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worldsteel / CISA

China Automotive Steel Conference

Jae-Bok NAM
POSCO Technical Research Lab.

Development of New Auto Steels and


Application Technology
Nov. 21, 2013

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POSCO Automotive Steel

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POSCO Automotive Steel

Introduction
Automotive Steels in POSCO
Sales in 2003~2012

Sales Mix in 2012

8.0

Sales of Automotive
Steels, million ton

7.0
6.0
5.0

Product

4.0

Steel
Grade

3.0
2.0
1.0
0.0
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012

Coated Product : 33.5% HSS+AHSS : 44.7%

- Sales in 2003 to 2012 has been increasing by CAGR of 11.7%.


- In 2012, total sales is 7.3 million tons including 62% overseas sales.
- High strength steel and AHSS are occupied with 44.7% of total sales

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POSCO Automotive Steel

Development of AHSS
Banana Diagram

Conventional AHSS

Elongation (%)

AHSS grade
DP/CP
TRIP
Mart
HPF
TWIP
Duplex/Lightweight

IF

Status
Commercialized
Developed
Developing

Mild
BH

- DP, TRIP, CP, Mart, HPF


- TSxEl < 25,000 MPa%

eXtra-AHSS (X-AHSS)
- Giga duplex, Light weight steel
- 25,000 < TSxEl < 50,000 MPa%

Ultra-AHSS (U-AHSS)
- TWIP steel
- TSxEl > 50,000 MPa%

Tensile strength (MPa)


X-AHSS : eXtra-Advanced HSS / U-AHSS : Ultra-Advanced HSS
Ref : Ohjoon Kwon, Kwang Geun Chin et al : Materials Science Forum, Volume THERMEC 2009, p.136

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POSCO Automotive Steel

490DP Steel for Outer Panel

GA 490DP for Door Outer World First Production2005


Requirement : Surface quality, Dent resistance, Stiffness

18

0.75mm
- 7%
0.7mm

17
16

340BH

490DP

[ Weight reduction ]

Dent load (kgf)

Weight (kg)

Replacement of 340BH steel by 490DP steel


Weight reduction 7%, improvement of dent resistance 53%
25
20
15
10
5
0

+ 53%

490DP
340BH
[ Improvement of dent resistance ]

Applications

Body panel reinforcement sealer

[ Door outer, 0.7t GA 490DP ]


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[ Removal of Body panel reinforcement sealer ]

590DP Steel for Outer Panel

POSCO Automotive Steel

GA 590DP for Closure Parts


Trial for hood outer : 21% weight reduction (0.7t 340BH 0.55t 590DP)
Trial for fender at Japanese automobile company shows good formability

Applications
Small Sedan, Hood outer
GA 590DP (0.55t)

Japanese Car, Fender


GA 590DP (0.55t)

[ Hood outer using GA 590DP of 0.55mm thickness ]


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POSCO Automotive Steel

Super Formable IF HSS


IF HSS (E/ES-class)
High elongation and excellent r-value
suitable for outer parts requiring strength & formability
Grade
340E
340ES

Class
CR/EG
GI/GA
CR/EG
GI/GA

YS (MPa)

TS (MPa)

El (%)

167

340

32

1.75

180

340

35

2.25

Application
340E Steel on Korean OEMs SIDE OTR PNL
Worlds first commercial application
Weight Reduction 7% (EDDQ 0.7t 0.65t)
We have 340ES for better than 340E

[ One Piece Side Outer (domestic company) ]


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GI

POSCO Automotive Steel

980DP Steel
CR/GI/GA 980DP with good bendability

Reduce the strength difference between phases Improvement of bendability


Low Ceq decreasing welding nugget hardness Increase of ductility ratio
Bending
direction

Spec.
(R/t)

L
C

2.5
2.5

R/t
1.5
1.3

Bendability ( GA980DP: 2.0t)


0.5R
1.0R
1.5
2.0
X
X

2.5

3.0
O
O

Applications

[ Back side bracket (CR 980DP) ]

[ Cross section of spot welded GA980DP steel ]


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[ Floor panel tunnel (GI 980DP) ]

POSCO Automotive Steel

1180CP Steel
GA 1180CP for Reinforcement Parts
Requirement

Devloping Target

High YR
Bendability
Spot weldability
Zn coatability

YS 850 MPa,
TS 1180 MPa
Bending radius 3 x thickness
Low Ceq and Si content

1180CP

Suppress ferrite and promote bainite transformation High YR, excellent bending property
Applications

Martensite

Ferrite

Material Change (EG 590TRIP GA 1180CP steel)


Achieve 33% of weight reduction
First commercial production in the world

Bainite

[ Microstructure ]

[ Rocker Outer (Domestic company) ]


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POSCO Automotive Steel

GI 1470Mart
GI 1470Mart for Reinforcement Parts
Safety regulation for frontal small overlap crash test
: 25% offset collision introduced by IIHS
So, rocker or side sill becomes more and more
important where anti-corrosion is also significant
Commercialization of the world 1st GI 1470 Martensitic steel

* cf. www.iihs.org

< Mechanical properties >


YS (MPa)

TS (MPa)

T-El (%)

YR

Bendability(1

1050

1470

> 0.71

1)

Bendability = Min. corner radius / Thickness

Applications
Rocker Outer
Bumper Beam
First commercial production in the world
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[ Rocker Outer (Domestic company)]

POSCO Automotive Steel

TWIP Steels (U-AHSS)


Characteristics

High Mn austenitic steel work-hardened by twinning


High energy absorption by excellent strain hardening rate
Very high strength-ductility combination (1000MPa, 65%)
Commercialization : Cold rolled product, 2011~ (POSCO, World First)
Developing high YS TWIP steels (900, 1100, 1300, 1500, 1700 grades)
Applications
High TS, High El : Bumper, member etc.
Commercialized Bumper of European Vehicle
(28% weight reduction, 22% cost saving)
High HER, High El : Wheel, Low arm etc
- Low arm : 540MPa FB (4 Ops)
980MPa TWIP (2 Ops)

[ Wheel, Chassis with TWIP steel ]


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[Bumper Beam, Commercialized product (12) ]

POSCO Automotive Steel

TWIP Steels (U-AHSS)

Part development of BIW (body in white) and Chassis


Chassis

BIW

Spring Stopper

Wheel Disc & Rim

Lower Arm
Front Cross Member

The red colored parts are made from TWIP steel through collaboration with customers.
Recently, the number of chassis application is increasing as the advantage becomes
apparent with TWIP steel. .
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POSCO Automotive Steel

TWIP Steels (U-AHSS)


Development of TWIP steels with High YS
: Commercial, : Developed

980TWIP

50

900TWIP

40

900_HY TWIP

LC

30
20
10

BH

1000_HY TWIP

1000_HY TWIP

1000

1200_HY TWIP

900_HY TWIP
900TWIP

800
600
400
200

CP, MART
HPF

0
200

1200_HY TWIP

1200

60
Stress (MPa)

Elongation (%)

70

1400

0
0

400 600 800 1000 1200 1400


Tensile Strength (MPa)

20

40
Strain (%)

60

To meet the customers needs for high YS TWIP steels, POSCO developed three grades,
900_HY, 1000_HY and 1200_HY, which is utilized work hardening by skin pass rolling .

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80

POSCO Automotive Steel

Medium Mn TRIP steel (X-AHSS)


Characteristics

Medium Mn addition increase of austenite stability


High TS strength, yield ratio and elongation with a large amount of austenite
Duplex microstructure of ultra-fine retained austenite and ferrite
< Mechanical Properties >
YS (MPa)

TS (MPa)

El (%)

TSxEl (MPa%)

980 DP

780

1040

11

11440

980 Duplex

937

1033

28

28924

< Microstructure >


1200
Strength(MPa)

1000
800
600

(TS X El 25,000MPa%)

400
200
0

Ferrite

X-AHSS grade!!
Austenite

CR 980 Duplex
0

10

20
Strain(%)

30
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POSCO Application Technology


New Forming Technology
Lightweight Solutions for Chassis
POSCO Lightweight Body Concept
Electric Power Train

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POSCO Application Tech.

New Forming Technology


Tailored Hot Press Forming

Implementation : Multi-strength HPF, TWB HPF to enhance the ductility in sepecific area
Multi-strength HPF

HPF1470
(1.5GPa)

HSS 590
HSS 590

HPF1470
(0.6GPa)

(1 Piece Blank)
TWB HPF

HPF1470
Laser welding (1.5GPa)

HSS 380Y
[ Conventional Design ]
CHSP340Y
(0.6GPa)

(TWB Blank)
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POSCO Application Tech.

New Forming Technology


PosRollForm (Multi-Directional Roll Forming)
Concept : Producing Variable Sectional Profile using
Linear & Rotational Movement of Stands
POSCOs own FE Program (Shape-MDRF)
: Reduction of Calculation Time with High Accuracy

Unique Solution for the Prevention of Distortion


: Incremental Counter Forming Method

Side Sill

[Conventional Product] [PosRollForm Product]


(Uniform Section)
(Variable Section)

Floor Cross Member


[PosRollForm Test Facility]

[PBC-EV PosRollForm Part]


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Lightweight Solution for Chassis

POSCO Application Tech.

Torsion Beam Axle


Removing reinforcement (bracket) for a lightweight torsion beam
Design Optimization and Advanced Manufacturing by Hydroforming Technology
New Concept : Bended and Expanded Beam for Structural Performance
Project on Torsion Beam Axle Development

Original Beam

Weight Down+Bracket Removing

Design Optimization
Durability Test

PI

Weld Durability Analysis

Optimized H/F beam

Proto Beam Hydro forming

FB780 One-piece Beam

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Lightweight Solution for Chassis

POSCO Application Tech.

Styled Steel Wheel


Lightweighting by Shape Optimization and Advanced Manufacturing Technology
New Concept : High Stiffness Rim (TWIP980 steel + Hydroforming)
TWB Disk (HB780 steel- 3.6t / 3.2t)
HB780 Wheel Disk

TWIP980 Wheel Rim

Structural / Durability analysis

Die design & Forming Analysis

Styled Steel wheel

TWIP980 Rim Bead Optimization


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18

TWB Disk

POSCO Body Concept : PBC-EV

POSCO Application Tech.

PBC-EV : POSCO Body Concept-Electric Vehicle

Objectives

To integrate POSCOs steel products & application tech. to provide Cost Efficient Steel Solutions
for electric vehicle to our customers
To identify Requirements of New Steel Grades and New Opportunities for Steel

Dimensions

Overall Length 4320mm, Wheelbase 2750mm,


Width 1830mm, Height 1550mm
[ Final Styling ]

Styling & Packages


CFD Based Styling for Optimal

Surface Streamline

Separated Air Flow

Aerodynamic Design
High Roof Package for Maximizing
Passenger/Battery Spaces
Detachable Rear Battery Package
Cd = 0.285
[ Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulation ]
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POSCO Application Tech.

POSCO Body Concept : PBC-EV

PBC-EV Base Model

Design Results
Weight Reduction : 26.4%

Performance : [Crash] 5 Star & Good Safety Rating, No Battery Damage


[Stiffness] Static Bending/Torsion > 15000, Dynamic Bending/Torsion = 51.2/47.4Hz
Steel Grades

Steel Grades
(As % of Body Weight)
MILD,2.5%
Mg(Sheet),2.0%

ETC, 0.53%

E-ES/C/R Class,
32.9%

HPF1470/2000,

DP490/590/780,

8.2%

15.6%

CP1180/1470,
10.3%

DP980,
TWIP980,

DUPLEX3.9%

9.3%
TRIP590,1.6%

10.4%

TRIP980,1180,

Body Weight : 218 kg


Weight Reduction : 26.4%

3.3%

AHSS = 65.0 %
UHSS(1GPa) = 45.4 %

* Body Weight : Without Bumper Impact Beam


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POSCO Body Concept : PBC-EV

POSCO Application Tech.

Manufacturing Process
Manufacturing Process
(As % of BIW Structure Mass)

Cost Efficient Manufacturing


Roll Forming + Forming = 41.2 %
(Including PosRollForm)

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POSCO Body Concept : PBC-EV

POSCO Application Tech.

Demonstration

Transition
line

Weldability Test

Assembly

Process Design &


Formability Analysis

Ductile Zone

Hard
Zone
Weld-line

HPF1470

CHSP340Y

Process Optimization &


Prototyping

Prototyping

World 1st Body Concept for Electric Vehicle


By Steel Company
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POSCO Body Concept : PBC-EV

POSCO Application Tech.

Upgraded Models
1. Solution for RCAR Test

Max.
Effective Plastic
Strain < 0.03

Effective Solution for RCAR Structural Tests

2.1%
2.4%

1.9%
LH : 2.3%

RCAR Front/Rear Structural Test (CAE Result)

2. Extra Lightweight Model


Additional Lightweight by Structure Improvement and
Increase of HPF Parts (HPF ratio in BIW : 8.2 17.1%)

Final
Weight
Savings
30%
Modified Parts

Design Modification for Extra Lightweight


Torsional Stiffness

3. High Torsional Stiffness Model

(kN/deg)

Torsional Stiffness Improvement :

17.4%

50.0% (17.2 25.8 kN/deg)


17.2

Analysis of Strain Energy


& Thickness Sensitiveness
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50%

20.2

25.8

216kg
207kg
218kg
PBC-EV Base Extra Light. High Stiff.

POSCO Application Tech.

EPT (Electric Power Train)

* PMSM : Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor

POSCO EPT system

High Performance and Reliability : PMSM EPT System with High Power Density & High Efficiency
Compact

Light Weight

Low Cost

Easy Installation

High Power Density

Key Factor for EV

Optimized Design

Parts Integration

Products

100kW EPT PMSM, PCU

60kW EPT PMSM, PCU

Applications to EV (Electric Vehicle)


EV Conversion for EPT Test
- Various Performance Evaluations
- Road Driving Test
Mid-size EV Buildup with Customer
Small Size EV Development in Consortium
POSCO EPT Applications
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EPT (Electric Power Train)

POSCO Application Tech.

100kW PMSM
Major Specifications
- Motor Type : Interior Permanent Magnet
- Max. Power : 100kW@5,600rpm/90sec
- Continuous Power : 60kW@0~12,000rpm
- Max. Torque : 320Nm/90sec
- Cooling : Water (65, 12/min)

100kW PMSM (L 286mm H 325mm Stator Dia. 260mm, Weight 62kg)

- Power Density : 1.6kW/kg

Performance
T-N Curve

Efficiency Map
100kW T-N characteristic
100kW output
Max Power

Cont. Torque

Continuous Power

Motor Speed (rpm)

Power (kW)

Torque (Nm)

Max Torque

60kW is available
stably for whole
speed range
* Avg. 95%
efficiency in most
frequent usable
operating
** Avg. efficiency
(UDDS LA4mode) :
92%
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Concluding Remarks
POSCO has been developing new advanced materials
and application technologies for vehicle lightweighting
POSCO develops new technologies, utilizing external
as well as internal resources for customer value creation

POSCO Global R&D Network

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