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Section A

Bahagian A
Answer all questions in this section.
Jawab semua soalan dalam bahagian ini.
1. Diagram 1 below shows the structure of a plant cell.
Rajah 1 di bawah menunjukkan struktur satu sel tumbuhan.

Diagram1/Rajah 1
a)

Name the cellular components labelled P, Q, R, S and T in Diagram 1.


Namakan komponen sel berlabel P, Q, R, S dan T dalam Rajah 1.
[5 marks/5 markah]

a)

Which cellular components are usually absent in animal cells?


Komponen sel yang manakah biasanya tidak terdapat dalam sel haiwan?
________________________________________________________________________
[1 mark/1 markah]

b)

What cells of a plant contain a large number of organelle P?


Apakah sel tumbuhan yang mengandungi bilangan organel P yang banyak?
________________________________________________________________________
[2 marks/2 markah]

c)

Give one reason for your answer in (c).


Berikan satu sebab bagi jawapan anda di (c).
________________________________________________________________________
[1 mark/1 markah]

d) What does organelle T contain?


Apakah yang terkandung dalam organel T?
________________________________________________________________________
[1 mark/1 markah]
f)

Explain one role of structure T to a herbaceous plant.


Terangkan satu peranan struktur T kepada tumbuhan herba.
________________________________________________________________________
[2 mark/2 markah]

2. Diagram 2 shows the crossection of an organ in humans.


Rajah 2 menunjukkan keratan rentas organ pada manusia.

Diagram 2/Rajah 2
a. State the system that consists of the organ shown in diagram 2.
Nyatakan sistem yang mengandungi organ yang ditunjukkan pada rajah 2.
___________________________________________________________________________
(1 mark / 1 markah)
b. A group of students conducted a study on the organ. The following shows the finding of their
study.
Sekumpulan pelajar telah menjalankan satu kajian terhadap organ itu. Berikut menunjukkan
penemuan bagi kajian mereka.

The organ is not responsible for human excretion.


Organ ini tidak bertanggungjawab terhadap perkumuhan manusia.
The organ is made up of epithelial tissues, muscle tissues, connective tissues and nerve
tissues.
Organ ini terdiri daripada tisu epithelia, tisu otot, tisu penghubung dan tisu saraf.
The organ is involved in human defense mechanism.
Organ ini terlibat dalam mekanisme pertahanan manusia.
The organ is made up of epidermis only.
Organ ini terdiri daripada epidermis sahaja.

State the incorrect findings and explain your answers.


Nyatakan penemuan yang tidak benar dan terangkan jawapan anda.
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
(2marks/2markah )

c) On Diagram 2 mark four parts that are involved in detecting external stimuli.
Pada rajah 2 tandakan empat bahagian yang terlibat dalam pengesanan rangsangan
luar.
(2mark/2 markah)
d) Parts X and Y of the organ are involved in homeostasis.Briefly explain how the labelled parts
carry out homeostatic function.
Bahagian X dan Y pada organ itu terlibat dalam pengawalaturan dalam. Terangkan secara
ringkas bagaimanakah bahagian-bahagian yang berlabel itu menjalankan fungsi
pengawalaturan persekitaran dalam.
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
(4marks/4markah)
e) i) State a structure of plant that has the same function as the organ in diagram 2.
Nyatakan satu struktur tumbuhan yang mempunyai fungsi yang sama seperti organ yang
ditunjukkan dalam rajah 2
___________________________________________________________________________
(1mark/1 markah)
ii) Explain how the structure stated in 1(e) (i) enables itself to function as the organ shown in
diagram 2.
Terangkan bagaimanakah struktur yang dinyatakan dalam 1(e)(i) membolehkannya
berfungsi seperti organ yang ditunjukkan dalam rajah 2.
__________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
( 2 marks / 2markah )
3..

Diagram 3 shows the condition of a plant when excess substance Y is added.


Rajah 3 menunjukkan keadaan pokok setelah bahan Y ditambah secara berlebihan.

Diagram 3/ Rajah 3
a) Name substance Y.
Namakan bahan Y
______________________________________________________________________
(1mark/1 markah)

b) i.

ii

Name the process that occurred.


Namakan proses yang berlaku
____________________________________________________________________
(1mark/1 markah)
Explain your answer in b(i) /terangkan jawapan anda in b(i).

________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
(4marks/4markah)
c) Draw the condition of the root hair cell when the plant is watered with plenty of water.
Lukis keadaan sel rambut akar apabila pokok itu disiram dengan air yang banyak.

(2marks/2markah)
d) Give one example of each process of passive transport and active transport in living
organisms.
Beri satu contoh untuk setiap proses pengangkutan pasif dan pengangkutan aktif dalam
organism hidup.

1. Simple diffusion
Resapan ringkas
2. Facilitated diffusion
Resapan berbantu
3. Osmosis
Osmosis
4.

Active transport
Pengangkutan aktif
(4marks/4markah)

Diagram 4 shows the organelles involved during the synthesis and secretion of an enzyme in
an animal cell
Rajah 4 menunjukkan organel-organel yang terlibat semasa sintesis dan rembesan suatu
enzim dalam satu sel haiwan

Diagram 4.1/Rajah 4.1


a) Name the organelles labelled P and R
Namakan organel yang berlabel P dan R
P:______________________________________________________________________
R:______________________________________________________________________
( 2 marks / 2 markah )
b) i) State the function of organelle S
Nyatakan fungsi organel S
________________________________________________________________________
( 1 mark / 1 markah )
ii) Explain the role of organelle Q in the synthesis of the enzyme.
Terangkan peranan organel Q dalam sintesis enzim
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
( 2 marks / 2 markah)

Enzymes are widely used in our daily life and industries


Enzim banyak digunakan dalam kehidupan seharian dan dalam
industri
c) Explain how enzymes act in:
Terangkan bagaimana enzim bertindak dalam:
i) Helping to cook meat:
Memudahkan kerja memasak daging:
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
( 2 marks / 2 markah)

ii )Extracting agar from seeweeds.


Mengexstrak agar-agar daripada rumpai laut
_________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
( 2 marks / 2 markah )
d) Diagram 4.1 shows the structure of an enzyme and three substrates W,X, and Y.
Rajah 4.1 menunjukkan struktur satu enzim substrat W,X dan Y.

Diagram 4.2/Rajah 4.2


Based on diagram 4.1 complete the schematic diagram below to show the mechanism of
enzyme action on a suitable substance
Berdasarkan rajah lengkapkan rajah skema di bawah bagi menunjukkan mekanisme
tindakan enzim ke atas substrat yang sesuai.

( 3 marks / 3 markah )
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5. Diagram 5 shows part of the stages of cell division P and Q in an animal cell.
Rajah 5 menunjukkan sebahagian daripada peringkat-peringkat pembahagian sel P dan Q
dalam sel haiwan.

Diagram 5/ Rajah 5
a) i ) State the importance of processes P and Q.
Nyatakan kepentingan proses P dan Q
P:______________________________________________________________________

Q:______________________________________________________________________
(2Marks/ 2 markah)
ii) Where do P and Q occur in animal?
Dimanakah P dan Q berlaku dalam haiwan?
P:____________________________

Q:________________________________
(2marks/2markah)

b) i) Name stages X and Y.


Namakan peringkat X dan Y
X:____________________________

Y:________________________________
(2marks/2markah)

c) State two differences between processes P and Q.


Nyatakan dua perbezaan antara proses P dengan Q

(2marks/2markah)
d) The knowledge of process Q is applied in cloning . State two advantage and disadvantage
of cloning.
Pengetahuan tentang proses Q telah diaplikasikan dalam pengklonan.Nyatakan
dua kebaikan dan keburukan pengklonan.
Advantage:__________________________________________________________________
Kebaikan
__________________________________________________________________

Disadvantage :_______________________________________________________________
Keburukan
_______________________________________________________________
(4marks/4markah)

Section B
Bahagian B
(40 marks/40 markah)
6 The human body is made up of four major type of tissues ,namely
Badan manusia terdiri daripada empat jenis tisu yang utama , iaitu
a) muscle tissue / tisu otot
b) epithelial tissues / tisu epithelial
c) nerve tissues / tisu saraf
d) connective tissues / tisu penghubung
Briefly explain how the tissues are formed and the function of each type of tissue.
Terangkan secara ringkas bagaimanakah tisu itu terbentuk dan fungsi bagi setiap tisu itu
(20 marks / 20 markah)

7.

a) Explain the meaning of intracellular and extracellular enzyme


Terangkan makna enzim dalam sel dan enzim luar sel
(4marks /4markah)
b) Diagram 7 shows the production enzyme in the pancreas.
Rajah 7menunjukkan penghasilan enzim dalam pancreas

Diagram 7/Rajah 7
Explain the involvement of specific organelles in the diagram above in the production of this

extracellular enzyme
Terangkan peranan organel dari rajah dalam penghasilan enzim luar sel
(6marks /6markah)

c)

8.

Name one of the pancreatic enzymes. Explain how the temperature and pH affect the action of this
enzyme.
Namakan satu enzim dari pancreas. Terangkan bagaimana suhu dan pH mempengarui aktiviti enzim
Ini.
(10marks/10 markah)

a) Diagram8.1 shows the structure of a unicellular organism which lives in a freshwater pond.
Rajah 8.1menunjukkan struktur satu organisma unisel yang hidup dalam kolam air tawar

Diagram 8.1/Rajah 8.1


Explain the function of X in osmoregulation.
Terangkan fungsi X dalam proses pengosmokawalaturan.
(4marks/4 markah)
b) Diagram 8.2 shows the structure of the plasma membrane and the concentration of
different molecules inside and outside of a cell.
Rajah 8.2 menunjukkan stuktur membran plasma dan kepekatan molekul di dalam
dan di luar sel.

Diagram 8.2/Rajah 8.2


Based on Diagram 8.2 descibe the movement of molecules across the plasma
membrane into the cell.
Berdasarkan Rajah8.2 terangkan pergerakan molekul merentasi membran plasma
ke dalam sel.
(8 marks / 8 markah)
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c)

Diagram 8.3 and Diagram 8.4 show two ways of preserving fish and vegetable .
Rajah dan Rajah 8.3 menunjukkan 8.4 dua cara pengawetan ikan dan sayur.

Diagram 8.3 and Diagram 8.4


Explain how the preservatives are effective in the preservation of each type of the food.
Terangkan bagaimana bahan-bahan pengawet itu berkesan dalam pengawetan setiap bahan
makanan tersebut.
(8 marks / 8 markah)
9.
Water is the common name applied to the liquid form of the hydrogen and oxygen
compound . Water is one of natures important gifts to mankind .Essential to life ,a
persons survival depends on drinking water.
Air adalah nama biasa bagi bentuk cecair sebatian hidrogen dan oksigen .Air
adalah anugerah yang amat berharga bagi manusia .Penting untuk hidup ,
kemandirian manusia bergantung pada meminum air.

a) By referring to the statement given and your biological knowledge ,discuss the important of
water for life.
Dengan merujuk kepada kenyataan diberi dan pengetahuan biologi anda .bincangkan
kepentingan air pada manusia.
(10 marks / 10 markah)
b) Given four types of enzyme. Discuss the uses of this enzymes in daily life and industry.
Diberi empat jenis enzim. Bincangkan kegunaan enzim ini dalam kehidupan harian.
I)
II)

Protease
Protease
Amylase
Amilase

III)
IV)

Lipase
Lipase
Cellulase
Selulase
(10 marks / 10 markah)

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Prepaired by

Checked by

Approved by

..

(Pn Anna)

(Pn Umi Kalsum )

(Pn Suria Hamzah )

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Skema Pemarkahan PPT BIO 2015 Ting 4


1 .(a) P: Chloroplast
Q: Cell wall
R: Mitochondrion
S: Nucleus
T: Vacuole
(b) The cell wall, chloroplasts and vacuole
(c) The palisade mesophyll cells and spongy mesophyll cells of leaves
(d) These cells carry out photosynthesis which requires chlorophyll which is contained in the
chloroplasts.
(e) Cell sap
(f ) Storage of food like oil and water.Some vacuole remove waste product.
2.

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3.a)
b)

Fertiliser
i.

Plasmolysis

ii.

Excess fertilizer cause the soil water to become hypertonic to the root hair cell,Water
molecules from root hair cells diffuse out to the soil by osmosis.The cells are
plasmolysed and wilting occurs.

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c)

1.

Gaseous exchange between alveoli and blood capillaries.

2.

Absorbtion of digested food in villus

3.

absorbtion of water by root hair cells.

4.

Intake of ions into the root hair cells

5.a)

i.

P : To produce gamete cell


Q: For growth and to repair damaged tissues

ii.

b).

P: In reproductive organs

X: Metaphase

Q: In somatic cells / all the cell other


than reproductive cells

Y: Anaphase

c)
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P
1.Crossing over between non-sister chromatids
occurs
2.Four daughter cells are produced at the end
of the division
d)

Q
1. Crossing over does not occur.
2. Two daughter cells are produced at the
end of the division

Advantage :1 Large numbers of offspring can be produced in a shorter time.


2.The good qualities of the plants and animals can be selected and maintained in
the clones.
3.It ensures the continuity of hereditary traits from the parents to the clones.

Disadvantages:1. The resistance of the clones towards diseases and pest is the same.
If a clone is infected with a diseases by pest then all the clones will be
affected and die.
2. Cloning prevents natural selection
3.Cloning is carried out under controlled environment.If the external
environment changes , then the clones will be destroyed.
Section B
6.
*Muscle tissue:The most abundant tissue in the body.It composed of cells called muscle fibres.
*There are three type of muscle tissues :smooth muscle .skeletal muscles and cardiac muscles
*smooth muscle along digestive tract and blood vessle responsible for involuntary actions such
as peristalsis.
*Skeletal muscle : Attached to the bones responsible for voluntary movements.contraction and
relaxation of skeletal muscels produce body movement
*Cardiac muscle: Form the contractile wall of the muscle.Contract to pump blood all parts of
the body
*Involve in involuntary action
* Epithelial tissue consist of one or more layers of cells.The cells are tightly interconnected
and form a continuous layer over body surface for examples skin,inner lining of lungs and
digestive tract.
*A protective barrier against infection,mechanical injuries ,and dehydration.
*Epithelial cells in intestine form mucus secreting goblet cells which secrete mucus in
digestive tract helps in movement of faeces,
*Epithelial tissue that lines at trachea consist of elongated cells with hair like projections called
cilia helps in trapping dust particles
*Nerve tissue composed of neurons or nerve cells . Each nerones consist of a cell body and
nerve fibres called dendrites and axon.
*Neurones to detect stimuli and transmit electrical signals called nerve impulses tomuscle or
glands.
*Nerve tissues control and coordinate activities of the body.
*Connective tissue consist of various type of cells and fibres separated by and extracellular of
matrix.
*Loose connective tissue bind epithelia to underlying tissues and holds organs in space.
*Dense fibrous connective tissue contain collagenous fibres found in tendons which connect
muscle and bones.
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*Cartilage a strong and flexible connective tissues covers end of bones.


* Cartilage act as cushions to absorb pressure at the end of bones.
*Bone consist of cells embedded in a matrix of collagen which are hardend by mineral deposits
Such as calcium.
*Bone provides protection to organs and support the body.
*Blood cells produce in the bone marrow located at the end of bone marrow.
*Blood has regulating , transporting and protective functions.
*Adipose tissue consist of tightly packed cells that stores fat.
*Adipose tissue act as an energy reserve and also provides insulation and protection.
7.

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8.

a) - The contractile vacuole (X) regulates the osmotic pressure


- excesses water in the cell diffuses into the contractile vacuole by osmosis
- The contractile vacuole expand to collect the excess water
- when the contractile vacuole is full, it contracts to expel the excess water out to its
surrounding
b) Movement of potassium ions
F: By active transport
P1: Through carrier protein
P2: Against concentration gradient
P3: Use (metabolic) energy
P4: Result in accumulation
Movement of water molecules
F: By Osmosis
P1: Through phospholipid bilayer/pore protein/carrier protein
P2: From a region of higher water concentration //outside cell
has higher water concentration/ lower solute concentration
P3: Passive transport/ do not need energy
Movement of Vitamin E
F: By simple diffusion
P1: Through phospholipid bilayer
P2: From a region of higher (solute) concentration to a region
of lower (solute) concentration
P3: passive transport// do not need energy
c)-The fish is immersed in the salt solution which is hypertonic to the fish tissues
- More water diffuses out from the fish tissues into the salt solution by osmosis
- The fish become dehydrated.
- This prevents bacterial growth in the fish tissues.
- The bacterial cells are also plasmolysed
- The prevents decay of the fish
- Vegetables are immersed in vinegar which is acidic.
- Vineger diffuses into the vegetable tissues.
- The vegetable tissues become acidic.
- The low pH prevents bacterial growth in the tissues.
- This prevents decay of the vegetable

a) -As a medium for the chemical reaction in the cell


- To help the transport of carbon dioxide , oxygen , food , hormons , and excretory materials.
- to retain osmotic pressure of blood and tissue fluid.
- To control body temperature true evaporation of sweat.
- to dilute toxic materials
- As a solvent for organic substances and mineral ions
- As a lubricant of joints
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- To facilitate smooth movement of food during peristalsis


- For industries cleaning, cooling dissolving and ,hydroponic.
c) i) Protease -To tenderise tough meat
- In fish canning industry , to help discard hair from leather or fish scales
- In cheese making to solidify milk .
ii)- Amylase -In te processing of fruit juices , chocolates and other food.
- In alcohol industry , added to digest starch before adding malt
- Remove stain containing starch. Exp souces ,ice cream and gravy
iii)- Lipase - In fats industry to produce glycerol and fatt acid.
- To separate and reduce fats in food like meat
- Effective in removing oil and grease
iv) Cellulase -has been added to brighten the colours.
- It also soften the cloths.
- Prevents cloudiness during the storage of beers.

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