4 8.6 0.0 8.3 9.7 0.0 0.0 1.2 3.7 0.0 4.3 0.5 11.5 3.3 1.8 1.6 0.5 0.2 13.5 0.0 3.7 0.0 2.2 7.1 0.9 10.0 5.1 0.0 51.1 0.0

Investing in Food and Nutrition Security - Identifying Potential Investment Opportunities in the Agriculture and Food Industries in CARICOM

vii

No.

HS Code

Product Description

Imports ($000) 2001 2000

1999

Avg 99-01

Rank and % Share of Supplying Countries and CARICOM First % Second % Third % CARICOM

147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184

meat of sh 70410 Cauliflowers and headed broccoli, f 220850 Gin and Geneva 151800 Animal or vegetable fats and oils.. 130219 Other vegetable saps and extracts, 220600 Other fermented beverages (for exam 10511 Live fowls of species Gallus domest 71339 Dried beans, shelled, nes 220110 Mineral waters and aerated waters, 100610 Rice in the husk (paddy or rough) 110812 Maize (corn) starch 200920 Grapefruit juice, unfermented, not 70519 Lettuce, fresh or chilled, (excl. c 70511 Cabbage lettuce, fresh or chilled 20319 Fresh or chilled swine meat, nes (u 180500 Cocoa powder, not containing added 70490 White and red cabbages, kohlrabi, k 90411 Dried pepper (excl. crushed or grou 160210 Homogenized preparations of meat, m 350510 Dextrins and other modified starche 180632 Chocolate, etc, containing cocoa in 20710 Fresh or chilled whole poultry 200540 Peas, preserved other than by vineg 71340 Dried lentils, shelled 90210 Green tea in immediate packings 110630 Flour, meal and powder of products 90230 Black tea (fermented) and partly fe 90121 Roasted coffee, not decaffeinated 130190 Natural gums, resins, gumresins an 10600 Other live animals, nes 71490 Roots and tubers with high starch c 20722 Frozen whole turkeys 71040 Sweet corn, frozen 110813 Potato starch 230690 Oil-cake and residues, of other veg 180620 Chocolate, etc, containing cocoa, i 151920 Industrial fatty alcohols 40620 Grated or powdered cheese 200551 Shelled beans, preserved

2,227 2,155 2,328 2,115 1,949 2,359 1,514 1,836 2,215 1,972 1,947 2,122 1,805 1,540 2,220 1,674 1,274 1,590 2,034 2,109 1,718 1,605 1,478 1,907 2,904 1,579 1,159 439 2,486 1,161 1,238 1,333 1,443 1,426 1,317 1,186 1,347 1,480

2,526 2,256 1,813 2,038 2,158 1,851 1,899 1,729 1,762 1,851 2,322 2,131 2,067 2,394 1,814 2,104 2,002 1,616 1,880 1,744 1,488 1,580 1,962 2,065 1,206 2,259 1,504 1,945 2,072 1,853 1,745 1,761 1,089 1,759 1,587 1,703 1,530 1,445

1,870 2,161 2,427 2,239 2,270 1,957 2,650 2,497 2,074 2,173 1,652 1,654 2,024 1,940 1,821 2,055 2,522 2,525 1,700 1,642 2,217 1,892 1,618 1,000 861 1,120 2,269 2,458 183 1,673 1,692 1,545 1,993 1,335 1,508 1,444 1,423 1,239

2,208 USA 2,191 UK 2,189 USA 2,131 USA 2,126 USA 2,055 USA 2,021 USA 2,021 USA 2,017 USA 1,999 USA 1,974 USA 1,969 USA 1,965 USA 1,958 USA 1,952 Jamaica 1,945 USA 1,933 S’gapore 1,910 USA 1,871 USA 1,832 UK 1,808 USA 1,692 USA 1,686 Canada 1,657 USA 1,657 Thailand 1,653 USA 1,644 USA 1,614 V’zuela 1,580 Mexico 1,562 St.Vincent 1,558 1,547 1,508 1,506 USA USA USA USA

96.9 Mexico 39.5 USA 86.6 Netherl'd 93.7 UK 38.2 Jamaica 75.0 Barbados 67.9 Canada 25.6 France 65.8 Guyana 65.3 Colombia 56.5 Belize 97.8 Canada 92.1 Mexico 96.0 Canada 25.3 USA 79.4 Canada 48.3 India 97.6 Unspecifie d 76.8 Canada 32.6 USA 99.3 Trinidad 47.3 Peru 75.9 USA 28.5 Sri Lanka 32.5 Malaysia 64.7 Sri Lanka 67.1 Brazil 58.1 USA 86.1 USA 73.4 USA 98.9 92.9 79.6 100.0 Canada Canada Netherl'd Unspecifie d 80.0 UK 72.5 UK 61.1 Canada 48.2 UK

1.7 Canada 33.3 Netherl'd 4.5 UK 1.7 Netherl'd 32.7 Guyana 20.1 Canada 14.2 Netherl'd 17.1 Netherl'd 18.4 St.Vincent 16.8 Brazil 18.3 Trinidad 1.3 Netherl'd 7.1 Canada 3.1 UK 18.5 Spain 11.1 Mexico 12.2 Brazil 0.0 Trinidad 17.3 Netherl'd 32.3 Trinidad 0.5 UK 17.4 Canada 19.9 Trinidad 27.4 UK 24.6 Sri Lanka 14.0 UK 15.3 Trinidad 12.0 Trinidad 6.8 UK 12.8 Dominica 0.8 3.3 19.0 0.0 Unspecified Belgium Ecuador Canada

0.8 16.6 3.8 1.0 6.9 1.2 10.6 16.4 14.7 6.8 13.0 0.3 0.7 0.8 16.7 3.8 9.0 0.8 1.6 22.6 0.1 8.5 3.4 16.9 19.5 7.4 8.9 11.5 3.9 12.3 0.2 1.1 0.6 0.0 3.2 4.2 8.6 16.9

0.1 5.3 0.3 0.2 51.6 20.9 2.1 18.5 33.2 0.3 37.8 0.1 0.0 0.1 26.5 4.3 0.1 0.9 0.4 25.2 0.5 7.4 3.4 2.3 1.9 5.2 11.5 11.5 0.8 86.4 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 4.5 4.0 0.5 8.3

1,471 USA 1,444 USA 1,433 USA 1,388 USA

11.2 Jamaica 4.7 Norway 15.4 Denmark 21.0 Canada

Investing in Food and Nutrition Security - Identifying Potential Investment Opportunities in the Agriculture and Food Industries in CARICOM

viii

No.

HS Code

Product Description

Imports ($000) 2001 2000

1999

Avg 99-01

Rank and % Share of Supplying Countries and CARICOM First % Second % Third % CARICOM

185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224

other than 90412 Pepper, crushed or ground 20690 Frozen edible offal of sheep, goats 20622 Frozen bovine livers 151229 Cotton-seed oil (excl. crude) and f 180610 Cocoa powder, containing added suga 110412 Rolled or flaked oat grains 90140 Coffee substitutes containing coffe 150420 Fish fats, oils and fractions (excl 90220 Green tea, nes 121190 Other plants or parts, of a kind us 170191 Cane or beet sugar, containing adde 230120 Flours, meals and pellets of fish, 210420 Homogenized composite food preparat 151190 Palm oil (excl. crude) and liquid f 200600 Fruit, nuts, fruit-peel and other p 40390 Buttermilk, curdled milk and cream, 151519 Linseed oil (excl. crude) and fract 110220 Maize (corn) flour 240210 Cigars, cheroots and cigarillos con 200820 Pineapples, prepared or preserved ( 220900 Vinegar and substitutes for vinegar 91099 Other spices, nes 210230 Prepared baking powders 20443 Frozen boned meat of sheep 151319 Coconut copra oil (excl. crude) and 60220 Trees,shrubs,bushes,grafted or not, 20743 Frozen cuts and offal of geese, duc 71290 Dried vegetables, nes 150910 Virgin olive oil and fractions 160411 Prepared or preserved salmon (excl. 200559 Beans, unshelled, preserved other t 70951 Mushrooms, fresh or chilled 120999 Other seeds, fruit and spores, of a 210330 Mustard flour and meal, prepared mu 80290 Other nuts, fresh or dried, nes 81320 Dried prunes 110312 Groats and meal of oats 110290 Other cereal flour, nes 70110 Seed potatoes 200930 Single citrus fruit juice, (excl.

1,114 1,743 1,382 1,091 1,313 1,434 3,532 1,577 980 1,561 2,045 1,899 1,254 1,533 1,054 1,118 1,065 1,249 771 937 968 1,035 1,052 723 939 859 1,002 1,177 980 962 954 908 1,009 922 732 916 1,054 305 796 784

1,638 1,330 1,385 1,219 1,371 1,235 165 1,392 1,167 1,085 759 1,235 1,586 942 1,245 1,194 1,218 1,199 1,592 1,010 1,199 1,116 1,133 552 1,169 1,459 905 892 986 965 1,018 1,008 606 1,044 980 978 896 1,994 929 916

1,392 1,058 1,319 1,679 1,283 1,148 112 789 1,593 1,067 902 569 831 1,129 1,273 1,199 1,125 949 977 1,319 1,052 1,066 999 1,902 999 760 1,110 899 947 979 921 951 1,217 858 1,096 852 742 331 901 795

1,381 USA 1,377 USA 1,362 USA 1,330 USA 1,322 USA 1,272 USA 1,270 USA 1,253 Norway 1,247 Netherl'd 1,238 USA 1,235 UK 1,234 USA 1,224 USA 1,201 USA 1,191 USA 1,171 USA 1,136 Netherl'd 1,132 USA 1,114 USA 1,089 USA 1,073 USA 1,072 1,061 1,059 1,036 USA Trinidad USA Trinidad

60.6 Costa Rica 13.5 Singapore 75.9 Australia 4.7 Panama 90.8 Canada 76.3 Brazil 45.6 UK 52.0 Canada 96.0 Brazil 82.7 USA 26.7 Sri Lanka 38.9 India 78.4 USA 90.1 Panama 93.5 Jamaica 54.7 Malaysia 47.0 Canada 76.7 Ireland 92.8 UK 4.1 Argentina 23.2 Mexico 21.3 Jamaica 31.5 Costa Rica 1.5 Colombia 13.2 Peru 21.3 USA 13.3 Canada 18.1 Jamaica 5.7 Thailand 1.8 Netherl'd 26.7 Netherl'd 13.5 Barbados 9.3 Netherl'd 4.0 USA

5.0 4.2 1.9 0.3 11.9 8.2 0.7 3.5 19.5 12.9 1.1 3.1 1.6 8.9 8.5 4.3 2.2 16.9 16.7 17.5 7.6 4.7 2.3 29.2 15.2 0.0 0.4 6.4 14.9 3.5 8.0 1.2 1.8 5.2 0.9 5.2 7.8 5.5 9.2 3.3

3.2 1.1 0.0 0.0 21.0 0.4 0.6 0.0 10.3 2.1 2.1 0.5 2.0 0.0 15.4 1.1 0.8 26.4 1.4 0.0 25.5 2.0 58.2 0.0 79.2 0.0 0.0 0.4 0.2 0.2 2.6 0.5 0.8 10.8 0.3 0.0 0.8 11.3 0.3 7.6

31.4 Venezuela 17.7 Guatemala 33.4 Cuba 28.8 Netherl'd 52.3 Thailand 62.3 Trinidad 62.7 56.8 34.2 61.2 Canada USA N Z'land USA 23.4 Phillipines 24.8 Canada 16.0 35.9 33.3 17.4 India Netherl'd Australia Guyana

1,026 USA 1,006 USA 990 USA 971 USA 969 USA 964 Netherl'd 956 USA 944 USA 941 USA 936 USA 915 897 877 875 831 USA USA USA Netherl'd USA

98.4 Israel 96.8 France 69.7 China 47.0 France 63.1 Canada 52.2 USA 96.3 Netherl'd 86.1 Japan 77.8 Trinidad 96.3 Netherl'd 58.8 47.0 77.5 50.6 84.2 Chile Canada Grenada USA Dominica

0.8 Unspecified 2.1 UK 8.5 Canada 20.1 Spain 26.8 UK 25.3 Neth Antilles 1.2 Canada 4.7 Netherl'd 10.8 Canada 0.9 Canada 22.4 39.9 5.6 24.5 3.4 Canada Netherl'd Venezuela Belgium Trinidad

Investing in Food and Nutrition Security - Identifying Potential Investment Opportunities in the Agriculture and Food Industries in CARICOM

ix

No.

HS Code

Product Description

Imports ($000) 2001 2000

1999

Avg 99-01

Rank and % Share of Supplying Countries and CARICOM First % Second % Third % CARICOM

225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261

o 80530 Lemons and limes, fresh or dried 80940 Plums and sloes, fresh 71420 Sweet potatoes, fresh or dried 20410 Fresh or chilled lamb carcasses and 150990 Olive oil and fractions (excl. virg 100400 Oats 20110 Fresh or chilled bovine carcasses a 80930 Peaches, including nectarines, fres 70940 Celery, fresh or chilled 151311 Crude coconut (copra) oil and fract 120210 Ground-nuts in shell, not roasted o 160420 Other prepared or preserved fish, n 200490 Other vegetables preserved other th 50400 Guts, bladders and stomachs of anim 151219 Sunflower-seed and safflower oil (e 200310 Mushrooms, preserved otherwise than 40130 Milk and cream of >6% fat, not conc 200190 Other vegetables, fruits, etc, pres 210310 Soya sauce 200210 Tomatoes, whole or in pieces, prese 40410 Whey & modified whey, concentrated 330119 Essential oils of citrus fruit (inc 170260 Other fructose and fructose syrup, 80110 Coconuts, fresh or dried 330190 Concentrates of essential oils in f 200892 Mixtures of fruit, prepared or pres 80520 Mandarins, clementines, wilkings... 80430 Pineapples, fresh or dried 90111 Coffee, not roasted or decaffeinate 71080 Vegetables, frozen, nes 160290 Preparations of meat (incl.preparat 20120 Fresh or chilled unboned bovine mea 20210 Frozen bovine carcasses and half ca 330129 Essential oils (incl. concretes and 20723 Frozen whole ducks, geese and guine 90920 Seeds of coriander 20312 Fresh or chilled unboned

802 817 625 549 881 457 741 837 787 344 722 619 1,270 837 1,000 686 402 661 725 676 913 1,674 997 481 620 849 567 661 769 585 311 450 107 660 710 590 609

1,166 838 964 1,338 828 750 1,176 768 930 612 823 604 673 876 1,037 831 959 862 795 766 642 300 721 871 731 741 766 710 759 857 1,152 668 240 725 674 671 887

516 821 881 580 758 1,240 517 790 658 1,412 791 1,108 383 599 257 764 911 717 693 763 649 204 439 797 777 526 767 714 528 609 583 916 1,668 596 586 707 471

828 USA 825 USA 823 St.Vincent 823 USA 822 USA 816 USA 812 USA 798 USA 792 USA 789 Guyana 779 USA 777 USA 776 USA 771 Canada 765 Argentina 760 USA 758 Trinidad 746 USA 737 USA 735 USA 735 USA 726 Barbados 719 USA 716 USA 709 USA 705 USA 700 USA 695 USA 685 USA 684 USA 682 USA 678 USA 672 USA 660 USA 657 USA 656 Canada 656 USA

89.5 Dominica 97.1 Chile 53.9 USA 96.1 Australia 75.4 Italy 57.2 Canada 98.2 Canada 98.3 Chile 95.4 Mexico 76.8 St. Lucia 74.4 China 82.8 Canada 57.8 Canada 80.4 USA 34.5 Mexico 66.4 China 21.7 USA 73.5 Mexico

6.1 Guyana 1.9 Canada 41.0 Dominica 3.5 Canada 9.2 UK 36.8 Australia 1.2 Norway 1.1 UK 3.6 Canada 18.0 USA 16.8 Canada 7.4 UK 19.6 Belgium 18.3 Netherl'd 34.1 Netherl'd 15.6 Thailand 20.9 Canada 5.0 Hong Kong

2.9 0.7 4.7 0.1 4.5 5.2 0.5 0.4 0.7 4.6 4.1 4.5 9.9 0.5 15.5 5.2 13.6 4.1 10.9 3.8 17.1 7.2 0.1 11.0 7.8 3.2 1.6 5.4 4.2 1.5 2.2 1.4 0.8 10.1 1.4 15.2 0.6

10.0 0.1 58.7 0.0 0.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 95.3 1.8 1.0 0.4 0.0 1.0 0.0 25.4 2.0 4.3 0.8 0.4 60.2 0.0 42.1 2.9 0.1 26.5 18.4 25.6 0.0 3.0 1.6 0.0 5.3 0.0 0.0 0.1

55.2 Hong Kong 22.9 China 86.1 Italy 4.4 Canada 54.5 France 59.2 USA 99.6 Canada 49.8 St.Vincent 68.3 UK 71.1 Canada 73.1 Jamaica 75.4 Guyana 65.4 Trinidad 91.4 Canada 86.5 Netherl'd 95.1 Australia 96.8 Australia 50.9 UK 94.5 Canada 18.8 India 93.2 Canada 24.9 Belgium 26.7 UK 0.3 Unspecified 28.1 Dominica 10.0 Canada 10.8 Spain 24.7 Dominica 12.2 Canada 21.7 Brazil 5.4 Belgium 4.8 Trinidad 2.0 Jamaica 2.4 N Z'land 22.9 Canada 2.7 UK 16.5 Romania 6.1 UK

Investing in Food and Nutrition Security - Identifying Potential Investment Opportunities in the Agriculture and Food Industries in CARICOM

x

No.

HS Code

Product Description

Imports ($000) 2001 2000

1999

Avg 99-01

Rank and % Share of Supplying Countries and CARICOM First % Second % Third % CARICOM

262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298

hams, shou 71350 Dried broad beans and horse beans, 210130 Roasted coffee substitutes (incl. c 150410 Fish-liver oils and their fractions 200791 Jams, fruit jellies, marmalades, et 230240 Brans, sharps and other residues of 10119 Live horses, other than for pure-br 21012 Bellies and cuts thereof of swine, 190220 Stuffed pasta 71390 Dried leguminous vegetables, shelle 200870 Peaches, prepared or preserved (exc 110210 Rye flour 210220 Inactive yeasts; other singlecell 110900 Wheat gluten 81090 Other fruit, fresh, nes 200710 Jams, fruit jellies, marmalades, et 220810 Compound alcoholic preparations for 110423 Other worked grains of maize (corn) 90420 Fruits of genus Capiscum or Pimenta 230220 Brans, sharps and other residues of 90930 Seeds of cumin 190211 Uncooked pasta containing eggs not 20311 Fresh or chilled swine carcasses an 210120 Extracts, essences, concentrates an 200570 Olives, preserved other than by vin 110520 Potato flakes, granules and pellets 152010 Glycerol (glycerine), crude, glycer 240399 Other manufactured tobacco, nes 150100 Lard, other pig fat and poultry fat 91010 Ginger 40900 Natural honey 380910 Finishing agents, etc, with amylace 230230 Brans, sharps and other residues of 80212 Almonds without shells, fresh or dr 81340 Other dried fruit, nes 350520 Glues based on starches, dextrins o 151490 Rape, colza or mustard oil (excl. c 90810 Nutmeg

1,232 313 318 929 203 466 435 600 509 530 454 409 635 453 551 296 416 545 407 706 359 388 461 505 591 473 1,330 572 527 411 134 288 437 357 412 607 369

516 732 575 512 994 758 782 551 681 765 517 677 507 582 577 506 384 561 560 437 421 416 630 541 464 435 99 813 498 524 1,026 448 549 460 506 440 665

215 892 1,022 461 700 618 583 640 595 477 718 594 532 608 510 812 804 485 602 425 780 745 445 487 473 589 50 89 418 473 224 638 358 514 411 265 259

654 USA 645 USA 639 Norway 634 USA 632 Jamaica 614 USA 600 USA 597 USA 595 USA 591 USA 563 USA 560 Netherl'd 558 USA 547 USA 546 USA 538 Trinidad 535 France 530 USA 523 Guyana 522 India 520 USA 516 USA 512 USA 511 USA 509 USA 499 Dom Rep 493 Trinidad 491 USA 481 USA 469 USA 461 Mexico 458 St.Vcent 448 USA 444 Turkey 443 USA 437 USA 431 Grenada

99.7 Canada 25.8 Brazil 62.0 UK 36.3 Brazil 60.0 USA 78.2 UK 87.4 UK 77.8 Trinidad 92.0 Peru 88.4 Canada 90.8 Canada 29.1 Belgium 52.5 Netherl'd 78.8 Dominica 86.0 Netherl'd 66.7 Ireland 57.9 USA 49.5 Spain 91.7 St.Vincent 35.0 Syria 52.7 Trinidad 99.7 Trinidad 80.9 UK 82.4 Spain 56.4 Spain 39.6 USA 85.2 USA 79.3 Canada 45.9 St.Vincent 80.9 Canada 46.6 USA 68.1 USA 72.0 Canada 36.0 USA 75.5 Italy 78.0 Canada 33.6 USA

0.2 Netherl'd 21.5 Trinidad 33.8 USA 32.1 Colombia 21.5 St.Vincent 7.6 Jamaica 3.4 Canada 6.7 Canada 4.8 Japan 4.5 Panama 7.9 Grenada 28.9 USA 38.5 France 10.6 St.Vincent 6.6 Venezuela 10.8 Netherl'd 40.7 Argentina 22.1 Canada 5.8 USA 34.6 Netherl'd 22.8 St.Vincent 0.1 Unspecified 3.8 Brazil 5.2 Canada 42.4 Canada 23.0 Netherl'd 10.6 UK 18.0 Guatemala 22.1 Canada 15.8 UK 41.9 Guatemala 10.9 Grenada 22.7 Netherl'd 34.8 UK 5.1 Germany 15.5 Netherl'd 28.8 France

0.1 20.2 2.6 5.1 12.9 4.5 3.2 5.5 1.1 1.3 0.8 17.9 4.9 5.2 3.3 10.3 0.5 9.8 1.7 12.3 7.9 0.1 3.3 4.9 1.0 11.0 2.5 2.1 11.7 1.6 5.5 9.1 3.0 10.7 4.0 4.3 20.9

0.0 22.7 1.0 2.6 72.9 8.8 4.0 9.7 0.0 0.0 1.1 1.4 0.1 18.1 0.0 66.7 0.5 0.7 97.5 0.1 39.6 0.2 3.2 0.1 0.0 3.3 85.2 0.0 30.1 0.0 3.1 83.5 0.0 0.0 3.3 1.2 37.1

Investing in Food and Nutrition Security - Identifying Potential Investment Opportunities in the Agriculture and Food Industries in CARICOM

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No. 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339

Imports ($000) HS Product Description 2001 2000 1999 Code 91050 Curry 434 490 360 71220 Dried onions 408 495 365 60491 Fresh parts of plants, without 432 389 445 flow 240290 Cigars, cigarillos, cigarettes, 268 460 532 etc 220590 Vermouth and other wine of 460 407 372 fresh gr 160242 Preparations of swine, 536 546 155 shoulders an 20621 Frozen bovine tongues 313 456 467 160510 Crab, prepared or 412 397 378 preserved 70690 Beetroot...radishes and other 318 412 456 simil 160520 Shrimps and prawns, 549 386 248 prepared or pre 80540 Grapefruit, fresh or dried 327 389 458 70920 Asparagus, fresh or chilled 389 432 340 180400 Cocoa butter, fat and oil 197 421 537 121410 Lucerne (alfalfa) meal and 285 437 431 pellets 91030 Turmeric (curcuma) 228 508 396 71021 Shelled or unshelled peas, 290 399 416 frozen 70810 Peas, fresh or chilled 335 395 359 90112 Decaffeinated coffee, not 320 376 391 roasted 121020 Hop cones, ground, 189 626 232 powdered or in p 40899 Birds' eggs, not in shell (excl. 340 476 224 dr 80450 Guavas, mangoes and 360 433 244 mangosteens, fr 90122 Roasted, decaffeinated 283 372 375 coffee 170210 Lactose and lactose syrup 377 272 375 220510 Vermouth and other wine of 395 310 316 fresh gr 130213 Hop extract 587 182 247 121299 Vegetable products used 287 360 351 primarily f 120300 Copra 67 282 642 110819 Other starches, nes 251 390 350 130239 Mucilages and thickeners, 296 342 330 derived f 200860 Cherries, prepared or 378 333 255 preserved (ex 240130 Tobacco refuse 425 216 312 81350 Mixtures of dried fruit and 298 286 364 nuts, n 350190 Caseinates and other casein 153 363 407 derivat 81110 Strawberries, frozen 278 390 223 10591 Live fowls of species Gallus 213 280 395 domest 200950 Tomato juice, unfermented, 296 277 306 not cont 60210 Unrooted cuttings and slips 297 305 264 200110 Cucumbers and gherkins, 292 310 256 preserved b 80440 Avocados, fresh or dried 191 300 359 170240 Glucose and glucose syrup, 199 242 406 containi 50290 Badger and other brush 130 270 424

Rank and % Share of Supplying Countries and CARICOM Avg First % Second % Third % CARICOM 99-01 428 USA 27.5 Trinidad 24.8 India 16.0 33.9 423 USA 65.5 Canada 24.9 China 2.6 2.2 422 USA 70.1 Canada 29.8 Unspecified 0.1 0.1 420 USA 413 Jamaica 412 Denmark 412 USA 396 USA 395 USA 394 USA 391 387 385 384 USA USA V’zuela USA 42.2 UK 45.4 Chile 44.0 USA 93.3 Australia 94.1 Canada 86.9 Canada 79.1 Guyana 73.1 98.1 38.2 89.9 Dominica Peru Netherl'd Canada 24.3 Switzerland 23.1 25.1 USA 43.4 Trinidad 5.6 N Z'land 3.2 UK 10.9 Mexico 7.3 Canada 24.1 0.7 27.5 10.0 Jamaica Canada USA Unspecified 12.8 8.8 0.7 0.9 1.0 5.1 1.1 0.7 17.4 0.1 10.2 8.5 11.6 8.7 2.4 3.7 1.4 4.1 4.8 20.5 0.0 7.2 1.3 11.5 4.1 5.2 11.2 5.6 9.3 1.9 0.4 2.2 1.0 2.1 11.3 22.1 6.6 1.2 49.1 9.7 0.0 0.1 0.1 7.6 26.6 0.0 0.7 0.0 0.4 0.0 38.3 8.4 0.0 2.1 5.1 9.1 0.1 22.4 0.0 75.9 98.7 12.6 1.8 0.0 2.0 0.3 11.1 0.0 1.9 0.4 2.5 0.1 46.5 0.2 0.0

377 India 368 USA 363 USA 362 USA 349 USA 347 USA 345 USA 343 USA 341 USA 340 UK 338 USA 333 Haiti 330 Guyana 330 USA 323 USA 322 USA 318 Brazil 316 USA 308 USA 297 USA 296 USA 293 USA 288 USA 286 USA 283 USA 282 UK 275 USA

63.4 Canada 48.5 Canada 41.1 Belize 68.8 Mexico 92.0 Slovenia 82.2 Netherl'd 92.5 St.Vincent 78.3 Trinidad 78.4 Netherl'd 30.2 Jamaica 94.5 Germany 72.5 France

13.5 USA 31.9 Peru 35.8 Peru 8.9 Brazil 5.5 Germany 11.3 France 2.6 Dominica 8.3 Mexico 6.9 UK 21.8 USA 5.5 Unspecified 9.2 USA

85.7 St. Lucia 12.6 USA 58.1 Canada 13.3 St.Vincent 79.6 Singapore 7.2 Netherl'd 77.8 Canada 50.3 Colombia 76.5 UK 40.6 Netherl'd 88.3 Mexico 97.4 Barbados 81.1 Canada 92.8 Guyana 84.3 Netherl'd 52.6 Dominica 39.0 Netherl'd 50.0 China 14.0 UK 16.6 USA 16.4 Canada 31.3 St. Lucia 6.0 Ecuador 1.7 Netherl'd 12.7 UK 1.9 Thailand 9.4 Canada 34.6 St.Vincent 27.4 USA 43.4 Canada

Investing in Food and Nutrition Security - Identifying Potential Investment Opportunities in the Agriculture and Food Industries in CARICOM

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No.

HS Code

Product Description

Imports ($000) 2001 2000

1999

Avg 99-01

Rank and % Share of Supplying Countries and CARICOM First % Second % Third % CARICOM

making hair 340 120929 Other seeds of forage plants, of a 341 160419 Prepared or preserved fish (excl. m 342 240110 Tobacco, not stemmed/stripped 343 160300 Extracts and juices of meat, fish a 344 21090 Other meat, nes, salted... or smoke 345 110411 Rolled or flaked barley grains 346 530110 Flax, raw or retted 347 40891 Dried birds' eggs, not in shell 348 190510 Crispbread 349 200510 Homogenized vegetable, preserved ot 350 151930 UN Special Code 351 350300 Gelatin and derivatives; isinglass; 352 190540 Rusks, toasted bread and similar to 353 130220 Pectic substances, pectinates and p 354 100700 Grain sorghum 355 200830 Citrus fruit, prepared or preserved 356 81210 Cherries, provisionally preserved, 357 230890 Other vegetable materials, waste, r 358 60499 Parts of plants, without flowers or 359 60390 Dried, dyed, bleached or otherwise 360 200840 Pears, prepared or preserved (excl. 361 40811 Dried egg yolks 362 10111 Live pure bred breeding horses 363 20890 Fresh, chilled or frozen meat and e 364 20900 Pig and poultry fat, fresh, chilled 365 71410 Manioc, fresh or dried 366 120740 Sesamum seeds 367 160412 Prepared or preserved herrings (exc 368 70700 Cucumbers and gherkins, fresh or ch 369 180310 Cocoa paste, not defatted 370 220430 Other grape must, nes 371 160590 Molluscs and other aquatic inverteb 372 170112 Raw beet sugar, in solid form 373 110510 Potato flour and meal 374 91091 Spice mixtures 375 170220 Maple sugar and maple syrup 376 71331 Dried beans, shelled 377 70970 Spinach, fresh or chilled 378 70529 Chicory, fresh or chilled,

253 274 251 153 347 412 140 275 200 260 24 240 239 253 279 223 200 113 236 162 227 181 301 217 201 220 211 169 208 289 119 181 60 46 199 194 231 165 52

313 294 277 245 356 125 146 212 291 224 397 224 299 237 296 228 158 115 195 194 222 241 135 151 151 227 180 195 172 111 207 212 198 222 169 170 217 212 242

257 248 285 383 69 233 480 276 270 275 334 272 173 217 126 223 302 421 215 283 184 205 192 254 268 154 202 223 197 169 240 151 284 273 161 160 70 125 203

274 USA 272 USA 271 USA 260 V’zuela 257 USA 257 Netherl'd 255 USA 254 France 254 USA 253 USA 251 USA 245 USA 237 USA 236 USA 234 USA 225 USA 220 Italy 216 USA 216 USA 213 USA 211 USA 209 Canada 209 USA 208 USA 207 Canada 200 USA 198 USA 196 Canada 192 USA 190 Cd'Ivoire 188 France 181 USA 181 UK 181 Grenada 176 USA 175 USA 173 USA 167 USA 166 USA

62.8 Brazil 73.6 Canada 48.7 Canada

33.2 France 8.4 Thailand 17.4 Brazil

1.4 7.7 13.7 7.6 0.6 8.8 0.4 0.3 15.4 7.5 2.4 15.5 2.4 7.1 0.1 1.5 9.1 3.2 13.0 3.9 3.0 6.1 2.4 0.7 0.2 3.2 6.0 11.5 1.8 5.4 15.5 0.5 13.5 9.7 12.9 0.9 0.6 0.2 0.6

0.0 0.6 0.0 0.0 0.6 0.0 0.4 0.0 23.9 3.6 6.0 0.0 4.1 0.0 0.0 1.2 0.0 15.5 0.2 1.7 2.4 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.0 4.0 0.0 0.8 7.1 0.0 7.3 0.0 3.9 61.2 3.1 0.0 23.8 0.0 0.0

77.0 Guatemala 12.4 USA 84.8 Canada 67.6 Germany 94.2 Dom Rep 96.6 USA 53.5 Trinidad 62.2 Canada 79.9 Germany 41.1 UK 86.9 Trinidad 62.3 Denmark 96.7 Guatemala 89.0 Panama 59.6 USA 79.5 Jamaica 57.6 Canada 80.5 Colombia 85.0 Canada 81.4 France 88.7 Honduras 96.0 UK 75.5 USA 86.7 Indonesia 70.9 Belgium 59.8 Thailand 91.9 Trinidad 75.5 USA 46.3 USA 86.4 Unspecifie d 54.2 Netherl'd 58.7 USA 67.8 Canada 96.0 Canada 73.8 Belize 99.3 Unspecifie d 97.8 Canada 13.3 Trinidad 12.5 Neth Antilles 5.3 Dominica 3.1 Unspecified 16.5 UK 9.3 Netherl'd 8.5 Trinidad 18.8 Ecuador 3.3 UK 17.7 Brazil 3.2 Unspecified 5.2 UK 25.9 Canada 15.5 UK 24.5 Dom Rep 10.1 Canada 5.0 Panama 12.3 USA 6.5 Ireland 2.6 Canada 24.3 UK 9.1 Trinidad 14.4 India 12.1 USA 3.4 Dominica 9.7 Venezuela 19.2 UK 1.3 Thailand 25.0 USA 23.3 Canada 12.9 UK 2.1 UK 23.7 Netherl'd 0.5 UK 1.4 Unspecified

Investing in Food and Nutrition Security - Identifying Potential Investment Opportunities in the Agriculture and Food Industries in CARICOM

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No.

HS Code

Product Description

Imports ($000) 2001 2000

1999

Avg 99-01

Rank and % Share of Supplying Countries and CARICOM First % Second % Third % CARICOM

379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417

(excl. w 80232 Walnuts without shells, fresh or dr 70820 Beans, fresh or chilled 110329 Pellets of other cereals (excl. whe 51199 Animal products, nes; dead animals 110321 Wheat pellets 140190 Vegetable materials for plaiting, ( 520100 Cotton, not carded or combed 40490 Products consisting of natural milk 151511 Crude linseed oil 330124 Essential oils of peppermint (incl. 80410 Dates, fresh or dried 200880 Strawberries, prepared or preserved 150600 Other animal fats and oils and thei 120919 Beet seed, of a kind used for sowin 50100 Human hair and waste, unworked 80720 Papaws (papayas), fresh 70390 Leeks and other alliaceous vegetabl 230610 Oil-cake and other solid residues o 160220 Preparations of animal liver 10519 Live ducks, geese, turkeys and guin 80920 Cherries, fresh 350110 Casein 110811 Wheat starch 90620 Cinnamon and cinnamontree flowers, 90500 Vanilla 81190 Other fruit and nuts, frozen, nes 40819 Egg yolks (excl. dried) 230110 Flours, meats and pellets, of meat 130232 Mucilages and thickeners of locust 120600 Sunflower seeds 151550 Sesame oil and fractions 60120 Bulbs, tubers... rhizomes in growth 230210 Brans, sharps and other residues of 382360 Sorbitol (excl. that of 2905.44) 71030 Spinach, frozen 100830 Canary seed 71022 Shelled or unshelled beans, frozen 190300 Tapioca and substitutes prepared fr 71029 Leguminous vegetables, shelled or u

165 175 191 176 29 157 215 91 119 150 125 160 128 145 162 116 147 62 127 90 149 141 35 130 170 139 64 156 174 142 126 71 1 126 76 150 79 105 100

179 200 117 143 50 128 200 139 189 160 172 156 93 115 155 177 148 146 197 144 121 133 119 147 112 106 127 144 118 125 144 124 391 121 159 110 147 109 165

146 115 171 155 392 184 44 226 147 145 154 126 218 177 120 141 138 222 105 194 155 145 261 138 130 167 218 106 108 129 125 198 0 140 151 117 147 156 102

163 USA 163 USA 160 Netherl'd 158 USA 157 USA 157 USA 153 Pakistan 152 USA 152 Netherl'd 151 UK 150 USA 147 USA 146 USA 146 USA 146 USA 145 USA 144 USA 143 USA 143 Netherl'd 143 USA 141 140 138 138 USA Netherl'd USA USA

93.8 Canada 93.0 Canada 44.0 USA 74.5 Canada 79.3 UK 68.2 Japan 47.7 USA 35.8 UK 48.4 UK 68.4 Germany 45.1 Netherl'd 80.7 Canada 96.1 Netherl'd 53.8 Japan 86.0 Unspecifie d 78.8 Dominica 96.2 Unspecifie d 99.8 Netherl'd 78.3 USA 54.6 Israel 93.9 88.7 92.3 59.1 Netherl'd UKR Grenada Grenada

5.4 Unspecified 3.9 Unspecified 37.6 Malaysia 6.8 Uruguay 20.2 Unspecified 14.2 Netherl'd 23.6 China 23.2 Belgium 26.4 USA 10.9 India 14.4 Iran 17.6 Unspecified 2.3 Canada 24.6 France 14.0 16.3 Free Zones 0.9 Canada 0.2 10.3 France 25.1 Barbados 3.3 4.8 3.5 12.9 UK USA UK Netherl'd

0.8 1.2 13.1 6.5 0.3 6.3 13.8 21.0 19.2 10.9 12.0 1.3 0.7 9.0 0.0 2.4 0.8 0.0 4.9 13.9 1.3 4.1 2.2 10.4 6.7 6.9 0.9 2.4 5.6 19.6 6.9 9.8 0.3 2.8 1.9 24.5 4.4 14.2 5.8

0.0 0.7 0.0 2.0 0.1 0.1 3.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.6 1.6 0.0 17.9 0.4 0.0 0.2 14.7 0.0 0.9 3.9 15.9 0.9 13.1 0.8 2.9 19.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.8 0.0 0.0 0.6

138 USA 137 USA 136 USA 135 USA 133 USA 132 USA 132 Hong Kong 131 USA 131 USA 129 France 128 USA 126 USA 124 USA 123 USA 122 USA

74.7 China 71.3 Canada 90.9 Canada 93.3 Free Zones 73.6 Trinidad 40.3 Canada 49.9 USA 62.9 Thailand 99.1 Unspecifie d 87.3 Germany 93.0 Canada 43.9 Netherl'd 85.7 Belgium 61.3 Thailand 78.7 Canada

9.3 France 8.2 Grenada 7.2 Belgium 3.5 Trinidad 19.9 Indonesia 36.9 Netherl'd 35.4 China 16.0 Netherl'd 0.7 Trinidad 8.0 UK 3.3 Unspecified 30.1 Canada 5.7 Canada 17.1 Netherl'd 10.7 Belgium

Investing in Food and Nutrition Security - Identifying Potential Investment Opportunities in the Agriculture and Food Industries in CARICOM

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No. 418 419 420 421 422 423 424 425 426 427 428 429 430 431 432 433 434

Imports ($000) HS Product Description 2001 2000 1999 Code 71190 Other vegetables and 181 128 55 mixture of ve 240310 Smoking tobacco with or 101 209 52 without tob 170250 Chemically pure fructose 193 82 85 160540 Crustaceans, nes, prepared 90 131 138 or prese 70930 Aubergines, fresh or chilled 85 158 117 120799 Other oil seeds and 146 89 109 oleaginous frui 20421 Fresh or chilled sheep 128 79 132 carcasses an 110422 Other worked grains of 124 116 95 oats, nes 20610 Fresh or chilled edible 98 92 144 bovine offa 520299 Cotton waste, nes 80 121 127 160416 Prepared or preserved 128 96 98 anchovies (ex 160430 Caviar and caviar 94 124 103 substitutes 110429 Other worked grains of 87 112 120 other cereal 121220 Seaweeds and other algae 127 109 82 used for h 110421 Other worked grains of 145 50 121 barley, nes 90700 Cloves (whole fruit, cloves 119 124 71 and ste 91040 Thyme, bay leaves 78 118 113 130 106 99 61 86 0 14 130 152 93 115 83 92 142 73 32 81 72 63 50 76 83 88 145 123 81 87 198 39 61 78 71 96 87 59 87 127 118 37 88 94 74 92 107 53 99 117 194 67 108 63 104 88 90 86 63 102 101 51 138 84 88 74

Rank and % Share of Supplying Countries and CARICOM Avg First % Second % Third % CARICOM 99-01 121 USA 55.2 Unspecifie 2.0 Trinidad 1.0 1.0 d 121 Netherl'd 44.1 UK 35.2 USA 19.9 0.0 120 USA 120 USA 120 USA 114 USA 113 USA 112 Canada 111 USA 109 UK 107 USA 107 USA 106 USA 106 USA 105 Netherl'd 104 USA 103 USA 102 USA 100 USA 99 USA 94 USA 94 USA 94 Jamaica 93 USA 92 USA 92 USA 92 USA 91 USA 89 USA 88 USA 88 USA 87 USA 87 USA 83 Netherl'd 82 USA 78 USA 77 USA 74 USA 98.7 UK 73.0 Canada 80.2 Dominica 83.4 Cote d'Ivoire 72.3 Australia 51.7 USA 94.2 Canada 65.0 USA 74.3 Thailand 70.6 UK 88.4 Canada 46.6 Phillipines 45.0 USA 0.6 Unspecified 17.9 UK 18.3 Unspecified 4.0 Canada 16.2 Costa Rica 44.2 Venezuela 5.4 Unspecified 24.3 Germany 13.8 UK 15.8 Russia 6.9 Trinidad 13.4 St. Lucia 26.5 Canada 0.3 3.7 1.3 3.9 9.1 2.7 0.4 5.2 5.0 8.5 1.4 13.0 24.2 7.4 2.8 1.3 0.7 22.1 3.5 16.2 0.7 0.4 0.8 0.6 4.7 24.9 11.6 15.4 10.2 9.4 6.0 14.0 7.1 2.1 9.9 4.9 0.3 0.5 18.5 0.0 0.4 0.3 0.0 0.2 0.3 0.0 1.4 34.5 0.0 5.6 2.8 0.0 0.0 7.4 0.0 5.3 65.6 0.3 0.2 0.0 0.9 0.4 24.0 2.2 0.0 0.6 42.5 13.3 6.6 0.2 24.7 0.0

435 130120 Natural Gum Arabic 436 200560 Asparagus, preserved other than by 437 10420 Live goats 438 110419 Rolled or flaked grains of other ce 439 110430 Cereal germ, whole, rolled, flaked 440 230320 Beet pulp, bagasse and other waste 441 71332 Dried adzuki beans, shelled 442 20321 Frozen swine carcasses and half car 443 121490 Other forage products, nes 444 80250 Pistachio, fresh or dried 445 60110 Dormant bulbs, tubers... rhizomes 446 70910 Globe artichokes, fresh or chilled 447 151911 Indus.monocarboxylic fatty acids;ac 448 20423 Fresh or chilled boneless meat of s 449 200120 Onions, prepared or preserved by vi 450 70890 Leguminous vegetables, fresh or chi 451 81290 Fruit and nuts, provisionally prese 452 330112 Essential oils of orange (incl. con 453 80420 Figs, fresh or dried 454 190520 Gingerbread and the like 455 81120 Raspberries,

41.4 Madagasc 25.5 Indonesia ar 83.2 Unspecifie 3.4 Dominica d 71.8 Germany 25.0 UK 97.3 Unspecifie 1.5 Canada d 36.6 Canada 33.5 UK 89.2 UK 4.7 Canada 52.1 Canada 64.8 USA 79.1 Canada 96.8 UK 97.8 Canada 69.4 China 42.6 Netherl'd 59.9 Dominica 49.6 Malaysia 75.8 Australia 67.4 Netherl'd 49.5 Belize 28.6 USA 46.8 Brazil 91.8 Unspecifie d 61.6 Trinidad 78.7 Greece 23.5 Netherl'd 34.0 Trinidad 20.2 Unspecified 0.8 Canada 1.6 Unspecified 16.5 Netherl'd 26.8 Thailand 21.3 Canada 16.3 UK 12.2 N Z'land 12.9 Canada 42.5 Canada 25.5 Canada 34.2 Canada 2.9 UK 15.8 Canada 11.1 UK

Investing in Food and Nutrition Security - Identifying Potential Investment Opportunities in the Agriculture and Food Industries in CARICOM

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No.

HS Code

Product Description

Imports ($000) 2001 2000

1999

Avg 99-01

Rank and % Share of Supplying Countries and CARICOM First % Second % Third % CARICOM

blackberries...etc, fr 456 330113 Essential oils of lemon (incl. conc 457 110230 Rice flour 458 60410 Moses and lichens for ornamental pu 459 81400 Peel of citrus fruit or melons, fre 460 520291 Garnetted stock of cotton 461 40640 Blue-veined cheese 462 140410 Raw vegetable materials primarily f 463 140120 Rattans 464 152110 Vegetable waxes (excl. triglyceride 465 151530 Castor oil and its fractions 466 80231 Walnuts in shell, fresh or dried 467 81310 Dried apricots 468 150590 Fatty substances of crude wool grea 469 50800 Coral; shells of molluscs, crustace 470 520300 Cotton, carded or combed 471 121300 Cereal straw and husks 472 71230 Dried mushrooms and truffles 473 200850 Apricots, prepared or preserved (ex 474 120911 Sugar beet seed, of a kind used for 475 200891 Palm hearts, prepared or preserved 476 110620 Flour and meal of sago, roots or tu 477 70420 Brussels sprouts, fresh or chilled 478 151913 Indus.monocarbox.fatty acids;acid o 479 90950 Seeds of fennel; juniper berries 480 60240 Roses 481 10410 Live sheep 482 152190 Beeswax, other insect waxes and spe 483 90610 Cinnamon and cinnamontree flowers, 484 80222 Hazlenuts without shells, fresh or

49 70 67 51 30 50 76 72 69 59 53 48 64 60 49 109 44 50 7 67 61 49 68 44 38 44 69 48 48

71 65 79 83 73 73 71 43 87 55 62 59 84 63 52 49 70 49 9 72 76 57 28 61 60 36 45 44 47

90 73 62 73 102 82 55 86 43 79 78 85 41 62 81 19 59 74 154 32 34 53 61 52 58 75 40 59 55

70 USA 69 USA 69 USA 69 USA 69 USA 68 USA 67 Ireland 67 USA 66 USA 64 USA 64 USA 64 USA 63 USA 62 USA 61 USA 59 USA 58 USA 58 USA 57 Japan 57 USA 57 Brazil 53 USA 53 USA 52 USA 52 USA 52 USA 52 USA 50 USA 50 USA

49.5 Canada 70.8 Thailand 97.8 Unspecifie d 49.3 UK 99.8 Unspecifie d 52.2 France 58.2 Denmark

27.8 UK 15.1 Hong Kong 1.4 Antigua 22.9 Netherl'd 0.2 China 23.2 UK 35.7 USA

20.5 6.0 0.5 11.1 0.0 8.8 3.8 7.3 0.6 7.6 1.1 14.8 3.0 2.1 17.4 1.9 7.7 3.3 20.3 0.0 18.2 0.9 2.8 13.8 6.8 14.2 11.4 10.7 14.6

0.0 0.0 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.6 0.0 0.0 0.4 2.4 0.0 1.9 0.0 14.1 2.2 0.0 24.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 14.6 0.0 3.9 0.0

53.0 Hong Kong 29.1 Japan 98.3 Unspecifie 0.7 India d 47.5 UK 35.7 Netherl'd 96.8 Netherl'd 1.4 Unspecified 51.8 Canada 82.5 Netherl'd 23.5 UK 10.4 Italy

92.8 Unspecifie 2.4 Barbados d 48.8 China 19.4 UK 83.5 Venezuela 13.1 Guyana 57.6 China 15.6 Hong Kong 78.7 Haiti 41.4 Canada 97.6 Unspecifie d 29.6 Canada 96.6 Unspecifie d 82.6 Israel 19.5 India 81.2 UK 48.0 Canada 68.0 Germany 36.1 Indonesia 66.4 Canada 14.1 Unspecified 35.5 USA 2.4 Trinidad 20.3 St.Vincent 1.5 Belgium 14.1 UK 19.0 Netherl'd 7.4 Netherl'd 35.1 Barbados 11.6 UK 21.8 Netherl'd 15.4 Turkey

Investing in Food and Nutrition Security - Identifying Potential Investment Opportunities in the Agriculture and Food Industries in CARICOM

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Acronyms and Abbreviations
ACP CAFP CAREC CARDI CARICOM CARIFORUM CARIRI CARTF CET CFNI CNCDs CFRAMP CRU CTA ECLAC DRC EU FAO FAOSTAT GDP GMP GRDB HS IADPA IAST IDB IFPRI IICA LDCs MERCOSUR MDCs NAFTA NDDP OECS SITC SPM USAID UWI WTO African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States Caribbean Agriculture and Fisheries Programme Caribbean Epidemiology Center Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development Institute Caribbean Community and Common Market Caribbean Forum Caribbean Industrial Research Institute CARIFORUM Agribusiness Research and Training Fund Common External Tariff Caribbean Food and Nutrition Institute Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases CARICOM Management Fisheries Resource Assessment and Programme Cocoa Research Unit Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation ACP-EU Economic Commission for Latin American and the Caribbean of the United Nations Domestic Resource Cost (coefficient) European Union Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations FAO Statistics Gross Domestic Product Good Manufacturing Practices Guyana Rice Development Board Harmonised System Inter-American Division Publishing Association Institute of Applied Science and Technology Inter-American Development Bank International Food Policy Research Institute Inter-American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture Least Developed Countries Mercado Común del Sur ( In English is Southern Common Market) Most Developed Countries North America Free Trade Area National Dairy Development Company Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States Standard International Trade Classification System Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures United States Agency for International Development University of the West Indies World Trade Organization

Investing in Food and Nutrition Security - Identifying Potential Investment Opportunities in the Agriculture and Food Industries in CARICOM

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References
Bass and Dalal-Clayton “Small Island States and Sustainable Development: Strategic Issues and Experience, International Institute for Environment & Development, Sept. 1995. Brathwaite, Chelston, W.D (2008), commenting on topic Agriculture in Development Agendas as part of an Agricultural Round Table (ART) held during the 8th Caribbean Week of Agriculture, 6-8October, 2008, sponsored by IICA and the CTA. CARICOM Secretariat, 2005: Caribbean Trade and Investment Report 2005: Corporate Integration and CrossBorder Development CARICOM Secretariat, 2007(a): The Escalating cost of living and Poverty in the Caribbean- Technical Report. CARICOM Secretariat, 2007(b): “Strategic Approach to Realizing the Agriculture Contribution to CARICOM Development”- CARICOM Agriculture Donor Conference, 2007 CFNI, Cajanus, Vol. 39. No.1, 2006, http://www.paho.org/English/CFNI/cfni-caj39No106-editorial.pdf CFNI (2002), 'Towards the Nassau Declaration -Nutrition in Mental Health, Non-Communicable Diseases and HIV/AIDS -The Evidence and the Challenge" Paper prepared by The Caribbean Food & Nutrition Institute For Caucus of Ministers of Health, September 2002 CRFM, 2002: Strategic Plan for Caribbean Regional Fisheries Mechanism: CARICOM Fisheries Unit, 2002. CRNM, 2006: An Assessment of the Agri-Food Distribution Services Industry in CARICOM. ECLAC, 2007: Caribbean tourism and Agriculture: Linking to Enhance Development and Competitiveness. FAO, 2005(a): Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO)- Nutrition Country Profiles. FAO, 2005(b): Small Island Developing States Agricultural Production and Trade, Preferences and Policy FAO, 2007 (Trade and Markets Division): Agricultural Trade Policy and Food Security in the Caribbean- Structural issues, multilateral negotiations and competitiveness. FAO/ Bynoe, 2007: First Draft Regional Food Security Strategy Paper. FAO/CFNI, 2007: Overview- Vulnerability and Food and Nutrition Security in the Caribbean. FAO/WHO 2003, “Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases” Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Panel Consultation. WHO Technical Report Series 916, Geneva. FAO, 2001: Small-Scale Processing of Starchy Staples in CARICOM Countries- by Dr. Wickham FAO 1998: Assessment of the impact and implications for policy of trade liberalization on the agricultural sector of CARICOM countries. Rome. FAO, 1994: Body Mass Index – A measure of Chronic Energy Deficiency in Adults, P. S. Shelty and W.P.T. James, Rowett Research Institute, FAO Nutrition Paper No. 56, Rome. FIAS 2004: Grenada: A Diagnostics Review of the Investment Climate -Foreign Investment Advisory Service (FIAS) Ford, D, 2003: Towards a New Food Policy Strategy for the Caribbean: Food Security, Health and SurveillanceTechnical Paper. Hendrickson. Mary, (2001) Discovering the Food System: A Primer on Community Food Systems: Linking Food, Nutrition and Agriculture, University of Missouri, October 2001 http://foodsys.cce.cornell.edu/primer.html, Fitzroy J. Henry, (2004) 'New Strategies Needed to Fight Obesity in the Caribbean' Cajanus, Vol. 37, No.1, 2004. IADPA 2002: Inter-American Division Publishing Association Encyclopedia of Foods and their Healing Power, Volumes 1 & 2. IICA, 2001: Study to Inform Changes in the CET for Agricultural products in CARICOM, Final Report, January 2001. Jacque, A 2006: Preliminary Study to Identify Potential Investment Opportunities for the CARICOM Domestic Agriculture and Food industry, IICA Working paper (unpublished). Lambert, I, 2001: Problems and Constraints to the Development of the Agro-Processing Sector. Stewart & Forgenie, 2006: The Concerns of Shippers and Other Issues That Impact on the Transportation of Agricultural and Other Products within the Caribbean Community and Beyond. UN ECLAC, 1999: The Caribbean in the Decade of the 1990s – Summary. USAID, (2006): Latin America and the Caribbean - Selected Economic and Social Data. UWI, 2006(a): The Small Ruminant Meat Industry in CARICOM: Competitiveness & Industry Development Strategies, December 2006. UWI, 2006(b): The Coconuts Industry in CARICOM: Global Market Intelligence Report, December 2006. Waugh & Nelson, 2003: Improving Environmental Performance in the Coffee Industry of Jamaica. xviii

In September 2007, CARICOM Heads of Governments signed the Port of Spain Declaration Uniting to Stop the Epidemic of Chronic Non Communicable Diseases (CNCDs). Among the policy solutions included need for closer regulation of foods, especially of the steadily increasing importation of foods with high fat content, licensing laws to ensure that consumers know the content of the foods they eat and for agricultural policies that ensure that food security is pursued in the context of incentives or subsidies for local production of the fruits, vegetables and whole grains required for a healthy diet. The issue of a ‘healthy diet’ is at the core of food and nutrition security, which in turn, relates to a country’s or region’s food system. The term "food system" is a phrase used to tie elements of food production (agriculture), food distribution (trade) nutrition, health and rural/community development, i.e., all processes involved in keeping people fed. In CARICOM, consumption of fats and oils and sugars and sweeteners are more than twice of what is recommended for food needs. These “food needs” are guided by the (CFNI) Caribbean Food and Nutrition Institute’s ‘Caribbean Food Groups-A Guide to Meal Planning for Healthy Eating’ guidelines, which specify five food groups, in relative proportions, are important to a healthy daily diet. Staples (e.g., root crops) and legumes/nuts should comprise 67% of one’s daily nutritional intake. This paper departs from the usual approach to discussing issues that should be considered in a determination of food security-led agricultural development, including the methods by which potential investment opportunities in the agriculture and food industry in CARICOM are determined. The discussion takes the perspective of developing agriculture to satisfy the recommended nutritional guidelines, based entirely on CFNI’s six food groups, and not from the usual need to satisfy the export market. An important conclusion is that the combined resources of CARICOM –physical, human and financial are capable of providing for a much greater level of food and nutrition security than currently obtains, once investments are made in enhancing both the physical supplies and distribution within and among countries of the region.

ISBN13: 978-92-9248-053-0. 2009

Investing in Food and Nutrition Security - Identifying Potential Investment Opportunities in the Agriculture and Food Industries in CARICOM

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