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# Chapter 3: Transfer Functions

## Definition of the transfer function:

Let G(s) denote the transfer function between an input, x, and an
output, y. Then, by definition

x (t )
X (s)

system

y (t )
Y (s)

G (s)

Y (s)
X (s)

where:
Y s L "# y t \$%
X s L "# x t \$%

()
()

()
()

input

output

forcing function

response

cause

effect

## Recall the previous dynamic model, assuming constant liquid

holdup and flow rates:

V C

dT
= wC (Ti T ) + Q
dt

(1)

## Suppose the process is initially at steady state:

T ( 0 ) = T , Ti ( 0 ) = Ti , Q ( 0 ) = Q

(2)

conditions:

0 = wC (Ti T ) + Q

(3)

## Subtract (3) from (1):

Figure 2.3 Stirred-tank heating process with constant holdup, V.

V C

dT
= wC "%(Ti Ti ) (T T )#& + (Q Q )
dt

(4)

But,

Evaluate T ! ( t = 0 ).

dT d (T T )
=
because T is a constant
dt
dt

(5)

## By definition, T ! ! T T . Thus at time, t = 0,

T ! (0) = T (0) T

## Thus we can substitute into (4-2) to get,

V C

dT "
= wC (Ti" T " ) + Q"
dt

(6)

## where we have introduced the following deviation variables,

also called perturbation variables:
T ! ! T T , Ti! ! Ti Ti , Q! ! Q Q

(7)

(9)

But since our assumed initial condition was that the process
was initially at steady state, i.e., T ( 0 ) = T it follows from (9)
that T ! ( 0 ) = 0.
Note: The advantage of using deviation variables is that the
initial condition term becomes zero. This simplifies the later
analysis.
Rearrange (8) to solve for T ! ( s ) :

Take L of (6):

" K # \$
" 1 # \$
T \$(s ) = %
&Q (s) + %
& Ti ( s )
' s +1 (
' s +1 (

K!

1
V
and !
wC
w

(11)

## Suppose that Q is constant at its steady-state value:

Q ( t ) = Q Q! ( t ) = 0 Q! ( s ) = 0

## Transfer Function Between Q! and T !

Thus, rearranging

## Ti ( t ) = Ti Ti!(t ) = 0 Ti!( s ) = 0. Then we can substitute into

(10) and rearrange to get the desired TF:
T "(s )
K
=
Q" ( s ) s + 1

(10)

(12)

T "(s )
1
=
"
Ti ( s ) s + 1

(13)

1.The TFs in (12) and (13) show the individual effects of Q and
on T. What about simultaneous changes in both Q and Ti ?

Answer: See (10). The same TFs are valid for simultaneous
changes.
Note that (10) shows that the effects of changes in both Q
and Ti are additive. This always occurs for linear, dynamic
models (like TFs) because the Principle of Superposition is
valid.

## 2. The TF model enables us to determine the output response to

any change in an input.
3. Use deviation variables to eliminate initial conditions for TF
models.

K = 0.05 = 2.0

Chapter 4

0.05
T! =
Q!
2s + 1

No change in Ti

## Step change in Q(t): 1500 cal/sec

500
Q! =
s
0.05 500
25
T! =
=
2s + 1 s
s(2s + 1)
What is T(t)?

T #(t ) = 25[1 et / ] %
% T ( s) =

T "(t ) = 25[1 et / 2 ]

25
s( s + 1)

## Properties of Transfer Function Models

The steady-state of a TF can be used to calculate the steadystate change in an output due to a steady-state change in the
input. For example, suppose we know two steady states for an
input, u, and an output, y. Then we can calculate the steadystate gain, K, from:

K=

y2 y1
u2 u1

## For a linear system, K is a constant. But for a nonlinear

system, K will depend on the operating condition ( u , y ).

## Calculation of K from the TF Model:

If a TF model has a steady-state gain, then:

K = lim G ( s )
2000 cal/sec

(4-38)

s 0

(14)

## This important result is a consequence of the Final Value

Theorem
Note: Some TF models do not have a steady-state gain (e.g.,
integrating process in Ch. 5)

Definition:

2. Order of a TF Model
Consider a general n-th order, linear ODE:
n

an

d y
dt

+ an1
bm1

dy
dt

n 1

n 1

m 1

dt

m 1

+ K a1

dy
d u
+ a0 y = bm m +
dt
dt

+ K + b1

du
+ b0u
dt

(4-39)

gives the TF:
m

G (s) =

Y (s)
U (s)

bi s
=

## The order of the TF is defined to be the order of the denominator

polynomial.
Note: The order of the TF is equal to the order of the ODE.

Physical Realizability:
For any physical system, n m in (4-38). Otherwise, the system
response to a step input will be an impulse. This cant happen.
Example:

i =0
n

ai s

a0 y = b1

(4-40)
i

du
+ b0u and step change in u
dt

(4-41)

i =0

4. Multiplicative Property

Suppose that an output is influenced by two inputs and that
the transfer functions are known:
Y (s)
Y (s)
= G1 ( s ) and
= G2 ( s )
U1 ( s )
U2 (s)
Then the response to changes in both U1 and U 2can be written
as:

Y ( s ) = G1 ( s )U1 ( s ) + G2 ( s )U 2 ( s )
The graphical representation (or block diagram) is:
U1(s)

G2(s)

Y (s)
U2 (s)

= G2 ( s ) and

U2 (s)
U3 ( s )

= G3 ( s )

Then,
Y ( s ) = G2 ( s )U 2 ( s ) and U 2 ( s ) = G3 ( s )U 3 ( s )
Substitute,

Y ( s ) = G2 ( s ) G3 ( s )U 3 ( s )
Or,

Y (s)

G1(s)
Y(s)

U2(s)

Suppose that,

U3 ( s )

= G2 ( s ) G3 ( s )

U3 ( s )

G2 ( s )

G3 ( s )

Y (s )

Example 1:

## Place sensor for temperature downstream from heated

tank (transport lag)
Distance L for plug flow,

L
V

V = fluid velocity
Tank:

K
T(s)
G1 =
= 1
U(s) 1+ 1s

T (s) K e-s
Sensor: G 2 = s = 2
T(s) 1 + 2s

K 2 1,

2 is very small
(neglect)

## So far, we have emphasized linear models which can be

transformed into TF models.
But most physical processes and physical models are nonlinear.
- But over a small range of operating conditions, the behavior
may be approximately linear.
- Conclude: Linear approximations can be useful, especially
for purpose of analysis.
Approximate linear models can be obtained analytically by a
method called linearization. It is based on a Taylor Series
Expansion of a nonlinear function about a specified operating
point.

Ts Ts T
K1 K 2 e s K1K 2 e s
= = G2 G1 =

U T U
1+ 1s 1+ 2 s
1+ 1s

## Consider a nonlinear, dynamic model relating two process

variables, u and y:

dy
= f ( y, u )
dt

(4-60)

## Perform a Taylor Series Expansion about u = u and y = y and

truncate after the first order terms,

f
f (u, y ) = f (u , y ) +
u

f
u" +
y
y

y"

## where u! = u u and y! = y y . Note that the partial derivative

terms are actually constants because they have been evaluated at
the nominal operating point, ( u , y ).

dy
f
= f (u , y ) +
dt
u

f
u" +
y
y

0 = f (u , y )

dy dy!
=
,
dt dt

dy! f
=
dt u

u! +
y

f
y

y!

(4-62)

Linearized
model

(4-61)

## Example: Liquid Storage System

Mass balance:
Valve relation:

dh
= qi q (1)
dt
q = Cv h
(2)
A

A = area, Cv = constant

y"
y

A
Linearize

## Substitute linearized expression (5) into (3):

dh
= qi Cv h
dt

(3)

term,

dh
1 "
!
= qi Cv % h + h# &
dt
R
'
(

(6)

## The steady-state version of (3) is:

h h+

1
2 h

(h h )

0 = qi Cv h

(4)

Subtract (7) from (6) and let qi! ! qi qi , noting that dh = dh!
dt dt
gives the linearized model:

Or

h h+

1
h!
R

(5)

where:

dh!
1
= qi! h!
dt
R

R!2 h
h! ! h h

## Example 4.4: Two Liquid Tank in Series

Summary:
In order to linearize a nonlinear, dynamic model:

Tank 1:
A1

Chapter 4

## 1. Perform a Taylor Series Expansion of each nonlinear term

and truncate after the first-order terms.
2. Subtract the steady-state version of the equation.

(7)

dh1
= qi q1
dt

q1 =

1
h1
R

A1

dh1
1
= qi h1
dt
R

A1

dh '1
1
= q'i h '1
dt
R

H1' ( s )
R1
K1
=
=
Qi' ( s ) A1R1s + 1 1s + 1

q1' =

1 '
h1
R

Q1' ( s ) 1
1
=
=
H1' ( s ) R1 K1

(8)

The same procedure leads to the model for tank 2 and valve 2 as below:
H 2' ( s)
R2
K2
=
=
Q1' ( s) A2 R2 s + 1 2 s + 1

Chapter 4

Q2' ( s ) 1
1
=
=
H 2' ( s ) R2 K 2
Q2' ( s ) Q2' ( s ) H 2' ( s ) Q1' ( s) H1' ( s)
=
Qi' ( s ) H 2' ( s ) Q1' ( s ) H1' ( s ) Qi' ( s )

Q2' ( s )
1 K 2 1 K1
1
=
=
Qi' ( s ) K 2 2 s + 1 K1 1s + 1 ( 1s + 1)( 2 s + 1)

Example(4.7((Nonlinear(Problem(
A horizontal cylindrical tank shown below is used to suppress the
surges in inlet flow. Develop a mathematical model for the process.

dh f
f
f
= f+
(h h) +
( qi qi ) + ( q q)
dt
h
qi
q

f
=
qi

f
=
q
Assume constant density, volumetric balance results in:

dV
= qi q
dt
dV
dh
= Wt L
dt
dt
dh
Wt L
= qi q
dt
Wt = 2 R2 ( R h)2 = 2 R2 ( R2 + h2 2Rh) = 2 2Rh h2 = 2 ( D h)h
dh
1
=
(q q )
dt L 2 ( D h)h i

L 2 ( D h) h

Qi(s)

G1(s)

1
_

H(s)

L 2 ( D h) h
1

(
&

Q(s)

%
#

&
L 2 ( D h )h #\$
f
= '
h
h

G2(s)

( qi q ) = 0

dh '
=
dt

h=h

1
_

SH ' ( s) =

'
i

(q q ' )

L 2 ( D h) h

'

G1 =

1
_

L 2 ( D h) h

1
s

L 2 ( D h) h

G2 =

1
_

L 2 ( D h) h

1
s

## [Qi' ( s) Q ' ( s)]

where:

State-Space Models

x =

## the state vector

u =
Dynamic models derived from physical principles typically
consist of one or more ordinary differential equations (ODEs).
In this section, we consider a general class of ODE models
referred to as state-space models.

## the control vector of manipulated variables (also called

control variables)

d =

y =

## the output vector of measured variables. (We use

boldface symbols to denote vector and matrices, and
plain text to represent scalars.)

## The elements of x are referred to as state variables.

x! = Ax + Bu + Ed

(4-90)

## The elements of y are typically a subset of x, namely, the state

variables that are measured. In general, x, u, d, and y are
functions of time.

y = Cx

(4-91)

## Matrices A, B, C, and E are constant matrices.

Example 4.9
Show that the linearized CSTR model of Example 4.8 can
be written in the state-space form of Eqs. 4-90 and 4-91.
Derive state-space models for two cases:
(a) Both cA and T are measured.
(b) Only T is measured.
Solution
The linearized CSTR model in Eqs. 4-84 and 4-85 can be written
in vector-matrix form:

\$ dt % \$ 11
\$
%=\$
\$ dT ! % \$ a
&\$ dt '% & 21

## a12 # "c!A # " 0 #

% \$ % + \$ %T !
%\$ % \$ % s
a22 '% &\$ T ! '% &\$b2 '%

(4-92)

Let x1 ! c!A and x2 ! T,! and denote their time derivatives by x!1
and x!2 . Suppose that the steam temperature Ts can be
manipulated. For this situation, there is a scalar control variable,
u ! Ts! , and no modeled disturbance. Substituting these
definitions into (4-92) gives,
! x \$ ! a
\$
a \$! x \$ !
# 1 & = # 11 12 &# 1 & + # 0 & u
b2 &%
# x & # a
&#
&
" 2 % " 21 a22 %" x2 % #"

B
A

(4-93)

which is in the form of Eq. 4-90 with x = col [x1, x2]. (The symbol
col denotes a column vector.)

## a) If both T and cA are measured, then y = x, and C = I in

Eq. 4-91, where I denotes the 2x2 identity matrix. A and B are
defined in (4-93).
b) When only T is measured, output vector y is a scalar,
y = T ! and C is a row vector, C = [0,1].
Note that the state-space model for Example 4.9 has d = 0
because disturbance variables were not included in (4-92). By
contrast, suppose that the feed composition and feed temperature
are considered to be disturbance variables in the original
nonlinear CSTR model in Eqs. 2-60 and 2-64. Then the linearized
model would include two additional deviation variables, c!Ai
and Ti!.