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have been dissolved into another substance. Solutions can be made from many different substances in many different physical states, but all solutions share some common properties.
A. Properties of solutions:
1. Solutions are homogeneous mixtures 2. The dissolved particles in a solution will not come out of the solution, no matter the length of time the solution is allowed to stand, assuming the solution is covered. 3. Solutions are clear and transparent because the dissolved particles are too small to be seen. 4. Solutions cannot be separated by filtering because the dissolved particles are smaller than the holes in the filter. 5. Solutions are considered to be in one phase even though they may be made of solute/solvent pairs in different phases.
B. Components of Solutions
Solvent: dissolving medium Solute: the substance being dissolved Solutions can be created using solutes and solvents of any physical state of matter. Most often, the results solutions remains in the same state as the solvent used to create it. State of Solution gas gas gas liquid liquid liquid solid solid solid State of Solvent gas gas Gas liquid liquid liquid solid solid solid State of Solute gas liquid solid gas liquid solid gas liquid solid Example Air water vapor in air (humidity) The odor of a solid -molecules of that solid being dissolved in the air Oxygen in water, soda pop (CO2 in water) Alcohol in water Salt in water Hydrogen in palladium Mercury in silver (amalgam) Silver in gold (alloy)
Each solution has its own unique solubility. The amount of solute that will dissolve into a particular solvent can vary under certain conditions.
C. Solubility Terms
The solubility of a solution is a measure of how much of the solute can be dissolved into the solvent. The solution reaches a point called the saturation point when no more solute will be accepted by the solvent. Any further addition of solute will result in solid solute mixed in with the saturated solution. (In this way, solubility can be thought of as a recipe for the creation of a saturated solution). Each solvent and solute pair has a characteristic solubility at a given temperature. Usually as you increase the temperature, an increased amount of solute will be able to dissolve.
solubility- the measured amount of a solute that will dissolve in a specific amount of solvent at a certain temperature and/or pressure.
For the easiest view of solubility, think of examples of a solid solute dissolving into a liquid solvent, keeping in mind that other materials do not work in the same fashion. Solubility of salts (ionic compounds) depends upon the type of ions in the salt, while solubility of molecules depends upon the idea of “like dissolves like”. There is a very great range of solubility of salts in water. Even the most insoluble, such as silver chloride, have a very small but detectable solubility.
Several terms are used along with the idea of solubility to help classify solutes that will and will not form solutions.
(referring to a solid solute mixing with a liquid solvent):
soluble- when a solid solute will mix, dissociate, and form a solution (all the solid particles disappear) insoluble- when a solid solute will NOT mix, and layers form (all the solid particles fall to the bottom of the container unchanged)
(referring to a liquid solute mixing with a liquid solvent):
miscible- when a liquid solute will mix, dissociate, and form a solution immiscible- when a liquid solute will NOT mix, and layers form
D.Factors that affect the degree of solubility:
1. The nature of the solute and solvent. “like dissolves like” 2. Temperature- solids and liquids increase temperature, increase solubility gas solutes increase temperature, decrease solubility 3. Pressuresolids and liquids no effect gas solutes increase pressure, increase solubility decrease pressure, decrease solubility
Just as there are factors that will determine how much solute can combine with a solvent, factors also exist that determine how fast a solute can dissolve in a solvent.
E. Factors affecting the rate of solution:
rate of solution- rate at which the solute dissolves in the solvent 1. Size of particles (surface area)- smaller solute particles dissolve faster because the solvent has a larger surface area to attack 2. Stirring- particles of the solute and solvent come in contact with one another more often, and cause the solute to dissolve faster 3. Temperaturesolids and liquids increase temp., dissolves faster gas solutes increase temp., dissolves slower 4. Amount of solute already in solution- solute will dissolve faster if there are few particles dissolved in the solvent, as the amount of solute in the solution increases the time it takes the solute to dissolve will increase
F. Heats of Solution:
a. Exothermic Releases heat (gets warm) Ex. NaOH + water b. Endothermic Absorbs heat (cools) Ex. ammonium nitrate G. Solubility – maximum amount of solute that will dissolve in a given amount of solvent (specified temperature & pressure) a. Saturated – solution contains maximum amount of dissolved solute for a given amount of solvent (specific temp. & press.) maximum solute dissolved (additional falls to bottom) b. Unsaturated – contains less than saturated solution (can dissolve more solute) c. Supersaturated Solution – contains more dissolved solute than a saturated solution at the same temperature. Ex. Sugar in Water
Make by heating water, adding more solute, then cooling slowly. Unstable –When tiny amount of solute (seed crystal)is added, all the excess solute precipitates. d. Crystallization – also can occur when inside of the container is scratched or solution undergoes shock.
Solubility can be used to help determine information about the types of solutions created for a given amount of solvent, for the temperature at which the solution was created, and the types of compounds that are most likely to dissolve in a particular solvent.
Often information about the solubility of a substance will be presented in a statement, graph, or table form. In the graph, notice the variables that appear on the x and y axes, these graphs will always be constructed this way.
Use the following statement to answer these questions. Q1: The solubility of KClO3 at 25 oC is 10.0 g of solute in 100.0 g of H2O. -If 15.0 g of KClO3 are added to 100.0 g of water at 25 oC with stirring, how much of the solute will dissolve? Is the solution saturated, unsaturated, or supersaturated?
- If 15.0 g of KClO3 are added to 200.0 g of water at 25 oC with stirring, how much of the solute will dissolve? Is the solution saturated, unsaturated, or supersaturated?
Plotting data into a solubility graph and/or looking up information in a table led to the development of generalities in solubility (that is a broad, general statement that can be used to determine if specific ions will usually be soluble or insoluble). Using this simplification of classifying materials as either soluble or not in water at room temperature, there are some nice easy general rules for predicting whether or not a salt will dissolve in water. These rules are useful not just for predicting how to make solutions, but ion reactions, such as a double displacement reaction, depend upon the insolubility of a salt as a possible product for the reaction to happen. Stuff for you to memorize! Simple Rules for Solubility of Salts in Water
1. Most nitrate (NO3-) salts are soluble 2. Most salts of Na+, K+, and NH4+ are soluble 3. Most chloride salts are soluble. Notable exceptions are AgCl, PbCl2, and Hg2Cl2. 4. Most sulfate salts are soluble. Notable exceptions are BaSO4, PbSO4, and CaSO4. 5. Most hydroxide salts are only slightly soluble. The important soluble hydroxides are NaOH, KOH and Ca(OH)2 (marginally soluble). 6. Most sulfide (S2-), carbonate (CO3-) and phosphate (PO43-) salts are only slightly soluble.
Use the following graph to answer these questions.
1. The y axis measures the amount of solute that will dissolve into a given amount of solvent. Identify the solvent in the solutions represented by the graph, and describe how much of it will be used to create the solution. 2. The x axis describes the conditions under which the solution has been created. Based on this graph, what factor affects the amount of solute that can dissolve? What other unit(s) might this variable be measured in? 3. At which temperature do KBr and KNO3 have the same solubility? 4. At 60oC, how much KNO3 can 100 g of water hold? 5. Which compound's solubility changes very little with temperature? 6. Which compound's solubility changes the most with temperature? 7. Which compound has the greatest solubility at 60oC? 8. Which compound has the least solubility at 20o C?
Monday Homework: Use the table above to answer these questions.
***After having read section 14.1 in the book, prepare a table comparing and contrasting suspensions, colloids, and solutions. The table should include how each varies with regard to particle size, visibility of particles, settling of particles, ability to separate by filtration, Tyndall effect, appearance, homogeneous v. heterogeneous, etc. The table should be completed for Wednesday. Answer the following questions based on the solubility curves below.
Table 1 Questions 1. What is the solubility of KNO3 of 60°C? ___________________ 2. What is the solubility of KNO3 at 30°C? ___________________ 3. Which compound varies the least in solubility over temperature range of the graph? _________________________ 4. What change occurs in the solubility of Ce2(SO4)3 as the temperature of the solution increases from 20°C to 100°C? ______________________ 5. What is the difference between the solubilities of KNO3 and NaCl at 24°C? __________________ 6. What is the difference between the solubilities of KCl and NaCl at 75°C? _____________________ 7. What is the average rate of change of solubility of NaNO3 in grams per 100g of water per Celsius degree in the range from 10°C to 30°? ____________________ Table 2 Questions 1. At what temperature does NaCl have the same solubility in moles per 100g of water as sugar (C12H22O11)? _______________________ 2. In terms of solubility in grams of 100g of water, how does the solubility of sugar compare with that of NaCl at the temperature given as the correct answer to question #1?
Table 3 Questions 1. Which salt is least soluble in water at 20°C? _____________________ 2. How many grams of potassium chloride can be dissolved in 200g of water at 80°C? ____________ 3. At 10°C, how much potassium nitrate can be dissolved in 300g of water?_____________________ 4. Which salt shows the least change in solubility from 0°C to 100°C? _________________________ 5. At 30°C, 90g of sodium nitrate is dissolved in 100g of water. Is this solution saturated, unsaturated or supersaturated? ______________________________________ 6. A saturated solution of potassium chlorate is formed from 100g of water. If the saturated solution is cooled from 80°C to 50°C, how many grams of precipitate are formed? _____________________ 7. What compound shows a decrease in solubility from 0°C to 100°C? ___________________________ 8. Which salt is most soluble at 10°C? ______________________ 9. Which salt is least soluble at 50°C? _______________________ 10. Which salt is least soluble at 90°C? _______________________ 11. Give the formula for the substance that is probably a gas. _____________________ 12. A solution of KCl in 100g of water is saturated at 10°C. How many grams of KCl are in the solution? _____________________ 13. How many grams of NaCl will dissolve in 200g of water at 100°C? ______________________ 14. If you have dissolved 100g of potassium nitrate in 100g of water at 70°C, would you classify the solution as saturated, unsaturated, or supersaturated? _________________________ 15. At what temperature would you need 100g of water to dissolve 70g of potassium nitrate? ____________________
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