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# Basics of Me chanical Enginee ring (B.M .

E)

UNIT-6

## Introduction:-The strength of a material may be defined as the maximum resistance a material

can offer the externally applied forces. The strength of a material depends upon a no of factors.
STRESS:-When some external forces are applied to a body, then the body offers internal
resistance to these forces. The magnitude of internal resisting forces is numerically equal to the
applied forces. This internal resisting force per unit area is called stress.
In order to understand the concept of stress, consider a body under the action of a no of forces.
If an imaginary cut is made by passing a cross section 1-1 & the left section is drawn separately.

## Defining stress at a point

Now consider the elementary force F acting on the elementary area A. Then by
definition

dF
= limit F = dA
A 0 A
Type of Stress1. Normal Stress-If the force can be resolved into components such that one of them is
along the outward drawn normal to the area (A).And other component lie in the plane of
the area(A).let (Fn )be the normal component ,then normal stress
n= lim (Fn)/(A)= dFn/dA

## Bro wn Hi ll Col lege of Engg. & Tech .

(n) may be compressive depending upon the force acting on the material to be either of
the pull or push type respectively. Tensile & compressive stress together is called direct
stress.
2. Shear Stress:-The force (F) may be resolve into finite number of component in the
plane containing area (A), because there are infinite number of directions in plane
containing area (A).Which are perpendicular to unit normal n. However , If we restrict
our studies to three dimensional co-ordinate system, then we are left with only two
direction x & y perpendicular to each other. Then the shear stress are defined as

x = lim Fx/A=dFx/dA
y=lim Fy/A=dFy/dA
3. Engineering (conventional)Stress:-It is the ratio of load (p) to the original area of
cross section AO, thus

=P/AO
4. True Stress:-It is the ratio of load(P)to the instantaneous area of cross section ,thus










=.

## For volume constancy, Al = A0.L0

So,




where l=L0(1+)
A=




- = (1+)

Strain
It may be defined as the change in length per unit area. The strain may be tensile or
compressive depending upon whether the length increase or decrease. It may be dimensionless
quantity

Types of Strain

## Bro wn Hi ll Col lege of Engg. & Tech .

1. Engineering Strain:-.It may be defined as the change in the length per unit original
length, i.e.

E=
Where

= = dl

## l =change or defined length

L0= original length
dl= change in length

2. Natural Strain:- It is defined as the change in length per unit instantaneous length i.e.,




= ln




= ln (1+ )

3. Normal Strain: - It is the strain produced under the action of direct or normal stresses.
4. Shear Strain: - It is the strain produced under the action of shear stresses. It may be
measured by the change in the angle. If dl is the change in length of face CD under the
action of shear force F, i.e.
Shear strain = tan
For small strain
Tan
Thus

## Poissons Ratio:-When a material is subjected to longitudinal deformation then the lateral

dimension also change. The ratio of the lateral strain to longitudinal strain is a constant quantity
is called poissons Ratio.
Poissons ratio () =

 
 



Hooks Law: - This law stated that within the elastic limits, strain is proportional to stress.

Elastic constant:-there are three elastic constant which are1. Modulus of elasticity: - within elastic limit the rate of normal stress to normal strain is
constant quantity& is defined as youngs modulus of elasticity i.e.

E=

.!"
#".\$!

## 2. Modulus of rigidity: - It is the ratio of shearing strain i.e.

E=

%
&

3. Bulk modulus: - It is defined as the ratio of uniform stress intensity to volumetric strain
(V) within the elasticity limits.
K=

'

Relation between Elastic Constant: - Consider a cube of unit size acted upon by simple shear
stress

shear strain

xy =

((
)(

%*+
,

so that

AC = AE

## Elongation of diagonal AC,

EC1= CC1 cos 45O =
Cos 45O =
Now

/
0

((
.

/
1

AC = 2 AB

## Strain in the diagonal =

234567 85 9756:3
;<868549 9756:3

=(
#(

((
.


.#)

((

/

= *

% *+

= *

Thus the strain in the diagonal of a cube subjected to the simple shear in half the amount of the
shear strain.
Now if the cube is subjected to simple shear, then the normal stress on the diagonal of the cube
is equal to the shear stress i.e.

n = xy
So, strain in diagonal =


>

## Bro wn Hi ll Col lege of Engg. & Tech .

Where n is the intensity of the equal & opposite direct stress on plane in the direction of the
diagonals.
If n acted alone in the direction of the diagonal AC, then the resultant strain would be n/E1 but
there is an equal and opposite direct stresses in the direction of diagonal BD. The strain caused
by it in the direction AC

=*

B

## So, Total strain in the direction of the diagonal AC

B

So,

CB

B

B

=
=

B

(1+)

(1+)

E =2G (1+)

(1)

Now consider a cube an equal compressive stress n action on all its faces. Then, bulk on
volume strain

Ev =

B

..(a)

## Where k = bulk modulus.

If the solid cube is subjected to n (normal compressive strength) on all
the faces, the direct in case axis =

B

E=

(tensile)

=

B
=

B
E=

B
E=

B
= .C

Ev =3

B
= .C

.(b)

## On equating a & b we get

Notes Also Avail. On sachinchaturvedi.wordpress.com

## Bro wn Hi ll Col lege of Engg. & Tech .

B
D

B
F= .C

E = 3k(1-2v)

(2)

The relation between E, G & K can be established by eliminating from 1 & 2, we get
E= 2G (1+v)

i.e.

&
E=

We get

GDH
FDIH

E =3k (1-2v)
(3)

Stress & Strain in simple & compound bars under axial loading:-A system consisting of
more than one bar or tube of the same and different material rigidly connected in such a way
that when subjected to load or variations in temperature each individual component undergoes
equal change in length is called a composite system.
Composite system of equal length subjected to load:- Consider there bars of different
material and different area of cross section but of equal length to subjected to a load P.

Let A1, A2, A3, & E1, E2, E3 be the area of cross section & modulus of elasticity
of these bars.
Let L= change in length L
Strain in each bar =
Stress in each bar =

J
!
J
!

.E
= E.

P1 =

J
!

.E1 A1

P2 =

## Load taken by bar 3

P3 =

J

So,

J
!

.E2 A2
.E3 A3.

.
#=I#.=.I#F=F

L =

Or ,

(A1E1+A2E2+A3 E3) = P

L =

Or,

J

## Bro wn Hi ll Col lege of Engg. & Tech .



(1)

L 

Where n = no of bars.
P1 =
P2 =
P3 =

.# =
#=I#.=.I#F=F
.#. =.
#=I#.=.I#F=F

#  =

OR

P {1+

OR

P{

# . =.

# . =.
#  =

# F =F

P.A3 E3

OR P {

#  =

A1E1IA2E2IA3E3

+
+

#  =

# F =F

+

# F =F
# . =.

# . =.
# F =F

+ 1}

## Stress in each bar becomes,

1 =

S
T

.# =
##=I#.=.I#F=F

1 =

.=
#=I#.=.I#F=F

Similarly, 2 =
3 =
or in general, i= 

.=.
#=I#.=.I#F=F
.=F
#=I#.=.I#F=F



L 

## Bro wn Hi ll Col lege of Engg. & Tech .

(B) Composite system of unequal length subjected to loads:-Consider two tubes of different
materials of area A1 & A2 & of unequal length subjected to load P. Since the inner tube is
larger than the outer tube by an amount , therefore, upon application of load P, the inner tube
takes up the whole load until it is shortened by



## Compressive load taken by inner tube = A2 E2.

This remaining load is then shared b/w both the tube as we discuss in the previous topic.

 #.=.
#=
#=#=.

## Total load taken by tube 2, P2 = A2E2. + (P-A2E2. )A2E2/A1E1+A2E2

So stresses in tubes becomes,
1=P1/A1 = (P-A2E2/L)E1./A1E1+A2E2.
2= P2/A2 = (P-A2E2/L)E2/A1E1+A2E2.
If outer tube is larger than the inner tube by an amount , then,
1 = E1 ./t + (P - A1.E1 /L ).E1/A1E1+A2E2
2 = (P-A1E1 /L)E/ A1E1 + A2E2
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## (C) Composite or Equivalent modulus:-To determined the common extension of a composite

bar .It is convenient to consider it as a single bar of an imaginary material with an equivalent as
composite modulus. Ee It shall be necessary to assume that both the extension and the original
length of the composite bar if the same and strain in all member will them equal.
Now total load on composite bar,

P= P1 + P2 + P3+.+Pn
If is the stress in the equivalent singe bar then,
(A1+A2+A3+.+An) = 1/E.A1+2/E.A2+.+n/E.An.
or, Ee(A1+A2+A3++An) = E1A1+E2A2+..+EnAn).
Or, Ee =ni=1 Ei Ai / ni=1 Ai.
Stress in the equivalent bar = P / Ai.
Strain in equivalent bar = P / Ee Ai = L /L.
So,

## Temperature stresses:- When the temperature of a material is change dimension is change, if

this change is prevented then a stress is set up in the material, which is called a temperature
stress.
Let,

## l = length of bar at temperature to

t = increase in temperature.
= coefficient of linear expansion for the material.
Change in length of the material = . l . t
Expanded length = l(1+t).
So, Strain E = lt / l(1+t) t(1-t)
E = t
Stress, = E t.

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## Bro wn Hi ll Col lege of Engg. & Tech .

When the temperature rises the material is prevented from the expanding and therefore,
compressive stress is induced in the material. On the other hand, when the temperature
decrease, the material is prevented from contracting & thus tensile stress is induced.
Composite system of equal lengths subjected to variation of temperature:- When the
composite system is subjected to a change in temperature then different components change in
length by different amount due to the different in their coefficient of linear expansion .A
material having higher coefficient of thermal expansions than other increase in length more than
the other than one. If this increase in length prevented then the material having higher
coefficient of expansion will be in a state of compressive stress & the other material will be
subjected to tensile stress. If no external force is applied then compressive P in the material
having higher coefficient of linear expansion will be equal to the tensile for P in the material
having lower coefficient of thermal expansion. Consider a composite system consisting of two
tubes of equal length l but of different materials. When the temperature of the whole system is
increase by t., therefore, increase in length of inner tube is 1, is to be greater than 2.
Different in increasing in length = (1 2).
Now if this different is eliminated by compressing the inner tube by a force P &pulling out the
other tube by an equal tensile force P then
Contraction for inner tube due to P, L1 = P. L / A1*E1.
Extension of outer tube due toP,L2 = P. L / A2* E2.
The different in length is eliminated, when,
(1 2). t. l = L1 + L2 = PL (1 / A1*E1 +1 / A2*e2)
P = (1 2).t / (1 / A1*E1 +1 / A2*e2).
Hence, compressive stress induced in inner tube
1 = (1 2).t / 1 /E1 +A1/A2.1 /E2
& tensile stress in outer tube 2 = (1 2).t / (A2/ A1 . 1 / E1 +1 /E2).
Composite system of equal length containing more than two components subjected to
variation of temperature

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## Bro wn Hi ll Col lege of Engg. & Tech .

Consider three bars of different materials, each of length L, having coefficient of linear
expansions 1, 2 & 3 & modulus of elasticityE1, E2 & E3 respectively rigidly connected at their
ends. Let t.c be the rise in temperature, Then,
Free extension of bar1 = 1 .t .l
Free extension of bar 2 = 2 .t .l
Free extension of bar 3 = 3 .t .l
Since their ends are connected together rigidly, therefore each bar must elongate by the same
amount l. So, actual extension of each of the bars is l. thus constrained strain in each of the
bars are l-1.t.l / l, l-2.t.l / l & l-3.t.l / l
Stress in individual bars are 1 = E1*E1 = (l-1.t .l / l) E1.
Similarly, 2 = (l-2.t.l / l). E2
3 =(l-3.t.l / l) .E3
Force in each bars are:
(l-1*t*.l / l) E1*A1, (l-2*t.l / l). E2A2 & (l-3 t.l / l)E3.A3.
As the composite system is in equilibrium, the total force must be equal to zero.
(l-1.t.l / l)E1*A1 + (l-2.t.l / l)E2*A2 + (l-3.t.l / l) .E3*A3 = 0.
Or, l /l (A1E1 + A2E2 + A3E3) = T. (1A1E1 + 2A2E2 + 3A3E3 )
Or, l = lt (A1E1 + A2E2 + A3E3) / A1E1 +A2E2 +A3E3
Or in general for n bars of equal lengths, we have
l = l.t.ni=1 iAiEi / ni=1AiEi.
By knowing l , we can determine the magnitude of stresses & forces in each bars by back
substitution.
If wa load P is also applied to the composite system in addition of temperature rise , then for the
equilibrium of the system
(l-1.t.l / l)A1E1 + (l-2.t.l / l)E2A2 + (l-3.t.l / l) .E3A3 = p

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So,

## l /l (A1E1 +A2E2 +A3E3) = P +t (1A1E1 + 2A2E2 + 3A3E3)

l = l {P + t (1A1E1 + 2A2E2 + 3A3E3)}

## Or, in general for a base of equal length, we get

l = {p + t ni=1i Ai Ei } / ni=1 Ai Ei.
Stress Strain diagram: - this is a graphical plot of a stress versus strain. These quantities are
experimentally obtained by the subjecting a metallic bar of uniform cross section to gradually
increasing tensile load till failure of the bar occurs.

A = proportional limit
B = elastic limit.
C-D = upper & lower yield plate.
E = ultimate strength.
F = breaking strength.

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## Bro wn Hi ll Col lege of Engg. & Tech .

(A) Elastic limit:-stress is linear function of strain & material obeys hooks law. This
proportional extends up to points A. this point called proportional limits. O-A is a straight
limit portion of the curve & its stop represent the value of modulus of elasticity.
(B) Elastic limits:-Beyond proportional limits, stress & strain departs from straight lines
relationship. This material is elastic upto state plate B. The word elastic limits that the stress
developed in such that there is no permanent deformation when the load is removed Up to this
point, the deformation is recoverable, and the stress at B is called the elastic limits sress.Till at
this point the material regain its original shaped on removed of the applied load.
(3) Yield Pt:-Beyond elastic limits, the material shows considerable strain even though here is
no increase or load or stress. This strain is not fully recoverable either is no tendency of the
atom to return to their original position. The behavior of the material is in elastic & onset of
plastic deformation is called yielding of the material .yielding pertain is the region-D & there is
drop in load at pt D. The point C is called upper yield pt & point D is called lower yield pt.
(4) Ultimate strength or Tensile strength:-After yielding has taken place, the material
becomes strain hardened strength of specimen increase and an increase is load is required to
take the material to its maximum stress at point E. Strain in this portion is about 100 times than
that of the portion from 0 D.
(5) Breaking strength:-In this portion EF, there is falling off the load(stress)from the
maximum until fracture takes place at F. the point F is referred to as the fracture or breaking
point and the corresponding stress is called the breaking stress.

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