You are on page 1of 19

INTRODUCTION

1. THE LIFE-SPAN PERSPECTIVE

Ted Kaczynski

Development the pattern of movement or change


that begins from conception and continues
throughout the life span.

Sprinted through high school


HS: Made passing efforts at social contact
Attended Harvard University at age 16
Was a loner during his college years
Avoided people by quickly shuffling by them and
slamming the door behind him
Took up his Ph.D. in mathematics at
University of California at Berkeley
Hid from social contact
Moved to a rural area if Montana
Lived in a shack for 25 years
Described as a bearded eccentric
Described himself as a genius in a kids body
and sticking out like a sore thumb in his
surroundings as a child
1996: charged and arrested
Became a notorious Unabomber, Americas
most wanted killer
Sent 16 mail bombs
Wounded and maimed 23 people
3 people dead
Pleaded guilty
Sentenced to life in prison

Alice Walker
Born in 1944
Eight child of Georgia sharecroppers who
earned $300 a year
8 yrs old: brother accidentally shot her in the
left eye with a BB gun
Blind in the left eye
Battled racism in Mississippi
Won her first fellowship
Used the price to put herself into the heart and
heat of civil rights movement
Won a Pulitzer Price for her book The Color
Purple
A novelist, essayist, poet, short-story writer, and
a social activist

IMPORTANCE OF LIFE-SPAN
PERSPECTIVE
DEVELOPMENT
DECLINE

INVOLVES

GROWTH

AND

CHARACTERISTICS OF LIFE-SPAN
PERSPECTIVE
Traditional approach study of development
emphasize extensive change from birth to
adolescence, little or no change in adulthood
and decline in old age
Life span based on oldest age documented
122 years oldest age documented
Life expectancy average number of years that a
person can expect to live
78 years current life expectancy
Note:
Maximum life span of humans has not changed
since the beginning, but life expectancy has.
Life span perspective, views development as:
1. Lifelong
- No age period dominated development.
2. Multidimensional
- Development consists of biological,
socio-emotional and cognitive factors.
3. Multidirectional
- Some dimensions expand, some shrink
Ex.
Children acquiring second or third
language decreases
Adolescence time with friends decrease
Adults- perform more poorly on tasks that
require speed in processing information
4. Plastic
Plasticity capacity for change

Notes/Reviewer on Human Development (UST)


Prepared by: Burgos, Assumpta Minette C.

5. Multidisciplinary
- Interest of various disciplines
neuroscientists, psychologists,
anthropologists, sociologists, etc.
6. Contextual
- Develop within context

2. NATURE OF DEVELOPMENT
BIOLOGICAL,
COGNITIVE,
SOCIOEMOTIONAL PROCESSES
1. Biological - changes in physical nature
Height and weight gains

Context changes
- influenced by historical, social,
economic and social factors.

Changes in motor skills

a. normative age-graded influences


- changes that occur in a particular age
group

Hormonal changes

b. normative history-graded influences


- changes that occur in a particular
generation
c. nonnormative life events
- unusual occurrences that have a major
influence on an individual
7. Involves growth, maintenance and regulation
of loss
8. Co-construction of biology, individual and
cognitive

AND

Nutrition
Exercise

Cardiovascular decline
2. Cognitive - changes in thoughts, knowledge, and
language
Putting together a two-word sentence
Memorizing a poem
Imagining what is it like to live your dream
Solving a crossword puzzle
3. Socio-emotional - changes in relationship,
personality and emotion
Response to touch

SOME CONTEMPORARY CONCERNS

Toddlers aggressive attack on playmate

1. Health and Well-Being

School ages assertiveness

2. Parenting and Education

Adolescent enjoying senior prom


Elderly couple reflecting

3. Socio-cultural Contexts and Diversity


culture patterns/beliefs passed on from
generation to generation
- result of interaction
cross-cultural studies
- compare two or more cultures- similar,
culture-specific, across culture
ethnicity religion, language, races, nationality,
cultural heritage.
socioeconomic status (SES)
- status based on education, position and
economic status

CONNECTING BIOLOGICAL, COGNITIVE,


AND SOCIOEMOTIONAL PROCESSES
Developmental cognitive neuroscience
links between development, cognitive, and
the brain
Developmental socioemotional neuroscience
links between development,
socioemotional, and the brain.

PERIODS OF DEVELOPMENT
birth 2 5 11 21 30s 50s 70s
1. Prenatal period - conception to birth
Tremendous growth
Nine-month period

Notes/Reviewer on Human Development (UST)


Prepared by: Burgos, Assumpta Minette C.

2. Infancy period - birth to 18-24 month

*personal

Extreme dependence on parents

coordination,

social

involvement

and

8. Late adulthood 60s to 70s

social

Life review

learning- are beginning

Retirement

3. Early childhood - 2 to 5

*adjustment to new social roles

Preschool years

Decreasing strength and health

More time is spent playing with pears

Longest span

More

self-sufficient

and

responsibility

Psychological learning- symbolic thoughts,


sensorimotor

and

and

to

care

for

themselves
*School readiness (following instructions,

Baltes and Jacqui argued that major changes


happen in an adult lives as they become the oldest
of the old.

identifying letters)
First grade marks the end of early childhood
4. Middle and late childhood - 6 to 11
Elementary years
Fundamental skills writing, reading and
arithmetic skills are mastered

Oldest of the old loss in cognitive skills , increase


in chronic stress, more frail
Baltes and Jacqui considerable PLASTICITY and
ADAPTABILITY characterize adults from their 60s
until their mid-80s

FOUR AGES

Achievement becomes central theme

Four ages developmentalist who focus that adult

*Self-control increases

development
5. Adolescence 10-12 to 18-21

and

aging

describe

life-span

development

Rapid physical changes

1. First

Pursuit of independence and identity

Childhood, adolescence

*thoughts are more logical, abstract and


2. Second

idealistic.

Prime adulthood,

More time is spent outside the family

20s to 50s

6. Early adulthood 20s to 30s


Establishing

economic

and

social

independence
*career development
Selecting a mate

3. Third
60 to 79
Healthier, more active, more productive
4. Fourth

Starting a family

80 and older

Learning to live with someone in an intimate

Health and well-being decline

way
7. Middle adulthood 40s to 50s
Maintaining and *reaching satisfaction in
career
Mentoring youths

Notes/Reviewer on Human Development (UST)


Prepared by: Burgos, Assumpta Minette C.

CONNECTIONS

ACROSS

PERIODS

OF

DEVELOPMENT
Development in one period is connected to the
development of another period.

THE SIGINIFANCE OF AGE

DEVELOPMENTAL ISSUES

1. Age and Happiness


- happiness increases with age

1. Nature and Nurture

older adults:
o

more content with what they have

have better relationship with the


people who mattered to them

less pressured to achieve

have more time for leisurely pursuits

have many years of experiences


which helps them to adapt

2. Conceptions of Age
Chronological age is not relevant to understanding
a persons psychological development
Chronological age number of years that have
elapsed since birth

- extent to which it is influenced by nature and


by nurture
Nature biological inheritance
*An evolutionary and genetic foundation
produces commonalities in growth and development
Nurture environmental factors/experiences
*Extreme

environment

represses

development
2. Stability and Change
-

degree

to

which

early

traits

and

characteristics persist through life or change


Stability result of heredity and possibly early

Biological age persons age in terms of biological


health.

experiences in life.
Change later experiences can produce change

*The younger the persons biological age, the longer


the person is expected to live.

3. Continuity and Discontinuity


- degree to which development involves

Psychological age individuals adaptive capacities


Example: hates groupmate but o well,
continues work, maturity

either gradual or distinct stages.


Continuity (QUANTITATIVE)
gradual, cumulative change
-- oak growing, puberty

*older adults who continue to learn, are


flexible, are motivated, have personality
controls, control their emotions, and think
clearly are engaging in more adaptive
behaviors.
Social age social roles and expectations related to

Discontinuity (QUALITATIVE)
distinct stages
-- butterfly
EVALUATING THE DEVELOPMENTAL ISSUES
Development is strongly influenced by these factors

a persons age.

3. THEORIES OF DEVELOPMENT
Example: tantrums
Teen pregnancy is not an example of any but is an
offshoot of it, meaning its the consequence/effect

Notes/Reviewer on Human Development (UST)


Prepared by: Burgos, Assumpta Minette C.

Scientific method:
1. conceptualize a process or problem
2. collect research information (data)
3. analyze data
4. draw conclusion

theory interrelated, coherent set of ideas that helps


to explain a phenomena and make predictions
hypothesis specific assertions and predictions

Fixated or locked in, if the need for pleasure is


overgratified or undergratified

BEGINNINGS:

PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORIES

Josef Breuer used hypnosis

Psychoanalytic theories:
1. primarily unconscious
2. heavily colored by emotions
3. behavior is a surface characteristic
4. development requires analyzing of symbolic
meanings
5. development requires analyzing of inner workings
of the mind
6. early experiences extensively affect development

Bertha Pappenheim
-- Anna O
-- Austrian-Jewish Feminist
-- social pioneer and founder of many institutions
-- suffered hysteric symptoms
-suffered
aphasia,
neuralgia,
visual
impairments, paralysis of the right side of the
body, extreme mood swings, eating disorder,
and amnesia.

PSYCHOANALYTIC
5 stages
Primary motivation is
sexual in nature
The first five years of an
individuals life is the
crucial
to
ones
development
Early experiences are
more important than
later ones

PSCYCHOSOCIAL
8 stages
Primary motivation is to
affiliate
with
other
people
Development occurs
throughout the life span

aphasia only being able to talk in English, French


or Spanish

Early experiences are


equally important to
later experiences

THREE LEVELS OF THE MIND:

neuralgia facial pain


Studies on Hysteria
-- physical symptoms are caused by deep
conflicts.

iceberg there is much to be seen above but what


constitutes the most part of the iceberg is
whats below the water.

1. FREUDS THEORY
OAPLG : 1.5 3 6 PUBERTY ONWARDS
Nature Change Discontinuous (L)

DEFINITION:
The two cornerstones for this theory are sex
and aggression.
Human are naturally sexual and aggressive
beings.
Behavior is caused by hidden disturbances
and controlled by unconscious, instinctual, and
aggressive drives.
Do not have free will.
Problems were the result of experiences
early in life
Focus of pleasure and sexual impulses shifts
from the mouth to the anus and eventually to
the genitals

Notes/Reviewer on Human Development (UST)


Prepared by: Burgos, Assumpta Minette C.

1. conscious
-- tip of the iceberg
-- minds mental processes

-- focus of our attention


2. preconscious
-- below the water surface
-- can be easily retrieved
3. unconscious
-- bulk of the iceberg
-- instincts, primitive urges
-- contains significant and disturbing materials
that are the real causes of our behavior.

THE PSYCHE:

Directly influenced by the outside world


Helps separate what is the realistic of the egos
standards
Rationalizes ids instinct
riding a horseback id is the powerful force,
while the ego is what the reins the power in.
Reality Principle works out realistic ways to
follow the ids demands to avoid bad
consequences.
Secondary process
rational, logical.

thinking

realistic,

3. superego
Above I
Last to develop
Ages 3 to 5
Higher thoughts and actions
Incorporates values and morals from family and
society
Controls ids impulses
Orient the ego to create moralistic solutions

1. id
It
Inherited component of personality
Internal and basic needs
hunger
thirst
sleep
sexual
aggressive drives
newborn child example of such
Pleasure Principle every wishful thinking
impulse must be satisfied immediately despite
the consequences
Primary process thinking irrational, illogical,
impulsive
2. ego
I
Second element
Decision-making part

Notes/Reviewer on Human Development (UST)


Prepared by: Burgos, Assumpta Minette C.

2 systems: (developed during childhood)


1. Conscience employs guilt whenever the
ego succumbs to ids demands.
2. Ideal-self imaginary picture of ourselves
-- includes goals and aspirations

DEFENSE MECHANISMS:
1. Repression
First defense mechanism that Freud
discovered.
Keeps disturbing thoughts from entering the
consciousness.
E: repress thoughts that could result to
guilt.
2. Projection
Attributing your thoughts and feelings to
another person.
E: aggressive or sexual fantasies.
3. Displacement
Redirection of an impulse to an object
E: sexual frustration
4. Regression
Going back to a psychological time
E: sucking your thumb, wetting the bed

5. Sublimation
Displaces your emotions to something more
constructive
E: art artwork
6. Denial
Block out the events from your awareness
E: smoker refusing that smoking is bad
for ones health

Anal-retentive personality forcing the


child to control their bowel movement
Effects of anal-retentive personality:
stubborn, obsessively tidy, punctual
and very careful over their money.
Anal-expulsive adults soiled their pants
whenever they pleased.
Effects of anal-repulsive personality:

PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORIES:

messy, disorganized, and rebellious


1. Psychosexual Stages
Libido have various erogenous zones
Has 5 stages
Fixation may occur when not completed

3. Phallic
3 to 6
Pp: genitals
Sexual desires for parent

2. Neo-Analytic
Development does not stop at age 6
Development is a lifetime
Jung, Horney, Erikson, Anna Freud

Oedipus Complex boy unconsciously


hates and wishes for the death of his father.
Desires mother
Castration punishment of the boy

5 PSYCHOANALYTIC STAGES

Electra complex girl hates mother and

OAPLG : 1.5 3 6 PUBERTY ONWARDS


Nature Change Discontinuous (L)

wishes to have a penis.


4. Latency
7 to puberty

1. Oral

Child represses sexual interest and develops

Birth to 1.5 years

social and intellectual skills

Pleasure point: mouth


Satisfies by putting things inside the mouth
E:

tasting,

licking,

sucking,

and

swallowing
Rooting and sucking reflexes
Child learns to be less dependent
Go through process of weaning
Weaning infants starts to take food from a
different source other than the breast
Incomplete stage: nail biting, smoking,
chewing objects, drinking and/or eating
problems.
2. Anal
1.5 years to 3
Pleasure point: anus (potty training)
Taught to control bowel movement
Ability to pass or withhold feces

Notes/Reviewer on Human Development (UST)


Prepared by: Burgos, Assumpta Minette C.

Dormant stage
Parents discourage sexual activities
5. Genital
Puberty onward
Sexual reawakening
Sexual urges are directed towards engaging
in sexual intercourse with the opposite sex.
Sexual instincts are directed towards
opposite sex.
Fixation: inability to maintain a stable
relationship.

2. PSYCHOSOCIAL THEORY
TAGICISI : 1 3 5 PUBERTY 20s 30s 50s
death
Nurture Change Discontinuous( L)

8 PSYCHOSOCIAL STAGES
TAGICISI : 1 3 5 PUBERTY 20s 30s
50s death
Nurture Change Discontinuous( L)
1. TRUST vs MISTRUST
Birth to one
World as a good place to live in
+
Children are provided with their basic needs
Constantly experience the pleasant voice of
caregiver
World is loving
too little trust makes them gullible and vulnerable
Caregiver constantly fails to provide the child with
his/her basic needs.
World is ignorant.
too much trust leads to frustration, depression,
hostility and aggression.
2. AUTONOMY vs SHAME AND DOUBT
1 to 3
Discover their own behavior.
+
The caregiver gave the child the independence to
explore their own surroundings, believe in their
selves.
Shame and doubt are instilled when they are not
given the liberty to make their own choices.
3. INITIATIVE vs GUILT
3 to 5 : Preschool years
Children are active, purposeful, and responsible.
+
When the child is given the chance to explore and
try his own ideas and try out new things.
When people reject their efforts.

Notes/Reviewer on Human Development (UST)


Prepared by: Burgos, Assumpta Minette C.

4. INDUSTRY vs INFERIORITY
6 to puberty
Mastering the childs basic fundamental (reading,
writing, and arithmetic) skills.
+
When the child is encouraged by his to teacher,
the child gains confidence and feels empowered.
When the child is ignored or scolded, the child
starts to doubt himself and his capabilities.
5. IDENTITY vs ROLE CONFUSION
puberty to early 20s
Find out who they are, what they are all about,
and where they are going.
What do I want to become?
Will I fit in?
How will I stand out?
+
If successful, the adolescent has a strong sense
of identity and less prone to anxiety.
If unsuccessful, adolescent becomes confused
and may result to blending in.
6. INTIMACY vs ISOLATION
20s to 30s
Forming intimate relationships
Am I loved and wanted?
Shall I share my life with someone or live alone?
+
In order to create a relationship, one must
establish an identity
The person lacking the ability to form reciprocal
exchanges based on understanding, support and
empathy.
7. GENERATIVITY vs STAGNATION
40s to 50s
Helping the younger generation to live a useful
life
What may I offer?
Will I be of value or fail to be?
+
Help the younger generation
Adults who are averse to contribute to the
younger generation

8. INTEGRITY vs DESPAIR
60s to death
Reflection of the past
+
An individual is proud of what he or she has
accomplished.
Integrity leads to the attainment of wisdom.
An individual manifest regret, bitterness, and loss
of hope.
This leads to ceasing the meaning of life.

COGNITIVE THEORIES
Cognitive theories:
1. primarily conscious

DIFFERENCES
Piaget
Focused
on
children
Focused
on
development
on children

ISSUES
NURTURE

CHANGE

Related to
experiences
and the
environment

No absolute
change occurs
throughout a
persons
development

PSYCHOANALYTIC
5 stages
Primary motivation is
sexual in nature
The first five years of an
individuals life is the
crucial
to
ones
development
Early experiences are
more important than
later ones
OAPLG
1.5 3 6 puberty
onwards
Nature
Change
Discontinuous (L)

PSCYCHOSOCIAL
8 stages
Primary motivation is to
affiliate
with
other
people
Development occurs
throughout the life span

Early experiences are


equally important to
later experiences
TAGICISI
1 3 5 puberty 20s
30s 50s death
Nurture
Change
Discontinuous (L)

Focused
on
development
across
cultures.

Info-Pro

Focused
process
memory
thinking

of
and

Focused on the
role
of
language.

DISCON
QUALITATIVE
They go
through a
cycle

DIFFERENCES

Vgotsky

Focused
on
social factors.
Based on the
verbalization
of devt.
Proposed
stages

Cognitive
development is
a continuous
process.
Information is
processes,
manipulated,
and stored.

Focused
on
basic cognitive
process

Nature
Change
Discon. (L)

Nurture
Change
Contin. (N)
Non Reduc
Mechanistic

Nature
Change
Contin (N)
Non Reduc
Mechanistic

1. COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENTAL THEORY


(PIAGET)
SPCF: 2 7 11 15
Nature Change Discontinuous (L)
Schema basic building block

FOUR PROCESSES
1. assimilation adopt the ways of another
culture

Notes/Reviewer on Human Development (UST)


Prepared by: Burgos, Assumpta Minette C.

2. accommodation look for a common


ground
3. equilibrium state of cognitive balance
4. disequilibrium

FOUR STAGES
SPCF: 2 7 11 15
1. SENSORIMOTOR
Birth to 2
Coordinating sensory experiences to motoric
actions
Actions are discovered by accident and are
done repeatedly
a. Reflexive
0 to 2 months
Infants responds to a particular stimuli
Reflexes are vital to ones survival
Sucking the pacifier
b. Primary circular reactions
2 to 4 months
Accidentally discover new actions and
coordinating them with sensations
Actions give pleasure
Sucking (oral stage)
c. Secondary circular reactions
4 to 8 months
Do more intentional actions
More responsive
Realize that their actions affects the objects
around him
Grabbing the toy and putting it in his mouth
d. Coordination of secondary reactions
8 to 12 months
Goal-oriented behavior
Does things for their own credit
OBJECT PERMANENCE is the awareness
that a certain object exists even if it is not in
sight.
Peek-a-boo

Notes/Reviewer on Human Development (UST)


Prepared by: Burgos, Assumpta Minette C.

e. Tertiary circular reactions


12 to 18 months
Behavior becomes more flexible
They crave for attention by creating
sounding and moving.
Experimenting with objects leads to new
outcomes
Dropping the ball at different heights
f. Invention of New Means through Mental
Combination
18 to 24 months
Symbolic thought mental representation
Deferred imitation when a child
remembers an past action and imitates them
at a later time rather than on the spot

2. PREOPERATIONAL
2 to 7
Lack of understanding concrete logic
Symbolic thoughts use symbols to
represent things
Egocentrism they can only see and
understand things in their own perspective
Do not have a sense of conservation
3. CONCRETE
7 to 11
Logical thinking
Inductive logic deriving a conclusion form
a particular principle to a general one.
Reversibility actions can be preserved.
Recognize his dog a Labrador, that a
Labrador is a dog, that a dog is an animal.
Conservation when something changes its
shape or appearance it still remains the
same.
Disappearance of egocentrism.
Decentration ability to focus on different
things at the same time
Sociocentric understand that people have
thoughts of their own.
4. FORMAL
11 to 15
Abstract thoughts ability to develop
images of ideal circumstances
Logical reasoning solves the problem in
a scientific method.

2. SOCIOCULTURAL COGNITIVE THEORY


(VGOTSKY)
Nurture Change Continuous (N)
Nonreductionist Mechanistic
Socioemotional
DEFINITION:
Connections between people and the
sociocultural context in which they act and interact in
shared experiences.
Community plays a central role in the
process of making meaning
Speech and thought becomes
interdependent.
Speech and though become verbal and
representational.

ESSENTIAL FEATURES
1. Interaction = changes
Social interaction will lead to changes in a childs
mind and manner of conducting ones self.
2. Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)
Problem solving under the guidance of a more
knowledgeable other.
Consequently, the individual becomes more
socialized.
2 dispositions:
1. subjectivity
- beginning a task with a different
understanding
2. scaffolding
- change in social assistance over the
course of a teaching session
3. Language as mans greatest tool.
2 Critical Roles:
1. Manner/methods of an adult in transmitting
information to children.
2. Language as a powerful tool of intellectual
adaptation.
3 Forms of languages:
1. Social speech
external communication. In other words,
communication with others.

Notes/Reviewer on Human Development (UST)


Prepared by: Burgos, Assumpta Minette C.

2. Private speech
-- internal communication used to self.
Serves intellectually
3. Private inner speech
diminishes in audibility as it transforms
to silent inner speech.
-- monologues
Pilipinas
Spoon and fork
Titio, tita
Extended family

Estados Unidos
Spoon and knife
First name basis
Nuclear family

2. INFORMATION PROCESSING THEORY


Nature Change Continuous (N)
Nonreductionist Mechanistic
Biological
DEFINITION:
Human mind receives information,
processes it and stores.
Emphasizes a continuous pattern

of

development.
3 PROCESSES:
1. input analysis of stimuli
2. storage coding and manipulation of a stimuli
3. Output preparation for an appropriate response
to a stimuli.
NOTE:
Information that is received can go to
different paths depending on attention, encoding,
recognition, and storage.
SYSTEM:
1. Information is processed by the Working Memory
or Short Term Memory
*working memory is where information are
temporarily held before discarding or transferring to
the long term memory.
2. Information is transferred and stored to the Long
Term Memory.

*long

term

memory

provide

unlimited

repository for all facts and knowledge acquired. It


gradually expands. It also allows easy retrieval of
information once it is needed.

DIFFERENCES
Piaget
Focused
on
children
Focused
on
development
on children

Vgotsky

Focused
on
development
across
cultures.

Info-Pro

Focused
process
memory
thinking

of
and

BEHAVIORAL AND SOCIAL COGNITIVE


THEORIES
Behaviorism we can only study scientifically what
can be directly understand and observed and
measured.

Skinner
Nurture

Change
Continuous
Cognitive
Socioemotional

Bandura
Nurture
Change
Cognitive
Socioemotional

1. SKINNERS OPERANT CONDITIONING


Focused on the
role
of
language.

Nurture Change Continuous (N)


Cognitive - Socioemotional

1. SKINNERS OPERANT CONDITIONING

Focused
on
social factors.

Nurture Change Continuous (N)


Cognitive - Socioemotional

Based on the
verbalization
of devt.
Proposed
stages

Cognitive
development is
a continuous
process.
Information is
processes,
manipulated,
and stored.

Focused
on
basic cognitive
process

Nature
Change
Discon. (L)

DEFINITION:

Nurture
Change
Contin. (N)
Non Reduc
Mechanistic

Nature
Change
Contin (N)
Non Reduc
Mechanistic

Notes/Reviewer on Human Development (UST)


Prepared by: Burgos, Assumpta Minette C.

Method of learning that associates behavior


and certain consequences to that behavior.
Operant meaning any active behavior that
operates upon the environment to generate
consequences.

EXPERIMENT:
Skinner created a box that had a lever
that when pulled would release food and
momentarily stops electric shock. This box
would contain a small animal (rat). The rat then
accidentally pulled the lever, consequently
releasing food (positive reinforcement) and
stopping electric shock (negative
reinforcement). Once the rat realizes the patter,
it would repeatedly do it.

TERMS:
Reinforcement strengthens or increases behavior.

EXPERIMENT:
Observer (child) were asked to watch a video
wherein a woman hits a bobo doll aggressively. After

Positive reinforcement adding something to

watching the video, the observer plays in a room with

increase the behavior. (giving reinforcers)

the same object. Here, the child either imitates what

Negative reinforcement taking away something to

he/she has observed or not.

increase behavior. (

BASIC ASSUMPTIONS:
1. Observational learning.

Punishment decreases or weakens behavior

2. Internal processes may lead to the behavior- it all

Positive punishment adding an unfavorable

depends on the observer.

stimulus to decrease behavior (pay bail)

3. Goal-directed behavior.
4. Self- regulating people regulate their own

Negative punishment removing something to


decrease behavior (confiscation of phones)

SCHEDULE:
Continuous reinforcement reinforced every time

behavior.
5. Reinforcements and punishments have indirect
effect to behavior.

TYPES OF MODELS:

a specific behavior occurs.

1. live models observational models

Fixed ratio reinforcement reinforced after the

2. symbolic models fictional characters that can

behavior is done for a certain number of times.

influence ones behavior

Fixed interval reinforcement reinforced in a fixed


time interval but at least one correct answer has been

DIAGRAM:

made.
Variable ratio reinforcement reinforced after
unpredictable number of times.
Variable interval reinforcement giving reinforcers
at changing and inconsistent periods of time.

2. BANDURAs SOCIAL COGNITIVE


Nurture Change Continuous (N)
Cognitive - Socioemotional
Reciprocal determinism - important relationship

DEFINTION:
Learning by observing (observational
learning).

between observing other and learning.


Triadic reciprocal causation interplay between
environmental factors, personal and cognitive factors
which lead to certain behaviors.

Notes/Reviewer on Human Development (UST)


Prepared by: Burgos, Assumpta Minette C.

DIFFERENCES
Skinner
Nurture

Change
Continuous
Cognitive
Socioemotional

Bandura
Nurture
Change
Cognitive
Socioemotional

LIFE COURSE THEORY


EEASMEL : 22 28 33 40 45 50 above
Nurture Change Discontinuous
Socioemotional

DEFINITION:
7 ADULT DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES:
Life course interaction between historical events,
personal decisions, and individual opportunities.
-- concrete character of life in its evolution
from beginning to end

EEASMEL : 22 28 33 40 45 50 above
Nurture Change Discontinuous
Socioemotional

Course indicates sequence, temporal flow


Life structure underlying patter or design of a
persons life at a given time

1. Early Adulthood (17 to 22)


Transitional stage from adolescence to
adulthood

-- develops through an orderly


sequence of age-linked periods during adult years.

Young people make initial choices for adult


life.

2 KEY CONCEPTS:

First gain independence

1. Structure-building (stable period)


Crucial choices are made
Build life structure around those choices
Pursue goals within that life structure

E: go to college, leave home, or join

2. structure-changing (transitional period)


Signifies the end of a stage
Creation of new possibilities that will lead to
a beginning stage in life

workforce
2. Entering the adult world (22 to 28)
Young adults make more concrete choices
Presence of a mentor can be a great
influence.
E: occupation, values, relationships
3. Age 30 transition (28 to 33)
Changes occur in adults life.
E: marriage or having children.
Young adults reflects on his life.
Make changes or modifications or sets the
ground for next stage.

Notes/Reviewer on Human Development (UST)


Prepared by: Burgos, Assumpta Minette C.

4. Settling down (33 to 40)


Marks the end of the era of early adulthood.

EXPERIMENT:
Ducklings (graylag geese) follow the first

Person starts behaving more like an adult

moving object they see. (imprinting rapid, innate

Becomes parent.

learning that involves attachment to the first moving

Realizes youthful aspiration.

object seen). Done with Nikolas Tinbergen

Establishes a niche in the society.


5. Mid-life transition (40 to 45)

4 PHASES OF ATTACHMENT:

Crucial stage

PACF: 6 weeks 6 to 8 months 18 months 2

Adult begins to reflect on his life

years onwards

Drastic changes occur

Biological - Socioemotional

E: career change or divorce


Begins to think more of death and legacy
6. Entering middle adulthood (45 to 50)
Makes new choices about the future

1. Pre-attachment Phase
Birth to 6 weeks
Built-in signals

Commit oneself to new tasks

Cyring

Think about legacy

Cooing

7. Late Adulthood (60 and above)


Boundary between middle and late adulthood
Begin to reflect on their life and the choice
theyve made.

Gazing into adults eyes


Smiling
Comfortable with being left with unfamiliar
person
2. Attachment in the Making phase

ETHOLOGICAL THEORIES

6 weeks to 6-8 months

PACF: 6 weeks 6 to 8 months 18 months 2

Respond differently to familiar people than do

years onwards
Biological - Socioemotional

to strangers
Parents continue to build attachment by
meeting the basic needs

DEFINITION:
Behavior is influence by biology, tied to
evolution, and is characterized by critical or sensitive
periods.
There are specific time frames.

3. Clear-cut Attachment Phase


6-8 months to 18 months
Separation anxiety
Craves for caregivers attachment
Being receptive to the child

1. KONRAD LORENZ
DEFINITION:
Ethology is the study of animal behavior.
Behavior is influence by biology, tied to
evolution, and is characterized by critical or sensitive
periods.

Meeting the basic needs


Playing with the child strengthens the
attachment
4. Formation of Reciprocal Relationship
18 months to 2 years onwards
Rapid language growth
Understanding of new concepts

Notes/Reviewer on Human Development (UST)


Prepared by: Burgos, Assumpta Minette C.

Begin to understand a parents coming and

5 SYSTEMS:
Nurture Change Continuous

going

Socioemotional

2. JOHN BOWLBY

1. microsystem
Activities

DEFINITION:
Attachment to a caregiver plays over the first

Critical period - period of imprinting and


optimal

development

roles

that

child

directly

participates in.
The younger the child, the smaller the

year of life has important consequences.

promoting

or

of

social

relationships.

microsystem.
Immediate family members
Childcare
School teachers

ECOLOGICAL THEORY

Peers

Nurture Change Continuous

Neighborhood play area

Socioemotional

DEFINITION:
Defines complex layers of the environment,
each having an effect on a childs development

2. mesosystems
Relations

between

microsystems

or

connections between contexts

Also called bioecological systems theory

Develops sense of belonging

The child isnt just a passive recipient

The child may not be indirectly involved, but

As people affect the child, so the child has an


influence on them

could still be affected.


Relationship between family and school

Nothing ever remains static


The child, system and environments are ever
changing.
Milestone and life events occur as time
passes, the child grows and contexts change.

3. exosystems
Links between social settings
Though the child may not have dire contact
with it the systems affect the chids development
and socialization because the people in the

DIAGRAM:

childs life are affected by the exosystems and the


mesosystems.
Extended family
Family networks
Mass media
Workplace
Neighbors
Community health systems

Notes/Reviewer on Human Development (UST)


Prepared by: Burgos, Assumpta Minette C.

4. macrosystems

5. PHYSIOLOGICAL MEASURES

Societal blueprint

Study development at different points in life

Contains the attitudes, ideologies, values,

span.

laws and customs of a culture.

RESEARCH DESIGNS
5. chronosystem
Time dimension as it relates to a childs
environment
Either internal (physiological changes
aging) or external (timing of parents death)

4. RESEARCH IN
DEVELOPMENT

LIFE

SPAN

METHODS FOR COLLECTING DATA


1. OBSERVATION
Have to be systematic
Where?
1. Laboratory controlled setting
2. Naturalistic in real world settings
2. SURVEY AND INTERVIEW
Best and quickest way to get information

Survey (questionnaire)
-- useful when information is from many

1. DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH
Aims to observe and record behavior
Reveal important information about peoples
behavior
2. CORRELATIONAL STUDIES
Help predict how people will behave
Describe the strength of the relationship
between two or more characteristics.
Correlational coefficient
-- a number based on statistical analysis
-- degree of association between variables
3. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH
Regulated procedure where other factors are
manipulated while others are held constant.
Independent variables
-- manipulated, influential factor
-- potential cause
Dependent variable
-- response to changes caused by independent
variable

people
-- questions are clear and unbiased

Experimental group
-- experience is manipulated

3. STANDARDIZED TEST
Uniform procedures for administration and
scoring.

Control group
-- baseline
-- effects of the manipulated will be compared

Persons behavior is consistent and stable,


yet personality and intelligence can vary with the

Random Asssignment
-- researchers assign participants to experimental
and control groups by chace

situation.
4. CASE STUDIES
In-depth look at a single individual
Must be cautious at generalizing
Involve judgments of unknown reliability.

Notes/Reviewer on Human Development (UST)


Prepared by: Burgos, Assumpta Minette C.

TIME SPAN OF RESEARCH


1. CROSS-SECTIONAL APPORACH
Simultaneously compares individuals
different ages
Advantage:
Time saving

at

2. LONGITUDINAL APPROACH
Same individuals studied over a period of
time.
3. COHORT EFFECTS
Cohort group of people who are born at a
similar point in history and share similar
experiences
Cohort effects due to a persons time of birth,
era or generation but not actual age.
Additional:
Informed consent
-- all participants must know what he research
participation will involve and what risks might
develop
Debriefing
-- after the study, participants should be informed of
the studys purpose and methods that were used
Deception
-- researchers must ensure that deception will not
harm participants, and that participants are fully
debriefed.

MINIMIZING BIAS
1. GENDER BIAS
Preconceived notions about the abilities and
women and men
Research can affect how people think about
gender differences.
2. CULTURAL AND ETHNIC BIAS
Life-span research needs to include more people
from diverse ethnic groups.
Ethnic gloss using an ethnic label in a
superficial way that portrays an ethnic group as
being more homogenous than it really is.

Notes/Reviewer on Human Development (UST)


Prepared by: Burgos, Assumpta Minette C.

REFERENCE:
Santrock, J. W. (2010). Life-Span development (13th
ed.). New York, USA: McGraw Hill.

Notes/Reviewer on Human Development (UST)


Prepared by: Burgos, Assumpta Minette C.