A REPORT ON POTENTIALITIES AND OPPORTUNITIES OF CITRUS IN RAMECHHAP AND SINDHULI DISTRICTS OF NEPAL

Ghimire, N.P. (Team Leader) Adhikari, H.; Jaishi, M.; Acharaya, B.B.; and Adhikari K.P.

December 2006 1

ACKNOWLEDGENENT Several persons helped us to complete this study. Of course, they deserve credit, while we are solely responsible for loopholes and lacunae. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to all the respondent farmers who shared their indigenous knowledge, actively participated in the discussion, and generously provided the information. We would like to express our heartfelt gratitude to MEDEP for availing opportunities of this study. Mr. Megh Raj Acharya, Chhatra Bir Shreshtha, Moti Bahadur Giri, Yubak Raj Ghimire, and all support staffs of MEDEP Ramechhap and Sindhuli are gratefully acknowledged. Sincere appreciation and gratitude are extended to Mr. Jahan Bahadur Karki, JT of ASC Ramechhap. We have received support from Mr. Sanjay Sharma for assisting computer works and would like to take this opportunity to extend our sincere gratitude to him. Last but not least, we feel indebted to DADO support staffs of Ramechhap and Sindhuli, members of Junar Bikash Shangh of both of the districts for their help as a surveyor and enumerator during the study. Study team

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Table of contents Particulars Acknowledgement Table of contents List of table List of abbreviation and conversation of Nepalese word Executive summary 1 Introduction 1.1 Background 1.2 Rationale of study 1.3 Objective of study 1.4 Limitation of study 2 Methodology of study 2.1 Selection of study site 2.2 Sample size and sampling procedure 2.3 Study design and structure 2.4 Data collection techniques 2.5 Data analysis 2.6 Conceptual frame work of study 3 Result and discussion 3.1 Socioeconomic characteristics of population 3.2 General orchard husbandry system 3.3 Production status 3.4 Post harvest, marketing and processing of citrus 3.5 Problems, constraints and recommendations 4 Appendices 4.1 Questionnaire 4.2 Checklist for Focus Group Discussion 54 59 11 20 27 34 46 Page i iii iv v vi 1 1 3 4 4 5 5 5 7 8 9 10

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List of tables S. N. 1.1 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 3.1.1 3.1.2 3.1.3 3.1.4 3.1.5 3.1.6 3.1.7 3.1.8 3.1.9 3.1.10 3.1.11 3.2.1 3.2.2 3.2.3 3.2.4 3.2.5 3.2.6 3.2.7 3.2.8 3.3.1 3.3. 2 3.3.3 3.3.4 3.3.5 3.3.6 3.3.7 3.4.1 3.4.2 3.4.3 3.4.4 3.4.5 3.4.6 3.4.7 3.4.8 3.4.9 3.4.10 3.4.11 3.4.12 3.5.1 3.5.2 3.5.3 3.5.4 Particulars Statistics of citrus area, production and yield of Nepal Strata population and size of sample from Ramechhap district Strata, population and size of sample from Sindhuli district Study synopses for study of potentialities of citrus Checklist for focal group discussion held in Ramechhap and Sindhuli districts Age of respondents in Ramechhap and Sindhuli districts Average family size and available labor in Ramechhap and Sindhuli districts Major occupation of household head in Ramechhap and Sindhuli districts Factors of motivation for citrus cultivation in Ramechhap and Sindhuli districts Objectives of citrus cultivation in Ramechhap and Sindhuli districts Gender perspective of citrus cultivation and control on household income Food balance sheet of Ramechhap and Sindhuli district Labor management for farm operation in Ramechhap and Sindhuli district Major land and soil types, cropping pattern found in study district Major fruit species found in Ramechhap district Major fruit species found in Ramechhap district Sapling types used by farmers in Ramechhap and Sindhuli district Adoption of layout technique by farmers in Ramechhap and Sindhuli district Adoption of pit digging practice in Ramechhap and Sindhuli district Adoption level of disease, pest management in Ramechhap and Sindhuli districts Adoption of training, pruning techniques in Ramechhap and Sindhuli district Adoption of fertilizer management practices in Ramechhap and Sindhuli districts Adoption of mulching practices in Ramechhap and Sindhuli districts Adoption of irrigation practices in Ramechhap and Sindhuli districts Area and number of citrus trees planted in Ramechhap district. Area and number of citrus trees planted in Sindhuli district. Number of bearing and non-bearing citrus trees in Sindhuli district Number of bearing and non-bearing citrus trees in Ramechhap district Production of citrus fruits in Sindhuli district Production of citrus fruits in Ramechhap district Trend of yield of Junar, Mandarin and Limes in Ramechhap and Sindhuli districts Adoption of safe harvesting techniques in Ramechhap and Sindhuli districts Time of selling of citrus in Ramechhap and Sindhuli districts Adoption of storage technology by farmers in Ramechhap and Sindhuli districts Farmers selling price of mandarin and Junar in Ramechhap and Sindhuli districts Price formation at different level in Ramechhap and Sindhuli districts Utilization of fruit for different purposes in Ramechhap and Sindhuli districts Processing status of Juice of Junar in Ramechhap and Sindhuli districts Marketing channel observed in citrus fruits in Ramechhap and Sindhuli districts Major outlets and collection centers for citrus in Ramechhap and Sindhuli districts Use of packaging materials for transportation and storage of citrus Involvement of agents in citrus marketing in Ramechhap and Sindhuli districts Market supply situation of citrus in Ramechhap and Sindhuli districts Problems ranking of citrus grower of Ramechhap district Problems ranking of citrus grower of Sindhuli district Gap identified and recommendations for citrus production Gaps identified and recommendations for marketing of citrus Page 3 6 6 7 9 11 11 12 13 13 14 14 15 16 18 19 20 21 21 22 23 23 25 26 26 27 29 30 31 32 33 34 34 35 35 36 37 37 40 40 41 42 42 46 46 48 51

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List of abbreviations and conversion of Nepalese word Words % < > AEC AGDP APP APPSP APSD ASC Bancharo Bari CBS Chimtailo soil DADO DFID DHQ Dhungen soil FGD FNCCI Gagryan GDP GEED Geruwa soil hac Hansiya Haat HH HVC JADP Kalo soil Khairo soil Khet Khukuri MEDEP MIS msl. Mt. NCDP OVOP Phusro soil SPSS UNDP VDC WDR Meaning Percent Less than Greater than Agriculture Enterprise Centre Agriculture Gross Domestic Product Agriculture Perspective Plan Agriculture Perspective Plan Support Program Agri -Business Promotion and Statistical Division Agriculture Service Centre Axe, a tool of cutting branches of tree Cultivated up-land without irrigation facility commonly used for cultivation other than rice Central Bureau of statistics Clay soil District Agriculture Development Office Department for International Development District head quarter Stony soil Focus Group Discussion Federation of Nepal Chambers of Commerce and Industry A type of soil with small stone mixed with soil and sand Gross Domestic Product Gender Equity and Environment Division A type of soil with yellow and gray color Hectare (10000 square meter or 20 Ropani or 30 Kattha) A tool of Nepalese identity used for cutting purposes of grasses and shrubs Periodical market place Household High Value Crops Janakpur Anchal Agriculture Development Project Black soil Brown soil Cultivated land with irrigation facility commonly used for rice cultivation A tool of Nepalese identity used for cutting purposes Micro Enterprise Development Program Marketing Information System Meter above sea level Metric ton National Citrus Development Program One village one product Fade soil Statistical Package for Social Science United Nations Development Program Village Development Committee Western Development Region

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Ghimire, N.P.; Adhikari, H; jaishi, M.; B.B. Acharya; and Adhikari K.P. A household survey was conducted in 17 and 13 VDCs of Ramechhap and Sindhuli districts respectively from 18 August to 15 December 2006, with the objective of analyzing potentialities and opportunities of citrus with regard to micro enterprise development. The study was synopsized into 85 variables covering five specific objectives related to study. Information collected on socioeconomic characteristics of citrus growers, farmers' perception of fruit crop management, production status, marketing as well as processing system prevalent in Junar orchards and understanding of the problem and constraints through questionnaire survey. Six Focus group discussion meeting and two observation trips also made on orchards at different locations of both of districts to verify the information collected through questionnaire. Bari land was the most predominant land type having 2-5 times higher than khet land. This indicates that there is ample opportunities for extension of citrus farming in both of districts The average family size was 6-7 with few cases of out-migration. However, economically active population of household was level just one-third to average family size. The land typed, and farming systems of the areas studied are very much similar to other parts of mid hills, including the bench terraces both in Bari and khet lands. Rice, maize and millet supplemented with grain legumes, milk and milk products and seasonal vegetables were the common diets of the visited area. Labor supply was generally scarce, due to increasing cropping intensity and fruit plantations. Junar growers in the Ramechhap district were not self sufficient in food production, which was probably due to the fact that bari land is converted into citrus orchards and farm resources such as labor are mobilized to citrus orchards that resulted into low productivity because of low parcel of land . Agriculture technicians being major source of motivation for citrus farming however leader farmers and self motivation also ranked substantial effects on its dissemination. Trade and home consumption was major objectives of citrus farming but it doesn't mean citrus growers were not aware of citrus farming as a business. Gender perspectives on citrus cultivation shows almost all activities of cultivation are gender neutral. The reason behind may be citrus farming being a labor intensive enterprise and due to its perennial nature non of the activities can be demarketed as gender sensitive.

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Farm Yard Manure (FYM) is the major source of plant nutrients in the areas studied as reported from other parts of the country. Like in other parts of the hills, majority of FYM is applied to Bari land, preferably on maize, millet, potato vegetables and oil seed to ensure food supply in subsistence farming. Orchard soil fertility is the key issue of Junar production. Organic form of soil fertility management practices were found to be most common, by far the application of FYM was wide spread practice for manuring the trees. In spite of substantial income from Junar, use of chemical fertilizers in the orchard was negligible. Though a wide range of fruit crops were found in the areas studied, however, the Junar and mandarin is ranked first in both of district and found economically very important fruit. It is grown under rain-fed condition on the Bari land mostly by mobilizing the local resource and using indigenous skill and knowledge. Area and production of Junar is increasing tremendously as a result there is an increasing trend of converting agricultural land under citrus/Junar orchard due to high market demand. Most of the citrus crops are well adapted to the mid hill region, which are relatively more accessible compared to that of temperate fruit production zone. Socioeconomic aspects of citrus grower, agriculture like cereal farming, livestock, forest, marketing system as well as purchasing capacity were found interacting with Junar production in the region as Junar has to compete with field crops for manure and other sources of plant nutrients, labor and irrigation water. Therefore, issues such as sustainability, risk-bearing capacity of the farmers, which place higher priority on cereals production for food security, play major role in the orchard performance. Majority of farmers used grafted saplings in plantation in both of district from private nursery as a major source of supply. This revealed that both of study district were of sufficient in internal supply of saplings. But it does not mean that private nursery men were of well acquainted and no external support is required in regard to production of healthy, proper size, aged and true to type saplings. None of the agriculture technologies were found adopting completely by the citrus growers. This information support for the cause of declining of citrus in the study area and it alarms for coming years that may cause adverse effect on productivity and declining of citrus. Agriculture being major occupation in both of districts Junar is the major source of income and temporary employment and income generating opportunities among the farmers adopting it. Labor shortage is common for citrus farming with varied wage rates for male and female, although some of the operations done by male and female farmers are almost same. Thus, Junar vii

orchards have a number of good points, as they have created temporary employment, are gender neutral, low input intensive and even grown in a small scale providing income-generating opportunity to small farmers. Environmentally, it has increased green and helps in soil conservation. Junar was the most important fruit species with significant economic value. No consistent manuring practice on Junar orchards was reported. In general, bearing trees are better cared than younger seedlings. Use of chemical fertilizers and green manuring exclusively on Junar was less common, Junar orchards are intercropped with field crops during early stage of orchard establishment and with ginger and turmeric after the fruit trees attain full canopy. Junar was grown as a rain fed crop due to lack of irrigation, though farmers are aware that flowering and fruit setting are most critical stages for moisture stress. Junar yield was increasing and was expected to increase further in the future as over 45-59 % of plantations of Junar were reported to be in non-bearing stage. Increasing trend of production seems due to newly planted orchard coming into bearing but productivity of orchard decreasing in both of district. Non-adoption of technologies and decreasing productivity when relate the facts will be very serious issue and campaign based awareness is seems to very very urgent. Farmers getting up to Rs one lack per year from citrus orchard however, average household income seems to around ten thousands per year. This amount of income seems to very low from commercial perspectives however this amount of income can be increased up to three folds if marketing and storage facilities could be strengthened. The storage facilities in both of the district seems to very negligible (0 .01 %) as compared to total production of citrus. However, 2-3 % farmers adopting the complete storage techniques as per their storage facilities. Harvesting and storage of Junar predominated by traditional methods by sacking of branches and trees and heaping on the room that eventually affect keeping quality and post harvest life of fruits. Variation of average farm gate price of citrus to consumer price is very high up to Rs three for one piece of citrus fruit and these happening because of speculation marketing system predominated by seasonal fluctuation and no formal guidelines and regulation controlling all sorts of these system. Early harvesting of fruits before ripening also observed in both of the study district. Because of high demand of fruits farmers getting high price during Dashain, Tihar and Chhath Parba. Unlike in temperate fruits such as apple, Junar does not seem to have market problem as it stands bow, as intermediaries from different towns are involved in the business. Marketing was not perceived as a constraint but authorized and regularization marketing norms to be established, otherwise it might get complex as the production of Junar increases. viii

Very small proportions of citrus fruits are used for processing purposes. At present only 10000-12000 lit of juice pulp were processed. This amount is very very lower as compared to production of Junar. Most of the junar are sold on contractual system by counting of trees or fruits. Milti Khola and DHQ for Ramechhap and Kamalamai and DHQ for Sindhuli district are two major outlets for Junar. No collection centre and organized marketing system prevailed in the district. Farmers, intermediaries and retailers are source of marketing information and no formal and authorized MIS prevailed in the district. Cartoon package system found very negligible in Sindhuli district only but without any specified brand name. Specified packaging materials with brand name will ease and promote the product in other parts of Nepal. The farmers in the study area reported various constraints to the production of Junar. Prominent among them were, lack of technical know-how, severity of insect/pest and diseases, lack of transport facility and lack of marketing facility and network. Lack of irrigation facility did not receive the first rank among different constraints. This was because of Junar as a perennial crop most of its production period falls under rainy or just after rainy season. Mass awareness to create motivation to commercial scale of production, campaign based technological dissemination, networking with research, promotion of expertise on citriculture promotion and regularization of financial and input supply situation are major area of suggestion to overcome the bottlenecks of citrus farming. Further more dissemination of market information, expansion of storage facilities, promotion of packaging materials, upgrading the transportation facilities, minimization of exploitation of intermediaries are some of the areas that should not be isolated from the production. The new citrus area being developed in the districts have clearly shows that there is an opportunity to differentiate product in the market place by branding the product and developing and delivering a perceived superior product to the consumer and not be in a traditional way. Overall the citrus development strategy should take a holistic view of citrus industry and believes that there is an excellent market potential for fresh fruit and processed product market within the country.

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1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background Citrus is one of the world's leading fruit crops adaptable to varied range of location and cultural management. The diverse agro ecological variations determined by varied topography in mid hill region of Nepal right from Mechi to Mahakali ranging from 600 to 1400 msl favorable for cultivation. Citrus, a major fruit crop of Nepal recognized as high value crops (HVC) under Agriculture Perspective Plan (APP). There are altogether 15 species of citrus reported in 58 district of Nepal. Although citrus is major cash generating fruit enterprise in the mid hills of Nepal (Joshi et al; 1995), production scale is still subsistence in nature (Subedi et al; 2000). It is known fact that most of the citrus orchard in the country are of seedling origin and susceptible to the disease mainly that of root rot (Ranjeet and G.C.1997). Rajput and Haribabu (1985) reported that establishing origin of citrus fruit has been a matter of controversy. However, most of the taxonomists have a general agreement that Himalay region and south China are the places of origin for most of the citrus fruits. Therefore, the suggested origin of citrus is South East Asia including South China Northeastern India and Burma. The precise centre of the origin has been considered the mountainous parts of Southern China and Northeastern India including Southern Nepal where sheltered valleys and southern slopes are protected from cold and dry wind and are exposed to summer monsoon. Many citrus species have their origin in India. It has been considered` that not less than 78 species of family Rutaceae as native of India. In India citron found under wild, condition particularly in Nilgiri, Assam and lower Himalayas. Agricultural sector has been considered the most important sector in Nepalese economy. It contributes about 38 present of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and employs about 65.6 present of the economically active population (CBS, 2002). Moreover, crops account for about 60 percent, livestock 30 percent, and forestry 10 percent of the total agricultural gross domestic product (AGDP). Horticulture contributes 14 percent to the total agricultural GDP (APSD/GEED, 2005). The share of horticulture to the AGDP is increasing in the recent years. Agricultural diversification and commercialization have drawn attention of the planners and policy makers in terms of generating more income, employment opportunities and biodiversity conservation. The cultivation of high value low volume fruits and vegetables and optimum utilization of the available resources for production, processing, and marketing operations has been conceived for the sustainable development of nation.

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Government of Nepal (GoN) has implemented a 20- years Agriculture Perspective Plan (APP) since 1995 with a view to develop overall economy and alleviate poverty. This plan has identified priority inputs and outputs for investment in order to commercialize agricultural sector. Among other, high value horticultural commodities and agriculture business are priority outputs in APP. Agricultural marketing has been considered as an integral component. It is also proposed to establish strong forward and backward linkages. Under the APP the High value Crops (HVC) is emphasized as Citrus throughput the mid hills of Nepal. Similarly as focused by the APP, commercialization of agriculture and thereby increasing production and income of farmers is the main strategy of GoN in the 10th plan. For this strategy, to function a number of policies have been initiated and it is believed that once policies become consistent, facilitative and coherent to the beads of farmers businessmen, processors, exporters and other stakeholder, the production and income levels will rise . Given the diversity of climatic conditions, Nepal has a wider scope for the production of various types of vegetables and fruits. Horticultural crops have played important role in Nepalese agriculture. Horticultural crops contribute to augmenting food. Improving in nutrition, employment and help in income generation and maintain improved environment. HVCs help to generate alternative employment opportunities in the farm and non-farm sector, as it is more labor intensive and demands different activities to make horticultural crops ready for marketing. The mid-hill region (1000 meter to 1500-meter altitude) has a comparative advantage in the cultivation of citrus fruits especially mandarin and sweet orange (Subedi et al, 2002). Compared to the traditional food grain crops as maize, wheat and millet cultivation of these fruits has been found more profitable. Not withstanding the vast potentials for the production of mandarin and sweet orange domestically, these fruits and fruit products are imported in a large quantity to meet the growing demand in the country. The area under citrus fruits constituted about 29.4 percent of the total area covered (2002/03) by all types of fruits in Nepal. Citrus alone contributes about 26.81 percent of its fruits consumption. However, during harvesting season citrus production is more than fresh demand. The fruit cultivation in homestead area, in Nepalese agriculture, is a traditional practice. It is grown in almost all mid-hill areas (900-1400 msl) of the country between 26°45' and 29°40' latitude and 80°15' and 88°12' longitude. The mid-hill region of Nepal, which accounts about 1.5 million hac is quite for citrus cultivation. The APP targets to increase the area of citrus production by 130 percent by 2015. The national productivity of existing orchard is very low (11.18t/ha) as compared to 43t/ha of other citrus growing countries.

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The statistics of total area under citrus in Nepal was 20672 ha in 2001 and 25909 ha in 2005 indicates that the area of citrus is increasing. Table 1.1: Statistics of citrus area, production and productivity of Nepal Year 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Source: NCDP, 2006 Total area (Ha) 20,672 22,423 23,662 24,799 25,909 Production (Mt) 1,21,665 1,30,928 1,39,109 1,48,010 1,56,956 Yield (Mt/hac) 10.23 10.38 10.45 10.62 10.75

Junar (Sweet orange) is a very popular sub-tropical fruit cultivated in subsistence and commercial scale of production, and is grown between 650 to 1400 msl. Junar is successfully grown in 47 out of 75 districts of Nepal, and the cultivated area and the fruit production of this crop continues to increase every year in the western Development Region (NCDP, 1989). Junar is major cash generating fruit enterprise in the Ramechhap and Sindhuli district of Nepal where staple crops such as maize, millet and wheat are grown mainly for hone consumption and offer very limited scope for generating cash. Therefore, Junar farming provides good source of cash income to small and low income farmers. Other advantages are that they are not only refreshing and delicious to eat but also provide minerals and vitamins. The fruits are rich sources of vitamin "C". Junar can be used to make delicious and refreshing cold drinks, squashes, jam, jelly and marmalade. 1.2 Rationale of the Study Although the importance of Junar in hill farming is great, there is a lack of understanding of different constraints related to Junar production in Ramechhap and Sindhuli district. Budhathoki et al. (1989) studied the production constraints and production systems of citrus in the WDR, Dhading and Sindhuli districts. These studies were mainly concentrated on plant protection aspects. Therefore, this study was undertaken to understand the potentialities and opportunities of citrus, farming systems, socioeconomic characteristics of citrus grower, status of production and productivity, marketing structures, problems and constraints related to citrus. Public Private Partnership Program implementing jointly by Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives and Agro Enterprise Centre (AEC) has been launching One Village One Product (OVOP) program right from the current FY 2006/2007. Ramechhap and Sindhuli district have been selected as Junar production area, for the program in first phase that has to be promoted.

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Due to growing demand for juice, jam and jelly because of urbanization and tourism enterprise in the country, such products are being imported in larger quantity. At the same time, citrus fruits like mandarin and sweet orange being perishable in its nature, they cannot be kept for longer time without proper storage facility maintaining their freshness and quality. So, from the viewpoint of import substitution and post harvest loss establishment of mandarin and sweet orange processing enterprise is a need in the present context and for this concerned; the MEDEP has taken a modest attempt to visualize the situation. There are many citrus growers in the area who have not successfully managed the transition to the prevailing market situation and have been working but not able to adapt better technology and orchard management so as to maintain a viable citrus farming. Most of the citrus growers have not been able to diversify into other crops to spread their agricultural risk (Aurora, 2002). The study will help to design orchard revitalization strategy to assist those farmers who have not been able to significantly change heir citrus enterprise so as to maintain profitability for short, medium and longer term. 1.3 Objective of the Study The objectives of the study were to explore the potentialities of mandarin and sweet orange processing enterprise in Ramechhap and Sindhuli. The specific objectives of the study were: 1. To study the socioeconomic characteristics of citrus growers in the study area 2. To determine status of citrus cultivation and existing farming practices adopted 3. To examine existing marketing structure for citrus in Ramechhap and Sindhuli districts 4. Study the status of processing of mandarin and sweet orange. 5. To identify the problems and constraints encountered by the citrus grower. 1.4 Limitation of study The findings of the study are solely based on the perception of the citrus grower. The study limits for the citrus grower having less than five plants. Reluctancy of citrus grower to provide information that limits the generalization of the findings.

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2 METHODOLOGY OF STUDY This chapter deals with the various process and techniques adopted throughout the study. It summarizes the procedure used in selection of study site, identifying the study population, determining of sample size and collection of information, study design, structure and analysis with relation to objectives of the study. 2.1 Selection of the study site To study the scope and potentiality of citrus fruits for micro-enterprise development in Ramechhap and Sindhuli district major production VDCs were chosen based on potentiality of citrus production. All together 17 VDCs of Ramechhap district and 13 VDCs from Sindhuli district were taken into consideration for the study. These VDCs are recognized as potential for citrus production and majority of farmers are involved in citrus production either commercially motivated or traditionally for home consumption only. These VDCs are purposively selected because the status, potentiality, and opportunity of citrus in the district can be assessed only based on that information where citrus cultivation existed. 2.2 Sample size and sampling procedure Without a sound sampling plan, and a suitable sample size, neither the data can be collected from proper respondents nor in the appropriate number of them. In stratified sampling techniques, the population is divided into a number of non-overlapping sub population based on certain criteria. Each sub population is known as stratum. From each of these strata, sub samples are chosen by simple random sampling techniques. The master sample size is the sums of all sub samples drown from all strata. Stratified sampling technique was adopted for this study because stratified sampling is a method for obtaining a greater degree of representatives and thus decreasing the probable sampling error. Four different strata from Ramechhap and three from Sindhuli district have been identified as an Agriculture Service Centre (ASC). Among number of VDCs in the strata only those VDCs have been selected for the study where more than 10 HH have been engaged in citrus production. Households have been engaged in citrus cultivation either commercially or traditionally for home consumption either supported by DADO or not considered for sampling unit. The sampling frame comprised of the household that have orchard of at least 1/3 Ropani of land or 5 citrus fruit trees.

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Table 2.1: Strata, population and size of sample drawn for the study from Ramechhap district Strata S1-1 S1-2 S1-3 S1-4 S1-5 S1-6 S1-7 S1- 8 S2- 1 S2 -2 S3- 3 S3-4 S3-5 S4 -1 S4 -2 S4 -3 S3 -4 Name of ASC ASC Ramechhap ASC Ramechhap ASC Ramechhap ASC Ramechhap ASC Ramechhap ASC Ramechhap ASC Ramechhap ASC Ramechhap ASC Nagdaha ASC Nagdaha ASC Doramba ASC Doramba ASC Doramba ASC Khaniyapani ASC Khaniyapani ASC Khaniyapani ASC Khaniyapani Grand total Name of VDC Ramechhap Sukajor Okhreni Bhaluwajor Rampur Salu Sunarpani Himganga Gothgaun Deurali Phulasi Daduwa Lakhanpur Makadum Dimipokhari Bethan Hiledevi HH number 964 727 668 613 806 766 471 749 529 670 1149 942 1261 389 729 1165 669 13267 Sample number 219 314 358 120 65 193 40 77 57 43 260 53 80 40 104 90 122 2235

Table 2.2: Strata, population and size of sample drawn for the study from Sindhuli district Strata S1-1 S1-2 S1-3 S1-4 S1-5 S1-6 S1-7 S2-1 S2-2 S2-3 S3-1 S3-2 S3-3 Name of ASC ASC Baseshor ASC Baseshor ASC Baseshor ASC Baseshor ASC Baseshor ASC Baseshor ASC Baseshor ASC Bhimsensthan ASC Bhimsensthan ASC Bhimsensthan ASC Jhangajholi ASC Jhangajholi ASC Jhangajholi Grand total Name of VDC Jalkannya Tinkannya Ratanchura Baseshor Dhundbhanjyang Bhuwaneshori Bitijor Bhadrakali Kamalamai NP Ranichuri Purano Jhangajholi Majuwa Sitalpati HH number 451 767 588 590 528 319 325 744 6447 1477 874 498 711 14319 Sample number 361 563 501 140 40 99 162 131 145 170 381 74 90 2857

2.3 Study design and structure 2.3.1 Synopsis of study Structured questionnaire with five sections were used for information collection. The questionnaires were designed incorporating 85 variables identified for the study. The questionnaires were divided into major five parts to fulfill the major five objectives of study.

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First, relevant questions were designed as structured interview schedule. After refining the questionnaire, data were collected from the randomly selected respondents by visiting every household. Table: 2.3 Study synopses for study of potentialities of citrus in Ramechhap and Sindhuli district Objectives of study To study the socioeconomic characteristics of citrus grower Variables under study Family size Age of respondent Economically active population Major occupation Land characteristics Gender involvement in citrus enterprise Objective of citrus cultivation Cropping system Food security status Motivation towards citrus cultivation Major fruit species Source and type of sapling Number of bearing and non bearing trees Age and area of trees Adoption of technologies Intercropping practices Methods of storage Methods of grading Estimation of post harvest losses Income from citrus Extendable area of citrus Causes of non expansion of citrus cultivation area Percentage of sale to total production Processing status Interest on processing of citrus product Uses of citrus Feasibility of processing Location of market Means of transportation Sale before/after ripening Type of agent/middle man involved in marketing Market outlets Transportation facilities Methods of packaging Prioritization of problems of citrus production Problems and constraint of citrus production Problems/constraints of marketing and processing

To determine the status of citrus cultivation in the district

To assess the potentialities of citrus with reference to micro enterprise development

To examine the different marketing aspects of citrus fruit

To identify the problems and constraints of citrus production and to make recommendation

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2.3.2 Sources of data 2.3.2.1 Primary source of data An interview is a purposeful discussion between two or more people. The use of interview can help to gather valid and reliable data that are relevant to research questions or objectives. An interview gives the opportunity to talk freely about events behavior and believes in relation to the topic area so that this type of interaction is sometime called nondirective. It has been labeled as an informant interview, since it is the interviewee’s perception that guides the conduct of an interview. Primary data were collected through structured questionnaire by face-to-face interview of the respondents 2.3.2.2 Secondary source of data Broadly speaking, when secondary data are used, as a means of acquiring evidences, to test the hypothesis, the investigation should proceed with critical examination of secondary source of data. Data from both primary and secondary sources posses a great significance in the field of social science study. Therefore, this study used both secondary and primary data. Many publications from various institutions, agencies, DDC profile were scrutinized to gain a deeper understanding pertaining to the issue. 2.4 Data collection techniques Both qualitative and quantitative research methods were applied to collect data and information. Fieldwork for the data collection purpose was performed in Bhadra -Asoj 2063. The level of data collection was divided into three level; household survey, key informant survey and direct observation. 2.4.1 Household survey Face to face, interview technique was used to collect quantitative information from the respondents. The selection of respondents was based on having more than 1/3 Ropani of citrus orchard .or having at least 5 citrus trees 2.4.2 Focal group discussion Focal group discussion has the advantage of putting researchers into first-hand contact with “reality”. Three focal group discussions in each of study district with citrus trader, grower and entrepreneurs were done to check the reliability and validity of the collected information in the study.

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Table 2.4: Lists for focal group discussions held in Ramechhap and Sindhuli districts District Location of FGD Ramechhap Ramechhap Sukajor Okhreni Sindhuli Bijaychhap DADO, Sindhuli Hatbazar, Sindhuli 2.4.3. Pre-test In order to ascertain communicability and appropriateness of the questionnaires to be described later, it was administered individually on 10 respondents who were selected from Ramechhap VDC. In addition, the verbal comment and feed back of each respondent were noted down. Based on the comments of the respondent some necessary changes were made in items of the questionnaires. 2.4.4 Data collection procedure The respondents were approached individually either in the place of enterprise or in their homes. The investigator explained the purpose of the study. After establishing initial rapport, the respondents were requested to volunteer for the study. The respondents were assured that the information would be kept confidential and would be used for research purpose. They were encouraged to respond to each item honestly and frankly. 2.5 Data analysis Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis. The analysis of data was done with the help of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). 2.6 Conceptual framework of the study Among the different factors, marketing and processing of citrus fruits are major determinants that affect its scope and limitation of citrus production. These major determinants promote motivation and thus create opportunities. The citrus industry should look from a marketing perspective as opposed to purely production perspectives and it should able to determine that citrus grower has a good opportunity to further expand its production and its return to growers. It is known that the citrus industry is not unlike all other agriculture pursuit and will have its cyclic production. What is still required is significant structural change within the industry. 9 Participants Citrus grower, traders Citrus grower, Traders Member of Junar Bikash Shangh Citrus grower DADO officials Whole seller, traders, retail fruit shop Date of activity 2063-08-07 2063-08-08 2063-08-09 2063-08-15 2063-08-16 2063-08-17

TECHNOLOGY ADOPTION

SOCIO ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF CITRUS GROWER /ENTREPRENEURS  Objective of citrus farming  Gender involvement on citrus enterprise  Major occupation  Motivation agents  Economically active population OPPORTUNITY OF PROCESSING

JUICE SQUASH

C I T R U S

JAM, JELLY & MARMALADE

P R O D U C T I O N

WINE

OPPORTUNITY FOR MARKETING OF FRESH FRUITS

BEFORE RIPENING

PACKAGING, GRADING & BRANDING

AFTER RIPENING

CHALLENGE FOR VIABLE CITRUS FARMING

OPPORTUNITY OF DEVELOPMENT FOR GRADING, PACKAGING ENTERPRISE

Fig 2.1: An overview of conceptual framework of citrus industry

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3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION This chapter explains the major variables identified in synopses of study based on the objectives of study. Socioeconomic characteristics of citrus grower, general orchard husbandry, production status, harvesting, marketing processing status of citrus, problems and constraint related to citrus production, identification of gaps and recommendation for further improvement are major area of discussions. 3.1 Socioeconomic characteristics of citrus grower 3.1.1 Age of respondents of citrus grower The age of respondent farmers was classified into two categories. The age 15-59 is considered as economically active age or adult and >59 years is considered as old. Table 3.1.1 indicates that the ages of respondents in both districts are more or less same. Table 3.1.1 Age of respondents in Ramechhap and Sindhuli districts S.N. Age of respondents 1 15-59 years 2 > 59 years 3 Mean ages (years) 4 Standard deviation (±years) Source: Field survey, 2006 3.1.2 Family size and available labor The average family size of Sindhuli district found higher than Ramechhap but contrasting to the fact the average economically active work force of Ramechhap district found higher than Sindhuli and it represents the available labor per household in the study districts presents in table 3.1.2. From the data it can be inferenced that available workforce in study district seemed to lower to adopt better technology and to maintain viable citrus farming. Table 3.1.2: Average family size and available labor in Ramechhap and Sindhuli districts Characteristics 1 Average family size 2 Average working family size Source: Field survey, 2006 3.1.3 Occupation of the respondents Most of the respondents rely on agriculture to sustain their livelihood. Table 3.1.3 shows that 96.2% of the respondents are engaged in agriculture which is followed by business (2.5%) and Ramechhap 6.9 2.3 Sindhuli 7.1 2.0 Districts Ramechhap (%) 74.9 25.1 46.4 20.57 Sindhuli (%) 74.5 25.5 47.1 15.3

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service (1.3%) in Ramechhap district. Similarly, 95.2%, 1.3% and 3.5% of respondents involved in agriculture, business and service respectively in Sindhuli district. Agriculture being a major source of income in both of districts have to make successful to diversify the citrus farming so as to spread agricultural risk Table 3.1.3 Major occupation of household heads in Ramechhap and Sindhuli district s S.N. 1 2 3 Occupation Agriculture Business Service Total Districts Ramechhap (%) 96.2 2.5 1.3 100 Sindhuli (%) 95.2 1.3 3.5 100

3.1.4 Factors of motivation for citrus farming Motivation plays the key role of adopting certain technology by the farmers in their farm. Agriculture technicians under JADP during the FY 2032/33 were major sources of motivation for initiation of Junar farming in both of districts. JADP had intensified technologies as well as input delivery as their major activities of the projects acts as a catalyst to motivate farmers of that location for expansion and initiation of citrus farming. Most of the farmers motivated through agriculture technician for planting of citrus fruits in their land. Study showed that 73.1%, 22.7%, 2.4% and 1.8% of farmers motivated by agricultural technician, leader farmers (neighbors), communication mass media and themselves respectively in Ramechhap district. Similarly, in Sindhuli 42.4%, 29.8%, 2.3% and 25.8% farmers motivated through agri-technician, leader farmers, mass-medias and themselves respectively (Table 3.1.4). Box1 : Commercial citrus farming date back to third five years planning period Commercial scale plantation dated back to 2027/28 BS in all mid hill including Ramechhap and Sindhuli. Informal inspiration by JT working at DADO was common source of encouragement to the general farmers. This process was further facilitated by technicians of JADP in 2032/33 that had created lots of awareness program was launched with varieties of training, demonstration to the leader farmers across the country.

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Table 3.1.4 Factors of motivation for citrus cultivation in Ramechhap and Sindhuli districts S.N. 1 2 3 4 Factors of motivation Districts Ramechhap (%) 73.1 22.7 2.4 1.8 100 Sindhuli (%) 42.4 29.8 2.3 25.5 100

Agriculture technician Leader farmers Mass medias Self Total Source: Field survey, 2006 3.1.5 Objectives of citrus farming

Some farmers establish the citrus orchard for selling purposes, few farmers also plant for their home consumption and most of the farmer plant for both purposes. Table 3.1.5 indicates that over 95% of respondents grow citrus fruit for selling as well as home consumption purposes in both districts. Inference can be drawn from the fact that almost all citrus grower aware of their objectives, but in reality the objectives of citrus farming have not been translated in their practice especially in management of citrus orchard. Table 3.1.5: Objectives of citrus cultivation in Ramechhap and Sindhuli districts S.N. Purpose of growing 1 2 3 Trade Home consumption Both Total Districts Ramechhap (%) 2.5 0.8 96.7 100 Sindhuli (%) 1 0.3 98.7 100

3.1.6 Gender perspectives of citrus farming All the agricultural production activities performed either by male or female or by both. Table 3.1.6 shows the agricultural activities performed by gender. Labor shortage is common for citrus farming with varied wage rates for male and female, although some of the operations done by male and female farmers are almost same. Thus, Junar orchards have a number of good points, as they have created temporary employment, are gender neutral. However, decision-making and control over income from citrus more inclined to male possession in general.

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Table 3.1.6: Gender perspective of citrus cultivation and control on households’ income S.N. Activities of citrus farming 1 Nursery management Women Men Both 2 Orchard management Women Men Both 3 Fruit grading Women Men Both 4 Marketing Women Men Both 5 Control on income Women Men Both 3.1.7 Food Self- Sufficiency The farming in the mid-hills is relatively intensive and two to three crops per year can be grown. However, in the area studied, the shortage of manure and fruit crops emerging as a bright prospect have clearly marginalized food crops resulting in prolonged winner fallowing of Khet land and reduced crop cover in Bari land respectively. In sum up Ramechhap comes under food deficit district and Sindhuli comes under food surplus district however in case of citrus grower 23.65 % of total household surveyed are self-sufficient in food for whole year. Similarly, 50.42% and 25.93% households are self-sufficient for six to nine months, and for less than six months respectively. Majority of citrus grower having deficit in food security indicates that citrus grower are suffering from food requirement and workforce are diverted to cereal production other than HVC. Therefore it is very crucial to convinced the citrus grower to make significant changes in their orchard management for sustainable and viable production. Table3.1.7 Food balance sheet of Ramechap and Sindhuli district SN District Population Production(Mt.) Quantity required (Mt.) 1 Ramechhap 2,22,174 44,656.97 42,046.16 2 Sindhuli 3,05,629 61,431.42 70,346.17 Source: Annual Progress report of DADO Ramechhap and Sindhuli, 2062 Surplus/Deficit(Mt.) – 2,610.8 + 8,914.74 Ramechhap (%) 37.4 1.4 61.2 1.2 1.1 97.7 1.2 1.6 97.2 1.9 1.9 96.2 4.5 10.5 85.0 Sindhuli (%) 1.3 2.5 96.2 0.8 3.5 95.7 6.6 93.4 0.3 1.6 98.1 2.9 9.9 88.2

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3.1.8 Labour Management Labour is generally reported to be scarce in a traditional farming systems where farm operations are Labour intensive. This obviously affects all spheres of farming. Mostly, youth populations were outside the district and country for earning cash regularly causing labor deficit in their farms. Generally, labor shortage was found during busiest seasons viz, maize sowing (Baishakh/Jestha), rice planting (Asar/Shrawan), millet planting (Shrawan ) and millet harvesting (Kartik/Mangsir), rice harvesting ( Mansir ), pit digging, filling, carrying farm yard manures as well as manuring in orchards. To cope with labour needs at that time, hired labors are used from local or neighboring village. Parma, a traditions method of Labour arrangement between farming households on reciprocal basis, found an effective method of coping with the situation. Table 3.1.8: Labor management for farm operation in Sindhuli and Ramechhap districts Location Tenancy System Contract SC/TO Wage in rupees Female Male Sources of Labor Village Parma Village Parma

Ramechhap NA 1:1 50-60(+2 Meals) 100-120 (+3 Meals) Sindhuli NA 1:1 40-50 (+2 Meals) 80-100 (+2 Meals) SC = Share cropping, TO = Tenant Owner, NA= Information not available

Daily wage rate varies from 40-60 rupees for female and 80-120 rupees for male. Generally, meals are provided and vary from one to three meals a day. However, skilled lab ours such as mason and carpenters are paid higher rate of 150-200 rupees a day. No laborers from outside the VDCs or district were reported. 3.1.9 Division of labor Men and women do most types of farm operations so long as the job can be done by both the sexes, such as hoeing, planting, weeding etc, and the wage rate is same. The operations not done by women are plowing, digging of pits, deep slicing of bunds and terrace risers and, training, pruning. Farmers of different locations reported that women do not climb and pick fruits because of difficulty with sari. Children are mostly used in climbing and picking fruits as they are swift and have less chances of breaking branches. 3.1.10 Cropping Systems The major land types, soil types and cropping pattern in the area studied are summarized in Table 3.1.9. The major land types found were Bari land where percentage of Bari land was more than Khet, Terracing of land either Bari or Khet was common in most of the locations. The reasons cited for this practice was social pride as big plot of land near the homestead indicated 15

prosperity, it is easy to move bullocks on large patches, as there are no terrace risers and are less water logging and crops such as maize can be grown easily. However, farmers have realized lately that there is more loss of top fertile soil and gradually farmers are adopting terracing systems in their Bari land. The survey found that farmers classifications of soils are primarily based on soil color. Different soil types differentiated on the basis of soil color are: Rato, Kalo, Khairo Kailo/phusro, Pahelo and Ponge/Geru. Soils differentiated based on soil texture were found to be domat, Chiure/chare/kamero, chimtailo and dhungen/ gegaryan. The major soil type found in the area studied was red soil, followed by black and phusro soils. The other important soil types reported are : Kalo Gegaryan, domat and Khairo soils respectively. Maize, millet, rice, Junar, wheat, ginger and vegetables were the important crops of the area. Maize based cropping pattern was found most common and important cropping of the area. Maize -followed by millet / black gram/ tori/winter vegetable or wheat was common. In some areas farmers also leave land fallow after harvesting maize -millet crops. Maize was the most important crop. Junar occupy important place in the farming systems as a major source of cash income in most of the areas studied and also influence migration, employment opportunity and other socioeconomic factors. Table 3.1.9: Major land and soil types, cropping patterns found in study district Location Major land type Ramechhap Bari Major soil type Rato, Phusro, Kalo Rato, Sindhuli Bari Kalo, Phusro Cropping pattern Maize- Mustard -Fallow, Maize-Rain fed rice -Fallow Maize-millet-fallow, Maize-horse gram-wheat-fallow Maize-Legumes-Fallow, Maize-Vegetable-Vegetable Maize-Mustard-fallow, Maize- Mustard-Wheat Maize-Millet/Buck wheat-Fallow Maize-Horse gram-wheat-Fallow Maize-Soya bean-Fallow, Maize-Vegetables-Fallow Maize-ginger/turmeric-fallow Rice-based cropping pattern was common in Khet lands. Rice- mustard, rice-fallow, rice-wheat-follow, rice-vegetable were other cropping patterns noted in the area. Although Junar is not included under cropping pattern, however intercropping with maize and/ or millet until Junar come to bearing stage whereas turmeric and ginger are grown under the orchards during later stages. Inclusion of some grain legume crops as well in the orchards was also reported. The survey team explored that the area possesses the potential for multiple cropping; however, the 16

cropping intensity was highly dependent on irrigation facility, soil fertility and other socioeconomic parameters. 3.1.11 Farmyard manure and compost Farm Yard Manure (FYM) and compost were the major sources of plant nutrients in the whole of survey areas and, the prevalence and importance of the organic manures in all the areas studied were the same. The FYM was the most common form of organic manure applied in the field while use of compost is also reported from a few locations. Indigenous method of compost preparation and utilization was predominant which was developed over several decades. Some sort of bedding materials for example leaf litters, crop residues and left over feed and forage are either spread in the animal shed or get incorporated with animal dung and urine. The manure thus prepared is heaped near the animal shed and the system of FYM/compost preparation can be termed as heap method. Heap method of FYM/ compost preparation was most common in all the locations. Farmers mentioned that periodic turning of compost is not common, although farmers of Okhreni and Sukajor VDCs of Ramechhap reported that turning of the FYM/compost twice is also practiced, and to facilitate this, most of the trained farmers dig two pits. 3.1.12 Chemical fertilizers The second most common source of maintaining soil fertility was chemical fertilizer. Use of chemical fertilizers as reported by few farmers was driven by a number of issues such as decreasing soil fertility due to crop intensification, decrease in livestock population and dung output, labor shortage, distance of Khet land from homesteads, and depletion of forest resources. A common strategy adopted by most farmers was that chemical fertilizers are mainly applied in Khet land and vegetables, particularly in commercial vegetable production, such as at Okhreni and Sukajor. Nevertheless, use of chemical fertilizers (urea) was also reported for crops such as maize, wheat, millet and mustard. Use of urea as top dressing on vegetables and field crops was most common; the extensive use of urea may be attributed to relatively cheaper price of urea owing to the government subsidy and limited choice for other fertilizers. It was the consensus of the survey team that repeated use of urea without proper soil amendment may be hazardous to soil health in a longer run.

3.1.13 Use of crop rotation

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Farmers reported that indigenous crop rotation is adopted in some or the other form, this usually includes growing different kinds of crops on a parcel in different years. For example at Daduwa and Fulasi, farmers reported that Teri or potato follows maize in some parcels during one year while the some parcels are planted with rice bean. The respondent farmers at Sukajor reported that some species of vegetables are not grown on the same piece of land rather rotated with other species in succession. Rotation is also followed between vegetables and other field crops in order to better utilize soil fertility and soil moisture regimes. The survey team found that indigenous crop rotation systems followed by the farmers may have significant effect on managing soil fertility and soil moisture. Table 3.1.10 Major fruit species found in Ramechhap district. Location
Citrus Banana Pear Peach

Major fruit species
Guava Pine apple Mango Litchi Wild Bael Custard apple Apricot

Ramechhap 1 7 2 5 4 6 8 Okhreni 1 7 2 5 3 6 Sukajor 1 8 2 6 5 7 9 Bhaluwajor 1 2 5 7 6 8 9 Salu 1 5 2 6 3 4 7 Sunarpani 6 1 7 9 8 2 5 Himganga 3 4 5 9 6 7 8 Rampur 3 4 7 8 5 6 9 Deurali 1 5 3 6 4 7 8 Gothgaun 1 7 3 6 4 5 Daduwa 1 5 2 4 3 6 Phulasi 1 5 2 6 3 4 7 Makadum 1 6 2 5 4 7 Hiledevi 1 7 2 8 5 6 9 Dimipokhari 1 8 2 3 4 7 9 Bethan 1 6 2 5 4 7 Lakhanpur 1 6 2 5 4 7 Note: Numbers 1 to 10 indicate ranking of species within a location

9 10 10 8 10 10 8 -

3 3 3 1 1 8 3 5 -

4 4 4 2 2 9 4 6 -

3 4 11 11 2 2 2 7 9 3 3 3

There are 11 major fruits species found in Ramechhap district among them wild Bael found in forest of Pakarbas, Bhirpani, Bhaluwajor, Chisapani, Majhuwa VDCs is not cultivated but has economically very important. Likewise 10 different species of fruits found in Sindhuli district among them citrus is ranked first and so on. Table 3.1.10 and 3.1.11 presents the rank of cultivated fruits in both of district. The most prominent fruits species indicated by rank first and the least prominent fruit ranked by 10 in case of Sindhuli and 11 in case of Ramechhap district.

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The major fruit species reported in the survey areas include wide range of citrus, banana, pear, guava, pineapple, peach, papaya, mango, litchi, jackfruit and plum. In the survey citrus was found to be a major fruit species in all the areas studied. Among the citrus, Junar was reported to be of significant economic value. In addition to the Junar, mandarin, lemon, lime, pummelo, citron, rough lemon and shaddok were the other citrus species observed and reported in the areas studied. Winter beans, radish, potato, onion, peas are traditionally grown in winter and cowpea, bean, gourds, pumpkin, brinjal, cucumber, tomato, yam and colocasia in summer. Cabbage and cauliflower could also be observed in various places during the visit. Junar, lime, lemon, banana, guava, pear, are generally available in few member nearby every household though orchard scale of production is found only for Junar. Table 3.1.11 Major fruit species found in Sindhuli district. Location Citrus Banana Pear Baseshwor 1 2 3 Kamalamai 1 4 Bhadrakali 1 2 Ratanchura 1 2 3 Tinkanya 1 2 3 Jalkanya 1 4 2 1 3 2 Jhangajholi Ranichuri 1 4 5 Dundbhanjyang 1 2 3 Majuwa 1 3 4 Bhuwaneshwori 1 3 Sitalpati 1 5 6 Bitijor 1 2 3.2 General orchard husbandry systems 3.2.1 Source and types of saplings Internal supply of saplings was pre-dominant in the areas surveyed. Producing the saplings in farmers own farm for personal use i.e. 6.4 % in Ramechhap and 7.4% in Sindhuli and purchasing the Junar saplings from nearby orchards in the village or from private nursery are the common sources of saplings i.e. 92.5 % in Ramechhap and 91.5 % in Sindhuli. Most of saplings are distributed from District Agriculture Development Office, other line agencies, non-governmental organizations, and saplings are purchased by farmers themselves from outside the villages. Out of total plants, 76.4 % and 58.7 % are grafted in Ramechhap and Sindhuli respectively. Saplings obtained from the external source are mainly seedlings and the limited number of grafted plants where as air layered prop gules are less common. Such propagates are mainly obtained from the source within the villages. Exclusively internal supply of saplings was reported at Okhreni and 19 Major fruit species Peach Guava Pine apple 4 5 6 8 7 3 5 3 4 4 5 4 5 6 3 4 6 7 7 6 2 4 5 2 6 5 2 4 7 2 4 3 4 Mango Litchi Jack fruit 7 6 5 2 7 8 6 8 9 10 8 9 3 9 8 7 7 6 8 8 9 3 5 Apricot 6 5 -

Sukajor where as both internal and external sources were reported at Fulasi and Daduwa. Farmers prefer locally produced saplings due to reliability and good quality, timely supply of saplings in the season, high rate of survivability and for the supply. In addition to those, greater adaptability of locally produced saplings in local growing environment was also reported. Almost all the commercial nurseries in Sindhuli and Ramechhap district found above 1000 msl. Producing seedling at this altitude takes, two or more than two years to get ready for planting in the orchard. due to slow growth of saplings. Table 3.2.1: Sapling types used by farmers in Ramechhap and Sindhuli district S.N District 1 Ramechhap 2 Sindhuli Source: Field survey, 2006 3.2.2 Layout Planting of a few Junar trees in front or around the house was observed in old plantations without any proper layout. However, under new and orchard scale of plantation (>50 trees per orchard), proper layout were noticed, Rectangular layout was observed at Salu whereas in the other areas trees are planted in the terrace (single row on the edges of terrace, and in the middle portion of terrace along the length in narrow terraces and planting double rows in wider terraces). In the terraces of mid hills, many orchards were planted in the triangular fashion to better utilize space, air, sunshine and nutrients. Contour system of plantation was not observed at any location and square system observed very low however, hexagonal and diagonal systems were not seen. Farmers reported that Junar planted in the inward edges and centre of the terrace do not perform well particularly in the red soils, compared to the trees planted in the outward edges .The reasons were relatively higher fertility and good drainage along the outward edges of the terraces due to outward gradient. Planting Junar in the edges was reported to be easier for plowing operations in the Junar orchard. Hence, planting trees in the edges and centre was observed to be a dominant practice in the areas studied. Most of the farmers did not adopted layout techniques in both of the study district, which is given on table below. Table 3.2.2: Adoption of layout technique by farmers in Ramechhap and Sindhuli district SN District name 1 Ramechhap 2 Sindhuli Complete adoption (%) 15 19.3 Partial adoption (%) 25 38.8 No adoption (%) 60 46 Grafted (%) 76.4 58.7 Seedling (%) 19 5.3 Both ( %) 4.6 36

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3.2.3 Planting methods Most of the old plantations were reported to be planted without the purposive pits made for saplings. Simply pegging even without application of manures was almost a common practice within and across the area studied. However, digging the pits was reported to be gradually increasing in the recent plantations. In the pit method of planting, farmers reported that 1-3 feet size of pits are generally dug one or two months before planting and filled with top soil and manures. In some areas farmers also burn the pits prior to filling to enhance the fertility and destroy the disease and insects harboring in the pits. The given table shows adoption of pit preparation and its spacing by farmers. Table 3.2.3: Adoption of pit digging practice in Ramechhap and Sindhuli district SN District 1 Ramechhap 2 Sindhuli 3.2.4 Plant spacing Consistency in terms of plant spacing particularly in the old orchard was not found. A range of 2.x 2.m to 8 x 8m of spacing for planting Junar practices was reported in the study area. Old orchards were observed to be narrowly spaced compared to the new plantation. Now farmers are observing that most of the old plantations which were with narrow spacing were producing the smaller and poorer quality fruits due to crowding and rapid build up of the problem of diseases and insects. As a result, farmers are now following wider spacing, which is also due to the technical advices from DADO, other line agencies, NGOs and farmers own observations in the other Junar growing areas. The recent plantations were observed to be spaced about 5.x 5.m. However, in the narrow terraces row to row distances were reduced due to high terrace risers. Table 3.2.4: Adoption level of disease, pest management in Ramechhap and Sindhuli SN 1 2 District name Ramechap Sindhuli Complete adoption (%) 14.4 4.5 Partial adoption (%) 51.4 62 No adoption (%) 34.2 33.5 Complete adoption (%) 6.7 15 Partial adoption (%) 80.2 51 No adoption (%) 13.7 34

3.2.5 Planting seasons Farmers of all areas studied, reported that Junar are planted in the rainy season. In many cases, pit digging is carried out during pre-monsoon period and planting is done from Jeshtha onward until Bhadau. The reason for planting Junar during rainy season is mainly for better stability. Another explanation for not planting Junar in winter is that, new seedlings cannot resume the vegetative growth due to inadequate temperature and insufficient moisture in the soil during this 21

season. However, some farmers also reported of planting Junar in other than rainy season, but only in conditions that ample water for irrigating newly planted citrus saplings are available. Seedlings of various ages and stages were reported to be used by the farmers for planting. One to four year old seedlings produced from seeds; 4-6 month old layered shoots and 6-9 months old grafted plants were used by the farmers. They also reported that older seedlings are better, since such seedlings come to bearing earlier and withstand stress after planting. Plants raised from seeds come to bearing 6-8 years after planting, grafted plants take 4-5 years, while the air layered bear the fruit in 3-4 years of planting. Although the older seedlings are preferred by the farmers, they were reported to be quite expensive as compared to younger seedlings. 3.2.6 Training and pruning Training of Junar trees was not observed in the areas surveyed. However, various responses on the pruning were reported by the farmers. Regular pruning of Junar by majority of the farmers were in practice at Sukajor and Okhreni. Mixed responses on pruning and training were found in most of the villages, whilst a few farmers also accepted the pruning and training as important practices for Junar orchard. Pruning practices were followed by new citrus grower. Removal of water suckers, cleaning of branches up to 2 ft, thinning of crowded branches, removal of dead and diseased branches, shoots was done in the pruning practices of Junar. Very interesting fact of finding was that few farmers used Khukuri, Bancharo, Hansiya as a tools of training pruning. The given table shows that the real picture of training, pruning adopted by farmers. Table 3.2.5: Adoption of training, pruning techniques in Ramechhap and Sindhuli district S.N. 1 2 District Ramechap Sindhuli Complete adoption (%) 21.6 6.3 Partial adoption (%) 37.1 60.3 No adoption (%) 41.3 33.5

3.2.7 Manuring practices in the orchard Manuring Junar tree and orchard was found to be a regular practice in all the areas studied. However, farmers generally do not apply manures and chemical fertilizers on such trees which are planted near the compost pit or near the homestead where kitchen swills can be applied. FYM and other organic form of fertilizers are important sources of nutrients in the orchard. Chemical fertilizer were applied in the orchard the common fertilizers used were DAP, Urea and Murate of potash. Organic manures are usually applied once a year throughout the areas surveyed. Time of manure application in the Junar orchards is from Push to Magh in both bearing and non-bearing trees. In case of bearing orchards, this is done after fruit harvesting is completed. 22

Wide variation in the methods of manure application was reported by the farmers. Manure is applied in pit at planting and in the ring around the plant canopy in case of regular manuring. As trees start bearing and develop substantial canopy, manure is not applied in the ring. But is spread over the terrace and is ploughed in order to cover the manures, improve orchard situation and soil structures. Farmers believe that application of manures in the ring for bearing trees is not as effective as broadcasting system because effective roots of bearing trees are spread farther than the tree canopy and in the sub-surface of the soil. Given table show the fertilizer management trend of study area . Table3.2.6: Adoption of fertilizer management practices in Ramechhap and Sindhuli SN District 1 Ramechhap 2 Sindhuli Complete adoption (%) 11.8 0 14.80 Partial adoption (%) 64.00 64.80 No adoption (%) 24.20 20.80

3.2.8 Intercropping practices in the orchard Intercropping under the orchard is a common practice in the areas studied with various kinds of inter-crop species included in the system. Crops like maize, millet, wheat, tori, vegetables, many legume species and other fruit crops such as pineapple, zinger are commonly grown as intercrops. Maize and Millet are commonly grown as a inter crop in study areas. Until 5-6 years of plant in farmers can harvest a good yield from intercropped species, however, when the trees grow up, heavy canopy is developed resulting in shading effect to inter- crops species, and crop cannot thrive well under such heavy shading conditions. In spite of the poor crop yield in the subsequent years after the fruit trees reaching bearing stage in the orchards, farmers still grow crop even for the fodder purpose, which is apparently an important source of feed for the livestock. Farmers reported that inter-cropping has both positive and negative effects on the performance of Junar crop. If the substantial amount of manure is applied for the inter-crop species, it enhances the productivity of the tree crop in the orchard. Because various cultivation as well as inter-cultural practices rendered to the inter-crops influence the tree crop. Inter-cropping may have negative effect on the Junar is severe. It was also observed that orchard without any inter-crop did not have satisfactory performance. Farmers generally do not cultivate or pay due attention to the inter-cultural operation in the orchard, if there are no inter-crop species in the 23

orchard. Therefore inter cropping is necessary even to keep the orchard in healthy and productive condition. 3.2.9 Adoption of weeding practices in the orchard Weeding in one or the other form is generally practiced in the citrus orchard of the areas studied. Hoeing and weeding around the tree trunk was reported to be the common practice. One to two weeding per year is generally given . One hoeing and weeding carried out during push - magh (when fruits have already been harvested from the bearing trees) and another is during rainy season (Bhadau - Ashoj ) when there is pressure of weeds in the orchard. Some of the farmers also reported that hoeing is not essentially practiced in the rainy season and farmers simply pull out the weeds from around the tree trunk. In the inter-cropping system of plantation, weeding and hoeing is also practiced at the time when the inter- culture operation and weeding is carried out for inter- crop species. Weeds harvested during the process are utilized in various ways feeding to livestock, using for manuring in compost pit, heaping around the tree trunk and using as bedding materials for livestock. 3.2.10 Adoption of mulching practices in the orchard Mulching the grown up Junar trees was not a common practice in the areas studied. Not even a single village was found where whole of the orchards were mulched. Wherever use of mulching was reported it was practised in small non bearing plants. Mulching is carried out in the month of push-magh, when the dry season of the year starts. Green manuring species like Titepati, Asuro, Khirro, other forest leaf litters such as chilaune and crops by-products are used for mulching in the areas studied. Mulching in the orchard conserves moisture, suppresses weed intensity and enhances the survivability of the new saplings. However, it is in short supply due to the depletion ot the forest resources and lack of labour. In some areas studied, few farmers also reported that materials like maize stover and millet straws are not good as mulching materials, as they succumb to the termite attack. Green manuring is not common in the areas studied. How ever, some farmers reported the use of green manure species for mulch. Inclusion of legume crops like rice bean, soyabean, runner beans, cowpea, blackgram etc in the orchard was also reported in the areas studied. These legumes in most cases are purposefully grown for the grain, yet, they contribute for the improvement of soil fertility in the Junar orchard. The given table shows that the percentage of farmer adopted, mulching practices in both of study district. Table 3.2.7: Adoption of mulching practices in Ramechhap and Sindhuli districts SN District Complete adoption (%) Partial adoption (%) No adoption (%) 24

1 2

Ramechhap Sindhuli

11.80 14.80

60.00 64.80

24.20 20.80

3.2.11 Adoption of irrigation and drainage practice Although irrigation is thought to be a very important practice in the orchard it is not at all practiced in many sites for Junar trees, Farmers of almost of all locations reported that they have very little access to irrigation water, hence they do not apply any supplementary irrigation other than rainwater to Junar orchards. However, some farmers apply water to the plant particularly the small seedlings till they are well established and the plants which are quite proximal to the house In many areas majority of the farmers reported that irrigating Junar orchard after manuring is not a common practice. However, light winter showers in many paces help to maintain the soil moisture to some extent in the field. But if the winter rain failed to occur, then the months from Phagun to Baishakh the most dry period of the year in the orchard farmers realized the importance of irrigation for such a dry period. According to the farmers flowering and fruit setting are the critical stages of irrigation for Junar. Citrus in the hills is mainly grown under the rain-fed condition. However, depending upon availability, supplementary irrigation is also applied on the orchard. The table shows the irrigation management of orchards. Only 8.90 % farmers in Ramechap and 5.00 % farmers in sindhuli manage irrigation in any way as per their resources. Table 3.2.8: Adoption of irrigation practices in Ramechhap and Sindhuli district SN District Complete adoption (%) 1 Ramechhap 8.90 2 Sindhuli 5.00 Partial adoption (%) 25.60 33.30 No adoption (%) 65.50 61.50

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3.3 Production status of citrus 3.3.1 Area and number of plantation In Ramechhap district, out of total land (48641 ropani), 83.41% (40569.5 ropani) and 16.59% (8071.5 ropani) were bari and khet land respectively among the surveyed house holds. On the bari, only 15.09% area was covered by citrus. Junar (I st) and orange (IInd) was the most popular fruit species being cultivated in both subsistence and commercial scale of production, ranging from a few trees to over 1000 Junar plants in a single orchard. Old trees of Junar surviving and producing the fruit over 50 years as well as newly planted saplings were also observed during the survey. At present, the proportion of non-bearing plants is slightly high compared to the bearing plants. The overall proportion of bearing to non-bearing plant was around 44:56% in Ramechhap. All Junar in the study area were of the local ecotypes, without any exotic cultivars. Table 3.1: Area and number of citrus trees planted in Ramechhap district. S.N . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 VDC Name Land type Bari Khet 494 2647 188.5 307 435 113 1084 205 221.5 456 354.5 146 292 202 452.5 408.5 65 8071.5 Junar 2424 6229 1045 1115 814 1062 5554 315 1434 103 1506 1579 7256 2229 16323 8922 5963 63873 Number of plants Mandarin Lime Other citrus 584 76 175 2183 1823 546 684 197 2 112 67 4 58 39 0 76 76 0 381 337 0 55 47 0 1852 1144 0 5467 27 0 1408 406 0 192 249 18 809 2085 1 112 198 1 1572 720 21 619 2689 23 293 530 2 16457 10710 793 Total 3259 10781 1928 1298 911 1214 6272 417 4430 5597 3320 2038 10151 2540 18636 12253 6788 91833

Daduwa 932 Fulasi 3142 Bethan 1424 Makadum 587 Gothgaun 389 Sunarpani 786 Salu 4626 Deurali 252 Hiledevi 1912 Lakhanpur 1636 Dimipokhari 1346.5 Himganga 1517 Ramechhap 3034 Bhaluajor 3515 Okhreni 7625 Sukajor 6215 Rampur 1631 Total 40569.5 Source: Field Survey, 2006

The topographical environment ranging from 1000-1400 msl is best suited for fresh sweet orange, mandarin orange, lime and lemon cultivation in Ramechhap and Sindhuli districts. Other suitable fruit species to grow were plum, persimon, pear, fig, kaphal, guava, etc. Custard apple, 26

bael and amla are naturally grown in forest areas of Bhatauli, Pakarbas, Bhaluwajor, Sukajor and Ramechhap VDCs in Ramechhap. Some VDCs of Ramechhap district (Okhreni, Salu, Sukajor), which planted more number of citrus plants, had higher tree productivity, attractive fruit quality, fetch more annual income per tree, were privileged by the following factors: 1. Climatic suitability, conducive sunshine and topographical facing 2. Soil depth and quality (less stony, porous underground) 3. Access to technical information and training on nursery production and cultivation 4. Nearness to demonstration farm (located in Salu and Bhaluwajor VDCs) 5. Adjoined to district head-quarter and motor-able gravel road network in most of VDCs 6. Motivation of long working Japanese volunteers and DADO staffs Table 3. 2: Area and number of citrus trees planted in Sindhuli district. S N. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 VDC Type of Land Bari Khet 1254 521 707 701 1086 625.8 4392 2302 5590.5 2273.5 2684 1901 3727 1192 702 755 398 91 675 446 904 177 624 740 1247 424.5 23990.5 12149.8 Junar 5639 399 1126 12659 10972 2935 3359 828 272 969 2293 714 2473 44638 Mandarin 2193 243 97 3150 5227 1142 1890 525 125 300 879 330 976 17077 Lime 18 789 1520 2639 501 1166 2120 748 19 370 51 344 198 10483 Total 7850 1431 2743 18448 16700 5243 7369 2101 416 1639 3223 1388 3647 72198

Baseshwori Kamalamai Bhadrakali Ratanchura Tinkanya Jalkanya Jhangajholi Ranichuri Dundbhanjyang Majuwa Bhuwaneshwori Sitalpati Bitijor Total Source: Field survey, 2006

Likewise, the surveyed area in Sindhuli was 36140.3 ropani, of which 66.38% and 33.62% were under bari and khet, respectively. Out of the 23990.5 ropani bari, 20.06% was covered by citrus; and 13.3% with respect to total land. In Ramechhap, only 12.59% land was planted with citrus. The trend of area coverage in Bari Sindhuli and Ramechhap seems similar.

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3.3.2 Bearing and non-bearing of citrus Table 3.3: Number of bearing and non-bearing citrus trees in Ramechhap district
SN VDC Name 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Daduwa Fulasi Bethan Makadum Gothgaun Sunarpani Salu Deurali Hiledevi Lakhanpur Dimipokhari Himganga Ramechhap Bhaluajor Okhreni Sukajor Rampur Total Total Area 217.26 718.73 128.53 86.54 60.73 80.94 418.13 27.80 295.33 373.14 221.33 135.86 676.73 169.33 1242.40 816.87 452.53 6122.2 Total trees* 3259 10781 1928 1298 911 1214 6272 417 4430 5597 3320 2038 10151 2540 18636 12253 6788 91833 Non bearing trees (No) Junar Mandarin Lime 1338 3438 577 615 449 586 3065 174 791 57 831 872 4005 1230 9009 4924 3291 35254 396 1482 464 76 39 52 259 37 1257 3710 956 130 549 76 1067 420 199 11169 60 1437 155 53 31 60 266 37 902 21 320 196 1644 156 568 2120 418 8444 Bearing trees (No) Junar Mandarin Lime 1086 2791 468 500 365 476 2489 141 643 46 675 707 3251 999 7314 3998 2672 28619 188 701 220 36 19 24 122 18 595 1757 452 62 260 36 505 199 94 5288 16 386 42 14 8 16 71 10 242 6 86 53 441 42 152 569 112 2266

Source: Survey, 2006

* Among the citrus trees, 793 plants were nibuwa

Out of total 72198 trees planted in Sindhuli (Table 3.3), 61. 44 % and 45 % of Junar, mandarin and lime were bearing fruits, respectively. Out of three citrus fruits, comparative advantage should be worked out with respect to economic benefit, tree productivity and fruit quality or popularity.

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Table 3.4: Number of bearing and non-bearing citrus trees in Sindhuli district, Nepal S VDC and N ward no. Total Total Nonbearin area citrus g (Ropani) trees Junar (No) trees (No) 523.33 7850 95.40 1431 182.87 2743 1844 1229.87 8 1670 2225.71 157.49 444.43 4996.51 4330.65 1158.44 1325.80 326.81 107.36 382.46 905.05 281.82 976.09 17618.62 Nonbearin g orange trees (No) 1228.08 136.08 54.32 1764 2927.12 639.52 1058.4 294 70 168 492.24 184.8 546.56 9563.12 Nonbearin g lime trees (No) 9.9 433.95 836 1451.45 275.55 641.3 1166 411.4 10.45 203.5 28.05 189.2 108.9 5765.65 Bearing Junar trees (No) Bearing Mandari n trees (No) 3413.29 964.92 241.51 106.92 681.57 42.68 7662.49 1386 Bearing lime trees (No) 8.1 355.05 684 1187.5 5

1 Baseshwor 2 Kamalamai 3 Bhadrakali 4 Ratanchura 5 6 7 8 Tinkanya Jalkanya Jhangajholi Ranichuri Dundbhanjyan

1113.33 0 349.53 5243 491.27 7369 140.07 2101

6641.35 2299.88 225.45 1776.56 502.48 524.7 2033.20 831.6 954 501.19 231 336.6 164.64 586.54 55 132 8.55 166.5

9 g 27.73 416 10 Majuwa 109.27 1639 Bhuwaneshwor 11 i 12 Sitalpati 13 Bitijor 214.87 3223 92.53 1388 243.13 3647 7219 8

1387.95 386.76 22.95 432.18 145.2 154.8 1496.91 429.44 89.1 27019.3 4717.3 8 7513.88 5

Total 4813.20 Source: Field survey, 2006

Junar, Mandarin and limes all had better yield per plant in Sindhuli district than in Ramechhap. The causes of low yield of citrus in Ramechhap were governed by the following factors: 1. Low rainfall and south facing slopes prone to draught, fruit fall and poor appearance 2. Disease and scale damaged stems and branches, proportionately higher in number and severity, respectively 3. Replanting and replacement of old trees insufficient. 4. Poor manure and fertilization 5. More number of newly planted trees producing lower yields 6. Lower sale price per tree, lack of encouragement The total number of 91040 trees, were accompanied as Junar, mandarin and lime in Ramechhap (table 3.4), out of which 45%, 32% and 21% trees are bearing and 55%, 68% and 79% are non-bearing respectively. Generally in well managed condition five years old trees starts to bear 29

where as trees aged over 7 years assumes 50% bearing capacity, reaching full capacity in more than 10 years. 3.3.3 Production and income from citrus Table 3.5: Production and income of citrus fruits in Ramechhap district
S.No VDC Name . Junar Mandarin Income @ Rs 10.5 184212 351666 144658.5 9607.5 3423 3202.5 24906 3475.5 397309.5 680946 210241.5 23079 68365.5 15109.5 149394 57109.5 22239 2348944. 5 Lime Total Productio Income Productio n @Rs5.2 n (KG) 5 (KG) 89060 206308 22498 24949 14476 18591 128408 4375 34645 1177 35520 45838 167075 67184 419805 162182 183872 467565 1083117 118114. 5 130982. 3 75999 97602.7 5 674142 22968.7 5 181886. 3 6179.25 186480 240649. 5 877143. 8 352716 2203976 851455. 5 965328 17544 33492 13777 915 326 305 2372 331 37839 64852 20023 2198 6511 1439 14228 5439 2118 223712 Productio Incom productio n e n (kg) (KG) @ Rs 15 80 3020 485 136 83 53 764 99 2943 25 966 592 5792 1157 2648 7305 2523 28671 1200 45300 7275 2040 1245 795 11460 1485 44145 375 14490 8880 86880 17355 39720 10957 5 37845 106685 242820 36760 26001 14884 18949 131544 4806 75427 66054 56509 48628 179379 69780 436681 174927 188513 Total Income per VDC 652977 1480083 270048 142629.8 80667 101600.3 710508 27929.25 623340.8 687500.3 411211.5 272608.5 1032389 385180.5 2393090 1018140 1025412

Daduwa 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Fulasi Bethan Makadum Gothgaun Sunarpani Salu Deurali Hiledevi Lakhanpur Dimipokhar i Himganga Ramechhap Bhaluajor Okhreni Sukajor Rampur Total

1625965 8536306

43006 1131531 5 1878347 5

Farmers cultivating citrus in Ramechhap reap annual income of Rs 11315315. It produced Junar, mandarin, and lime, a volume of 162.5965, 223.712 and 28.671 on the year 2062/63. Farmers in Ramechhap get Rs. 5.25, 10.50 and 15.0 per kg of fruit, respectively as mentioned for above

30

fruits, is less than that of Sindhuli. The average annual income per tree of Junar, mandarin and lime in Ramechhap was Rs. 298.27, 444.20 and 189.79 respectively. Sindhuli gains a total of Rs. 32536405.82 for sale of 3 citrus fruit species. It produces Junar, mandarin and lime totaling a volume of 396.37 mt (Table 3.7). The prices for Junar, mandarin and lime are Rs. 6.82, 12.25 and 17.0 per kilogram, respectively. On an average, a fruit from a single tree is sold on Rs. 788.53 per year, where as that of orange and lime on Rs. 1044.92 and 716.38 respectively. Farmers also reported that there is a trend of alternate yearly bearing in some Junar trees. They also experienced that heavy bearing is always followed by reduced bearing in the succeeding year and late harvest of the fruits from the tree apparently affect the performance in the succeeding year. However, the occurrence of alternate bearing is not much severe in citrus species. Table 3.6: Production and income of citrus fruits in Sindhuli district, Nepal 2062/63
SN VDCs (kg) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Baseshwori Kamalamai Bhadrakali Ratanchura Tinkanya Jalkanya Jhangajholi Ranichuri Dundbhanjyang Majuwa Bhuwaneshwori Sitalpati Bitijor Total 394644.2 27923.93 78802.87 885937.4 767873.1 205405.4 235078.9 57947.4 19035.86 67815.26 160475.1 49969.14 173072.4 3123981 Junar Production Income @ Rs 6.82 2691473.51 190441.20 537435.57 6042093.14 1400864.49 1603238.10 395201.27 129824.57 462500.07 1094440.25 340789.53 1180353.63 Mandarin Production (kg) 82307.68 9120.28 3640.6 118225.8 42861.54 70935.48 19704.3 4691.5 11259.6 32990.63 12385.56 36631.23 Income @ Rs12.25 1008269.08 44597.35 (kg) 341.33 Lime Productn Income @ Rs 17 5802.61 3705545.20 556515.40 1072036.84 8341096.31 7801604.22 2301802.97 3155624.25 877712.38 193420.54 719707.44 1515016.34 603408.23 1692915.59 Total income

111723.43 14961.81 254350.77 28823.76 490003.92 161507.82 1448266.05 50043.36 850737.12 525053.87 22110.86 375884.62 868959.63 40201.56 683426.52 241377.68 14184.32 241133.44 57470.88 137930.10 404135.22 151723.11 448732.57 360.3 7016.31 967.11 6523.27 3754.67 6125.1 119277.27 16440.87 110895.59 63829.39

5236894.34 196179.76 2403202.06 9500.46

21305549.6 640933.96 7851441.01 198789.1 3379415.21 32536405.82

Source: Field survey, 2006

3.3.4 Productivity of citrus Examination of the yield trend resulted in the mixed responses of the farmers. The farmers reported increasing, constant and decreasing yield trends. It was learnt from the survey that

31

increasing yield trend was really due to more number of trees coming into bearing, decrease was due to reduced productivity of individual tree compared to that of yield level in the past. The yield per plant of citrus fruits were almost half in Ramechhap than in Sindhuli. As mentioned earlier, the good reasons for better fruit quality or higher tree productivity might be less favorable in Ramechhap or it maybe due to other economic and socio-cultural reasons. The yield increasing was due to more number of plants coming into bearing from new orchards; rather productivity is decreasing on old trees.

Table 3.7: Trend of yield of Junar, Mandarin and Limes in Ramechhap and Sindhuli district Location s Average Ramechhap Junar 56.81 Mandarin 42.31 Lime/lemon 12.65 Sindhuli Junar 115.63 Mandarin 85.30 Lime/lemon 42.14 Source: Field survey, 2006 Yield/plant (Kg) Maximum Minimum 200 200 50 450 500 250 5 5 2 2 10 2 Yield trend (+ or -) Decreasing Decreasing Decreasing Decreasing Decreasing Decreasing

Increasing trend of production seems due to newly planted orchard coming into bearing but productivity of orchard decreasing in both of district. Non-adoption of technologies and decreasing productivity when relate the facts will be very serious issue and campaign based awareness is seems indispensable.

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3.4 Post harvest, marketing and processing of citrus 3.4.1 Harvesting Harvesting of the Junar starts from mid Ashoj onward to Phagun. However, the peak harvesting period falls within Mangsir. Fruits are mostly picked up individually from the plants. Early harvesting is performed in the situation where tree/orchards are far from home and where stealing problem occurs. Early harvesting before ripening of fruits also observed in both of the study district before Dashain, Tihar and Chhath Parba because of high demand of fruits consquently farmers getting high price. Farmers who need the cash urgently during the time of Dashain and Tihar also sell their fruits quite earlier and unripe. Whereas farmers who want to get more profit generally harvest late (Magh/Phagun). But keeping fruits on trees for longer time is reported to have adverse effect on fruit bearing in the following season, therefore farmers prefer Junar with better keeping quality to overcome this problems. Methods of harvesting when analysed, more than 50 percent of the farmers were not adopting the harvesting techniques in both of the district. This information is suficient to aware the concerned agencies to focus Table 3.4.1: Adoption of safe harvesting techniques in Ramechhap and Sindhuli district District Complete adoption Ramechhap 10.00 Sindhuli 12.00 Source: Field survey,2006 Partial adoption 34.40 35.50 No adoption 56.60 52.50

3.4.2 Time of selling of Citrus Fruits On an average 20 percent of Junar fruits sold before harvesting maturity. This volume of Junar goes mainly for Dashain, Tihar and Chhath Parba without considering the maturity of Junar. It means there is no problem of selling of citrus. Selling of Junar fruits mainly goes through lower belt of the district where maturity of fruits comes earlier than the higher altitude. Other determining factors behind selling of Junar before physiological maturity is need of finance during the time of Dashain and farmers perceive that early harvesting of Junar gives better quality and quantity of fruits for the next season. Table 3.4.2: Time of selling of citrus in Ramechhap and Sindhuli district District Before the ripening (%) 20 23 After ripening (%) 80 77

Sindhuli Ramechhap Source: Field survey, 2006 3.4.3 Adoption of storage

33

For the farmer, with the commercialization of agriculture, disposal of the produce has become as important as the adoption of storage practices. It is recognized that better and more stable prices alone can sustain the increased intensity of input use on the farms to increase production. Unless marketing improves, no incentive to increase production will attract the cultivators .This is all the more important in case of fruits which needed more cost to store for long periods due to their perishability and quality deterioration. Analysis of adoption of storage practice for citrus fruit indicates that very limited farmers adopting the storage practice. The findings clearly picturized the necessity of storage facility in the pocket area. Table3.4.3: Adoption of storage as a technology by farmers of Ramechhap and Sindhuli district District Complete adoption (%) Ramechhap 2.2 Sindhuli 3.3 Source: Field Survey, 2006 3.4.4 Price and Pricing The price fetched by farmers without much bargaining is substantial which has encouraged farmers to increase area under Junar. Price of Junar oranges varies across the locations and months of harvest. Fruit produced around the road head and close to market were reported to be sold relatively on expensive price as compared to remote areas. Average farm gate price over locations showed about one rupee per fruit in wholesale selling. Average farm gate price was Rs. 105 per 100 piece of Mandarin ranging from Rs 90 to Rs 120 for Ramechhap district which is lower than the Sindhuli district. Likewise farmers fetch Rs 100 per 100 for Mandarin ranging from Rs 100 to Rs 145. The case is repeated by it in case of Junar, which is higher rate of Junar in case of Sindhuli compared to Ramechhap district. Price of Mandarin found higher than Junar in both of the study district. The reason behind lower price of Junar is peeling characteristics of Junar and easy detachment of Mandarin segments. Table 3.4.4: Farmers selling price of Mandarin and Junar in Ramechhap and Sindhuli district Mandarin (Rs/100 fruits ) Junar (Rs/100 fruits ) Minimum Average Maximum Minimum Average Maximum Ramechhap 90 105 120 50 75 100 Sindhuli 100 122.50 145 75 97.50 120 Source: Field observation, 2006. District Stage of adoption Partial adoption (%) 36.70 22.30 No adoption (%) 61.10 74.50

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As the farm output increases, there must be a market for these products and a price enough to repay the farmer for his incurred costs and his efforts in production. Agriculture marketing is a process, which starts with a decision to produce a saleable farm commodity and it involves all aspects of market structure of system, both functional and institutional based on technical and academic considerations and includes pre-and post-harvest operations, assembly, grading, storage, packaging transportation and distribution. For the farmer, disposal of his product is as important as the adoption of improved technologies to produce more. 3.4.5 Price formation at different level Most of the respondent responded that price of Mandarin and Junar is formed between farmers and traders in lump sum basis followed by counting and weighing. But the case is reverse in case of sellers and buyer. The seller preferred to sell their product by counting followed by weighing. The focus group discussion in Ramechhap and Sindhuli district prioritized that the price formation at farmers’ whole seller and retailer depends on mostly the supply and demand of the market, previous day price, dealing with contractors and brokers’ commission, quality of the produce, speculative price based on situation, and product amount bargaining based on quality, and addition of profit. Another district feature of price formation of citrus products are majorities of farmers sells their fruits through middlemen because they have no producer group and have no access to the distant market. Therefore there exist a big gap between producer and consumer. Further more farmers have no bargaining power of their produce and are deprived of higher profit Table 3.4.5: Price formation at farmers, wholesalers and retailers level Farmers Supply and demand of market Previous day price Contractors' commission Quality of the produce Speculative price Product amount Financial obligations Source: FGD, 2006 3.4.6 Fruit utilization Most of the Junar produced in the region was reported to be utilized as fresh fruit. Limited use of Junar for the preparation of squashes, jam, jelly, marmalade and candy was also reported in the Wholesalers Supply and demand of market Catering of businessman Quality of the produce Speculative price Based on purchased price Bargaining based on quality Speculative Retailers Based on purchased price Supply and demand of market Quality of the produce Previous day price Bargaining based on quality Addition of profit Quantity/quality

35

visit. In addition, some farmers were found utilizing Junar for brewing liquor. However, farmers were interested to know more about fruit utilization particularly for such products which can be marketed easily. Table 3.4.6: Utilization of fruit for diferent purposes in Ramechhap and Sindhuli district District Ramechhap Sindhuli Source: Observation, 2006 Table purpose (%) 70 70 Processing (%) 2 1 Post harvest loss + Home consumption (%) 28 29

Production of processed product of Ramechhap district has higher than Sindhuli district. But one contrasting factor between these districts is that no fresh juice available in the Ramechhap district but three fruit shop has been selling fresh juice in Sindhuli district. Table 3.4.7: Processing status of Juice of Junar in Ramechhap and Sindhuli district Ramechhap Ramechhap Food Product P Ltd Ramechhap Agro Forest Prod. P. Ltd Ramechhap Parbat Junar Squash Budha Laxmi Juice Product Bishnu Kumar Shreshtha Megreli Juice Udhog Tamakoshi Forest Product processing Total Source: Observation, 2006 3.4.7 Marketing Junar is turning out to be the most lucrative fruit crop in the mid hills where citrus can be grown with the most assured market. As its plantation and production is increasing, its marketing system is also getting complex. Unlike the marketing problems of temperate fruits in Mustang and Jumla district, farmers did not report marketing to be any severe problem in the Junar areas visited. It is also supported by field observation that, as majority of fruit picking was already completed during early Mansir, and farmers were happy with the price they got. Intermediaries are involved in buying fruits in standing crop. Fruit is also sold by counts. This formed the major marketing system in the areas away from road heads and market. Normally intermediaries pick and carry fruits to nearest road heads by employing local people. The average farm-gate price varied from 0.75 to one rupee a fruit. The fruits are sold in local markets 36 Prodn. 5000 2333 2700 3200 1000 500 1000 Sindhuli Sindhuli Junar Prasodhan Compony. Fresh Juice (Retail Fruit shop) Prodn. 10000 500

10500

and go up to Kathmandu and Pokhara. Middlemen tend to sell to the wholesalers in urban markets. Different types of marketing systems of Junar as reported in the survey are presented in Figure 3.4.1. Selling fruits to the doke (either as retailer or acting as middleman), selling by producer to either wholesaler or middleman or retailer or producer acting as retailer were the different marketing systems. Farmers of Ratanchura, Tinkannya of Sindhuli district also act as a middleman and they have been carrying Junar to Sindhuli Bazar. Lack of organised marketing and formation of user groups to maximize growers interest is lacking. Very interesting fact is that Junar Bikash Shangh of both district found no involvement in marketing of citrus and price regularization. The farm products of districts brought to collection center through marketing agents of farmers themselves or group of farmers or cooperatives. From colletion center it brought to Narayanghat, Kalimati, Pokhara, Biratnagar, Janakpur market for sale. From the district centered market these fruits sales by retailer, bicycle vendor to consumer, school/hostels, and hotels/restaurants. In these case also involving various marketing agencies or middlemen. The retailer brings to retailer market; bicycle vendor walks door to door to sale these fruits and goes to the hand of ultimate consumers. In general, there are major four types of marketing channel observed for citrus product.

Farmer Farmer Farmer Farmer

Consumer Contractor Contractor Contractor

Consumer Trader Wholesaler

Consumer Retailer

Consumer

37

Producer

Middle-man

Transport agent

Wholesaler

Retailer

Thela/Cycle

Doke vender

Consumer

Figure 3.4.1: Marketing system of citrus fruit in the Ramechhap and Sindhuli districts of Nepal

38

3.4.8 Marketing system The farm product, which reaches to the ultimate consumers through the hands of various marketing agents is called the marketing channels. Marketing channel also helps determining the prices. More the numbers of marketing channel, higher the price and vice versa. Market itself organized the intermediaries, so that market is functioning well. The invisible roles of the intermediaries are organized by market. In case of those orchards where fruits are sold on contract to the middlemen, most of the fruits from orchard are harvested at 'one-go', but in case of other arrangements, where farmers sell their produce by theme selves or sell to Doke traders in the local market, selling are carried out in different phases. Table 3.4.8: Marketing channel observed in citrus fruits in Ramechhap and Sindhuli district District Marketing system Pre-contractual system Contractual system after ripening Whole orchard (%) Number of trees/fruits (%) 11 89 19 81

Ramechhap Limited/Not existent Sindhuli Limited/Not existent Source: Field survey, 2006. 3.4.9 Market outlet for citrus

Most of the farmer preferred contractual selling from field and their nearest market where they have to transport short distance. An universal fact that, there are substantial losses in transportation, it required transportation costs and risk of not selling the goods in time so that they have to bear extra expenses. Observation on the study area found that there were no structures and semi structured collection centers in both of study district. But one structured and one semi structured collection centers found in Sindhuli DHQ Table 3.4.9: Major outlets and collection centers for citrus marketing in Ramechhap and Sindhuli District Major outlets Marketing structures 0 2 Collection points Sukajor, Bhalukhop, Doramba Tinkannya, Khaniyakharka Market structure 0 0

Ramechhap Ramechhap VDC, Milti Khola, Dolalghat, Sitkha, Nepalthok Sindhuli Sindhuli Bazar, Kamalmai Source: Field survey, 2006.

3.4.10 Packaging materials and transportation The modes of transportation are porters, mules, bus, truck and tractors. As a result, it involves high transportation costs and is time consuming. Further more they also reported fruit damage up 39

to 25% during transportation. The major urban areas of the study districts are linked by motor able roads. Beyond urban areas, no road networks linking the citrus producing areas with market. Very limited proportion of fruits (0.80 percent) transported in cartoon, 92 percent in Doko, 2 percent in crates and 2.50 percent in jute bags in Sindhuli. The case is different for Ramechhap, where no cartoon were used 66 percent in Doko, 0.20 percent in crates and 34.37 percent in jute sacks as a packaging materials. Appropriate cartoon and crates enhance the transportation efficiency and post harvest life of fruits. The finding hence clearly proved the opportunities for cartoon and crates making enterprise. Table 3.4.10: Use of packaging materials for transportation and storage of citrus District Cartoon Ramechhap 0.00 Sindhuli 0.80 Source: Field survey, 2006. Packaging materials (%) Doko Crates 66.00 0.20 92.00 2.00 Jute Sack/ Bag 34.37 2.50

However, while talking to processing in the context of Ramechhap and Sindhuli district, where there is very poor post-harvest handling practices, processing industry should not be taken in isolations but also combined with packaging house, cellar store, cold storage are processing unit etc. So, that quality fresh fruits could be marketed according to the demand and so as to the processed products. All of these information shows that there is an opportunity to differentiate the fresh product in the market place by branding the product and delivering superior products to the consumer not in a traditional way especially in the new intervention area. 3.4.11 Marketing agents and flow of information Fruit productions are scattered in the districts. These products mostly consumed in the urban areas. Most of farmers cannot bring their farm products to the hands of ultimate consumers until and unless the middlemen are actively involved. Hence, MIS plays pivotal role in channeling the agricultural produce with market. Citrus grower, whole seller, middle man, and retailer were getting information by different level of the citrus production and marketing as per their accessibility. No case was found in any phase of institutional involvement for marketing and channeling of produce to balance the demand and supply of product in both of the district. Table 3.4.11: Type of agents involved in marketing of citrus in Ramechhap and Sindhuli district District Ramechhap Institutional Not existent Marketing agents Whole seller Middle man Existent Existent Retailer Existent 40

Sindhuli Not existent Source: Observation, 2006

Existent

Existent

Existent

3.4.12 Status opportunities and potentialities of citrus processing Junar has created employment opportunities in both of district. In Sindhuli, 45-90 traders with 15-30 stalls are involved including local farmers who supply fruit to the markets and have employed 400-500 local farmers. In Ramechhap haat, every thursday more than 500 dokos of Junar un-loaded and carried to Manthali, Dolkha, Sindhuli and Kathmandu. More than 20 people have been engaged as a full time in processing of Junar in Ramechhap By assuming on an average 35 % of the non bearing fruits of Mandarin and Junar in five year of period will be coming into bearing fruits and at the rate of productivity of concern districts the production come to 6935 mt. 4725 mt. of citrus in Sindhuli district Table 3.4.12: Production and market supply situation of citrus in Ramechhap and Sindhuli Particular
1. Total plants of citrus 2. Total number of bearing plants 3. Total production 4. Productive plants increase in next 5 yrs. 5. In next 5 year production of citrus increase 6. Total production in next 5 years 7. Post harvest loss + home consumption assuming 30 % of total production 8. Proportion of sale to the total production 9. Sale for processing purpose (Assuming 10 % of total sale) Total juice production

Sindhuli and

Ramechhap district

respectively. Table below presents the potentialities of citrus processing in Ramechhap and

Unit
No No Mt No No Mt Mt Mt Mt Liter

District Sindhuli Ramechhap
72198 39252 3767 32946 3161 6935 2080 4855 485 161833 91833 41324 1878 54867 2847 4725 1417 3308 330 110000

Due to urbanization, the urban people use to change their food habit to adopt the fruit processed products like juices drinking and eat the breads Jams, Jelly and Marmalades. The using of processed products of fruits like jam, marmalades and fruits juices are increasing day by day. The people of departmental stores told us products of Nepal are not good quality. So the buyers of processed fruits products wanted from Department stores the assured good quality products. The buyers are used to buy foreign processed fruits products. To increase the demand of processed fruits products of Nepal there should be improve in quality production. With considering of consumers demands of Nepalese processed fruits products come to produce in improving quality, there will be increasing the demand and gradually replaced the imported 41

foreign product by Nepalese fruit processed products. By considering all these factors of supply and demands of citrus fruits the medium scale capacity fruit processing industry will be feasible in the following districts. In Sindhuli, it will be feasible to establish the medium scale processing industry with capacity of 161833 liters of juice. In Ramechhap, it will be feasible to establish the medium scale processing industry with capacity of up to 110000 liters of juice. Box-2: Involvement of Dalit in Processing of Junar: Ray of hope in social inclusion Ramechhap Food Products has been registered in Office of the Company Registrar Kathmandu on 2062/08/29. The company has 40 members share holders with 34 women with share capital of NRs 2, 50,000. The company has produced 15000 litres of squash and earned NRs 6, 00,000 in FY 2062/63. Twenty people have been engaged as part time and 11 people as a full time employee. Company has been suffered in its beginning due to involvement of dalits in processing of pulp. As the industry was run in rented building, due to involvement Rajan Nepali, Sita B.K company do not found any rented building for processing in its initial phase of origin. The company was supported by MEDEP Ramechhap for its soft ware package.

3.4.13 Feasibility of citrus enterprise development Two processing enterprise, one in each is operating in Ramechhap and Sindhuli with support of MEDEP. Processing industries are needed to produce diversified processed products that can reduce the difficulties of transport and transfer fresh fruits to low volume high value products. These products not only add value to the produce but create more income to the farmers by giving employment, and also can reduce the volume of loss and damage due to timely use of raw materials. Therefore linking the production to processing industries is essential and important where there is commercial fruit production. In this connection, the surveyed pocket area being climatically more suitable for commercial cultivation of citrus especially Mandarin, sweet orange and lime. Processing industry can be feasible because commercial production of citrus has been coming to the markets. Farmers are being encouraged towards expanding the citrus area under cultivation. This parameter shows the possibility of establishing processing industries in the district. It has also been reported that the lack of processing industry are the hindrances on 42

commercialization of citrus farming in the district. Farmers found to be discouraged due to low price of the produce. The processing industry at Ramechhap is run by sweet orange farmer. The industry produces 2500 lit Junar Juice and is marketed in 2.5 lit and 1 lit plastic bottle costing Rs 270 and Rs 80, respectively. The industry focuses the Ramechhap market and there is no marketing problem for that amount of Juice. Box: 3 Failure of processing enterprise: An experience for all In Sindhuli, Hill fruits (Pahadi Phalphool) Processing Industry was established in 2052 BS in Kamalamai Municipality -6 with the cooperation of Agriculture Development Bank. The capital investment of the industry was Rs 190 thousand. It used produce to only sweet orange juice and marketed in 250 ml. Plastic bottle, which had good market in eastern Nepal. The annual production was 4000 liters of juice. The industry worked well till 2054 BS. From 2055 BS it did not work. As the industry was run in rented building at present they have already left the building and there is no chance of reviving the industry. No any technical reasons were found during the survey for the industry's failure except very weak management and co-ordination among the partners. Non-transparency in financial dealing has been the main cause of the failure. ADB due loan has been raised to around Rs 900 thousand by now.

Therefore from the survey, three type of cases have been observed one failure due to the weak management and co-ordination (Sindhuli) one very primitive type industry (Ramechhap) From these case studies it is clear that the small scale processing industry seems to be feasible to tide the start in the beginning. The capacity of the processing industry is need to be assessed in detail based on the availability of raw material. Therefore, for local level market setting up a medium scale processing enterprise capacity (around 1000 msl) can be feasible in the starting points. With less than 40% of Junar plants in productive phase in the region, country looks set to achieve self-sufficiency in Junar. It can well be imagined that by four to five years time marketing may emerge as a major problem when rest of the trees come to fruiting unless other solutions are thought and planned intimae. Any threat to this enterprise may have for reaching consequences as it is turning out to be one of the sources of livelihood for a considerable section of the farming household in the region. Farmers discussed the need of cold storage to get better return in off season. Apart from Junar sweet orange, lime, lemon, grape fruit, citron types of citrus can be seen growing but have little economic importance.

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Box: 4 Supermarket can play major role in promotion of processed Junar products The role of super market is increasing and supermarkets are associated with urbanization. Fruits and vegetables shops are still important for fresh citrus. Brands and attractiveness, portable packagings are emphasized along with quality of product in supermarkets. Supermarkets are looking to maximize their return on inventory investment. They utilize category management techniques to identify which brand produces the best The new citrus area being developed in the district have clearly shows that there is an opportunity to differentiate product in the market place by branding the product and developing and delivering a perceived superior product to the consumer and not be in a traditional way. These new operations being developed are on much larger scale than the traditional growing areas as the citrus grower have identified that they would require economies of scale to be economically viable in the medium to long term. Strategic approaches to the development of new citrus growing are required. The opportunities exit to develop the lower to higher belt ranging from 600 to 1200 msl which would allow for optimum production across six months of the year. 3.4.14 Scope of Junar in Sindhuli and Ramechhap district The following point highlights the scope and significance of growing and processing of citrus 1. Citrus are basic needs for many kinds of industries or factories like packaging materials construction, canning, preservation, and dehydration and essential oil extraction etc there by supporting post harvest fruit industries. 2. To meet the daily requirement of diets from nutritional point of view, the demand of citrus is very high, therefore more and more area under fruit crop have to be brought and productivity has to be improved. 3. Citrus growing not only help development of package, transportation, refrigeration, cold storage but also support other development sector as apiculture as a enterprise.

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3.5 Problems, constraints and recommendation for citrus development 3.5.1 Problem ranking of citrus grower Small to large-scale farmer of Ramechhap district identified five major problems. Pair matrix of those problems revealed that problem of lack of technical know-how was ranked as top problem while disease/insect pest and marketing facility ranked the other important problem respectively. Table 3.5.1: Problems ranking of citrus grower of Ramechhap district SN 1 2 3 4 5 Problems Irrigation Technical know-how Disease/insect Marketing facilities Transportation facility First priority (%) 19.60 49.20 19.20 40.50 46.60 Second priority (%) 32.60 36.70 47.60 8.60 15.00 Third priority (%) 47.80 14.10 33.20 50.90 38.30

Likewise, farmers of Sindhuli district also identified five major constraint related to citrus production. Those problems were ranked as following. The most critical problem was of transportation facility and road network followed by lack of technical know-how and disease/insect. Table 3.5.2 : Problems ranking of citrus grower of Sindhuli district
SN 1 2 3 4 5 Problems Irrigation Technical know-how Disease/insect Marketing facilities Transportation facility First priority (%) 62.30 9.80 3.40 25.50 98.40 Second priority (%) 22.20 62.50 26.20 39.60 1.60 Third priority (%) 15.50 27.60 70.00 34.90 0.00

In sum up there were some similarities of problem associated with citrus cultivation in both district however, intensity of problem are differ. Transportation facility and road network, lack of technical know-how, severity of disease/insect and marketing facilities ranked top problem in both of the district. The other problem cited by farmer of both district was irrigation facility in the orchard.

3.5.2 Major specific constraints to fruit production Various biotic, abiotic, socio-economic and technical problems hindering directly or indirectly Junar production were reported by the farmers during the study. The information were collected through checklist by focus group discussion during field visit of study team comprised of 45

horticulture development officer, plant protection officer and extension officer. The study identified following constraints on hills farming systems in general and particularly on different aspects of Junar orchards. Pink disease, fruit dropping problem powdery mildew, root rot, shooty mould, citrus greening like symptoms, citrus canker were the important diseases. Scale insects, leaf miner, shoot borer, citrus bug, aphids, mealy bug, parasites like lichen were reported as serious problem. Similarly, rat/rodents and birds problems were the other constraints mentioned. Hailstone damage to the mandarin fruit particularly from the stage of flowering onward till harvesting was also reported by the farmers in the visit. Weakness on the part of citrus growers in clearly identifying the nutrient demands of Junar crop and in setting priority for manure application.

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3.5.3 Gap identified and recommendations for citrus production in Ramechhap and Sindhuli district Table 3.5.3: Gap identified and recommendations for citrus production in Ramechhap and Sindhuli district Factors Motivation Gaps Passiveness and lack of commercialization concept on the part of fruit growers on the area Decreasing soil fertility Recommendations None of the farmers prepares activity and business-plan. All system of cultivation and marketing have been running on speculation and situation. It is strongly recommended to short out small and large scale farmers and prepare strategy accordingly. In a longer term, increasing dependence of livestock on crop residues need to be reduced through the increased supply of tree fodder and ground grasses. To achieve this, the following activities should be conducted. Identification of suitable leguminous, grasses and fodder species for planting in the citrus orchards in order to improve the availability of fodder, forage and to enhance soil conservation process. Management of community forest resources to meet the needs of local farmers and provision of collecting tree fodder, ground grasses, hays and leaf litters periodically Increase plantation of fodder, fuel wood and timber species on marginal lands to improve the availability of fodder, fuel wood, leaf litters, timbers and also to enhance soil conservation process. Poor soil fertility has been identified as one of the major reasons responsible for fruit drop and saclike of many of Junar orchards in the area, therefore study should be done to identify the possible remedy for fruit drop and citrus decline problems through fertility management. Citrus Greening Disease (CGD) is the major cause for devastating many established citrus orchards in the Ramechhap and Sindhuli districts. The strategy should be prepared to control the disease to address it. Provision of strict plant quarantine measures to monitor the flow of citrus planting material from outside the country and between the districts in order to control the diseases transmission through vegetative means. Use of quick and effective methods for indexing citrus Greening Disease (CGD) should be done. Provision of tissue culture facility to produce clean planting materials should be made. Junar cultivation and production are rapidly increasing in the surveyed areas and at the same time build up of insect pests and diseases and other nutritional deficiencies and disorders were also noticed which are perceived as yield limiting factors. Considering these issues activities should be focused on 47

Soil fertility

Disease/insect

Severity of disease and insect

Factors Irrigation

Gaps Lack of irrigation facilities

Research

Lack of post harvest research

Lack of synergetic efforts Research on appropriate intercrops Lack of HRD on citriculture Specialization Coordination Networking

HRD

Linkage between stakeholders

Monitoring Processing

Multidisciplinary approach of monitoring Processing enterprise

Recommendations generating suitable technologies for managing insect pests, diseases and other disorders of citrus orchards. Since Junar orchards in the area are mainly grown under rained condition and farmers reported that critical stages of Junar for irrigation are flowering and fruit setting which fall during dry period. Therefore identification of appropriate rain water harvesting technologies, moisture conservation techniques and use of some form of indigenous drip irrigation needs to be considered for utilizing scarce water resources for Junar orchards. It is apparent that almost 60% of the Junar orchards will come to full bearing in next five to six years and many more orchards are being established. Appropriate measures to deal with foreseeable marketing problems should be thought in time. Therefore, research on post harvest technologies including establishment of processing industries and cold storage are important. A task force at a national, regional and district level should be set involving concerned researchers, and extension expert for regular monitoring and prevent citrus decline. Study on the effect of intercrops on Junar yield particularly shade loving crops such as ginger and turmeric. Development of manpower on citriculture both for research and extension activities, training for field staffs and citrus growers on different aspects of citrus cultivation should be given due consideration Higher study for citriculture and soil fertility management of citrus fruits should be considered under training award schemes. Networking with National Citrus Research Programme, Dhankuta in particular and with other regional, national and international organizations in general for exchange of information and material, staff training, to set up periodical priorities for research and development should be considered Horizontal-vertical as well as backward-forward linkages between and among production, marketing and processing industry must be established and intensive training package for industry owners, farmers, traders and other stakeholder based on their requirements should be managed, and need of cooperative movement for further strengthening the diversified products through processing in sustainable way . Monitoring of the orchards by a multidisciplinary technical team, for regular and organized insect/pests and disease control campaign is therefore very crucial. Feasible for establishing medium scale processing enterprise having capacity up to 1000 in appropriate location after detailed study and business plan 48

Factors

Gaps Supportive activities to processing

Recommendations Explore alternative measures such as establishment of medium scale citrus processing enterprise, development of collection center, linkage with big wholesaler, cellar storage based on the level of production and agro-ecological belts. Aware to alter the farming practice as per the latest scientific technique and knowledge and make available of inputs like irrigation, fertilizer, credit, technology, and infrastructures. Campaigning based monitoring system and effective implementation of Pocket Package Strategy (PPS), intensive training packages on disease and pest control adopting IPM, harvesting techniques, reduction of post harvest losses, handling, techniques of transportation, loading, unloading and selling Awareness/ campaign of nutritional value of citrus consumption Prepare strategy and compliance to financing agencies for compulsory financing to citrus HVC identified by APP Make sure practicable technical support from ASCs on comprehensive approach to the needy farmers as the placement of these centre were not distributed based on agro eco- zones (AEZ) which would have met farmers need and maximized utility of resources. Assured inputs supply for citrus Strengthen the citrus grower on group approach basis Backstop and strengthen the institution related Junar development organization

Commercializat Awareness ion Campaign based approach

Awareness Finance Technical support

Lower level of awareness In-efficient financing system In adequate technical support services

Input supply Availability of inputs Group approach Individual approach Institution Leadership development

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3.5.4 Gaps identified and recommendations for marketing of citrus in Ramechhap and Sindhuli district Table 3.5.4: Gaps identified and recommendations for marketing of citrus in Ramechhap and Sindhuli district Particular Price Market information Transportation facilities Storage facilities Packaging and grading Processing Unorganized market Payment Traffic/police check Input supply Others Gaps identified Inappropriate and fluctuating , compelled to sell at lower prices Inadequate and incomplete market information Lack of roads and expensive transportation cost, difficult to get transport means Lacking Storage, cold storage, No knowledge of packaging, grading and quality maintenance and high wastage due to improper grading and packaging weighing , facilities Lack of processing facility Networking and coordination is lacking. Recommendations made Market price should be regulated and regularly published in daily newspapers/radios Correct and timely information is needed and should be disseminated By different media Develop road facilities, improve traffic rules for fresh products problem Storage and weighing arrangements should be provided. Training on post harvest handling, market management should be provided to the farmers and businessmen. Establish processing plant and create production and market diversification Marketing centers should be developed in different places and market should be better organized. Regular and corporations marketing Follow strictly rule and regulations Increase timely availability Needs political stability Government should think and analyze it with farmers’ perspective and support to the Nepalese farmers. Regularize the one way system of purchasing and selling of fruits

Irregular payment exploitation by middleman Illegal charges imposed and creates problem Not available in time and quality Strike, Nepal Bandh, Nakabandhi damage produce. Irregular supply's due to road close and different types of strikes Import from India Import of citrus equivalent to Rs 241500000 per year while export assume equivalent to Rs 37298284 including India, Switzerland and Australia Selling unit Wholesaler purchase fruit by piece system while they sell their fruits by weighting Source: Focus Group Discussion, 2006, FNCCI, 2061/62

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3.5.5 Recommendation for further study There is a dearth of consumer research information on the citrus consumer with no up-to-date information available. Therefore, it needed to know certain consumer purchasing and attitudinal information to help formulate the citrus enterprise development strategy and business plan with following of the area: 1. Purchase incidence and behavior of purchase for fresh citrus and processed products 2. The awareness level of consumer regarding the quality of citrus 3. Distribution of product on supermarkets 4. Purchase preferences 5. Customer satisfaction 6. Brand loyalty and preference 7. Impact of fruit juice leveling

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REFERENCES 1. APP (2062). Feasibility of Mandarin and Sweet Orange Processing Industry in Nepal. Agribusiness Promotion Program, Harihar Bhawan, Lalitpur. 2. APSD/GEED (2005). Selected indicators of Neplese Agriculture and Population. Agri Business Promotion and Statistics Division/Gender Equity and Environment Division, Shingha Durbar Kathmandu. 3. Aurora, (2002). Citrus Industry Development Strategy. Auraora Practical Solution Pt Ltd New South Wales, Austrelia. 4. Budathoki, K.; Pradhanang, P.M.; Subedi P.P. and Paudel, D.P. (1989). Production Constraints of Junar in Western Development Region. LAC working paper No . 89/6. 5. CBS, 2002. Statistical year book of Nepal. Central Bureau of Statistics, Kathmandu, Nepal. 6. Devkota, N.R.; Regmi, P.P.; Bhandari H.N.; Subedi, P.P.; Bastakoti R.C.; Paudel K.L. and Jaishi M. (2002). A Report on Production Problem Associated With Mandarin Orange Orchard in the Mid hills of Nepal. 7. Directorate of Fruit Development (2061). Horticultural Development Program/Annual Progress Report. 8. HMG/N.2000/2001. Annual Report. Citrus Development Division, Kirtipur,

Kathmandu, Nepal. 48 p. 9. ICIMOD, 2003 Cash crop farming in Nepal: The Importance of pollinaters diversity and managed polination in citrus. International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, Jwalkhel, Kathmandu. 10. Joshi, K.D.; Vaidya, A.; Rasali, D.P. ; Suwal, M R S; Subedi, P.P.; Adhikari, B. and Phuyal U.(1995). Fertility System Analysis in Relation to Mandarin Orchard in the Middle Hills of Western Nepal LARC working paper No. 95/9. Lumle Agriculture Research Centre, kaski, Nepal. 11. NCDP (2005). Annual Report. National Citrus Development Programme, His Majesty's Government of Nepal . 12. Rajput and sri Haribabu (1985), Citriculture . Kalyani Publications , New Delhi pp 367. 13. Ranjiit, M. and G.C. G.B. (1997). Citrus research and development action plan. A consultancy report submitted to ATSP Kathmandu, Nepal. 14. Subedi, P.; Ranjiit, M. and Paudel K.P. (2002). Citrus decline research in the hills of Nepal. HARP funded research proposal, TU/IAAS, Rampur, Nepal. 15. Subedi, P.P. and Bhattarai, S.P.(1993) . The effect of a law cost cellar structure upon the storage of Junar oranges in the sub-tropics. LARC seminar paper No.93/10. 16. Subedi, P.P., Khanal N.P. and Jaishi M. 2000. Integrated Citrus Management. Hill Agriculture Research Program, TU/HARP/IAAS, Rampur, Nepal. 52

APPENDIX-1 Household Survey Questionnaire Potentialities and opportunities of citrus production in Ramechhap and Sindhuli district

Name of household head: Name of respondent: Address: District: V.D. C.: Age: Ward no. :

1. Family description: a. Family size: b. Economically active work force: c. House holds head occupation: Agriculture 2. Land characteristics: Types of land Pakho / Bari Khet Total Irrigated area Non irrigated area Total area Job Business

3. Objectives of orchard establishment a. Home consumption b. Sale c. Both

3. Motivation agent for establishing citrus orchard a. Technician c. Neighbors 4. Gender involvement in nursery a. femal b. malec. both b. Mass media d. Self

5. Gender involvement in management of the orchard a. Female a. Female b. Male b. Male c. both c. both 53 6. Gender involvement in harvesting and grading

7. Gender involvement in marketing a. Female a. Female 9. Citrus fruits description 9.1 Sapling source a. Government nursery b. Private nursery 9.2 Plants descriptions Plant 1 2 3 4 Types Junar Mandarin Lime Others Total Plant number Bearing Non bearing Total Prod./ tree Extendable area (Ropani) 2 Yrs. 5 Yrs. 10 yrs. c. Self-production d. Others b. malec. both b. Male c. both 8. Gender involvement in controlling the income getting from selling

9.3 Types of citrus plants a. Grafted b. Seedling c. Both

9.4 Area and plant number according to age. SN 1 2 3 4 Age of plant < 2 years 2- 5 years 5-7 years 7- 10 years Total Area (Ropani) Number of plant Production / tree ( K.g. )

9.5 Technology adoption by farmers

54

S. N. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Technology Lay out, planting distance Fertilizer management Pit digging/ preparation Irrigation management Training, pruning Hoeing, weeding, mulching Disease and insect management Fruit harvesting Storage Transportation

Complete adoption

Partial adoption

No adoption

9.6 Inter- cropping in orchard a. Millet / Maize 10. Selling trend Immature fruits Price/ fruit Price/tree Criteria of price fixing Mature fruits Price/ fruit Price/tree Criteria of price fixing b. Creeping crop c. Others

11. Selling percent a. Before ripening 12 Selling methods a. Single tree 13 Selling placeses. a. Home b. Local hat c. District head quarter d. Out of district b. Whole garden c. Fruit quality b. After ripening

14 Income per year from citrus. a. Rs. .................per tree. 15 Fruit use purpose a. Table purpose .............. b. Juice purpose ................... k.g. k.g. 55 b. Rs.....................per ropani.

16 How to storage the fruits. a. open heap in orchard c. sack 17 Do you grading the fruits. a. Yes b. No b. Cellar storage d. Room

18 How to package for distance market. a. doko b. bora c. paper carton d. plastic crarte

19. Marketing characteristics. 20 Grading methods. a. Small and Large c. Bright - gloom 21 Means of transportation to distant market. a. Porter b. Khachad c. Motor/vehicle b. Large, Medium and Small c. Others

22 Proportion of loss during transportation. 23 Involvement of long distance marketing. a. Broker b. Self

24 Do you processing the fruits in local level. a. Yes b. No

25 Do you want to processing fruits in local level? a. yes b. No

26 Which product do you like to process in local level? a. Juice b. Squash c. Others

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27 Prioritization of problems related to citrus production SN 1 2 3 4 5 Types of problems First Irrigation Technical knowledge Disease, pest Market Others Prioritization of problems Second Third

Thanks for your cooperation

Annex -2 Checklist for information collection through Focal Group Discussion 1. Farming system 2. Yield and market price 3. Market channel and constraints 4. Labor management 5. Food security situation 6. Division of labor 7. Cropping system 8. Use trend of FYM/Compost 9. Crop rotation 10. Layout 11. Planting methods and spacing 12. Planting season 57

13. Type of sapling 14. Training pruning 15. Intercropping practices 16. Mulching practices 17. Irrigation methodology 18. Trend of production 19. Income from citrus 20. Productivity 21. Harvesting 22. Time of selling 23. Storage methodology

24. Price formulation 25. Fruit utilization 26. Marketing channel 27. Product market system 28. Major outlets 29. Packaging materials 30. Transportation 31. MIS in citrus 32. Problem and constraint 33. Gaps identification 34. Recommendations

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