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NJ 07927

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+1973 292 9597

+1 973 292 3030

2007 Palace International Ltd. All rights reserved.

+44 (0)1256 701777

+44 (0)1256 701377


A practical guide to the

Jet-Care CF34 Engine
Condition Trend Monitoring

Engine Condition Trend Monitoring (ECTM)

Gas Path Analysis (GPA)

Benefits of Gas Path Analysis

How to trend


Data Collection

Manual Data

Electronic Data



PDF Reports

Trend Status

Enrolment Form


Trend Monitoring Form


Terms and Conditions



CF34 Engine Trending


CF34 Engine Trending

Engine Trending
PDF Reports
The first page of the PDF report is
the Trend Data. This is the raw data
supplied by the operator and is listed
in date sequence. All dates are in
format dd-mm-yyyy. Please check
the aircraft registration, serial
number and engine numbers to
ensure our information is correct.
The next two pages show the
Smoothed Trend Plots. These are the
graphical representation of the three
main engine performance
parameters, i.e. N2, ITT, & Fuel Flow.
Once the data is normalised to
standard conditions, therefore
eliminating the effects of external
variation, the plots are produced by
calculating the deviation from the
model performance curve.
The model performance curve has
been established for a notional
engine having the same power curve
as the type of engine being
monitored, but has been derived so
that an engine with nominal
performance will plot with an ITT
margin of 28C and an N2 margin of
1.8%. From this it follows that as the

plots approach these limits it is an

indication that the operating margins
are reduced, and eventually hot day
operation may be restricted.

Trend Status

Most engines will vary in some small

part from the notional engine. It
therefore follows that the values
shown on the plot should not be
taken as absolute values, but as a
good indication of the value. To
enable the plot to be used for
absolute values it is necessary to
position accurately the plot on the
scale by using the declared ITT and
N2 margins from a fully
instrumented, installed ground run
for each particular engine. If
available please send details of the
N2 and ITT installed margin to
enable future trends to indicate the
current margins.

Normal means that the engine(s)

trends are assessed as satisfactory.

Detailed examination of the relative

movement of the trends can give
information on the general health of
the engine, and highlight incipient
problems with the engine and the
instrumentation where the trends
are derived from manually collected
The plots are smoothed, by taking a
rolling selective average over the
last 5 readings, to reduce
fluctuations due to unavoidable data
collection variations. This means that
any sudden change in engine
condition will show on the trend in
four incremental steps. At the
bottom of the page the last 10
points are also shown without
smoothing. This is a further aid to
identifying sudden changes.
This explanation is given for the
general information of operators. It is
not intended or implied that
operators are expected or required
to carry out any interpretation of the

The Status refers to the engine trend

evaluation based on the last data
received at time of reporting.

Engine Condition Trend

Monitoring (ECTM)

ECTM is a term for the on-going

evaluation of an engines condition and
performance using various methods of
non-destructive testing. This
monitoring can be carried out by a
variety of methods and each can be
referred to as ECTM methods of
ECTM include Filter and or Chip
Analysis, Vibration Analysis,
Spectrometric Oil Analysis Program

(SOAP Analysis) or Gas Path Analysis.

For the purposes of this document and
its enclosures when referring to ECTM
we mean Gas Path Analysis (GPA)

Gas Path Analysis (GPA)

Gas Path Analysis (GPA) monitors the

gas flow through the engine and can
be used to determine any changes to
the engine efficiency through the
regular data collection, trending and
analysis of specific engine parameters.

Over a period of time this can be used

to detect deviation from normal levels
and give an early warning of turbine
rub, turbine guide vane and blade
erosion, combustion burner and liner
faults as well as compressor
deterioration, bleed problems and
other faults.

Note: Normal trend plots may have

fluctuations or changes which are
acceptable and explained by operating
conditions, maintenance events, data
scatter, incorrect data, etc.
Early Early alert status denotes that
the engine(s) trends have plot
changes that are not assessed as
Normal. These changes may be
caused by aircraft and/or engine
systems indication errors or may be
early indications of engine

After normalisation of the data, the

engine parameters are compared with
a model performance curve and the
results are used to determine the
relative efficiency of the engine

Advanced Advanced alert status

means that the engine(s) trends have
plot changes that are unacceptable
and may indicate genuine engine
deterioration. This status is advised by
separate communication (telephone,
fax and/or email).
Inactive Indicates that the latest
flight data is greater than 90 days
older than the report date.

Benefits of Gas Path Analysis

These include helping to

identify potentially expensive
failures at an early stage before
they progress to cause extensive
secondary damage.
prevent aircraft being stranded on
hot days, unable to achieve takeoff power because of limiting ITT
(inter-turbine temperature).
reduce expensive ground running
while faults are being identified.
avoid Hot Section deterioration
accelerating as a result of engines
being operated inadvertently at
excessive ITT.

GPA does not monitor the way in

which the engine is being operated.

limit fuel wastage and engine

deterioration, which can occur
because of bleed air losses from
defective bleed valves or ducting.
GPA means that fleet operators can
plan aircraft movements better,
avoiding flying suspect engines to
destinations with high ambient
With a clearer overview of the
condition of the whole fleet, operators
can make better decisions on
maintenance policy.



CF34 Engine Trending

Data Collection

To start with Jet-Care requires

Operators to enrol an aircraft using the
Enrolment Form provided with this
Trending Guide. This contains fields for
all the information that we need to enrol
an aircraft for the Jet-Care service. The
Enrolment Form should also be used to
advise us of a change of details for the
aircraft or the reporting contact and is
available to download from the Jet-Care
web-site. All Enrolment Forms received
are acknowledged by email confirming
the enrolment details or the changes.

There are two types of data collection Manual and Electronic. Operators may
send either or both to Jet-Care for

Jet-Care reports will be sent to the

reporting contact identified on the
Enrolment Form by email. We are in the
process of developing our web-site so
that by the end of 2007, reports will
also be available for operators to
access using the internet. When this
service is available operators will be
provided with a login name and
Please note that this Enrolment Form
must be signed by someone authorised
to do so on behalf of the Owner or
Operator. When received by Jet-Care it
will be sent to Lufthansa Technik
AERO Alzey for counter-signature if the
aircraft is enrolled on Smart Parts.

Manual Data
Manual data is recorded from the
cockpit instruments. Ideally this should
be carried out at least once per flight
when cockpit and operating conditions
allow. On long flights it is reasonable to
record a second set of data. Where
possible the data should be recorded
once the engines have stabilised for two
minutes at normal operating cruise
During the initial trending of newly
enrolled engines, data should be
collected every flight where possible as
we require a minimum of 20 data points
to establish a reliable trend for us to
report on. Likewise, aircraft that fly
infrequently should collect data every
flight possible to ensure a more
accurate picture is maintained of the
condition of the engines.
Jet-Care provides a data recording form
which allows for 3 sets of data to be
recorded on 1 page. This form has been
attached to this Trending Guide and is
also available to download form the
Jet-Care web-site.
Manual data requires both Flight and
Engine data.
Flight data
Date of flight and time if more
than one flight per day
Airspeed (Mach/IAS)
Altitude (Pressure Altitude - ideally
above 20,000 ft)
Air Temperature (C) (I.O.A.T. or S.A.T.)
Engine data
N1 (Fan %)
N2 (Gas producer %)
ITT (Turbine temperature C)
Fuel flow (Lbs./hr)
Fan Vibration (Mils/Sec)
Oil Pressure (PSI)
Oil Temperature (C)
Data should be sent for analysis every
three flights or weekly whichever is
sooner. Faxes should be sent to
+1-973-292-3030 or


How to trend

CF34 Engine Trending

+44-1256-701377. If sending manual

data by email please send to including the
aircraft registration and serial number in
the email subject line and please include
any comments in the email text.
N.B. The trend plots can show rapid
changes that can only be advised to the
customer if the data is collected regularly
and transmitted to Jet-Care often even
if this means faxing just 1 data sheet.

Electronic Data
Electronic data is automatically recorded
during specific flight phases directly from
the engine sensor system. The
downloading process will create a file
using either the aircraft serial number or
registration as the first 7 characters of the
file name and adds a single-character,
with the extension .ENG for the engine
data file, which is the sequential download
indicator. Please note that the download
file does not contain the engine serial
numbers and any changes from the most
recent Enrolment Form should be included
separately in the email text. This file name
is used to identify the aircraft when the
file is subsequently read in to the JetCare trend monitoring program. Whichever
naming convention is used it is essential
to remain consistent for subsequent
Data files should be downloaded using
the onboard computer in accordance with
OEM LMM procedures. We recommend
that the interval between routine
downloads be no less often than once per
month or every 25 flying hours, whichever
is the sooner. This helps to ensure that the
trends are monitored regularly and
enables any identifiable problems to be
detected early. Checks on data for faults /
exceedances, etc must be carried out in
accordance with. OEM LMM procedures
this is not carried out by Jet-Care as
part of the ECTM service.
Data files should be emailed to Please ensure
that you include the aircraft serial number
and registration in the subject line.

Routine reports are issued on a monthly

basis by email to the reporting contact
email address identified in the
Enrolment Form. Routine reports can be
issued in either Adobe PDF or as JetCare ECHO files.
To commence routine reporting JetCare require a minimum of 20 data
points to establish a reliable trend from
which we can evaluate the engine
status. If less than 20 data points have
been received, the total number of
flights to date will be reported until 20
flights has been reached. Once the
trends have been established Jet-Care
will start monthly routine reports on the
engine trends.
If the evaluation of the plots show
changes in the engine trends, Jet-Care
may issue an advisory or alert
depending on the type and severity of
the change. All advisories and alerts will
be communicated immediately, using
telephone, fax or email. These and other
more minor trend shifts will be
commented on in the next routine
We are developing the reports so that in
future each report will contain a fleet
summary showing the aircraft and
engines being reported, the date of the
last flight data received and the current
status of the trends.
From the end of 2007 operators will
have immediate access to the Jet-Care
web-site to download their latest ECHO
and/or PDF files.

Jet-Care has developed a unique
reporting program, ECHO (Engine
Condition Health Online). This userfriendly program is supplied free of
charge to clients who can run it from a
single desktop or laptop or share
information by installing the software on

a company network. Instructions to

download this program from our website can be provided following
enrolment completion. ECHO Trend files
are sent to clients by e-mail and the
results displayed using the ECHO
reader program.
The following data is available through
Aircraft and engine details
Engine parameter and flight data
Engine trends & graphs
Colour coded Trend Status of
Green - Normal, Amber - Early
Warning or Red - Advanced Warning
Jet-Care comments & Contextual

Please note that for aircraft enrolled on

Smart Parts, engine data is made
available to Lufthansa Technik AERO
Alzey and Bombardier.

ECHO presents the trend results in a

similar graphical format as that used by
Jet-Care engineers easing the
communication and understanding of
trend evaluation.

The ECHO files normally contain the

last 200 flights, to limit file size, but
individually requested updates can
contain the entire history spanning
many hundreds of flights.
The trends can be viewed with either 5
or 15 point smoothing, and the unsmoothed data points can be easily
overlaid on the plots. A single sample
includes data from 40 flights and the
sample rate can be increased to give a
single view of all the flights contained
within the ECHO file up to a maximum
of 400 flights.
If required, both the data and the trends
can be easily printed and/or produced
in PDF format. This allows the trends to
be shared electronically within an
organisation with users who do not have
access to the ECHO program.
The ECHO software has won industry
awards and is continually, developed to
meet our customers needs. The latest
version will always be available to
download from our web-site.
For further information and to view
screen shots from the program, please
visit our web site at