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Notes for B.Tech 1st Semester Students for Basics of Mechanical Engineering

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E)

UNIT-6

can offer the externally applied forces. The strength of a material depends upon a no of factors.

E.g.:-type of loading, temperature & internal structure etc.

STRESS:-When some external forces are applied to a body, then the body offers internal

resistance to these forces. The magnitude of internal resisting forces is numerically equal to the

applied forces. This internal resisting force per unit area is called stress.

In order to understand the concept of stress, consider a body under the action of a no of forces.

If an imaginary cut is made by passing a cross section 1-1 & the left section is drawn separately.

Now consider the elementary force F acting on the elementary area A. Then by

definition

dF

= limit F = dA

A 0 A

Type of Stress1. Normal Stress-If the force can be resolved into components such that one of them is

along the outward drawn normal to the area (A).And other component lie in the plane of

the area(A).let (Fn )be the normal component ,then normal stress

n= lim (Fn)/(A)= dFn/dA

(n) may be compressive depending upon the force acting on the material to be either of

the pull or push type respectively. Tensile & compressive stress together is called direct

stress.

2. Shear Stress:-The force (F) may be resolve into finite number of component in the

plane containing area (A), because there are infinite number of directions in plane

containing area (A).Which are perpendicular to unit normal n. However , If we restrict

our studies to three dimensional co-ordinate system, then we are left with only two

direction x & y perpendicular to each other. Then the shear stress are defined as

x = lim Fx/A=dFx/dA

y=lim Fy/A=dFy/dA

3. Engineering (conventional)Stress:-It is the ratio of load (p) to the original area of

cross section AO, thus

=P/AO

4. True Stress:-It is the ratio of load(P)to the instantaneous area of cross section ,thus

=.

So,

where l=L0(1+)

A=

- = (1+)

Strain

It may be defined as the change in length per unit area. The strain may be tensile or

compressive depending upon whether the length increase or decrease. It may be dimensionless

quantity

Types of Strain

1. Engineering Strain:-.It may be defined as the change in the length per unit original

length, i.e.

E=

Where

= = dl

L0= original length

dl= change in length

2. Natural Strain:- It is defined as the change in length per unit instantaneous length i.e.,

= ln

= ln (1+ )

3. Normal Strain: - It is the strain produced under the action of direct or normal stresses.

4. Shear Strain: - It is the strain produced under the action of shear stresses. It may be

measured by the change in the angle. If dl is the change in length of face CD under the

action of shear force F, i.e.

Shear strain = tan

For small strain

Tan

Thus

dimension also change. The ratio of the lateral strain to longitudinal strain is a constant quantity

is called poissons Ratio.

Poissons ratio () =

Hooks Law: - This law stated that within the elastic limits, strain is proportional to stress.

Elastic constant:-there are three elastic constant which are1. Modulus of elasticity: - within elastic limit the rate of normal stress to normal strain is

constant quantity& is defined as youngs modulus of elasticity i.e.

E=

.!"

#".$!

E=

%

&

3. Bulk modulus: - It is defined as the ratio of uniform stress intensity to volumetric strain

(V) within the elasticity limits.

K=

'

Relation between Elastic Constant: - Consider a cube of unit size acted upon by simple shear

stress

shear strain

xy =

((

)(

%*+

,

so that

AC = AE

EC1= CC1 cos 45O =

Cos 45O =

Now

/

0

((

.

/

1

AC = 2 AB

234567 85 9756:3

;<868549 9756:3

=(

#(

((

.

.#)

((

/

= *

% *+

= *

Thus the strain in the diagonal of a cube subjected to the simple shear in half the amount of the

shear strain.

Now if the cube is subjected to simple shear, then the normal stress on the diagonal of the cube

is equal to the shear stress i.e.

n = xy

So, strain in diagonal =

>

Where n is the intensity of the equal & opposite direct stress on plane in the direction of the

diagonals.

If n acted alone in the direction of the diagonal AC, then the resultant strain would be n/E1 but

there is an equal and opposite direct stresses in the direction of diagonal BD. The strain caused

by it in the direction AC

=*

B

B

So,

CB

B

B

=

=

B

(1+)

(1+)

E =2G (1+)

(1)

Now consider a cube an equal compressive stress n action on all its faces. Then, bulk on

volume strain

Ev =

B

..(a)

If the solid cube is subjected to n (normal compressive strength) on all

the faces, the direct in case axis =

B

E=

(tensile)

=

B

=

B

E=

B

E=

B

=.C

Ev =3

B

=.C

.(b)

Notes Also Avail. On sachinchaturvedi.wordpress.com

B

D

B

F=.C

E = 3k(1-2v)

(2)

The relation between E, G & K can be established by eliminating from 1 & 2, we get

E= 2G (1+v)

i.e.

&

E=

We get

GDH

FDIH

E =3k (1-2v)

(3)

Stress & Strain in simple & compound bars under axial loading:-A system consisting of

more than one bar or tube of the same and different material rigidly connected in such a way

that when subjected to load or variations in temperature each individual component undergoes

equal change in length is called a composite system.

Composite system of equal length subjected to load:- Consider there bars of different

material and different area of cross section but of equal length to subjected to a load P.

Let A1, A2, A3, & E1, E2, E3 be the area of cross section & modulus of elasticity

of these bars.

Let L= change in length L

Strain in each bar =

Stress in each bar =

J

!

J

!

.E

= E.

P1 =

J

!

.E1 A1

P2 =

P3 =

J

So,

J

!

.E2 A2

.E3 A3.

.

#=I#.=.I#F=F

L =

Or ,

(A1E1+A2E2+A3 E3) = P

L =

Or,

J

(1)

L

Where n = no of bars.

Loads taken by bars becomes,

P1 =

P2 =

P3 =

.# =

#=I#.=.I#F=F

.#. =.

#=I#.=.I#F=F

# =

OR

P {1+

OR

P{

# . =.

# . =.

# =

# F =F

P.A3 E3

OR P {

# =

A1E1IA2E2IA3E3

+

+

# =

# F =F

+

# F =F

# . =.

# . =.

# F =F

+ 1}

1 =

S

T

.# =

##=I#.=.I#F=F

1 =

.=

#=I#.=.I#F=F

Similarly, 2 =

3 =

or in general, i=

.=.

#=I#.=.I#F=F

.=F

#=I#.=.I#F=F

L

(B) Composite system of unequal length subjected to loads:-Consider two tubes of different

materials of area A1 & A2 & of unequal length subjected to load P. Since the inner tube is

larger than the outer tube by an amount , therefore, upon application of load P, the inner tube

takes up the whole load until it is shortened by

Remaining load = P-A2E2.

This remaining load is then shared b/w both the tube as we discuss in the previous topic.

#.=.

#=

#=#=.

So stresses in tubes becomes,

1=P1/A1 = (P-A2E2/L)E1./A1E1+A2E2.

2= P2/A2 = (P-A2E2/L)E2/A1E1+A2E2.

If outer tube is larger than the inner tube by an amount , then,

1 = E1 ./t + (P - A1.E1 /L ).E1/A1E1+A2E2

2 = (P-A1E1 /L)E/ A1E1 + A2E2

Notes Also Avail. On sachinchaturvedi.wordpress.com

bar .It is convenient to consider it as a single bar of an imaginary material with an equivalent as

composite modulus. Ee It shall be necessary to assume that both the extension and the original

length of the composite bar if the same and strain in all member will them equal.

Now total load on composite bar,

P= P1 + P2 + P3+.+Pn

If is the stress in the equivalent singe bar then,

(A1+A2+A3+.+An) = 1/E.A1+2/E.A2+.+n/E.An.

or, Ee(A1+A2+A3++An) = E1A1+E2A2+..+EnAn).

Or, Ee =ni=1 Ei Ai / ni=1 Ai.

Stress in the equivalent bar = P / Ai.

Strain in equivalent bar = P / Ee Ai = L /L.

So,

this change is prevented then a stress is set up in the material, which is called a temperature

stress.

Let,

t = increase in temperature.

= coefficient of linear expansion for the material.

Change in length of the material = . l . t

Expanded length = l(1+t).

So, Strain E = lt / l(1+t) t(1-t)

E = t

Stress, = E t.

10

When the temperature rises the material is prevented from the expanding and therefore,

compressive stress is induced in the material. On the other hand, when the temperature

decrease, the material is prevented from contracting & thus tensile stress is induced.

Composite system of equal lengths subjected to variation of temperature:- When the

composite system is subjected to a change in temperature then different components change in

length by different amount due to the different in their coefficient of linear expansion .A

material having higher coefficient of thermal expansions than other increase in length more than

the other than one. If this increase in length prevented then the material having higher

coefficient of expansion will be in a state of compressive stress & the other material will be

subjected to tensile stress. If no external force is applied then compressive P in the material

having higher coefficient of linear expansion will be equal to the tensile for P in the material

having lower coefficient of thermal expansion. Consider a composite system consisting of two

tubes of equal length l but of different materials. When the temperature of the whole system is

increase by t., therefore, increase in length of inner tube is 1, is to be greater than 2.

Different in increasing in length = (1 2).

Now if this different is eliminated by compressing the inner tube by a force P &pulling out the

other tube by an equal tensile force P then

Contraction for inner tube due to P, L1 = P. L / A1*E1.

Extension of outer tube due toP,L2 = P. L / A2* E2.

The different in length is eliminated, when,

(1 2). t. l = L1 + L2 = PL (1 / A1*E1 +1 / A2*e2)

P = (1 2).t / (1 / A1*E1 +1 / A2*e2).

Hence, compressive stress induced in inner tube

1 = (1 2).t / 1 /E1 +A1/A2.1 /E2

& tensile stress in outer tube 2 = (1 2).t / (A2/ A1 . 1 / E1 +1 /E2).

Composite system of equal length containing more than two components subjected to

variation of temperature

11

Consider three bars of different materials, each of length L, having coefficient of linear

expansions 1, 2 & 3 & modulus of elasticityE1, E2 & E3 respectively rigidly connected at their

ends. Let t.c be the rise in temperature, Then,

Free extension of bar1 = 1 .t .l

Free extension of bar 2 = 2 .t .l

Free extension of bar 3 = 3 .t .l

Since their ends are connected together rigidly, therefore each bar must elongate by the same

amount l. So, actual extension of each of the bars is l. thus constrained strain in each of the

bars are l-1.t.l / l, l-2.t.l / l & l-3.t.l / l

Stress in individual bars are 1 = E1*E1 = (l-1.t .l / l) E1.

Similarly, 2 = (l-2.t.l / l). E2

3 =(l-3.t.l / l) .E3

Force in each bars are:

(l-1*t*.l / l) E1*A1, (l-2*t.l / l). E2A2 & (l-3 t.l / l)E3.A3.

As the composite system is in equilibrium, the total force must be equal to zero.

(l-1.t.l / l)E1*A1 + (l-2.t.l / l)E2*A2 + (l-3.t.l / l) .E3*A3 = 0.

Or, l /l (A1E1 + A2E2 + A3E3) = T. (1A1E1 + 2A2E2 + 3A3E3 )

Or, l = lt (A1E1 + A2E2 + A3E3) / A1E1 +A2E2 +A3E3

Or in general for n bars of equal lengths, we have

l = l.t.ni=1 iAiEi / ni=1AiEi.

By knowing l , we can determine the magnitude of stresses & forces in each bars by back

substitution.

If wa load P is also applied to the composite system in addition of temperature rise , then for the

equilibrium of the system

(l-1.t.l / l)A1E1 + (l-2.t.l / l)E2A2 + (l-3.t.l / l) .E3A3 = p

12

So,

l = l {P + t (1A1E1 + 2A2E2 + 3A3E3)}

l = {p + t ni=1i Ai Ei } / ni=1 Ai Ei.

Stress Strain diagram: - this is a graphical plot of a stress versus strain. These quantities are

experimentally obtained by the subjecting a metallic bar of uniform cross section to gradually

increasing tensile load till failure of the bar occurs.

A = proportional limit

B = elastic limit.

C-D = upper & lower yield plate.

E = ultimate strength.

F = breaking strength.

13

(A) Elastic limit:-stress is linear function of strain & material obeys hooks law. This

proportional extends up to points A. this point called proportional limits. O-A is a straight

limit portion of the curve & its stop represent the value of modulus of elasticity.

(B) Elastic limits:-Beyond proportional limits, stress & strain departs from straight lines

relationship. This material is elastic upto state plate B. The word elastic limits that the stress

developed in such that there is no permanent deformation when the load is removed Up to this

point, the deformation is recoverable, and the stress at B is called the elastic limits sress.Till at

this point the material regain its original shaped on removed of the applied load.

(3) Yield Pt:-Beyond elastic limits, the material shows considerable strain even though here is

no increase or load or stress. This strain is not fully recoverable either is no tendency of the

atom to return to their original position. The behavior of the material is in elastic & onset of

plastic deformation is called yielding of the material .yielding pertain is the region-D & there is

drop in load at pt D. The point C is called upper yield pt & point D is called lower yield pt.

(4) Ultimate strength or Tensile strength:-After yielding has taken place, the material

becomes strain hardened strength of specimen increase and an increase is load is required to

take the material to its maximum stress at point E. Strain in this portion is about 100 times than

that of the portion from 0 D.

(5) Breaking strength:-In this portion EF, there is falling off the load(stress)from the

maximum until fracture takes place at F. the point F is referred to as the fracture or breaking

point and the corresponding stress is called the breaking stress.

14

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