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9/20/2015

Bharat:AnUntoldStory#RAW#SpecialOperations#CITX#PakistanPart1...

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9/20/2015

Bharat:AnUntoldStory#RAW#SpecialOperations#CITX#PakistanPart1...

Part1
Forthefirstdecadesafterindependence,Indiascovertcapabilitieswereinthemain
defensive.Bycontrast,PakistansIntelligenceBureauledbyQurbanAli,theseniormost
Indianofficerofitscolonialpredecessorsponsoredaseriesofoffensiveoperationsin
JammuandKashmir.InlinewithimperialideologueslikeGeneralFrancisTucker,Mr.Ali
believedthatIndiasethnicreligiousfaultlinesmadeitunsustainableasanation.Muchof
thePakistanIntelligenceBureausworkwasandisaimedatdeepeningthesefaultlines.
Indiasowncovertcapabilitiesonlybegantogrowafterits1962defeatbyChina.Aidedby
theUnitedStates,thenewlyfoundedResearchandAnalysisWingdevelopedsophisticated
signalsintelligenceandphotoreconnaissancecapabilities.
RAWsoonputthelessonsitlearnedtouseagainstPakistan.Accordingtothestillclassified
officialhistoryoftheBangladeshwarrecordsthat,byNovember1971,over83,000guerrillas
ofwhomover51,000wereoperatingineastPakistanhadbeentrainedandarmedbyIndia.
Establishment22aforcesetupbytheCIAtotargetChinacarriedoutdeeppenetration
strikesagainstPakistanipriortotheonsetofwar,drawingthemforwardtotheBangladesh
borderandthuseasingthewayforIndiaseventualthrusttoDhaka.
Indiasdecisivetriumphin1971seemedtohaverenderedtheneedforanoffensivecovert
capabilityagainstthatcountryredundant.IndiawithdrewsupportforBalochguerrillas
fightingthePakistanarmy,andslasheditsinvolvementwithantiIslamabadforcesin
Afghanistan.
Butthewheelturnedagain,aswheelsarewonttodo.AftertheSovietUnionsinterventionin
Afghanistan,theregimeofGeneralZiaulHaqacquiredboththestrategicinfluenceand
militaryresourcesneededtoinsulateitselfagainstIndiassuperiorconventionalmilitary
capabilities.
Pakistansinformalwarresumed.Bythemid1980s,theISIhadinitiatedsuppliesofAfghan
warsurplusmilitaryhardwaretoKhalistanterroristsinPunjab.Fiveyearslater,similar
supportwasmadeavailabletojihadgroupsinJammuandKashmir.Ontwooccasions,in
1987and1990,Indiathreatenedtogotowarinretaliationbothtimes,thethreatofa
potentiallycatastrophicwardeterreditspoliticians.
Interesting,RAWandtheISIplayedaroleinensuringtheinformalwardidnotescalateinto
afullblownone.Afterthe1987crisis,RAWchiefA.K.VermaandISIDirectorGeneral
HamidGulmettodiscusslimitationsforPakistanssupportforKhalistangroups,a
negotiationbrokeredbythethenJordanianCrownPrince,HasanbinTalal,whosewife,
PrincessSarvath,isofPakistaniorigin.Later,inthewakeofthe1990crisis,theISIensured
thatjihadgroupsinJammuandKashmirdidnotgainaccesstoantiaircraftmissiles,after
Indiamadeclearthattheshootingdownofanaircraftwouldleadtoafullblownwar
PrimeMinisterRajivGandhisregimedidnot,however,restrictitselftosendingverbal
signalstoIslamabad.Inthemid1980s,RAWunleashedtwocovertgroups,CITXandCIT
J,thefirsttargetingPakistaningeneralandtheseconddirectedatKhalistanigroups.Alow
gradebutsteadycampaignofbombingsinmajorPakistanicities,notablyKarachiand
Lahore,followed.AccordingtoformerRAWofficialandsecurityanalystB.Raman,Indias
countercampaignyieldedresultsbymakingPakistansterrorcampaignprohibitively
costly.
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9/20/2015

Bharat:AnUntoldStory#RAW#SpecialOperations#CITX#PakistanPart1...

Foravarietyofreasons,theseoperationsprovedshortlived.PrimeMinisterI.K.Gujral,who
tookoverin1997,shutdownRAWsoffensiveoperationsonmoralgrounds,pointingtothe
endoftheterroristcampaigninPunjabandtheimprovedsituationinJammuandKashmir.
Earlier,PrimeMinisterP.V.NarasimhaRaoendedRAWseasternoperationsearlieraspart
ofhiseffortstobuildbridgeswithChinaandMyanmar.
Successivecovertservicesheadsattemptedtogainfreshauthorisationfordeterrentcovert
operations,butwithoutsuccess.Afterthe1999Kargilwar,keyintelligenceofficers
attemptedtopersuadePrimeMinisterAtalBihariVajpayeetoissuethenecessary
authorisations.Hedidntsayaword,recallsoneofficialpresentatthemeeting,notyes,
notno.
#R&AW
#India
#Pakistan
#ISI
#CITX
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