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Chilled Beams

Comfort
Energy Savings
Control

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Architects Continuing Education Systems. Credit earned on
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are available on request.
This program is registered with the AIA/CES for continuing
professional education. As such, it does not include content
that may be deemed or construed to be an approval or
endorsement by the AIA of any material of construction or any
method or manner of handling, using, distributing, or dealing in
any material or product. Questions related to specific
materials, methods, and services will be addressed at the
conclusion of this presentation.

Copyright Materials
This presentation is protected by US and International
Copyright laws. Reproduction, distribution, display and use
of the presentation without written permission of the
speaker is prohibited.
2012 by Swegon Air Academy and
Swegon, Inc. a wholly owned subsidiary of Swegon AB

Learning Objectives
At the end of this program, participants will be able to:

1. Understand functions and benefits of chilled beam systems


2. Select energy-efficient types of air-water devices for room
conditioning
3. Understand the SD elements of chilled beam systems
4. Understand the HSW elements of chilled beam systems
5. Identify possible LEED credits available by applying chilled beams

Active chilled beam basics


Small primary air flow - high capacity
Cooling

Distributed air
200 cfm
62 F

Primary air
40 cfm
59 F

Induced air
160 cfm
77 F

Heating

Distributed air
200 cfm
85 F

Primary air
40 cfm
64 F

Induced air
160 cfm
68 F

Active chilled beam basics Induction

Why chilled beams are popular

CV Chilled Beam

DCV Chilled Beam

VAV

Why chilled beams are popular


Why 20% less energy than other systems?
More efficient distribution of cooling energy (water vs. air)
Air for ventilation only -> less fan energy
More efficient central fans -> less fan energy
CHWS temperature higher -> Greater chiller efficiency
More efficient central dehumidification
Sustainable Design - Energy Savings
Possible 30% more energy savings when DCV used
Probable LEED credits for optimizing
energy performance.

Why chilled beams are popular


Energy & space savings
Water
3/4 pipe
Capacity 9900 Btuh
(110 ft/m t 7 F)

Air
10 duct
Capacity 9900 Btuh
(20 ft/s t 14 F)

99

Water-based cooling more efficient


than Air-based cooling

Chilled Beams

Chilled beam basics


Why is your VAV air handler so big?

Cooling
Up to 75-80% of airflow

Ventilation (breathing air)


~20-25% of airflow

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Why chilled beams are popular


*Costs vary by project

11
11

System

Cooling
energy

Fan
energy

Maintenance

Fan Coil

1.00

1.00

1.00

Chilled beam CV

0.91

0.77

0.50

Chilled Beam - DCV

0.87

0.72

0.50

Chilled Beams

Why chilled beams are popular


Plenum height typically halved

Lower device height (6 to 9 typ.)


Smaller ducts
Horizontal ducting
Sustainable Design - Space Savings
VAV Box
Or
Saved vertical space
Fan Coil Unit
Chilled
Beam

Deck
DUCT

DIFFUSER
Ceiling

Impact of chilled beam use

Example: 20 floor hotel


Fan coil design 212 (2544)
Chilled beam design (2444)
Possible extra floor
(10) rooms with $400k/room
$4M 1st year revenue increase
Possible higher ceilings
Possible reduced building height

Why chilled beams are popular


Smaller mechanical room / space
Smaller air handler
Fewer system components

Sustainable Design - Space Savings

Why chilled beams are popular

Sustainable Design Reduced complexity


Chilled Beam

No fans
No operating electricity
No filters requiring maintenance
No drain pans

Fan Coil Unit


Requires fan/motor maintenance
Requires 120v power (min), wiring
Requires filters and regular
maintenance
Requires drain pans, condensate lines,
possible condensate pumps

Why chilled beams are popular


Sustainable Design Life Cycle Extension
Adapt to reprogrammed spaces
Before
Reconfigure in the field

After

Chilled Beam Design Principles


Full occupancy load
Design challenge:
Risk of draft and
discomfort from poor
occupancy planning, or
from inadequate control
capabilities

Normal occupancy
Remedy:
Allow maximum ASHRAE 55
conditions in worst case.
Require beams with field
adjustable air volumes and
airflow patterns

Why chilled beams are popular


Better occupant satisfaction
less draft
lower noise
controlled humidity
improved productivity/safety
Increased Health, Safety, Welfare
Possible LEED credits for controllability of thermal comfort
ASHRAE 55 comfort conditions

Why chilled beams are popular


Greater comfort from field adjustability

Chilled Beam Timeline

2004
1987

1950s
Radiant
panels

1984
Passive
Chilled
Beam

Active
Chilled
Beam

Comfort
Module

Recent developments
Greater airflow flexibility

4
Height 6.1

5
Height 7.3

6
Height 10.7

Recent developments
Greater architectural flexibility
Variable faceplate length and width
Fits more ceiling types (e.g. Bandraster)
Reduced height (~6 possible)

4
Height 6.1

5
Height 7.3

6
Height 10.7

Recent developments
Reduced cost of installation
Fewer duct connections and fittings

Chilled beam applications

Under window induction units

In-ceiling

Sidewall

Under window induction units

Sidewall horizontal discharge

Room Control
Swegon CONDUCTOR W4
Modulating water and air flow
Occupied/Unoccupied modes
Boost recovery mode
Temperature response
Occupancy response
Open window response
Condensation response
In-room & BAS setpoint
Read/Write
Factory-mounted and wired:
Room Controller
Valves/Actuators
Condensation sensor
Factory furnished / field
mounted:
Room sensor
Occupancy sensor
CO2 sensor
Damper with factory mounted
actuator

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Demand Control
Typical Conference Room

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Demand Control

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Chilled Beam Design Principles

Due to dry cooling operation the beam system is used where the
internal humidity loads are moderate.
beam systems must be designed to ensure that there is no risk
of condensation
Dehumidification of the primary supply air by the main air
handling plant is used to control humidity
Studies have shown that the inlet water temperature can be
slightly lower than the dew point of the space before
condensation appears, and even lower (2.7 F) before droplets
form

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Chilled Beam Design Principles


US Department of Energy:
strict dehumidification of the supply air.
Since chilled beams are most cost effectively used to do only
sensible cooling, dehumidification becomes the job of the central
air handler.
Added benefit of controlled humidity = controlled comfort

System Selection & Control


88F db
70,2F wb
(12,3gr)
75F db
62.5F wb
(62 gr)
55F db
53,5F wb
(60 gr)

57F

90F db
43F wb
(13,3gr)
81F db
65,5F wb
(10,4gr)

62,6F
57F

75F db
59F wb
(60 gr)

62,6F

45F

55F

79,2F db
65,3F wb
(10,4gr)
DOAS SA13750 CFM
EA 11250 CFM

105 kW

154kWNEW YORK
ROOM

90Fdb 73Fwb

73Fdb 62,5Fwb
2 pers/12m
40m/h x pers

1 Parasol
COP=4,5
12 m

COP=3

600x1200 LFMMMM

Chilled Beam Design Principles


Moisture control strategy, primary
4. Dewpoint measured at AHU return. BAS adjusts
chilled beam water temperature to remain above the
measured DP.
TRA: 75F db 65gr
3. Individual zones protected
from unintentional moisture
removal (condensation) by
moisture sensors and normally
closed water valves.

88F db
70,8F wb
(87gr)

RH

TPRI: 55F db, 60gr

90F db
73F wb
(95gr)

TCHWS: 57F
81F db
66,2F wb
(74gr)

2. CHILLED BEAM Chilled


Water Supply Temperature
kept above dewpoint of
building, as measured at the
AHU return.

79,2F db
65,3F wb
(74gr)

1. AHU. Sized to provide


ventilation air and entire
latent load of building.
Condensation occurs here.

Chilled Beam Design Principles


Moisture control strategy, secondary
Primary air
55 F db
53,5 F wb
(60 gr/lb)

5. CONDENSATION SENSOR
detects moisture before
droplets form, signals BAS to
close CHWS valve

Induced
air
75 F db
55 F dewpoint

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Humidity (grains/lb)

Chilled Beam Design Principles


Moisture Content

300
0.4% ASHRAE grains/lb
project design

200

150

100

50

Medtronic, Italy

Cities

Chilled Beam Design Principles


Performance Data Reliability
Cooling from Induced Air
+
Cooling from Primary Air
=
Total chilled beam cooling
Reliable data required!
How is capacity measured?
Tested & reported as an assembly
Is not simply a sum of component capacity
Active chilled beams Standard EN 15116
(ASHRAE is working on Standard 200, but it is not complete.)

Passive chilled beams Standard EN 14518


(replaced DIN 4715)

How is capacity certified?


Eurovent certification program uses EN Standards as method of test,
random sampling to enforce
AHRI certification program is not in place
(Intending to use ASHRAE 200 awaiting its completion)

Chilled Beam Design Principles


Glass quality
Solar Heat Gain Coefficient / Sun Reduction Factor !!
Most important
0.3 total factor or lower recommended
U-Value/K-Factor of less importance

Chilled Beam Design Principles


Higher quality material = lower cooling
costs
Reqd
Cooling
capacity
(Btuh)

Shading factor

Building matl

2 pane
glazing

Brand 1
grey

Brand 1
upgrade

0.76

0.48

0.31

Light

2148

1605

1308

Medium

2022

1513

1247

Heavy

1875

1383

1113

Chilled beam cooling


capacity required,
as function of glass
quality and
construction
material density
thermal mass.

Higher initial investment costs - very short pay-back period!

Chilled Beam Design Principles


Selection: Which beam is the right beam?
Model 4-way
Active

2-way
Active

1-way
Active

Passive

yes
yes
yes

yes
yes
yes

yes
yes
yes

yes
no
no

lowest
good
lowest

low
good
low

low
good
low

high
poor
low

low
yes
yes
no
no

lowest
yes
yes
no
yes

low
no
no
yes
no

low
yes
yes
no
yes

Functions
-cooling
-cooling & heating
-ventilation

Features
-risk of draft
-airflow control
-installation time

Configuration
-overall height
-modular ceilings
-exposed ceilings
-wall mount
-continuous linear appearance

Chilled Beam Design Principles


Apply with care:
! Spaces w/ high ventilation rates
! Spaces with concurrent heat & contaminant loads
! Spaces with increased infiltration via open doors
etc.
Typical applications:
Offices
Hotel rooms
Hospital wards
Retail spaces

Chilled Beam Applications

Chilled Beam Applications

Chilled Beam Applications

Chilled Beam Applications

Chilled Beam Applications

Chilled Beam Applications

Chilled Beam Applications

Chilled Beam Applications

Chilled Beam Applications

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