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TEKNA SEPARATION CONFERENCE 2013
TEKNA SEPARATION CONFERENCE 2013
TEKNA SEPARATION CONFERENCE 2013 A methodology to diagnose liquid carry over in gas processing and action
A methodology to diagnose liquid carry over in gas processing and action to reduce the problem.
A methodology to diagnose liquid carry over
in gas processing and action to reduce the problem.

Creation of sub-micron droplets (mechanism)

Diagnostic method

Chemical effects

Jon Berntsen, Managing Director

KANFA Mator AS, Norway

Liquid carry over in gas process
Liquid carry over in gas process
Liquid carry over in gas process • According to NORSOK requirement, liquid carry over shall not

According to NORSOK requirement, liquid carry over shall not exceed 13 L (liquids)/MSm 3 (gas).

Verification is typically done by the use of radiotracers. Oil resp. water soluble tracers.

Operation of gas processes sometimes require use of anti-surge valve.

Will that or other operational problems influence scrubber performance?

Typical gas process
Typical gas process
Typical gas process EXPORT

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Sampling equipment The sample equipment are prefilled with a reference fluid; one for collection of oil
Sampling equipment
The sample equipment are prefilled with a reference fluid; one for
collection of oil and one for collection of water.
After a defined sampling time the gas flow is stopped,
the equipment disconnected, and droplets accumulated in the
reference fluid is analysed.
For the fluids absorbed by the reference-fluid it is possible to find:
Droplet size distribution.
Type of carry over (oil/condensate/water)
Hook-up in the field
Hook-up in the field
Hook-up in the field
Hook-up in the field
Creation of sub-micron droplets
Creation of sub-micron droplets
Creation of sub-micron droplets Result from initial field testing. Sampling 1 st. separator @ 50 barg.
Creation of sub-micron droplets Result from initial field testing. Sampling 1 st. separator @ 50 barg.

Result from initial field testing. Sampling 1 st. separator @ 50 barg.

Creation of sub-micron droplets Result from initial field testing. Sampling 1 st. separator @ 50 barg.

4 different tests.

Is it possible to generate sub-micron and micron droplets in a 50 bar separator?

Creation of sub-micron droplets Result from initial field testing. Sampling 1 st. separator @ 50 barg.
Creation of sub-micron droplets
Creation of sub-micron droplets
Creation of sub-micron droplets This presentation was our reference point about expected oil droplet sizes! FIELD

This presentation was our reference point about expected oil droplet sizes!

FIELD DATA
FIELD DATA
Creation of sub-micron droplets
Creation of sub-micron droplets
Creation of sub-micron droplets Verification of our sampling and analytical method versus technologies that are reliable

Verification of our sampling and analytical method versus technologies that are reliable in the

Sub-micron and micron area.

Creation of sub-micron droplets Verification of our sampling and analytical method versus technologies that are reliable
Creation of sub-micron droplets
Creation of sub-micron droplets
Creation of sub-micron droplets Generating of droplets in test rig. Testing @ 1 bar and 10

Generating of droplets in test rig.

Testing @ 1 bar and 10 min sampling time.

Creation of sub-micron droplets Generating of droplets in test rig. Testing @ 1 bar and 10

Testing @ 3.3 bar and 25 min sampling time.

Typical gas process
Typical gas process
Typical gas process EXPORT

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Typical gas process, high pressure
Typical gas process, high pressure
Typical gas process, high pressure This sample presents the conditions after 5 minutes sampling at a
Typical gas process, high pressure This sample presents the conditions after 5 minutes sampling at a
Typical gas process, high pressure This sample presents the conditions after 5 minutes sampling at a

This sample presents the conditions after 5 minutes sampling

at a pressure of approx. 50 barg. Note that the volume of crude oil is significant. The reference fluid had a high concentration of dispersed oil droplets > 1000 ppm. Note that all these oil droplets are very

small with an average droplet size of 2.6 microns.

The total volume of oil is dominated by “free oil”.

Typical gas process, high pressure This sample presents the conditions after 5 minutes sampling at a
Typical gas process
Typical gas process

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Typical gas process, low pressure
Typical gas process, low pressure
Typical gas process, low pressure This sample presents the conditions after 5 minutes sampling at a
Typical gas process, low pressure This sample presents the conditions after 5 minutes sampling at a
Typical gas process, low pressure This sample presents the conditions after 5 minutes sampling at a

This sample presents the conditions after 5 minutes sampling at a pressure less than 10 barg. Note that the volume of free crude oil is low. The reference fluid had a concentration of 870 ppm oil. Note that all these oil droplets are less that 100 microns.

Typical gas process, low pressure This sample presents the conditions after 5 minutes sampling at a
Typical gas process, high pressure scrubber
Typical gas process, high pressure scrubber
Typical gas process, high pressure scrubber EXPORT

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Typical gas process, high pressure scrubber
Typical gas process, high pressure scrubber
Typical gas process, high pressure scrubber These two samples indicate that process variations influence the degree
Typical gas process, high pressure scrubber These two samples indicate that process variations influence the degree
Typical gas process, high pressure scrubber These two samples indicate that process variations influence the degree
Typical gas process, high pressure scrubber These two samples indicate that process variations influence the degree

These two samples indicate that process variations influence the

degree and type of liquid carry over.

After conducting many tests a better understanding of operation was gained. Drainage of the liquid level in the scrubber might result in more carry over.

Use of anti-surge might influence…….

Typical gas process, high pressure scrubber These two samples indicate that process variations influence the degree
Typical gas process. Tracking of droplets
Typical gas process. Tracking of droplets
Typical gas process. Tracking of droplets High pressure separator Lower pressure separator High pressure scrubber

High pressure separator

Lower pressure separator

High pressure scrubber

Typical gas process. Tracking of droplets High pressure separator Lower pressure separator High pressure scrubber
Anti-surge operation
Anti-surge operation
Anti-surge operation SAMPLEPOINT EXPORT
Anti-surge operation SAMPLEPOINT EXPORT
Anti-surge operation SAMPLEPOINT EXPORT
Anti-surge operation SAMPLEPOINT EXPORT
Anti-surge operation SAMPLEPOINT EXPORT
SAMPLEPOINT
SAMPLEPOINT

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Anti-surge operation
Anti-surge operation
Anti-surge operation Three different samples collected at the same sample point. The center picture show condensate

Three different samples collected at the same sample point. The center picture show condensate in reference fluid creating something that can be expressed as slurry while the right picture is oil comingled with condensate.

Is this a result of anti-surge use or ???

Anti-surge operation Three different samples collected at the same sample point. The center picture show condensate
Anti-surge operation Three different samples collected at the same sample point. The center picture show condensate
Anti-surge operation Three different samples collected at the same sample point. The center picture show condensate
Determination of type of hydrocarbons
Determination of type of hydrocarbons
Determination of type of hydrocarbons The laser diffraction instrument identify droplets of crude oil and condensate

The laser diffraction instrument identify droplets of crude oil and condensate dispersed in the reference fluid and gives information about their droplet sizes and concentration (ppm).

Further use of different analytical methods is needed to differentiate between oil and

condensate.

Fine dispersed droplets are “trapped” in the reference fluid, while large droplets and

free oil are collected at the top. The laser detects both oil and condensate droplets dispersed in the reference fluid. The other technique detects only crude

 
 
Determination of type of hydrocarbons The laser diffraction instrument identify droplets of crude oil and condensate

oil.

Determination of type of hydrocarbons The laser diffraction instrument identify droplets of crude oil and condensate
Condensate droplets Crude oil droplets
Condensate droplets
Crude oil droplets
Determination of type of hydrocarbons The laser diffraction instrument identify droplets of crude oil and condensate
Results downstream scrubber
Results downstream scrubber

Results from the reference fluid and total volume sample.

The light brown fluid on top is condensate mixed with

crude oil. At first sight an impression of large volume

crude oil carry over might be the case, but when analyzing the different phases a more correct picture is drawn.

Results downstream scrubber Results from the reference fluid and total volume sample. The light brown fluid
Results downstream scrubber Results from the reference fluid and total volume sample. The light brown fluid
Results downstream scrubber Results from the reference fluid and total volume sample. The light brown fluid
Results downstream scrubber
Results downstream scrubber
Results downstream scrubber Laser diffraction measurement show a concentration of 401 ppm in the sample When
Results downstream scrubber Laser diffraction measurement show a concentration of 401 ppm in the sample When

Laser diffraction measurement show a concentration of 401 ppm in the sample When analyzing the same sample for crude oil 13 ppm is reported in the reference liquid.

Results downstream scrubber Laser diffraction measurement show a concentration of 401 ppm in the sample When
Testing of chemicals for improved separation
Testing of chemicals for improved separation
Testing of chemicals for improved separation In different processes it might be possible to gain some

In different processes it might be possible to gain some assistance by use of chemicals.

It is normal procedure to use a defoaming chemical to reduce foaming tendencies in separators to minimize liquid carry over.

We normally use neutron scanning to determine efficiency of defoaming

chemicals, but this time testing of gas quality was carried out.

Very interesting results!

Defoamer test gas from 1.st separator
Defoamer test gas from 1.st separator
Defoamer test gas from 1.st separator Injection of 6 l/h Injection of 12 l/h Injection of

Injection of 6 l/h

Injection of 12 l/h

Defoamer test gas from 1.st separator Injection of 6 l/h Injection of 12 l/h Injection of

Injection of 24 l/h

Defoamer test: After high pressure scrubber
Defoamer test: After high pressure scrubber
Defoamer test: After high pressure scrubber Result from “standard” defoamer Note concentration and distribution Result with

Result from “standard” defoamer Note concentration and distribution

Result with “new”defoamer

Note concentration and distribution

Defoamer test: After high pressure scrubber Result from “standard” defoamer Note concentration and distribution Result with
Defoamer test: After high pressure scrubber Result from “standard” defoamer Note concentration and distribution Result with

New defoaming chemical improved performance in the scrubbers significantly.

Final touch 
Final touch 
Final touch  Technology and methodology is available for better understanding of gas processes!
Final touch  Technology and methodology is available for better understanding of gas processes!

Technology and methodology is available for better understanding of gas processes!

Final touch 
Final touch 
And
And
Final touch  And A special thank to my colleague Kristin S. Nomme who has provided

A special thank to my colleague Kristin S. Nomme who has provided me with good data, information

and interesting discussion based on all the field work conducted