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LIBRARY OF

WELLESLEY COLLEGE

PURCHASED FROM
Horsford Fuad

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CONTRAPUNTAL TECHNIQUE IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY .

OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS Edinburgh London New York Toronto Bombay Calcutta Glasgow Copenhagen Melbourne Cape Town Madras Shanghai HUMPHREY MILFORD Publisher to the University .

MORRIS OXFORD AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 1922 .CONTRAPUNTAL TECHNIQUE IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY BY K O.

Printed in England .

O TO PERCY CARTER BUCK IN ACKNOWLEDGEMENT OF A DEBT LONG OUTSTANDING (£^ .

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as to the large Henry Expert are collections — this text has of Proske. van equally familiar every to student of the period. . inserted from by them to acci- meet the requirements oi musica fict a. and Barclay Squire's Ausgewcihlte The Madrigcile. I in the examples taken from Palestrina. In most of the collections named the editors distinguish dentals. editors of these respective volumes need no tribute of mine. and this preface need only concern itself with the textual procedure adopted.g. and book I for the purposes of this best to retranspose all quotations. have thought it But their scholars of international repute. Haberl's Repertorium Musicae Sacrae. those actually written in by the composer. Maldeghem^ and Where texts themselves. I to Pedrell's Hispaniae Scholae Musica Sacra. to scour the Continent in order to verify every individual sharp and for the do to G work by non- interested in the subject. edition exists — as a standard library- of Palestrina and Orlando Lasso The of course been followed. for they are all editions are usually transposed. with a double tenor. whether actually inserted by I have used only the G and F clefs who may be it him The such as or not. the former being enclosed in a bracket or placed in small print above the note.PREFACE The general scope and purport of this volume is set forth in the opening chapter. Orlando Lasso. was manifestly impossible for me flat in the manuscripts. accidentals indicated are in every case (in my judgement) the composer intended. in order to facilitate perusal of the professional readers and so. and the English composers. In other examples it was not always possible as the printed texts did not give the necessary indication. had recourse have also illustration. and from each of these I have drawn interest- ing examples that probably could not have been obtained from any other To widen the range of source. throughout. First. have reproduced this distinction where possible —e.

The other direction. formation. 38. & W. should and for the this. wrong . illustrated. J. edited Squire's edition of Byrd's Five-part Mass. true Exx. and Tallis of these have been published' in the Octavo Edition. There (3) the Collection Palestrina is obtainable from Messrs. but they are not now all in print).: PREFACE viii Regular barring has been adopted throughout. These can usually be Chester (Department of Ecclesiastical Music). good ear and his good trust to his fool-proof notation —as definitely — and the metre Regular barring alone can ensure leap to the eye. Dr. These compositions are metrical ^ but I cannot agree. likewise Chester. Also Barclay Ausgewahlte Madrigdle. obtained from Messrs. ' is ' is That would be that the harmonic accentuation uniform and periodic. Bauerle. (Saint-Gervais). There (3) & W. possible misconception. They likewise publish an edition of Tallis's Lamentations (in the Cathedral edited ^ To prevent ISeries. Readers who cannot easily obtain access to the editions already mentioned may like to big library know of some comparatively cheap and popular editions of sixteenth-century music of which they may possess themselves (1) Breitkopf & Hartel publish a large collection of masses and by Haberl. by Royle Shore). except where some special point was to be tendency of modem am aware. published by Stainer volumes so (4) Bell (nineteen far). and Squire & Terry's motets. all that is meant here by metrical within each measure of signature. is all in the Ezra or Locksley Hall metrical as Rahhi hen rhythm the reader must A understanding. and others. —Palestrina's Stahat Mater. Byrd. not varying unless there is a change are not grouped in any such regular con- The measures themselves . J. Fellowes's wonderful edition of the English is Madrigal Composers. 39a. let me warn the student against supposing that the measures of this music group themselves into regular periods just as the measures of the poetry group themselves into regular lines. and 40a. I is possible nor neither desirable. as in editors. masses by Tye. Novello's have done a good deal and several of his Masses (all & .

tains the original note-values. above all. is admirable in every way. 0. made ix of the Downside Motets and of Avion. halves values without telling the reader editors of the and even quarters what he has done intelligently do the The Downside edition Collection Palestrina. Terry for the loan of his Taverner manuscript scores Warner . Townsend by Tye. I should like to express my best thanks to Dr. M. so . and other of their contemporaries . now It also be & Co. to Miss for the similar loan of manuscript scores Shepherd.PREFACE (H) Mention should Masses (Gary Co. of lamentable misprints. and i (Laudy iii & and of the popular edition of Tudor Church Music in course of issue by the Oxford University Press. Fox-Strangways for the unreserved generosity with which he placed the whole of his library at my disposal. to Mr. R.) . vols. Whyte. The Fellowes re- is full if used edition. But they can and with caution. . In conclusion. for instance. must be understood that the above editions are not of equal merit. his note all and be of service. but halves the measures. H. A. of course. Bauerle.) .

its application Interrupted ' 7 — Plagal and Authentic forms — This disfrom a polyphonic point of view — Trans- term Mode Definition of the III. HARMONY 33 — Music a progression from concord to concord Discord originally a device for obtaining rhythmic variety Number of harmonic changes permissible in a bar Variety of colour-effect obtainable with limited means Points to be considered in detail The interval of the fourth. its meaning in Cadences Range of modulation permitted in each Mode. — — Futility ' . ' — Modulation. .. .ficta. without influence on Rhythm Freedom and Balance the ideal aimed at Prevalence of cross-rhythms Explanation of the The distinction — ' ' ' — — ' — — — time-signatures in use at this period IV. of the Five Orders — as a challenge to authority but as a vindica- it. THE POINT OF VIEW PAGE 1 Discrepancy between the Rules of Counterpoint as usually taught and The latter the only the practice of the sixteenth-century composers — authority worth considering— Object of studying. — — The Proportional System.. — — Intervals — Conjunct movement an imThe melodic technique of Palestrina Two or more permissible — Tied — notes — General — Regular barring recommended. . how far a concord Chord of the six -four Passing notes Double passing notes in thirds and sixths Two-part analysis the ultimate test of harmonic propriety Accented passing notes. THE MODAL SYSTEM tinction of no real value position of the object ' Modes — Rules for Plagal and '. rules governing portant factor leaps.17 between Metre and Rhythm as valid for music as for poetry Stress accent and Quantity accent Importance of the latter in music Its function in determining the rhythmical structure of sixteenth-century music Time-signatures of purely metrical significance. when student V.. its the sixteenth century KHYTHM — Musica — meaning. how — — — — — — — — — . (1) historical. . .. . how formed — '. MELODY 38 Compass. scope.. (2) practical Rhythm the vital factor Faulty method of instruction — — Ineptitude Cmito Fermo of the Reform suggested not tion of II. . .SYNOPSIS OF CHAPTERS I. . . and practical Phrygian — Cadence. .. if hints to guide the not misunderstood.

so-called. FUGUE. a rare in sacred music of the period meaningless term. rules for xi — Suspensions. 53 The Motet — Derivation of the term — Textual analysis the foundation Harmonic and Intermediate types of of the structure — Fugal Motet — A specimen of each analysed — The Mass — Its main divisions — Variety in length of — Contrasts of texture to be found — Modal ' '. definition Melodic Inversion with in the sixteenth century — of — stricter century — Its than Fugue — — Sparingly — used in the later sixteenth abuse by the previous generation. the two parts being usually in Double Varieties of Double Counterpoint most commonly met Counterpoint Canon. rules for preparation — — — — — — VI. 45 in this — is — complete the Subject the Answer elasticity of their relationship Two-part subjects not uncommon. SOME TECHNICAL FEATURES OF THE ENGLISH SCHOOL — an aid to real comprehension The Boldness of curve their English writers scalic rather than modal Their harmonic freedom Experiments in formation melodic ideal Their fondness for harsh effects of cadence and resolution of discord Rhythm the crowning glory of the False relationships a speciality The value of technical analj-sis as — — — — — — — — Diligence No detailed critique hitherto possible modern English research Its value as the foundation for a true English technique of critical estimate of — our national achievement.SYNOPSIS OF CHAPTERS used — Changing notes . once the exposition — — . CANON. though differing in many details of style and Chromatic freedom Its prevalence relative rather than idiom ' ' ' — — — — ' — — absolute. AND DOUBLE COUNTERPOINT Fugue properly speaking a period — No ' method rather than a ' ' form ' fixed rules for its continuation. 64 . ' The modern Cyclic symphony anticipated and thematic unity of Not properly speaking The Madrigal by Taverner and Palestrina The secular equivalent of the Motet Similar a form in music to it in general outline. VIII. — ' ' '. employment Ornamental of their — PAGE — resolutions and resolution Forbidden consecutives Why forDouble and triple suspensions The text-books and the composers at variance as usual bidden ? What rules are really observed by the latter Chromatic harmony Modal Harmony. DESIGN VII.

186. 152. 76. 202. Marenzio. Hassler. 132. Bertani. 101. 166. 18. 103-105. 228. 199-201. 247. 203. 219. de la Rue. 93. 32-34. 15. Lasso. 70. Pevernage. 238. 217. 260. 54. Weelkes. 134. 44. 179. 242. 49. 146-148. 97. 90. 153. 62. 31. Vittoria. 144. 180-184. 259. 116. 230.. 256. 220. . Wilbye. 19-25. 125-127. 35. 226. 72-74. 95. A. 117-123. 239. 204-206. 231. 261. 64-66. 211-213. 172-176. 240. 210. 215. 17. 208. 45. 218. Farmer. Brumel. 92. Orlando. 241. Taverner. 227. 98. 162. 209. 233. 149. 57-59. 94. 63. 51-53. 159. 56. Gesualdo. Palestrina. 160. 135. 214. 77-81. 234. 124. 29. 155. 244. 86. 89. 229. 41. 246. 43. de Wert. 133. 16. Sweselinck. 106. 55. 46. Gibbons. 47. 257. 156. 225. 151. 136. 164. 255. 224. Guerrero. 237. 249. 75. 165. Gabrieli. 163. Whyte. 0. Byrd. VeccM. 107. Croce. Soriano. 150. 42. 250-254. 232. Morley. 177. 248. 145. 161. Morales. 143. 221-223. Tallis. 88. 258. 158. 100. 36-40. 243. 99. 154. 87. 96. 129-131. 48.INDEX OF ILLUSTRATIONS Aichinger. 192-195. 30. 69. Tye. 185. 157. Bugsworthy. 178. 60. 167. 168-171. 108. 245. 216. 91. 128.. 68. 196-198.

the author has found it necessary to write a large number of additional examples. and the greatest rules have been. Rockappear to have suffered an interruption. therefore. and 17 of our own countrymen should be detected in such licentious posers wrote. Domine. subjected to considerable modification. we feel deeply ashamed that one at Bars 2. contains no The rules it prescribes are those. : higher authority. the difficulty of finding passages the Great Masters exactly adapted to illustrate the precise Rule falling under discussion was so great. Introduction.: THE POINT OF VIEW ' ' Since the death of these Great Masters '. B . It must be taught now if taught at all exactly as it was taught in the latter half of the sixteenth century. it No new added to it. Vittoria. observes Mr. quotations have indeed been made from the works of Fux and other famous contrapuntists but in order to explain his meaning with sufficient clearness to meet the demands of those who are entering upon the study of counterpoint for the first time. almost the only passage he quotes from a sixteenth-century composer is one from Byrd's Aspice. p. Co.' A few pages later we come upon the following passage It was the author's original intention to have illustrated the present Treatise entirely with examples selected from the works of But. . we find that Mr. yielded their loving obedience. or possibly can be. therefore. ' yielded their loving obedience will naturally be Palestrina. to which & '. and those only. that this plan was unavoidably. ' '.^ [counterpoint] has undergone no change whatever. which are distinguished by the sign [given] from those of ' . though very Abundant reluctantly. . 5. Luca Marenzio. only. and on this passage the only comment he finds to make is that Byrd has ignored the last clause of Rule LXI Naturally. illustrated in every bar that these great com- Yet. 9. Vittoria These rules. ^ 244S The Rules of Counterpoint. and those novelty whatever.' At stro this point. Rockstro has confessedly been unable to find any such illustrations. Eockstro. to which Palestrina. Our little Treatise. The Rules he ' ' prescribes are those. the logical processes of Mr. it will be noticed. He has had to write most of them himself. when it comes to the point. — — of their contemporaries.

in the main. They are. for instance. in the beginning of the next bar. Music written to meet their requirements sui generis. there is no need in the blameless Palestrina. is something altogether Music that never was on sea or land. as a matter of fact. to show that the loving obedience of which Mr. Other rules are even less fortunate. rules of Mr. who goes all through the list in a spirit of dispassionate inquiry. In the Mass there are fifty-seven of them at one point in the Sanctus nine fully cut Byrd's ' — . of them of some twenty measures. after two crochets. be tied to another minim or crochet. what And if these done in the dry ? shall be what are we However. more the same as those to be found in almost every text-book of counterpoint. Eockstro and Professor Prout ? The present volume is the writer's answer to this question. a purely academic by-product. or a crochet and two quavers. and the impartial observer. Eockstro are not peculiar. Palestrina. or abandon the sixteenth century? Follow Byrd and Palestrina. in his example. and. has caremeasures into two. Rockstro. an exposition of sixteenthcentury technique. rather an obvious instance. green tree.' ' . . No student worthy the name. for which. Byrd? — succeed one another with ostentatious rapidity in the space things are done in the If this is what we find from the nefarious to insist unduly on this to expect particular rule.: THE POINT OF VIEW 2 we behaviour. What then are we going to do ? The rules of counterpoint are found to have no connexion with musical composition as practised in the sixteenth century are we to abandon the rules. Who invented them. goodness only knows. it passes the wit of man to explain. as such. It is hasten to inquire what the provisions of Rule worded as follows A minim placed at the end of a bar. and LXI may be. quite a fair case (though no more) can be made out. it assumes that that technique is deserving of study. will begin to understand only too well his ' ' perpetual difficulty in finding passages exactly adapted to illustrate ' the precise rule falling under discussion Yet the '. It is. . Before devoting his time to counterpoint. or less. however. he is entitled to ask whether it . He will demand reasons. we may remark that exceptions They are to be found even in to this rule are somewhat frequent. so far as it concerns himself. should always. why they have been perpetuated. or follow Mr. Passing over the fact that Mr. Admirabile Commercium '. It is nevertheless an instance. Rockstro speaks is not always so readily forthcoming as one might have expected. will : be content with assumptions. if possible.

for the composer at any rate. at long last. composers are beginning to tire of this monotonous. for in doing so he will enlarge his mental horizon. even though his own bent as a painter may lie in quite other directions. for guidance. rhythm and of its true nature. and That sake. A student of painting does not regret the time he spends in copying actual practice models by Rembrandt or Van Dyck or other great masters of the he thus obtains into their technical aims and methods helps him to appreciate their genius and develop a sense of style. and realize more fully the con- past. there is an imaginary metrical accentuation which imposes a regular alternation of strong and weak beats to which the ' ' . we stop. Of the wider implications of the term selves into neat regular groups. The rhythmical accentuation of each part is free. but. deserving of study for its own that of intellectual curiosity. for the insight tinuity of musical progress. mechanical sing-song. the study of the sixteenth century has a very real practical as well as a historical interest. Above all. from it. to distinguish between secondary' rhythm. independently of the actual rhythmic accents. acquire some sense of scholarship. It appreciate a particular style and from no other motive than may it is be said that to understand not necessary to practise it. For three hundred years or so we have been slaves of the bar line. usually of two. four. Similarly a musician should not hesitate to spend a few months in mastering the idiom of the great sixteenth-century composers. and its technique is quite it is certainly unlike the technique of any succeeding period first place. But. you is true enough. which places a strong accent at the beginning of each bar and admits a certain variety of figure in between those accents. Now. we have suffered ourselves to remain in complacent ignorance. there is the . Having got so far. and our conception of rhythm has become purely metrical. We learn. not in vain. In the 3 and what he stands to gain purely historical aspect of the question. and of the manner in which his materia musica has been accumulated. but it is also true that by acquire an inside knowledge that you get in no other way. To the sixteenth century they can In that period there is no conturn. fusion between rhythm and metre. Every serious musician should have some knowledge of the history of his art. and to seek a way of escape from it.THE POINT OF VIEW is likely to prove a profitable study. the lesson it has to teach him is that of rhythmical freedom and subtlety. probably. and primary rhythm which measures out the bars them' ' ' and eight. The sixteenth century is beyond all question one of the great periods of music.

was said. if taught at all. that it is possible to search diligently through all the text-books ^. betray their belief that tonality. The starting-point has been the conviction that counterpoint. and never find so much as a hint of it. On all sides to-day is heard an outcry against the shackles of the major and minor scale on all sides we see an inclination to re-examine the problem of musical form. and to reject the view which holds it to be.THE POINT OF VIEW 4 harmony of the composition has to conform. exactly as it was taught in the sixteenth century. and in no spirit of iconoclasm. both by precept and example. the passing from one clearly defined tonality into other related tonalities. before begin to try and adapt them ? It will also be of advantage to the composer to acquire some insight into the workings of the old Modal system. ' ' outlived ^ its utility. as Mr. ' '. Vincent d'Indy's Cours de composition musicale is the sole honourable exception Neither Bellermann nor Padre Martini offers any guidance of those I have met. in its present form. E. that the present writer has found himself compelled to reject in toto the traditional methods of instruction. must be taught. a more hopeful line of approach. . from a study of this period. as is. perhaps for the first what rhythm time. on In the sixteenth century the student will see this point. and to indicate an entirely new and.ockstro says. as it seems to him. in order to make we principles really were. M. One might add. any case. the rhythmic principle the only . we find it. at the moment. is a convention that has . in the idiom of Morley or Orlando Lasso or Vittoria. English and foreign. It is for this reason. Hitherto it has not been so taught even Dr. Kitson (the only authority to betray any real uneasiness) gets no further than to say scholastic counterpoint is the adaptation of the principles of Palestrina to modern conditions In the process of adaptation. too. As soon as a student begins the study of sixteenth-century music. this is the first fact to force itself on his notice he finds out that in order to write . We no longer imagine development to consist in saying in Gb what you have already said in Bb. and many composers. mainly. really This. is sixteenth — — has somehow disappeared and in the nineteenth century any less obsolete than the principle that really matters Is it not better to ? a spirit of humility. and ask himself. to take we know what certain that it approach the sixteenth century in just as its . although the melody of each voice pursues its own way untrammelled. unfortunately. he has to slough all his old preconceptions. of the last three hundred years. and back again. is by far the most valuable lesson a composer has to learn. to put the student on the right track.

THE POINT OF VIEW
the working of rather a different system

;

5

and though he

will find

here that the system is more closely allied to our own than is
usually admitted, there are certain features of it which he cannot

Here again, however, the text-books fail
suggestive.
him, for most of them carefully evade the question, Mr. Rockstro
or shall we
is an exception, but once more his disingenuousness
fail to find

Rule CXXXV,
introduced
into
any
part of the
No accidental of any kind must be
exercise but the Final Cadence with the exception of an occasional
but even this
Bb to correct the Tritonus or the False Fifth
Let
can scarcely be tolerated, except in Modes I, II, V, and VI
the student now turn to the opening chords of Palestrina's Stahat
Bone Jesii (Ex. 194) and ask
Mater (quoted in Ex. 39) or of
himself how he is to account for them. It is the old story either
he must scrap Mr. Rockstro or he must scrap Palestrina. One
singles out Mr. Rockstro with reluctance, for he was a pioneer in
the field, and his articles in Grove's Dictionary contain much that

call it his excessive

ingenuousness

?

is

too apparent.

'

;

.

.

.

'.

;

of real value. It is for this very reason that his Rules of
Comiterpoint cannot be passed over in silence, like similar works
by lesser authorities. What in another is probably ignorance, in
is

him

is

sheer dishonesty.

A reform that

needed will inevitably encounter opposition, and
assume that such opposition is necessarily blind,
There are many teachers of wisdom and
perverse, or malicious.
experience to whom this book will not commend itself at first sight.
We grant you, they may say, that the rules of counterpoint need
revision, that in many details they bear no relation to the practice
of the great Polyphonic School of composition, but why cannot they
be simply amended where necessary'? Why must you challenge
the entire system? Why cannot you leave us our Canto Fermo
it is

most

is

foolish to

and our Five Species ?
The answer is, first, that the Canto Fermo (in the sense in which
the text-books take it) was, even in those days, an obsolete survival.
When a sixteenth-century composer set to work to compose on
a Canto Fermo, he did not spread it out in front of him in a row
He broke it up into fragments,
of stolid, unappetizing semibreves.
and treated them thematically with all the rhythmic ingenuity he
could devise. If he used the text-book type of Canto Fermo at all,
as he did occasionally (see p. 9, note 1), he did so as a deliberate
archaism. To set such things before the student as the normal,
and indeed the only possible, method of writing counterpoint, is to
paralyse his melodic invention at the outset, and also to give him
an utterly false idea of musical history. As for the Five Species,

'

THE POINT OF VIEW

6

needs a more skilful advocate than the present writer to find any
They do untold harm by professing to
whereas all they really admit
rhythm,
of
variety
teach the student
it

plausible defence for them.

a certain limited variety of rhythmic figure fitted in between
regularly recurring metrical accents. They perpetuate the tyranny
of the bar line, and do more than anything else to cause that conis

rhythm from which it is the special
mission of counterpoint (rightly understood) to deliver us. Apart
from this, all the student can possibly learn from them is the
method of employing passing notes, and preparing and resolving

fusion between metre and

the simplest forms of discord, all of which he has already learnt
or should have learnt from his elementary lessons in harmony.
Of course, if counterpoint is frankly taught on this basis if the
teacher says openly to his pupil, What we call counterpoint is only
elementary harmony. You have already been through it, but we

;

'

think it is rather fun to put you through it again, and call it by
a longer name' there is candour, at least, in such an attitude.
But the pupil's reply is inevitable: 'It may be fun for you. But
what do I gain by it ?
It must not be thought that the method of instruction implied in
the sequence of chapters in this volume involves or permits any

relaxation of discipline. The student who embarks on it in any
such belief will be rudely disappointed. He will find that where
he was formerly chastised with whips, he is now chastised with
It is much easier to write like Cherubini than to write
scorpions.
like Byrd it requires far less exertion to produce a ream of scholastic
counterpoint than a single page in the vein of Mr. Thomas Morley.
These remarks are not intended for a moment to discourage the
learner.
They are just a kindly warning, that he may not suspect
us of any amiable desire to cast authority to the winds. From
arbitrary rules, claiming a sanctity to which they have no right,
he is entitled to be free, but there are plenty of genuine rules ready
And if he is wise, he will not be content to
to take their place.
know, in theory, that their ultimate sanction rests in the practice
of Tallis and Byrd, of Lasso and Palestrina. He will begin by
frequenting the precincts of Westminster Cathedral, or any other
place where this music is habitually sung. He will then have
a knowledge of counterpoint which no book can impart, for he will
;

have begun

to realize its beauty.

'

II

THE MODAL SYSTEM
I. Evert student knows that if you take the diatonic series of
notes represented by the white keys of the pianoforte, the sequence
of notes lying between C and c (or any of their octaves) constitutes

what we

call

that

possible to start also on

it is

the major scale.

that the notes from

E

;

tones

;

similar, in that

and

TTSTTTS

;

in the

scale.

E

series,

him
and

G

to g, will give other scales,
yet differing from it, and from each

all consist

of five tones and two semi-

differing, in that the order of the tones

with each respective
is

they

not have occurred to

any other notes of the

to e say, or

similar to the major scale,

other

may

It

In the C

scale it is

and semitones

scale, for instance,

STTTSTT.

You

varies

the order

are working on

the same diatonic series, but by selecting another note as your
starting and finishing point, you envisage a new aspect or mode
'

How many

such modes can you have? Clearly,
seven, for after the seventh, whether ascending or descending, you
reach the octave, and your next series would be merely a repetition
of the first. The modal system, however, recognized a further set
of distinctions, based not on the order of the tones and semitones, but
on the compass of the melody. If a melody in any given mode lay
of that series.

between the final of that mode and its octave, the mode was said to
be in its Authentic form if it lay between the dominant of the
mode and its octave, it was said to be in its Plagal form. (Plagal and
Authentic melodies alike, of course, had to end on the final of the
mode: e.g. the compass of the Dorian [Authentic] mode, D— d, is
the same as that of the Hypomixolydian [Plagal] mode but the
last note of a Dorian melody must be D, whereas that of a Hypomixolydian must be G.)
There were thus in all fourteen theoretically possible modes,
seven Authentic, and seven Plagal. Ex. 1 will show exactly what
they were, what names were given to them,^ and which notes
;

;

^ These names were borrowed from the modal system of the ancient Greeks,
but it
must not be imagined that the Greek system and the ecclesiastical system were
identical. To enter into the difference here would merely befog the student, who
would be well advised not to trouble his head about Greek music, unless he intends to

make

it

a special branch of study.

e. mode. The distinction between Authentic and Plagal can easily be Bold Young Farmer for inillustrated from English folk-song. Trees they do grow high is stance. That the eleventh and twelfth modes are purely theoretical. First of occurred to the student that between Authentic and Plagal. as compared with that of a tenor. all. F-B) making the series quite unusable. It was found. Earlier theory recognized eight modes only. although. time being. . valid enough from a purely melodic point of view. was not fitted to serve as the most prominent note (after the final) of the mode. ' Plagal (Hypodorian). The reason is that although B was the original dominant of the mode (as you would expect. and published in 1547. being a constituent of the forbidden tritone F-B. it will be the corresponding Plagal compass that will lie most naturally for the the distinction . E. is Authentic (Mixolydian) served as For tlie ' . The mediant of an Authentic mode always serves as the dominant of the corresponding Plagal mode. in practice. That (possibly for the same reason) the mediant of the seventh mode (and the dominant of the eighth) is C and not B.: THE MODAL SYSTEM 8 tlie dominant and mediant respectively in each. It was first formulated by Glareanus in a work entitled Dodecachordon. These we must now consider. both in Plagal and Authentic forms. and G respectively. adhere to the old ecclesiastical have seen the modifications When we which. It should be here stated that this theory of fourteen possible and twelve actual modes did not pass unchallenged. to maintain in polyphonic composition for mixed voices. not B. the dominant being normally a fourth below the final). the imperfection of the fifth and the redundancy of tke fourth (B-F. must necessarily be difficult. crept into the modal system. F. 3. if not impossible. even in much later times. and conservative writers stiU pre- ferred. That the dominant of the third mode is C. if you are writing in a mode whose Authentic compass suits a tenor voice. for instance. it may already have modifications II. The natural compass of a bass. to tradition of eight modes. the series starting on D. C was eventually substituted for it. ' '. i. with their corresponding Plagal forms. 3. is about a fifth below similarly with the relationship of alto to tenor. Therefore. except that in the fourth mode the dominant is A and not Gr. and of treble to alto. that B. we shall see that the difference is one of doctrine rather than of reality. probably. the student should notice I. the compass of the corresponding Plagal mode is B-b.

Nos.THE MODAL SYSTEM 9 and so on. two to the Plagal. and vice versa. as a rule. Instances of the use of a strict Canto Fermo in semibreves can be found in Byrd's Cantiones Sacrae (1589 series. or as Plagal. on Gr. . But the tenor continued to dictate the name of the mode to the whole composition quite irrationally. It is the bass which gives you the final of the mode in which a composition is written. of course.^ In this case. the tenor which decides as to whether the form of that mode is to be considered as Authentic . and the convention governing them is that the compass of the tenor If that is Authentic. convention is. two parts keep generally to the Authentic compass. VII). If the bass ends. can you speak of a composition as being in any given mode when. i. 2 But the accidental Ab must not be employed in the transposed form of a mode. for the tenor did not necessarily end on the final of the mode. 18 and 19) in Orlando Lasso's Sixth Penitential Psalm in Aichinger's Antiphonae super Psalmos. and devise rhythmical variants of these for fugal treatment (see Chap. you find this is actually the case in four-part composition for mixed voices. the true final is D. the other parts singing round it in faux-bourdon or some other form of discant.^ a composer was free to invent his own themes if he wished. he would employ it. which can only be determined for certain by looking at the last note of the bass. break it up into its com- ponent phrases.e. the Canto Fermo is given impartially to other voices besides the tenor. however. of course. mention to indicate such transposition. it may well be asked. And if you turn to the composition of the period to see what happens. If the tenor and treble are Authentic. In all of these. and there is a Bb in the signature. if half of it is in one mode. the alto and the bass will be Plagal. with a Bb in the signature III. the whole part is the determining factor. much as composers to-day still write every now and again upon a ground bass. for instance. it may be as well to also that all the modes could be taken in a transposed position a fifth below their normal range. and elsewhere. however. the final note of the bass must be restored to its untransposed position in order to declare the mode. . and the com1 It was still employed occasionally. the other half bass. : admittedly in another ? is that such descriptions are purely conventional. thematically. This is The answer . How then. By the sixteenth century. although Eb can be used freely in the untransposed form. as Plagal. . composition is considered as Authentic if Plagal. While we are touching this point. this strict writing on a Ca7ito Fey-mo had been superseded by other methods. and if he used a plain-song melody (as he still very frequently did). a survival from earlier times. when all composition was based on a plain-song melody sung by the tenor. though.

Scriptores. there was less orthodoxy. transtransposition form of in the ecclesiastical music posed. necessitated. the Phrygian (starting on F). THE MODAL SYSTEM 10 Hypodorian mode. this means. the Lydian (starting on Gb). as the case modifications to be discussed are those permitted. for they were taught by the sol-fa methods. and cbnsequently the semitonic signs can appear between all tones. . Ancestor of our own Tonic Sol-fa. the diatonic integrity of the and the chromatic singers.'. Coussemaker. cit. position is either in the Dorian or the transposing everything a fifth might IV. the discretion of the were expected to introduce them in performance. To learn what Ficta. these old works freely to whatever pitch they think best adapted There is no theoretical difficulty to the needs of a modern choir. iii. And long after this prejudice had disappeared. in alterations were left to accordance with certain more or less clearly understood rules. about this whatsoever. op. The next or a fourth up. you can get the Dorian series (starting on Eb). puncti down be). though Modern editors. and always will be. for the simple reason that (as above stated) the alterations were not at first permitted ^ to appear in the selves clearly ^ . however. a certain difference of opinion as to the exact interpretation of these rules. chromatic alteration. indicated. 72-81. five flats in your signature. No doubt the singers of the sixteenth century could have sung their melodies at any pitch. either of sharps or flats. See Oxford History of Music. as we shall of the period is extremely rare.^ but as a matter of notation. Quoted by Wooldridge. vol. 23. the definition given us : ^ ' Music is is known as Musica we can do no better than take by the laws of what or rather. as was said. The earlier theoretical writers on the do not always express them- and one cannot turn to the actual compositions for enlightenment. by a single flat in the signature (Bb. for instance. It must here be frankly stated that there is. in the signature. It was called ' Ficta as we should say. divisible into because for a long time such alterations did not appear in the written music. in appearance at least. Musica Ficta means. by putting. 2 ' subject. tone. Any other in secular music. and so on similarly with any other number. by the author of the called Ficta when we make treatise Ars contra- a tone to be a semi- and conversely a semitone to be a tone. only the one form of transposition was in use. but on the relative disposition of the tonic and semitonic intervals. For every tone is two semitones. Ecclesiastical tradition required that. ii. the custom itself remained.' In other words. who modes should be respected. pp. The differentiation between one mode and another depends not on any absolute difference of pitch. transpose see.

They are not to he taJcen as the enharmonic equivalents of A±?. E. The 2. DS. It is beyond the a matter in detail is the task of the historian. discretion. both in melody and harmony. Cft. as a rule. are the only chromatic notes permitted in the strict modal system of the sixteenth century. and Ab. Eb. A B A Db C. and the following rules must be taken for general guidance only. chromatic notes. tritone and its correlative. the diminished fifth. g. scope of this treatise. is section of this chapter. was soon recognized that this purpose could as well be by sharpening the F as by flattening the B. Bb. "Where a melody by the same a semitone by chromatic progression A Bb A rises or falls by a tone. are forbidden intervals. the tendency is to reduce the tone to alteration A G A would (but never. Eft. and he had much better adhere to them rigorously until he is experienced enough to use his own There music. the A Gft A. 5. because Afi as and Chromatic alteration was largely taken for granted throughout the Polyphonic period.. when often be sung B AJ? B or C possible. It was the necessity for correcting these intervals that first gave rise to Musica Ficta. This cadence. g. only those which the singers could not be trusted to introduce at their own discretion.THE MODAL SYSTEM 11 evidence that the scope of Musica Ficta varied at and (probably) in different localities with highlytrained singers it became doubtless a matter of instinct rather than To investigate such a mechanical application of definite formulae. but they are not used with the close of the period. Gft. Db. and then falls or rises interval. 6. The convenience of being able to alter the remaining intervals of the scale (D-E. the accidentals inserted in the music being. It effected 3. C-D) in a similar manner could not be overlooked. Off. . Eb. These latter These five made their appearance tentatively in some of the earlier any freedom until secular music. Gi?. also came into general use. The subject does not admit of dogmatic ruling at the same time. and the chromatic notes necessary for this purpose. by which time the madrigal writers had virtually ceased to pay even a nominal respect to modal propriety. e. 4. is different periods . apart from is in the formation of the explained and illustrated in the next the perfecting of the tritone. Gb. Bb always being sung instead of Bt] where necessary for this purpose. G-A. The most important use of chromatic alteration. 1. . the student who observes these rules cannot go very far astray.

problems harmony had to solve was the accom- by the other voice or voices. it was found that while the two upper parts latter. must now consider the type of cadence used in the modal writing of the sixteenth century. One of the first paniment of ' and the cadence of a plain-song it or falling ' ' one degree Shakespeare says had a dying fall. causing the Ftl of the alto to be answered by the Fjf of the treble. except E and B. by descending. 24^^ it is precisely the logical application of this rule. melody was formed. The beauty of the opening phrase of Veni. the cadence is simply a variety of one of these forms. as a rule. for instance (see Ex. The . was found that the most natural and satisfying method in two-part writing was for the accompanying voice to ascend to the final by a semitone. with one or more notes doubled (Exx. should consider each case on its own merits. tlie lowest of the parts employed at the moment. If the cadence itself was in the bass. were engaged in the manner just described the best thing the bass ^ could do was to ascend to the final by a fourth or drop to it by a fifth (Exx. In three-part writing. would be utterly ruined if the E were sung as Eb.: THE MODAL SYSTEM 13 But it must be only a tendency its indiscriminate application as a rule would have disastrous results. as already explained. The student. from Sacerdotes Domini (Ex. It is in this sense that That strain again. in Che cadence Db. 8 to Thanks 14). the other either rose by a tone to the fifth or fell by a semitone to the third (Exx. This could be done either above or below. the penultimate that of the minor third (Exx. to its final. 1 ' By ' bass acting bass ' '. is meant here so to speak. In writing for four or more parts. its We V. as described in the last section. 6 and 7). do not yet exist). the final chord would be this melodic procedure After various experiments it that of the octave. the penultimate that of the major sixth . one of the upper parts rose by a semitone to the octave. in the former case. Cadence in its derivative sense. 'fall'. these cadences can be formed on any degree of any mode. when he has occasion to use such progressions iii his own writing. On the other hand. ' means simply of course. Sponsa Christi. 2 and 3 illustrate this in its simplest form). one or two further remarks must be added about the normal cadence. to the aid of Musica Ficta. that gives the cadence extraordinary fascination. emphasized that this is . Before explaining the treatment of these degrees. in the the final chord would be the unison. 192). 4 and 5).

may rise a tone to the third. Exx. instead of falling a tone to the final. But in an intermediate cadence the spacing of the may be quite different.THE MODAL SYSTEM 13 (a) It will be noticed in the above examples the final chord is not invariably. but not to flatten it if naturally major. when the bass (c) skeleton in its of cadencfe already given simplest form. When (b) the third is present in the final chord. thanks to the sharpening of the F at the cadence. the . though its capitulation was not so abject as that of the Lydian. parts The student make this plainer will already have realized that this uniformity of cadential treatment. complete. This is the second of the imporFirst the distinction tant modifications mentioned on page 8. are reduced to for B. lost a good deal of its personality. by the constant substitution of Bl? Dorian and Lydian modes became virtually transposed forms of the Aeolian and Ionian respectively. so that really we have only four modes instead of six. tends to obliterate six. as we should say. {d) In composition for three or more parts. no matter on what degree of the mode it occurs. whose resolutions may be plain or (within certain clearly defined limits) ornamental. the Mixolydian (Gr) mode.e. but meantime a glance at Exx. The treatment of suspended discords is explained in Chapter V. the tenor. so that our twelve possible modes (the B modes being impossible in any case) Ficta. Secondly. it is usually made major by the help of Musica Ficta. Even in four-part writing the sixteenth-century masters often preferred to omit the third from their final chord. it is The examples show the harmonic In practice. In the final cadence this is invariably the case. together with the other alterations permitted by Musica very largely the distinction between one mode and another. and tended to merge into the Ionian. the tenor almost always does one of these two things (except in a Plagal cadence which will be considered later). 24 and 25 will than any verbal explanation could do. Elsewhere it is at the option of the writer to sharpen the third if it is naturally minor. In the cadence at the end of a composition (or one of the main sections of the Mass). 15 to 23 will give the student some idea of the preparation and formation of cadence in the composition of the period. proceeds to the final by the rise of a fourth or fall of a fifth. between Authentic and Plagal went by the board. and so also in any important cadence that marks the end of a clearly-defined musical section. whose Bb actually appeared in the signature. cadence is usually treated in binding manner' i. single or double suspensions are introduced. Moreover. ' .

following this up with a Plagal cadence as reinforcement (as illustrated by Ex.e. the chordal proE Gfi E.e.'The Plagal cadence may also be used freely in all the other modes . four Authentic modes. it was often reinforced at the end of a composition by a Plagal cadence (i. are worth mentioning : It is particularly effective in fugal writing. whilst the upper part ascended by a tone to the octave above. descending to the final by a semitone. ^y^. the The E mode because it motion of the additional part was from A to Gfi. ' * ' ' . Lydian and Dorian It was illogical. 35 from a motet by Vittoria. however. points. In three-part writing. conclusive in character than the perfect cadence. he may be wise to prepare the way for it by a full close. Very often the Plagal cadence alone is used. 26 to 31). as the note Dj? did not exist. ruption ' (Ex. The Phrygian cadence. is when the ' inter- caused by the thematic progression of the bass . with their corresponding modes. and that. did not admit of a perfect cadence. dominant progression. 32 to 34). and the final chord completed by the addition of the B (Exx. ' ' . especially in Palestrina. The Phrygian cadence was formed by the bass. In reality vice not and former modes that were absorbed into the latter. No recipe can be given for its employment it is a matter of musical instinct. It is in itself less directly as well as the Phrygian (Exx. however. versa. the (or both) inconclusive character. The interrupted cadence is used as freely in the music of the sixteenth century as in music of the harmonic period. (the Phrygian) remained distinct from the others.THE MODAL SYSTEI^ 14 Theory was tlius quite justified in recognizing eight modes only Plagal forms). Until the student is certain of his ability to handle it properly. 36). A is the Dominant of the Hypophrygian mode). (i. as a matter of fact. well and good but he must remember that this is modern terminology. and to use it effectively both care and judgement are required. who has a special fondness for this device). is often used as an intermediate cadence for the sake of variety in compositions that are not in the Phrygian mode it can be formed in this way on D and A as well as on E. But as this cadence is in itself of a somewhat upwards. Two 1. If the student likes for convenience to think of this as a sub. to admit the the two was it and to exclude the Aeolian and Ionian. or lowest part. one in which the final chord is preceded by the chord on the fifth below the final in this case on A. however. who employs the true Phrygian cadence very sparingly. In four-part writing and gression being thus F A D— A or the D could be doubled in the penultimate chord.

remains to explain what is meant by modulation ' at this period. any absolute distinction between the Plagal and Authentic forms can be It ' ' ' ' ' . Wooldridge (like myself) found some difficulty in arriving at a final conclusion. 37). for instance. Wooldridge' s table (given in the Oxford History. pp. 26. When you hear. the reiterated close on D at the words et propter nostram salutem descendit de coelis in the Credo of Palestrina's Missa Papae MarcelU. vol. See. Evidently Mr.^ DA Dorian F. refer only to plain-song in polyphonic music the range of modulation permitted in each mode is. that he . of a modulation to G occurring in a composition in the Phrygian mode. THE MODAL SYSTEM 2. in a position where its The usual tables of cadential character is unmistakably felt. no separate list is given for the Plagal modes.. D. it does not mean that the harmonic centre of gravity has shifted from the tonality of E to that of G. . as it is extremely doubtful whether. the Plagal and Authentic modulations are not always given as identical. C. modern sense (Ex. which is in the C mode. .> ^' )) A&F. parte prima. Such conceptions are quite foreign to the writers of the sixteenth century what is meant is simply that a cadence has been formed (in one of the ways above described) on the note G.5 5> D. from the point of view of modulation. established. !5 !> )5 '--'s D F -'- • must be observed that Padre Martini (a very great authority) and seventh degrees of any mode being troppo irregulare and alienissima dal Tuono [Saggia It forbids modulation on the second as ' ' ' ' This rule is so frequently cannot be taken as absolute. the progression instead of being upwards from dominant to submediant is often downwards to subdominant both words being used in their ' ' ' '. But in a series of articles by the same writer which appeared in the Musical Antiquary in 1912-13. note). ii. 55 j> )5 55 C. infringed that it ' ' 1 Mr. rather more restricted. di Contrapunto. although his list does not agree in every detail with that here given. for instance. p. The following list has been arrived at empirically by the present writer. 200. cadence. G. 201) suggests had come to a similar conclusion. in a word. and more sparingly. and what range of modulation is permitted in each given mode. In the same composer's hymn.r . 15 In the music of this period. Modulation means. G. regular and conceded modulations commonly given. in practice.

Even the Plagal and Phrygian cadences are therefore impossible the perfect cadence more obviously so. closes on D. chord but the penultimate chord as well (which would require the Aft) cannot be formed. No cadence is ever formed on the note B. because (owing to the non-existence of Dfi).THE MODAL SYSTEM 16 Tantum Ergo. it cannot be made the basis of a major triad. because not only the final ' ' ' ' . wliicli in is tlie E mode. note . there are two clearly marked Similar instances are not hard to find.

Yet the metrical scheme also persists. .: Ill EHYTHM It lias already been observed (see p. This would be the merest sing-song. for it enables us to distinguish between the more and the less important elements of the thought which the words convey. as a kind of pattern or standard to which every line of the poetry is referred. Take the familiar openas any one may quickly convince himself. whereas the composition as a whole does conform to a fixed metrical scheme in which strong and weak accents succeed one another in a pre-determined order. You may not hear it. but it is somewhere in the back of your head all the time. that is to say. \_» and so on. ing of Milton's Paradise Lost Of Man's first disobedience. and the fruit Of that forbidden tree. And the delight of reading good verse arises largely from this duality of apprehension. Sing. latter . but the student who gives it a few moments' consideration will find that it is not really so unfamiliar as he may think. for comparison. Heavenly Muse . . The rhythmical accentuation of each individual part is free. the accents do not occur at strictly regular intervals. There is no doubt as to the metre of this foot iambic metre which is scanned thus . whose mortal taste Brought death into the world. natural rhythm and stress of the words. In the rhythm of poetry there is a precisely similar duality. This idea may seem difficult to grasp at first. it is the common five- : but only a very ignorant person would accentuate the lines in this manner when reading them : Of Man's' first dis'obe dience and' the fruit' — — — — — \^ ^ \j \j Of that' forbid'den tree whose mor'tal taste. more or less unconsciously. in which the metrical accents are falsely emphasized at the expense The of the must be preserved. and all our woe. 3) that in the polyphonic music of the sixteenth century a double system of accentuation is employed.

the and true mind to type . In practice. Meantime. the new relationship can still be stated in mathematical terms. Between the rhythmical accent (the accent of stress) and the metrical accent (the accent of quantity) there play . and often actually determined. and mark the beginning of each measure) has a purely metrical significance.RHYTHM 18 Each verse as it comes is both true to ear catches the stress in all its itself variety. according to the amount of stress it receives in utterance in our own language. mathematically exact. it tends to assert itself over them and to make itself felt as the accentual centre of the group. every note has to receive its just value. It will be shown later that the bar-line (inserted in modern editions of sixteenth-century music for convenience to the eye. the space of a semibreve. | or I. and the rhythmical problem before the poet is to strike the just balance. very many syllables are potentially short or long. perhaps. short and long. which in applying a similar conception to music. a short more or less short. and it is only when you see them in a particular context. and exercises no control whatever over the rhythmical accent. advisable to discuss rather more fully the to between stress accent and quantity accent. made may possible be. Now. may stand in the student's way is he has come to regard as necessarily indicating a strong rhythmic accent. is a continual inter- sometimes they coincide. Too much coincidence means monotony too much at-oddness means . chaos. a long syllable is difference more or less long. by the The performance of concerted strict observance of these time- Consequently. by In music. quantitative relationships are stress. or five quavers in that of a dotted crotchet. sometimes they are at odds. Let me try to make . it is. once it is realized that a double system of accentuation is habitually employed and recognized in poetry. a convention observed only for metrical purposes. or whatever the ratio music is only proportions. for . words. and so on. and if that value is longer than the values of the notes in the immediate vicinity. A semibreve is always equal to two minims. and can judge (by the sense of the words) whether they are stressed or unIn other stressed. that you can classify them as short or long. the retains its hold on the quantities. before proceeding to demonstrate this by example. there is no difficulty The only thing that the custom of the bar-line. and a dotted semibreve to three. in orderly recurrence. quantity is dominated. short and long. In most languages the mathematical distinction between long and short (one long = two shorts) is largely theoretical. on the other hand. and even if a composer likes to complicate matters by writing five crotchets to be played in instance.

Suppose you try to articulate the passage. That instant is quite enough to make you conscious that an accent has been created. cannot do that. no text to show you where a stress might be required by the sense of the words. you will not be able to feel that the main accents fall in any other places than the ones marked. with an imaginary stress on the first note of each group.EHYTHM 19 by an example (Ex. So strongly. Had the notes in the example above been of equal duration. the singer (as the case may accommodate the syllables of the To articulate such passages. inserting at the beginning of the piece the text to which it is fitted. and in the preceding paragraph he has been given a principle on which to look for them. there is of course no difficulty. That principle may be expressed briefly thus. there was no c2 -^ . Here you have no time-signature. In the music of the sixteenth century ' agogic stress ' accent felt that with it it. but writes the music simply as music. where the composer does not fit the music syllable by syllable to the text. The reader. without the aid of any dynamic increase. the tendency would have been to hear them mentally as regular groups of two. as there are in modern There are the words. Try as you may. certainly. and leaving the copyist or music. Now it is important to bear this principle in mind. because the varying magnitude of the notes affords an actual basis of differentiation which the ear cannot ignore. Here one does not. . save by an act of sheer violence. for the simple reason that at each of these places there is a momentary arresting of the rhythmic flow. there are no stress marks and sforza7idos. the student must find strongly felt. three. no metrical indication of any kind to prejudice you. In the example already given. But in many places they give no such indication notably in certain movements of the Mass. indeed. or four notes. is the force of the this clear may almost be said to carry its own making the listener imagine it has been reinforced by stress. and where they indicate (as they often do) the accentuation of the music to which they are set. out where the accents of duration are most be) to text to their appropriate musical phrase. when as a matter of fact it has not been so reinforced. 38). will naturally want to know how he is to find out where those accents are. which catches your attention and keeps it in suspense for an instant until the flow is resumed. one that is both preceded and notes of smaller value than itself tends to have the force of an accent. finding that the bar-line gives him no clue to the position of the rhythmical accents. It is obvious that to split it up into regular groups of three or regular groups of four is impossible. that a note which is either preceded or followed (and followed) by still more strongly.

You can always tell when a piece of prose sounds unrhythmic. but melodies are not always so obliging. 3. just as in cases (1) and (2) you feel a lack of balance. In music. It has already been said more than once that the time-signature at the beginning of a sixteenth-century composition is of purely metrical significance. the result being a feeling of hurry and congestion. he is justified in regarding 1. built up of clearly defined accentual groups. 2. in which case you feel a lack of freedom. it as a case of dormitat Homerus — a momentary lapse of technique. There miist be enough of them to hold the melody firmly together and prevent it. which gives an impression of flabbiness and want of vigour.: RHYTHM 20 ambiguity may . If the student happens to find a passage that is quite unamenable to analysis by the methods here suggested. exercising an important influence on the harmonic structure of the composition. — . composition of a good writer. The rhythm of a phrase is frequently (some would say always ') anacrusic that is to say. They are too regular in their occurrence. He should always test the rhythmical structure of his own counterpoint in this manner a properly constructed melody will convey to the ear just the same sense of freedom and balance as the prose . That does not matter in the least. ' . in precisely the same manner. often find himself in doubt. you generally find its failure due to one of three causes 1. Even so. but they should not be so close together as to detract from each other's importance. following maxims in mind and he The student will do well to bear the : Accents should be neither too many nor too few. They are too few. and when you come to analyse it. the accented note is not necessarily the first note of the phrase. It is largely a matter of discretion and common sense the important thing is to have some method whereby you can apprehend a melody as a rhythmical organism. and a rhythmical analysis of the same passage by different hands is quite likely to show some divergence in detail. from sagging. and not as a haphazard series of unrelated sounds. there will be many doubtful cases. but may be preceded by an unaccented note or series of notes an 'up-beat' as we should call it to-day. The stresses are too many. so to speak. 2. a melodic period will be felt as rhythmic or unrhythmic in so far as the distribution of the accents complies with this twofold artistic requirement freedom and balance. but having nothing to do — .

and not exceptional. . he must study the scores of the period in detail. that in secular composition (madrigals. and it can be seen at once that to attempt to place a strong accent at the beginning of every such group is to make nonsense of the words for instance . It is also worth noticing. the size and conformation of the rhyth- The above is clearly gibberish. No. but a few more examples are appended which have been purposely chosen to show that the principle enunciated is not confined to any one country. The harmonic aspect of the question is discussed in Chapter V for the moment. however. . Our first two examples are very well known they are both from Palestrina's Stahat Mater. to reproduce their metre. In these examples the imaginary metrical divisions are shown by the bar-line. Morales (Spain). It must be remembered that the stress marks do not indicate anything in the nature of a violent sforzando. and so on) the principal of irregular accentuation is not so systematically followed as in the great sacred forms of music. the top line of the music only is given. but at that time resident in Munich). 44 from Morley (England). it is. It will be noticed that in both cases the scansion that is to say. the ^ Quoted in Arion. No. i. 43 from Byrd (England). or school of composition. 42 from Orlando Lasso (Flemish. but are there merely to show that the rhythmic accents do not No. vol. rhythm of the words and not merely shall see. It now remains to prove that this is true. this principle is observed whatever the time-signature may be (in Example 39. Fac ut tecum lugeam > > \^ \-> v_/ \^ fac ut ardeat cor > > meum In amando Christum Deum. the rhythm of the single voices that we have to consider. canzonets. to bring out the Furthermore. . In Examples 39 a and 40 a we have the same two excerpts barred out in accordance with the real rhythmic accentuation in this case. the intention being. Examples 39 and 40 show them barred out at regular intervals in accordance with the time-signature. while the stress marks indicate the real rhythmical accentuation. No. and designedly so. to save space. 45 from Bertani ^ (Italy). 41 is from necessarily coincide with the metrical accents.: EHYTHM 21 with the rhythmical structure of the parts taken individually. It remains for the student to satisfy himself that such cases as this are normal. No. : — — mical groups as we is irregular. for instance. To do so. the signature is duple {%). language. in Example 40 triple (|).

measure is Morley) illustrate this clearly. so that it is not made unduly prominent. that even in setting a metrical text (this — v^|— ^|— wj— w) he dean irregular musical accentuation. It was remarked above that the words of the text often indicate the rhythmical outline of the music. It is obvious that Palestrina could equally well have set these lines without telescoping the measures. and in the second of them the rhythmical Andr^ Pevernage) .) why did he not so set them? the only answer can be that he fair preferred it otherwise . on the other hand. From now onward. (&) into 3 + 5. as giving greater freedom and flexibility without in any way distorting or violating the rhythm of the words. groups of 8 do not coincide at all with the metrical divisions. so that the ear . But he is careful to put this semibreve in between two other notes of equal value. How skilfully he reconciles the two can be realized by examining the first instance in detail. as (Exx. 50 and 51. The composer is therefore at liberty to dwell on it to some extent. and vice versa. are also quite a he actually does. does not exercise any control whatever over the rhythmical structure of any of the individual parts. the third hymn is in the trochaic four-foot. it will be taken as clear that the measure or time-signature of any polyphonic composition of this period. If the former is duple. Here the second syllable of Stabat is unimportant. it must be observed that a composer is nevertheless free to a considerable extent to settle the details of his rhythm in accordance with his own purely musical requirements. then. value. liberately chose — syllable oi dolorosa — — clearly the accentual receives the value of a semibreve — climax of the line also but in this case the and no more semibreve follows a note of only half its own . Examples 48 and 49 (both from illustrate the further point that a rhythmic group of 8 units need not subdivide geometrically into two fours or four twos in both these passages the unit of 8 divides arithmetically (a) into 6+2. The examples already quoted from the Stabat Mater are worth considering rather more closely from this point of view. and as a matter of fact he gives it the value of a semibreve. frequently not the measure indicated by the timesignature of the composition. While this is true in a general sense. the latter is Examples 46 and 47 (both from often triple. In the third measure.EHYTHM 23 Mass and Frequently you will come across melodic Motet. musical equivalent of the verbal rhythm. for instance. tlie sentences wliicli resolve naturally into regular units of duple or triple measure but the interesting thing to note here is that such . To the question. but from its position before another consonant and particularly the consonant m it acquires a certain quantitative value. sacred or secular.

He will not regret his crutches as soon as he finds out that he is not really a cripple. they loved to make the rhythmical accents of each part cross and clash with those of every other part. viz. for it is a real technical discipline. of realizing that the bar-line is not really the tyrant we have come to imagine it. that any momentary reduction in the rate of the rhythmic flow tends to create an accent. That is just what we should have expected. A slight increase in dynamic stress for which. In the examples so far given the text has clearly indicated to extent the rhythmical outline of the music. one or two examples from settings of the Mass are appended to show the student how the same ideal of freedom and balance is aimed at by the composer when there is no verbal rhythm to influence him. this irregularity which never degenerates into confusion. we find once more that the accents occur irregularly. the choirmaster can be trusted is all will — — needed to make its rhythmical importance unmistakable. and that such an accent. tends to carry its own stress with it. He may find it hard at first. As soon as the student is able to convince himself of his new-found liberty. whether there is any evident reason why he should have given this particular one the that is preference. Above all. A few examples have been chosen to illustrate this device. is the rhythmical ideal to which the composer aspires. he will feel nothing but delight at being free to construct his rhythms in accordance with his own artistic instinct. and (2) if so. In articulating these passages the only principle to guide us is the one already enunciated. and that the rhythmical groups or units defined by them are correspondingly irregular in size.. But the composers of the sixteenth century were not content with the effect obtainable by contrasting the real rhythmical accent with the imaginary metrical accent. and more will be found in Chapter YIII. considering carefully in each case (1) whether the composer could have found other rhythmical equivalents for the given texts. The difiiculty is largely one of preconception. It will not be a waste of time for the student to examine some of the remaining examples by himself. having found already that in sacred music (even to metrical words) this same freedom. some To supplement these. though strictly speaking an accent of duration onlj''. and the one which the student should above all endeavour to imitate in his own counterpoint exercises. but this need cause him no discouragement. for it is an aspect of technique . This constant rhythmical conflict is the most vital and suggestive feature in the whole of the sixteenth-century technique.' EHYTHM 23 more easily recognize its accentual force. Applying this principle.

they are The method they illustrate is the rule. it stated). and to assure the reader that though they have been chosen specially to illustrate this aspect of the technique. and not be compelled to ask do you arrive at this ? Why do you scan this part in such and such a manner. exhibit It will daring and resourcefulness. in which every detail claims the authority of a papal One or two points claim attention. but the accents clash systematically at The melodic progression of the tenor in measures 8 and 9 is also unusual in Palestrina. and the ingenuity with which these 3-note rhythms are made to overlap one another in the different parts a curious complexity which is usually more characteristic of the English madrigalists than the Italian. Vincent d'Indy's Cours de Composition musicale). Another fine instance of the same device is to be found in Josquin des Prds' motet Ave Maria. In Ex. tlie Englisli composers paid special attention. must be repeated. (commencing at the third beat of the sixth worth noticing. except that. In Ex. as previously. them. It was necessary in order that when we came to illustrate the varieties of rhythmic combination which distinguish the music of this period from all the music of a later date. the bar-lines are inserted to show the metrical divisions. not the exception. and the occurrence of four consecutive 5-note rhythms. at the section commencing with the words Immaculata castitas (the whole of this motet is quoted in M. for the same rhythm prevails at the in the tenor part measure) is same time in the alto part. — ' ' . the interval of a beat. and any one may satisfy himself who will be at the in no sense abnormal. the fourth beat being the commencement of a new phrase. as pains to carry out further analysis on his own account. . The rhythmic analysis. determined on general principles (already sense it is not intended as a dogmatic exposition. but is explained by the termination of a phrase on the third beat of the ninth measure. while the stress marks show where the rhythmical accents are most strongly felt. 56 the signature is C instead of (J: and the unit is the crotchet instead of the minim] Here one must observe the prevalence of the 3-note rhythm telescoping the 4-note measures. In these examples. the unit. The next two instances (both from Byrd) call for no particular comment. Byrd and Morley in particular.EHYTHM 24 and many of an extraordinary now be clear why we have to whicL. and this other part quite differto understand the at every turn. aided by is common . the principles of rhythmical articulation examined at such length governing a single line of melody. ently ? All ' ' How we have to do now is to leave the examples to speak for themselves. the student could feel himself on sufficiently firm ground method of procedure. 55 the minim is edict.

o ppp III (2 time). is the 2-minim sequence in the bass heard against two freely-moving upper parts. (2 time). and the time-relationships in actual use were the four combinations of Time and Prolation. (sign Ct ). in Mood Imperfect. musical history will constantly come across the terms Mood. treated In the last example (a very canonically. . and he should know what they mean. and Prolation. or imperfect (sign C or Prolation expressed the relation of the Semibreve to the Minim. (I Perfect (sign O). it likewise could be perfect (sign usually Ct ). Byrd (with his habitual carelessness in these matters) has used the signature C indifferently in both cases. ^ In conclusion. time Time Perfect and Prolation Imperfect pp II (3) . relation of the Breve to the Semibreve O or 0). also from Byrd) less characteristic. part (despite the signature C) each beautiful one from Wilbye). the two lower voices the feature combining to pit their stress against that of the upper one. in its proper senses. dis- _ . . in which a 5-minim phrase.. in the ('lesser'). By had the end of the sixteenth century Mood. Time Imperfect and Prolation Imperfect pp pp II II O . to expressed the relations of the Long was equal Time expressed the : Perfect. (1) (very rare) o • pp^o (2) Time Perfect and Prolation o o ppp opp fD o I • iop|0 III . starts off in a smoothly-flowing | measure. time). o p»r:3 Time Imperfect and Prolation Perfect o (4) m our notation). (sign G). a few words about the time-signatures employed The student of in the sixteenth century may not be out of place. and could also be perfect ('greater') or imperfect Its perfection was expressed by means of a dot. Mood Long and the Breve in Mood Breves. Time. becomes prominent. absence of a dot. . viz. . They all refer to the methods of sub-dividing a note into notes of lesser value. appeared (though the term was sometimes used loosely as a synonym for Time). a to three two. : RHYTHM 25 although the minim is the unit in the first instance and the crotchet in the second. Prolation was to be taken as imperfect. (sign i fs>p II (I or 0). The carefulness of Palestrina (as illustrated in the two previous examples) is no In the short extract (Ex. 59.

This is clearly seen by a perusal of Palestrina's madrigals. . for just as O or O . They show that each measure contains so many semibreves. such accents being shown only by the conformity of the harmonic procedure in the matter of cadences. or Tripla. 61 a. the composer indicated that each note must now receive only |. to indicate quite irrational. time-signatures.EHYTHM 26 Towards the end of the century the sign C "was also employed. The Proportions were roughly of two kinds Proportions of Multiplicity. had no sign to indicate to be divided into three crotchets instead of two when . . are purely metrical. the sixteenth century could. Suppose a sixteenth-century composer wanted to write a passage sounding as in Ex. so far as they indicate a system of accentuation. The original note-values. and so on. 61 Proportion did it for him in the manner shown by Ex. And at the risk of wearying the reader. and Proportions of Inequality. indicate greater complexity in the subdivision of note values. Similarly. and similarly with the other proportions. In the first book of madrigals (published 1555) the signature is always <$ and the time f in the second book (published 1586) the signature is always C and the time "|. : . by means of the Proportional system. sub-tripla. suspensions. however. or |. or simply the signs f | i. the treatment of crotchet. Early in the sixteenth century the Flemish composers habitually employed unnecessary and complex proportions in order to puzzle the layman and guard the mysteries of their The latter. Proportio sub-dupla. or vice versa. (J Custom. To the individual part their significance is entirely nonrhythmical. f correcting |. .J could be used indifferently for f by analogy. a minim was but this could be done by the help of Proportion. or three times. to receive twice. and merely arithmetical. The English composers were less exact in the matter of notation. have both indicated ^ time. |. the crotchet being the unit. by inserting the words Proportio Dupla. In addition to these time-signatures. &c. each of which is in turn equivalent in many minims they show nothing more than that. what we should call a measure. ruled otherwise. crotchet. could be restored simply by inverting the proportional sign. and semiquaver in the latter book corresponding precisely to that of minim. g. or J of its previous value. and quaver respectively in the former. of course. This was especially in secular music. and so on). quaver. 57 and 58). meant that each note had times its previous value. as we have already noticed (Exx. so C and should. for instance. or Quadrupla. (I. or four This proportional notation was sometimes useful for supplying the defects of the existing mensural system. it must be reiterated that these time. value to so . and not the minim. The former expressed what we may call geometrical relationships e.

found their way into The other Proportions much. 62 is purely mechanical. . It was the sixteenthcentury way of saying 'I = of preceding a direction which is actual composition. successive groups of seven notes which may be sung plausibly against successive groups of five To illustrate the difference. as we saw. — — those of inequalit}' need not trouble us Beside the simple geometrical proportions already mentioned. inserted. g. f. f ^q. The proportion known as sesquialtera. I. They are from a hitherto unknown Tudor composer named Bugsworthy. three of the new notes having to be played in the same time as two of the old. it is extremely desirable that he should do. and seldom. is no reason — why the modern student should not try his hand at some exercises in the more unusual comin fact. is obvious that while Ex. 62 and 63 have been notes. howwas of considerable utility its effect was to shorten the value of each note by one-third. and so The more elaborate of these were on. were recognized in theory. 63 has demanded some slight mental activity. Ex. ever. . fide notational purposes. such as |. e. ' I There in constant use to-day. 27 bj. The mind must free itself from the association of white notes with slow tempo In one example (Ex.the end of the centur^^ the practice had fallen into disand the proportions were used mainly. 40 a) an approximate transformation of values has been made to emphasize this point. ' ' ' '. and not content himself with merely finding. f. . Exx. more complex relationships. for bona but repute. if ever. Neither of them is of any great musical value but it .EHYTHM craft. and metrical accent in the forefront of his mind. The student should perhaps be warned against giving the teenth-century notes their nineteenth-century time values. But here again he must keep the distinction between rhythmical accent binations . otherwise the note-values in the illustrations are those actually employed by the composer. six- Exact is impossible to give. (I). but one may say that to the sixteenth-century composer a semibreve meant very much what a guidance minim or even a crotchet means to-day. used mainly as a kind of mental gymnastic in the training of singers and composers.

it is in rhythmical misconception. and not merely ' . Second. however. The compass of each of be added 1) that in practice a certain extension of compass. that the student (2) should work within these limits. upwards and downthese forms has already been given (Ex. will be able to keep clear of such misconception but a few remarks about the purely melodic elements of the sixteenth-century . hoped. the remaining details of melodic construction will not cause him the slightest difficulty. as may be seen from instances given in Chapter practice vin. The English composers. the of the Palestrina school conforms very closely. Nine times out of ten when we speak of melody we mean rhyth- practice ' ' ' that is to say. it may now of the concession varies slightly amongst the different authorities but it is substantially defined in these two rules (1) That such extension must never exceed a major third in any . Every melody must be conceived as being in a definite mode. All the examples of rhythm quoted in our last chapter were at the same time examples of melody. The reason why a piece of academic counterpoint never suggests for an instant the melodic outlines of Byrd or Lasso or Palestrina is invariably found to lie The reader of this volume. as to interval and pitch. in terms of pitch. : one direction. wards. as a matter of fact. as in other respects. melody may be of some First. assistance.IV MELODY The connexion between rhythm and melody is so close that in it is dangerous to try and isolate them from each other. Underlying all the rules and . That the total extension (upwards and downwards) must never exceed that of a perfect fourth. and once the student has grasped the rhythmic principles followed in the sixteenth century. in this. is usually conceded. The extent strict . as to '^^ compass. to which. were a law unto themselves. It is recommended. and as being definitely either in the Authentic or in the Plagal form of that mode. as a matter of discipline. a series of notes whose mutual relationmic melody ship is considered in terms of accent and duration.

It is not. have become fixed in their memory. bad 2. does not so apply it exceptions he says may be found even in his own work and. ii. it is only because such progressions.' The italics are ours and they are there because the passage is an important one. "Wooldridge {Oxford History. ' ' '. The general method of melodic construction is expounded by observances singable. 376) in the following terms 'The governing principle. If they can do so. the exceptions are much more frequent than that may be found might lead one to suppose. . technically speaking. Wooldridge admits. tchich are permitted upon the condition of not continuing in the direction of the leap. however. however. . provided that every time he does so he can satisfy himself that he cannot write the passage equally well without infringing it. and undoubtedly gives the clue to one of Palestrina's technical secrets. Two successive leaps (if taken at all) should be preceded and followed by movement (preferably conjunct) in the opposite direction of the leaps. everything depends on the manner of the infraction. Palestrina himself. is beautifully varied by the constantly changing value of the notes [i. of Palestrina's melody is of course that of conjunct movement this. Unaccompanied singers to-day are sometimes asked to sing progressions that the sixteenth-century singers certainly could not have managed. ' ' . And in any case. secondary rhythm] and also by occasional disjunct intervals. '. previously heard on instruments which find the pitch mechanically and without any trouble. but immediately returning by gradual motio7i towards the point of departure.e. . as a rule which he may infringe. as Prof. More than two leaps in the same direction are almost alwaj^s . Prof. Subject to this condition.: : MELODY : 29 is the general principle that each part must be easilyand if some of the restrictions imposed seem arbitrary. the following pairs of leaps in the possible occasionally same direction are . so that their sense of relative pitch is permanently extended. the student must remember that many intervals and progressions which to us (thanks to centuries of harmonic and instrumental training) have become easy and familiar. as a matter of fact. The following more specific rules will be found to embody the melodic technique of Palestrina with a fair degree of accuracy 1. with no instrumental doubling to cover up inaccuracies. a rule that can be applied mechanically. two leaps in the same direction preceded or followed by a step in the same direction hardly less so. were by no means easy or familiar to singers who had to find them by the ear alone. The student had better regard it as a maxim for general guidance that is to say.

by perfect fifth. followed by perfect (&) Perfect fourth ascending or descending. The common text-book rule permitting the use of the rule are rare latter in cadence deserves particular denunciation. The leaps that can be so treated are those of the major and minor third. leap of the major sixth is forbidden (exceptions to this enough to necessitate its rigid observance). followed by major or minor third. third. The employment of chromatic intervals is forbidden likewise that of augmented and diminished intervals. not to its minor sixth. followed by major third. or vice versa (and still more by a major third). undue prominence.MELODY 30 (a) Perfect fifth ascending or descending. . (Fourth ascending followed by third. . and perfect fifth. (c) (These are fairly common in the bass. or to its fifth (or lesser interval). Leaps of an augmented fourth or diminished fifth are forbidden. but should obviously be used with great caution in any other part. leap. 4. Quavers should be employed very sparingly (except in the . 8. (/) Perfect fourth descending. followed by minor {d) Minor third ascending or descending. The 7. into is . and third descending followed by fourth are less frequent. perfect fourth. as a rule. Usually it is the latter leap followed by step is much more common than step followed by (e) : leap. followed fourth. also any leap exceeding the octave. but. The leap of a minor third is occasionally both preceded and followed by a step in the same direction.) Major third ascending or descending. Not only the direct leap of these intervals forbidden care should be taken to avoid any melodic progression that brings them 9. Leaps of the major and minor seventh are forbidden 10. is either preceded or followed by movement in the opposite direction. 6. Leaps of the octave and of the minor sixth wms^ both be preceded and followed by movement in the opposite direction of the 5. Major or minor third ascending. Any larger leap. 11. The second of two crochets (if a harmony note) can leap to its octave. is only permissible in a real emergency. 3. followed by perfect fourth.) {g) Perfect fifth followed by minor third. 12. 13.

The entire plan of this book is based on the author's conviction that the counterpoint of the sixteenth century should be first approached by way of melody and rhythm. e. liturgical.) A tied crotchet (except in C.e. 4. i. In C (4) time what is here said of crotchets and quavers applies pari passu cadential formula shown at Ex. These opening chapters have attempted to set before him the necessary data specific examples of sixteenth-century melody are not given. or bass as the case may be. By now. and they must only be employed between the minim beats. but to place a dot on the other side of the bar line. or to one of half its own value except that at the end of a composition a semibreve or breve may be prolonged into the final chord. The rhythmic figure' f^ is not used by Palestrina. mind 1. or of — 2. (The student will remember that ties do not. strictly speaking. and therefore ties are sometimes necessary as a matter of notation. . he will begin to construct his own melodies. Rests should be of sufficient frequency and duration to meet a singer's requirements. Rules 12 and 13. the motets quoted in Chapter VII.e. ' ' . as the equivalent of a crotchet approached and quitted by step. I . as stated. apply in Ct (i. It should be set to definite words. and that the student should make himself thoroughly familiar with the type of melodicrhythmic outline to be aimed at before attempting the harmonic combination of such outlines in two or more parts. If the note is prolonged by half its normal duration. and for further specimens he must turn to the scores of the period. and best avoided. They are only notes whose value is prolonged beyond the conclusion of the measure it is convenient to us to use bar lines to show the conclusion of each measure. because the entire movements quoted in Chapters VI and VII will give him excellent models for a start. ^ time) is of very rare occurrence. %) time. it is perhaps better not to use the tie. to quavers and semiquavers respectively. It must be written definitely for a particular type of voice. . . The melody should be thought of in long stretches as long as the duration of one of the movements in a Mass. Scriptural. A note can only be tied to a note of equal value. the following few points should be borne in . never on them. tenor. exist in the music of this period. 113). 3. probably. (3) . though it can be found elsewhere. soprano.: MELODY 31 They must only be employed they must be both in pairs i. alto. and in addition to what has already been said. or secular.

quoted in full. but proceeding on course without interruption (see. Sponsa Christi. at what point. The composition as a whole. these cadences. it must be clearly understood that it implies nothing in the decide for himself. so constructed as to assist in the formation of the cadence. nature of a sforzando. would be punctuated by cadences. It is not necessary that such cadences should always coincide with the conclusion of a phrase in this particular voice. the present writer is inclined to recommend regular barring. the new phrase. 17). and this particular voice would have to play a definite part in the formation of such The student should therefore make up his mind and on what degrees of the mode. perits enter with a conclusion at a cadence. so that at those points his melody may shape itself accordingly. for instance.MELODY 32 5. is used. . Ex. bring their phrase to other voice may Sections may to say. the entry of the tenor in Veni. or the entry of the alto with the new theme to the words praeparavit in aeternum in the fiftieth bar of its first ' ' the same work). with a stress mark But if this ( > ) to show the incidence of the rhythmical accents. yet it must be to a certain general extent imagined in connexion with other imaginary voices. p. while three out of four voices. overlap : that is haps. The use of bar-lines is a vexed question which every teacher must As the incidence of the measure is a real factor in the construction of the work (see above. Although the melody is for one voice only. imaginary cadences occur. 192. for instance.

and not a purely rhythmical purpose. one of them gets moment and then the others wait left behind (susfor him to rejoin pended) for a them. B 2446 and to enable the different voices to . it is misleading in so far as it seems to endow the discord with an objective existence. and then the two run together till they have got into line again with the other two. hj constantly employing such procedure. a momentary interrup- Imagine four people walking abreast one of an instant. the discord itself is merely a method of preparing a fresh concord. The sixteenth-century view of discord (and it is a mistake to assume without consideration that this view is permanently obsolete) is tion of concord. and the object of such together to the . them . that only one can be permitted. and thus each minim beat is potentially (not necessarily) a new harmonic unit. i. Many text-books say that two harmonies in a bar are permissible. At the same time there is no doubt that the sixteenthcentury composers. which are known as the preparation and resolution of discord but though some such definition is necessary for the purpose of explanation. challenging them. that of a similar breaking line. concord being restored as he does so. stops for . e. Discord is an incident. such interruption is governed by certain clearly defined methods of procedure. It is also necessary to be quite clear beforehand as to the number of harmonies that may be employed in a measure or (as it may be convenient to call it) a bar. it is well to remind the student that concord is the basis of it all. preparation (not in itself necessary) is to obtain variety of texture. maintain their rhythmic independence. others. It all depends on the time-signature. In * time (Ct) there are four metrical accents in the bar. you can have four harmonies in the bar (or three or two or one. Before discussing the harmonic technique of the sixteenth century in detail. and then has to run to catch the others up or possibly one of them waits for him. Strictly speaking. Both these views are quite arbitrary and may be disregarded. became increasingly sensitive to the emotional effect of discord. and to the possibility of employing it for a harmonic.V HARMONY I. Instead of all the parts moving new concord.

the tenor in his highest register on top. The spacing. If you are writing in five parts. These fine shades are . on tlie speed of the movement. e. the alto in his lowest at the bottom. and the soprano (low) and bass (high) intermediately. should always be considered in connexion with vocal colour. in sacred music at any rate. If the pace is fairly rapid. In six-part writing you have many more four-part combinations available. he would be well advised to acquire it from some other source before attempting to master the change is 11. and a change of harmony is permitted on each minim beat if In I time (G) the measure is divided into two groups of desired. and each group may have its own three harmonies. if the student wants to practise himself in this extremely rare measure. It is complicated technique of the period under discussion. if the note doubled is approached and quitted in both parts by conjunct and contrary motion. you can get an almost inexhaustible variety of timbre. a great variety of colour-effect is obtainable. assumed that the student has already a knowledge of Elementary Harmony. g. and by employing the different registers of each voice in varying combinations (e. by a similar freedom in combining the different registers. there is no reason why each of the three groups of three minims should not have its own three harmonies. too. the minim can be taken as the unit. intermediate minims being treated as nonaccentual. and once more four harmonies are permitted.HARMONY 34 In f time (O or 0) it depends but not as a rule more than four). And in the latter case he must be quite clear that a bar of i is equivalent to a bar of gj and not to half a bar of g.The purely one of notation. and. doubling unexpected notes. to the general which will be explained presently) he must depend for his harmonic effect very largely on the variety of sound that can be extracted from This is mainly a matter of spacing and of the imperfect concord. and you cannot have more than three harmonies in the measure. With regard method of harmonic progression. In * time (C) the crotchet is the unit. If he has not. three minims. the standard duple measure. and the student would be well advised to adhere to the former of these. you have five combinations of four different voices available. For the greater part of the period we are considering. the semibreve is the unit. was the ^. In slower tempo. and your seemingly simple common chords and chords of the sixth become susceptible of constant subtle differentiations of quality. all we shall do here is to remind him that (apart from the proper treatment of discord. Similarly in | (O). i. unless he is working to a secular model. any double sounds convincing if it arises naturally from the progression of the parts. not the I.

fifth. for instance. hoped. would not combine with the third) fell into disrepute moreover. Changing notes. . in two-part writing. best advantage. These we must examine in their due order. 1. concordant interval. is often puzzling to students at first. and apply the same principle consistently. and you will soon cease to complain that your material resources are too limited you will complain. Prohibited consecutives. and five-part combinations can be drawn. 4. can give the ordinary ear quite enough to engage These general remarks. there should be a very moderate In six- amount of six-part writing: the full six-part effect should generally be kept for a climax and for the end of a movement the six parts being regarded in the main as a reserve. As harmony developed. When writing for four voices. it is a fifth. its it is undivided attention. the perfect I chords). four-.: HARMONY 35 more expressive than any gross modern combinaand tinkling cymbal. and the various formulae employed in their resolution. the major and minor sixth. and the unlike the fifth and sixth. which constitute his harmonic material. whence an infinite variety of two-. and ultimately it was only employed in this d2 . | and ideas as to the best unison. combined with a rhythmical conflict. three-. The treatment of the fourth Scientifically. The | chord was so frequently preceded . Never think of your chords in the abstract think of them not only as chords. 2. Suspensions. by force of association. rather. let there be frequent passages of two. the major and minor third. There are now certain specific points calling for detailed consideration. part work. it actually acquired the character of a discord. a judicious contrast of perfect with imperfect concords. The Interval of the Fourth. Even . and was felt to require resolution by the descent of one degree to the third. by a suspension {% 3) that the fourth ceased to have the effect of a concord. the fourth (which. triad or | chord came into constant use. 3. less concordant than the but more so than the third or sixth. The interval of the fourth and chord of the 2The use of accented and unaccented passing notes. but as combinations of vocal colour. 1.and three-part writing to vary the fuller four-part combinations. that for their very prodigality you cannot use them to the to a sensitive ear tions of sounding brass . and the combinations of these (i. e. may give the student some — manner of treating the handful of chords the the octave. viz. 5.

movement In Ex. 70 the preceding harmony is the chord of the fifth. Theoretically. It cannot be regarded as creating a new harmony of the sixth. there is nothing to prevent the sixth remaining while 5^ the fourth resolves (| 3). not being a constituent of that chord. but where the harmony is only changing at the semibreve. and such a progression as that shown in Ex. must be quitted by step. for the E Even the augmented persisting in the bass). quent. 72 and 73 from Palestrina). 65. the rule being that such notes must be approached and quitted by conjunct motion (the exception to this rule is. and the last crotchet (F). and that consequently a crotchet that looks like a new harmony note may have to be treated technically as a discord. Double passing notes in thirds and sixths are freely used (Exx. Passing Notes. is a discord. s. Unaccented passing notes of course can be used freely in between two harmonies. Exx. In Ex. and may be sounded freely without preparation so long as it forms part of the harmony of the | chord (Ex. As regards the chord of the 4. however. a concord. 69 and 70 i. The only rule governing such pro- . only. 69 the second crotchet in the second bar being a constituent of the preceding harmony can be quitted by leap. 'changing notes'). 71 is not permissible. Exx. e. diminished fifth. are constantly heard as upper constituents of the and ^ chords. but in practice the chord is usually treated as a double suspension. 115 and 122). but they are very rare.HARMONY 36 manner. and must But between any two of the upper parts it is be so treated. Exceptions to this rule can be found. it will be clear from the above remarks that it must be treated as a discord. the as a concord. the minim can also be treated as This. which can be used freely without preparation. fourth is so used. although it is impossible to regard this interval But of course both it and its correlative.v. is somewhat infrea passing note (Exx. discussed in the next section. Such notes are commonly of crotchet value. occurring between any of the upper parts and the bass. 66-8). The interval of the fourth. as in Ex. illustrate quitted in conjunct what is meant. that is to say. 2. resolving on to the | chord (see below. The student should remember that the minim is normally the smallest harmonic unit in f measure. in resolving it. 64 illustrates this point the G's and the C on the second beat of the measure could not be sounded against one another like this if it were not .

he can use it by working on such principles he without fear. a series of Such progressions should. but the real passing note the tenor is the tenor is a discord against the F of the soprano (and its resolution is normal). and if the progression stands the It is obvious that test. employed in combination. be gression. will obtain (as the sixteenth-century composers obtained) a considerably wider range of harmonic freedom than the text-book rules allow. more Orthoparticularly in the upper part. but this and similar progressions are exceedingly common in all the writings of the of double duty. and conventional. be used with some even in Palestrina's hands they often sound perfunctory parallel restraint . or their effect is weakened. be used sparingly. whenever doubtful as to the rightness of a particular prois in itself perfectly normal therefore. . Accented passing notes of crotchet value are occasionally taken in any part on the even beats of the measure. In his own writing. in a downward proIf the f is fairly fast. 77-81). the student should apply this test of horizontal analysis. sixteenth century). This restriction is in accordance with the accepted metrical rule that the timesignature. HARMONY 37 gressions seems to be that once two parts have started on such moving thirds or sixths. 74 (the passage quoted actually occurs in Assumpta est Maria. The B in the bass is a from the point of view of the soprano. It is impossible to explain this chordally in terms that would have been intelligible to Palestrina explanation is very simple. does yet indicate a regular system of strong and weak harmonic accentuation throughout the composition as a whole. and which may. gression. 75 and 7& afford further illustrations of this in four and five parts. Often a note in one of the parts (usually the bass) has to do a kind Take the progression shown by Ex. whatever the tempo. the parallel motion is maintained until concord with the remaining part or parts is reached. but tenor and bass are in concord on each beat. dox writers like Palestrina avoid using them in an upward progression. Similarly the E in . either in ^ or f time (Exx. These accented passing notes should. The whole passage must be regarded as a complex of three two-part progressions. though without rhythmical significance as regards the individual parts. Exx. each of which and regular. but not (so far as the writer's observation goes) as accented passing notes There seems to have been a this applies equally to the % (G) time. in any case. but as far as concerned it is a harmony note. and also on the odd beats of the measure. tacit agreement that the minim was too imposing a figure to be treated as an accented passing note. minims are constantly treated as unaccented passing notes.. however.

and treated as a passing note. It is constantly used for introducing variety of style into composition. it is minim [f) This formula may be employed in any part. Harmony '. ' . in his madrigal Take Time while Time doth last' (1599). strictions. and must be a harmony note. Mass 94). The governing conditions There {a) is are : always a group of four notes comprising the formula (Exx. 82 to 90 will enable us to frame the proper rules for the employment of this formula. in any case. (e) If a minim. but (so far is as the most orthodox writers go) always with certain definite re- Subject to these restrictions. Byrd's five-part more freedom in the treatthemselves much Earlier writers allow ment of the figure. a harmony note. v. Parry remarks {Groves Dictionary. and may commence on any beat of the measure though Palestrina prefers it to start on one of the even beats. The first note of the group must be of the value of a dotted its {d) minim. ' is : that it ' gets so thoroughly fixed as a figure in the cians that ultimately its true significance and it made is minds of musi- sometimes lost sight of. In the other two cases. ii. The group of instances given in Exx. leap of a third. The third note may be of the value of a minim. which too cursorily mentioned in existing text-books. It is worth noticing too that earlier in the same Credo Byrd employs the formula strictly until the latter half of the century. using the figure exactly as Brumel had used it a hundred years or so before (Exx. 95 and 96). the principle is. noticeably in the Byrd was only following an older tradition. that a discordant passing note. s. This irregular treatment is found repeatedly in writers like Josquin and Pierre de la Rue. its return As an example he quotes a passage from one step backward]. Apropos of this formula. instead of falling step by step to the next degree. ' The strict method of resolution does not acquire the ' force of a rule work of Palesand later still we find John Farmer. 82-4). the fourth note will also be of the value of a or upwards. 314) What is particularly noticeable about it ig) . the voice concerned must return one (6) After (c) degree to the note omitted in its leap. p. or of a dotted minim. actually appears in a form in which the discord of the seventh by the passing note is shorn of its resolution [i. vol. e. the fourth note will be a crotchet.' This is not historically correct. as Ex. trina. 3. (Ex. or of a crotchety and is. 95 will show. may fall by the leap of a third to a new harmony note.HARMONY 38 Changing Notes. briefly.

As a rule. 89 and 90 that the use of the nota gambiata (as the Italians call it) can be combined with conjunct movement in one or more of the other parts. the first. 97) is which the soprano clashes recklessly. either (a : Every discord must be preceded by a chord of preparation. In Ex. ' as having three accents only in each measure. 98. (c) But in slow sustained passages semibreve beats may be sub- id) More stituted for minim beats (Exx.HARMONY a 39 He evidently knew very well what he was about. against la Palestrina. The student may also notice Exx. taken on the second. sight (e) ' ' (/) ig) '. and sixth as weak (Ex. 100. In f measure (O or 0) the same principle may be followed. in which . and fifth beats being regarded as strong the second. 104. f time is considered Ex. 107 and 108. the first D B in the bass are accented and the second B are harmony harmonic skeleton of the passage being shown in The treatment of the suspension looks at first more regular than it actually is. freely. 106). 93 it is seen combined with a suspension in one of the other parts at a cadence). discords being prepared on the first beat. of course is by conjunct or downwards. 103). and resolved on the third (Exx. and resolved on the third minim beat of any group (Ex. rarely D in the soprano and the passing notes. It will be noticed from Exx. especially not Suspensions. In I measure (G). If the note suspended it may proceed or disjunct motion. 91-3. discord being prepared on the first. But more often. fourth. The student had better avoid In the second of these examples. the crotchet beat is substituted for the minim beat (Exx. the first this. 101). 4. even if an incidental clash is thereby created. and either upwards In the case of suspended discords various restric- tions have to be observed (6) a concord. 99). and succeeded by a chord of resolution. ' weak the preparation and ' minim on the beats of the measure. and the discord itself on the intervening ' strong ' resolution occurring beat. third. taken on the second. 102. these chords are taken on three successive beats. if the tempo is fairly fast. Appended (Ex. The use of the figure in | and I time is shown in Exx. each three-minim group is similarly treated. {a) uncommon usage. The second notes. by the way. 105). a curious instance from Palestrina of a double group of changing notes in fourths between alto and tenor.

Other ornamental resolutions. (m) A discord and its resolution should not. VIII. Ex. and best avoided. Definite examples from actual composition can be found passim in the illustrations to this in Ex. 117 to 126). be heard together in different parts (other than the bass) of the same chord. 128. 125). 131. 132). 114 (Jc) in the (l) and other chapters. Such resolution is often given one of the ornamental forms shown in skeleton form in Exx.HARMONY 40 minim taken as the unit of preparation and resolution in the first bar. 37) is usually the only way of explaining such passages theoreti' ' cally (Ex. are very rare. there is something to be said for consistency in treating suspensions. (h) (i) The resolution of a discord is effected by the fall of one degree in the part suspended (Ex. is resolving. fourth. And even that of a complete chord (Ex. 116. bar 1). 123. 118. 86. fifth. or even create an entirely fresh harmony (Exx. Its treatment is then that of . 127) cf. and the semibreve in the second but despite Palestrina's authority. as in Ex. The method of horizontal analysis described above (p. Ex. In this way a chain of suspensions can often be formed. (p) A discord may be sounded on the odd beat if the note creating the discord has been heard as part of the concord on the previous beat (Exx. But the resolution is frequently heard in the 119. are rare. but not idiomatic. and sixth can be freely used (Exx. except occasionally to avoid the consecutives otherwise arising from the resolution of a suspended fifth. provided the student works consistently to an English model. 128 2). 109). Double suspensions of the third. and does not imagine himself to be writing is Eoman style. also . one or 129). 121). and such instances tlie is . a particularly The idiom shown common formula in cadence. bass whilst the upper part (n) While a discord (bar (o) is suspended (Exx. as a rule. 99. 109 to 113. 115 is theoretically all right. 107. such as that shown in Ex. 130). But a number of resolutions used in the English school will be found in Chap. more of the other parts may move to a new note of the same harmony (Ex. except occasionally when the two parts concerned are both moving in conjunct and contrary motion (Exx. and there is no reason whatever why these should not be employed.

Watt's The Foundations of Music. whereas consecutive thirds and sixths (within reasonable limits) are tolerated ? The present writer can give him no certain answer. 5. and thus not This is true. On the one hand. Here. our present task is not speculative. Why are consecutive fifths forbidden absolutely. and the inevitable result of the Pope's edict was that the thirds and sixths (under the protective cloak of faux-hourdo7i) became more than ever established in popular favour. To-day it is the turn of the thirds and sixths to be viewed askance by serious composers. the consecutive major ninths of Debussy. The various theories that have been advanced can be disposed of with ludicrous ease ^ probably the whole business dates back to Pope John's edict of 1322. The procedure may be expressed in general form somewhat as follows . octaves but of any other interval if the sequence continues for to every student. However. as usual. 41 This licence is frequent in the madrigalists. once again. . xi. — ^ Cf. 137-43 so rarely that when you do find them you may reasonably consider them as an inadvertence. 133-6 on the other. chap. The rule prohibiting consecutive fifths and octaves is familiar He can see for himself that two parts moving in octaves are not independent of one another at all. the rules of the Five Orders of Counterpoint show that their perpetrators have no intention of consulting the ' ' ' composers whose practice they profess to codify. but practical. however. Dr. can be quite as mechanical and meaningless as the consecutive octaves. Let us put them on one side and turn. you do constantly find the progressions shown in Exx. We are examining the music of a particular period. but more sparingly used in sacred music. not only of creating a true polyphony. fifths. and fourths of the earliest organum. you rarely or never find such as those shown in Exx. but merely echoing one another at a higher or lower pitch. any length of time. the consecutive thirds of Brahms. while the fourths and fifths fell into a disrepute from which it has been the privilege of the twentieth century to rescue them. and we know (for it can be established inductively) that in that period certain consecutives were as a matter of fact prohibited under certain conditions.: ' HARMONY an ordinary suspended discord. Prohibited Consecutives. The natural perversity of mankind is certain to assert itself against restrictive legislation of this sort. What were those conditions ? . The question is merely. the student may well ask. which ordained that the perfect concords only should be employed in the music of the Church. In any case. to the music of the period. the consecutive minor ninths of Stravinsky.

seems to have borne it with considerable fortitude (Ex. 153). 144). 146 and 147 are continually met with in writers of 145). The scholastic rule that ' Passages which would be incorrect without suspensions are equally incorrect with Consecutive . them is demonstrably out of all relation to the facts. The reason is not that such progressions are harder to avoid in five-part than in fourpart writing.HAEMONY 42 1. 148) and in composition for more than two parts passages such as those shown in Exx. or even between one outer and one inner part (Ex. however. every school . 149 and 150 are so common that the rule cannot possibly be mainespecially. Consecutive octaves are best avoided even by contrary motion. and in any case when writing for four voices or less. too. (This is the doctrine if it is a harmony note of Morley. 3. In two-part writing such a progression is too strongly felt to be endurable. but not if it is a passing discord. parts (Exx. Some writers lay stress on the avoidance of consecutive major thirds on successive whole degrees of the scale. Consecutives on successive minim beats are similarly broken by the intervention of a crotchet not otherwise. ' ' The student should note. Consecutives on successive semibreve beats are broken by the intervention of a minim if it is a harmony note. 152) . that such progressions as those shown in Exx. but this by the is student. the ' tritonal ' effect of . provided they do not occur between the same pair of voices. 151. Occasionally you find even a sequence of exceptional and had better not be imitated |'s (Ex. Consecutive bare fourths are of frequent occurrence between upper once again one can only remark that the rule forbidding them is out of all relation to sixteenth-century practice. and it is in every way substantiated by sixteenthcentury practice. it is said.) A suspension may be said to temper the wind to the shorn consecutive. but that they are less likely to be heard. no matter what the value of the note. And consecutives usually forbidden are often tolerated when there is a break in the sense of the words to lessen their consequentiality (Ex. Consecutive unessential discords are occasionally created by the . Palestrina. tained. ' In writing for five or more parts consecutive fifths by contrary motion are not seldom found between two of the inner parts. 2. fifths (and a fortiori consecutive octaves) are forbidden between any two parts if no other notes intervene. there is not the slightest objection to the harmonic succession of fifths or octaves. Consecutive fifths by contrary motion are also best avoided between extreme parts.

But as we have already seen (Chap. there same harmonic is a great deal to be said for observing the whether you are working to a sacred or a secular model. have always an air of anachronism harmonic purity and rhythmical freedom are the most important lessons we have to learn from the sixteenth century. through the practice of Musica Ficta. whilst the Dorian was merged in the Aeolian (our melodic minor scale). ' ' '. but this restriction shown in Exx. I) this was what the sixteenthcentury composers invariably did. As soon as harmony was invented. and the ordinary rules of Musica Ficta should be disregarded in places where their application would produce one of the chords named. frequent as they are. tended to lose the Lydian and the Mixolydian became their modal identity virtually indistinguishable from the Ionian (our major scale). unless one part proceeds by step. step of a semitone. This question will be discussed briefly in Chapter VII. so not. for instance. Secular writers allowed themselves much greater harmonic freedom. BQ-Eb. is In the Dorian mode. however. 154 43 is an example of a formula to be found in all writers of the period. the modes. is ' . 155 and 156 are of common occurrence. so much so that there is no historical sanction for ruling out any progression as impossible. but master and pupil will have to arrange between themselves where the line is to be drawn. Hidden consecutives (fifths and octaves) need not be feared There it is best to avoid them except between the extreme parts. is properly a term of melodic definition sense that harmony can be described as of any given piece ' Modality only in a derivative modal '. As various text-books express a pious hope that the student is familiar with what is called Modal Harmony it may be as well to restrictions . explain in conclusion that such a thing has never existed. modal harmony would be powerless to sharpen the C or flatten the B. Text-books usually specify the Passages as is uncalled for. ' . — Eb-Cji. Ex. ' '. As a matter of sible harmony is for instance. and Such on. Chromatic harmonies in the music of this period. in the style of the period.' HARMONY use of accented passing notes . ' In that sense you harmony formed strictly from the constituting the mode in which the melody might say that modal harmony diatonic series of notes it is . Any one who speaks of modal harmony as a historic fact can only mean the type of harmony that was used by composers of the modal period Such harmony is to all intents and purposes our ' written. Chromatic harmony was not acceptable in sacred music of the It is obvious that by the help of Musica Ficta various augmented and diminished intervals are theoretically pos' ' sixteenth century. practical convenience. Ftl-Gfi. or a similar chord.

as explained above (p. except that tonality in the modern harmonic sense did not yet exist. .44 HARMONY and minor harmony in its simplest form. did not mean quite the same thing for Palestrina as it means for us. 15). We shall find presently. whilst modulation. that the transition from mode to scale is decidedly more diatonic major advanced in the music of the English composers of this period than in that of their foreign contemporaries. however.

: VI CANON. but fugue itself is of much greater antiquity. ' . in such cases. 1. of which the motet Vent Sponsa Christi (quoted in fall. AND DOUBLE COUNTERPOINT FuauE apparently a delicate subject is .— . and the student apt to imagine that it sprang suddenly into being. Ex. Let us postpone the consideration of Canon for the present. and the student will find many other motets which are essentially similar in general structure. It is. of course. the principle of design here is precisely similar to that of the older fugue written on a Canto Fermo taken from Plain-song. wrong Bach invented and brought to perfection many details of fugal construction as we now understand it. and consider the more limited type of Fugue. It is better. at any rate. not a form. a procedure. a canon (whose full description is ficga per canonem. it is evident that the structural outline is determined very largely by the words themselves. This was all but of fugue that was meant by Fugue (in this sense) it is in the sixteenth century. but as a method of building up in detail a structure whose main outlines may have been determined on quite other principles. S. Bach. in fact. FUGUE. 192) is an excellent example. and the essence of it lies (as we all know) in the imitation by one voice of a phrase or subject previously announced by another. possible to distinguish two main types That in which the imitation is continued strictly throughout in other words. to think of fugue not as itself a type of musical pattern or design. Bach) in which some well-known chorale tune is taken. S. But. That in which the imitation is discontinued when once the subject has been answered. 2. and each of its phrases treated successively as the subject is of a fugal exposition . but which are yet not fugal. at the command of J. That is. or (it may be) fugal only in one or two sections. it is not usually mentioned in text-books on Counterpoint. fugue according to rule '). therefore. in all its classic symmetry. The only difference is that the sixteenth-century fugue (as one would expect) is not so straitly bound by the shackles of metre and tonality. The true descendant of the sixteenth-century fugue is the special type of fugue (so frequently found in the Cantatas of Pachelbel and J.

and the subject is in evidence almost the first is whole of the time in one part or another. This will give the student an idea of what Fugue means (in the it now remains to discuss one or two sixteenth-century sense) aspects of it . 46 AND DOUBLE COUNTERPOINT 1. whose first entry is marked B. the theorists could never agree amongst themselves as to which these notes were. but apart from this the workmanship is superb. nothing that could be called a counter-subject. to what The announced or answered. however. that the first and the fifth notes of the mode are First. only It may. a slight technical flaw. is complete at the beat of the ninth measure. The exposition subject proper. however. the so-called Gregorian Tones being identified with the modes in which they were respectively written a confusion that is very properly condemned by Glareanus in the Dodecachordon. perhaps. certain notes in each mode were permitted (these being known as the Initials or Principals of the mode). : ' cipia ' ' ' ' . Petra Sancta) well illustrates this more extended type of ' exposition fugue. by each voice in turn. there is no reason why further reference should not be made to the subject if the composer so desires it. The voices proceed in free counterpoint until the composer considers he has dealt sufficiently with this portion of his text and passes to the following section (in which a new theme may be treated in just the same way). whereas the length of the movement twenty-four measures. and no further allusion need be made to it. even in the third Quot differentias seu printhe remark of Petrus de Cruce {Tradatus de Tonis) unusquisque eorum [tonorum] habeat.' By tones he means here modes changeably by mediaeval theorists. 28) it need not.CANON. There is. Fugue. unfortunately. it will is be noticed. begin on almost any note of it. however.57 (the opening Kyrie of Palestrina's five-part Mass. seeing that throughout the rest of the movement the subject invariably appears without modification. In theory. The modification of the answer marked A is. but. . at the place whilst the grave and austere splendour of the music is such that praise itself seems an impertinence. which was the invention of a later period. and Ex. ' ' — . ^ Cf. At the same time. far more often used for commencing than any other.^ and it does not seem necessary to burden the reader with a list of their differences and contradictions. ' of a fugue. we understand by the This type corresponds. nulla musicae regula numerum certum the two terms were used interdeclaravit. in detail. Considerable use is also made of the subsidiary figure. 1. This must lie within the strict compass composition as a whole is written (see of the mode in which the above. p. It may be remarked. as to the subject. indeed. in the main. FUGUE. begin on the final of that mode.

so is that from Tallis. but because of the intervals at which the answers are made anticipate the ' tonal ' . methods of J. and vice versa. or with D again if it suits his compass. — a regular system of descending thirds (a precisely similar appears again later in the course of the same motet). unison. The subject may be announced by any voice (subject of a Hypodorian course to the practical consideration of compass melody. or even half a measure (Exx. Bach and other composers six-part The example from Vittoria is noteworthy of a later date. It a strict (or 'real') answer. i. 160 to 167 have been chosen to show the kind of modification to which an answer may be subjected it will be seen that many of the devices . For an instance of real fugue. and is answered by the bass starting on A. not because of any modification in the answer. or a modified answer. a two-part . or at the fourth or fifth may take place at the octave or (above or below). so that subject and answer between them declare the mode of the composition. Very often. nor need the successive entries of subject and answer show any mutual correspondence.CANON. may The be either latter often approximates closely to what we should call a 'tonal' answer. 158 and 159). interval by interval. for instance. very often at no greater distance than a measure. Suppose. FUGUE. Next This as to the answer. Between the close of each entry of subject or answer and the beginning of the next entry. Exx. we need look no further than the opening fugue of the motet Veni Sponsa Christi. to which reference has already been made in this chapter. if not transposed. AND DOUBLE COUNTERPOINT 47 and fourth modes. and that the soprano then enters on D the alto can now answer him with G if he likes. as a change from the single-part subject. Skeletons pnly are given here for the sake of clearness the sign + means that the harmony is completed by the entry of another . the answering voice enters before the statement of the subject is complete. might not lie well for a soprano. fifth above). in which the answer corresponds strictly. e. save only that the first two entries are almost invariably in close order. and leave the soprano to answer it at the fourth or . voice at the place so marked. in which case it would be better to announce it in the alto or counter-tenor. codettas (as we should call them) of varying length may be interposed. for instance. althougii B is not a recognized initial of these modes. to the subject. This device is quite exceptional. S. fourth constantly being answered by fifth. ' ' ' ' ' ' . There is no rule governing the order of entry of the different voices. the tenor announces a theme in the Dorian mode starting on D.

except that this time the two parts of the subject are treated more deliberately in double counterpoint concerning which a few general remarks may not be out of place. AND DOUBLE COUNTERPOINT subject is used. and the bottom one up a fifth. Ex. In D. one part stays while the other moves up or down a tenth. is a similar instance. the commonest varieties being those at the octave. as usual. the whole passage having a charmingly natural and spontaneous air. or the top part moves down an octave. and for this purpose it is only necessary to construct a numerical table and reverse it. 1 . (If there are three which may similarly change places with each other. either the bottom part moves up an octave and the top one down a fifth. in pairs. all of . tenth. for immediately after the exposition it is used as a melody by the soprano. In Double Counterpoint at the octave. Double Counterpoint. for example. In Double Counterpoint at the tenth. and two themes or subjects are said to be in Double Counterpoint when one of them will serve either as bass to the other's treble.: 48 CANON. the following table is used parts. 169. one must find out what each given interval will become in the inversion. —-^ 2. one part stands still while the other moves up an octave or down an octave as the case may be. usually. from the same composer's Missa de Feria.) There are many kinds of Double Counterpoint. the voices entering. First of all. and twelfth (instances of all these will be given in due course). a brief explanation seems Double Counterpoint is sometimes called Invertible advisable. Ex. or as treble to the other's bass. of course. on the same plain-song melody as the Motet similarly entitled). Likewise in Double Counterpoint at the twelfth. Here the accompaniment of the melody might almost be called a countersubject. and so on. one part might stay while the other moved up or down a twelfth but in practice. and then taken up once more by the bass. at the twelfth. similarly. C. Counterpoint. To know whether a given pair of subjects will invert in any of these ways. for the benefit of readers who may not have been through a course of Double Counterpoint. FUGUE. 168 is an instance from Palestrina's Mass Veni Sponsa Chrisfi (built. . they are said to be in Triple Counterpoint.

and most often in fugue. handled with the utmost assurance and virtuosit3% Besides the harmonic inversion which we call Double Counterpoint. their own little difficulties . All this is to be found in the text-books. is and how in Ex. "Walford Davies (see his article ' Invertible Counterpoint ' in Grove's Dictionary) quite rightly scouts the notion that this due to any lack of theoretical knowledge or No one who studies Palestrina's work can is of practical competence. whom at Exx. — a technical discipline. where he rather likes to announce a subject in two parts and then invert them in the answer. 174 a slight modification in the alto part. and cannot be used unless it is preceded and followed in a certain manner. In Palestrina one is constantly coming across passages that look as if they were going to be treated in strict double counterpoint. He is particularly ingenious how his counterpoint. and then somehow they just manage to miss it. But the composer of this period who really enjoys this harmonic inversion. but the student will not find the difficulties very formidable. At any rate. he uses the device very sparingly. from the motet Terra Tremuit. Dr. and practised occasionally by its composers. is Luca Marenzio. 176) is a really fine specimen of triple counterpoint. to be quietly mastered and then as quietly discarded. doubt that he had every known device of the period at his finger and that he regarded double counterpoint in just the same light as canonic or proportional ingenuities that is to say. and employs it systematically. the inversion takes place at the twelfth. FUGUE. instruction. though this. save in so far as it could be made to serve a purely artistic purpose.CANON. The AND DOUBLE COUNTERPOINT 49 and flattered until it consents to turn inverted into a suspended seventh falling one degree at sixth has to be coaxed itself when Other varieties of Double Counterpoint have each even at the octave (the simplest form) the harmless fifth inverts into the troublesome fourth. the purely melodic type of inversion can also be found in sixteenth-century music. but not so much. 172 to 176 are mixing the species . tenth. 169) in Exx. on the whole. The last of these examples after beginning at the tenth. and to overcome them he will do well to rely on experiment and common sense more than on the next step. 175 after starting at the ninth (most intractable of them all) he slithers comfortably into the octave after a few notes. like its fellow. from . (Ex. as tips. is evidently . and twelfth —were — inversion at familiar to the theorists of the sixteenth century. 170 and 171. as one might expect. Now these three varieties of Double Counterpoint the octave. by made to finish in the octave note in Ex. One example of this has already been given (Ex. all taken.

The first two notes of the second tenor. is answered the similar treatment of a subject in more than shown in Exx. whilst the second and third notes of the second tenor also make octaves by contrary ^ From Mr. it is not necessary that all should take part in the canon very often. as he could easily In Ex. 185) is actually. the other parts moving in free counterpoint such a canon is spoken of as a canon two in one at the unison (or fifth below. e.50 CANON. canon is spoken of as a canon three in one '. Ex. is to grow rather weary. him strict. Or you may leave two or more canons worked simultaneously in the same composition by four or more voices in this case the canon is known technically as a canon 'four in two^ Byrd's Diliges Dominum (part of which is quoted in Ex. a canon per recte et retro. It too was used frequently (though. Canon. for instance (as in Ex. Barclay Squire's Ausgewdhlte Madrigdle. Such imitation may take place at any interval. ' .^ in which the subject by strict inversion one part is . or tenth above. ' '. AND DOUBLE COUNTERPOINT a device that was practised assiduously but employed sparingly in actual composition. by no means invariably) to vary the fugal opening. or whatever the interval may If the vox consequens is in turn imitated by a third voice. or at any rate. make octaves by contrary motion with those of the second bass. 177 is the begin- ning of a madrigal by Sweelinck. the be). i. a canon eight in four with the additional ingenuity that in each pair of voices the part of the lower is that of the upper begun at the end and sung backwards. FUGUE. of whose unfailing dexterity (to tell the truth) one begins His sacred music. simple or compound. and so on. . either above or below. 178 and 179. and has Byrd cannot make the to allow himself a parts particu- good deal of freedom. . for instance. and just a little self-conscious. It will be noticed that even larly interesting. 183) two voices only are treated in canon. just a little mechanical. '". as will be seen. for some considerable period. 3. In a composition for more than two voices. both from the indefatigable Marenzio. but carried on continuously through the whole of a movement. Canon has already been defined as a special type of fugue in which the imitation is not discontinued after the subject has been answered. each phrase as it is given out by the vox antecedens being taken up and answered by the vox consequens. for all its brilliance. 178 making the inversion have done by taking the cantus up to C at one feels positively grateful to for not the second beat of the fourth measure. ' .

which may be considered the locus interval of a fourth is ' ' . 183) is part of the last movement of the Missa Brevis. the two upper ones maintain their strict canon at the unison right up to the end of the mass. — — . we might not rise one note higher nor descend one note lower than the Plainsong did but in Fugues we are not so straitly bound. and so with the remaining intervals. 184) is slighter in form. and from that point of view it is certainly deserving of study. Arme (like Josquin and so many of his contemporaries). and so on. e. he wrote it doubtless to he had a perfect command of canonic device. No '. the it is Canon is stricter in answered by that of the fifth. The first (Ex. notes. the subject). FUGUE. the intervals of the answer must correspond to those of the subject. in Canon. to show that he was thoroughly at home in the labyrinth of Proportional Combination. whilst the interval at which the answer is made the second above calls for more dexterous management than an answer at the unison. third answering to third. CANON. the canon is.' That is to say. and rather more ingenious a three-part movement which takes the form of a canon None of the parts therefore three in one for men's voices only. fifth to fifth. replies the master. when each phrase of the vox consequens is usually an exact repetition of that previously announced by the vox anteElsewhere. 180-2) taken from Palestrina's Missa ad Fugam. both from Palestrina. musically one of his most valuable works . although it rise five For if it were in canon. The other example (Ex. that of is free. it is not necessary that the intervals should be identical (unless the canon is at the unison or octave. This is shown clearly by two or three illustrations (Exx. the canon being in this case a canon two in one at the The subject of unison' carried on between the two upper voices. where the pupil. — ' '. Morley's Plains and Easie Introduction (1597). The Missa ad Fugam should be regarded mainly as a masterpiece of technique. We also give two more extended examples of Canon. The canon is 51 nevertheless an astonishing tour de force. AND DOUBLE COUNTERPOINT motion with those of the first bass. and vice versa. At the same time. fourth to fourth. at the same time. Even Palestrina's resources are taxed in one satisfy himself that just as he wrote his mass on L' Homme ' . observing that. minor. asks if this is not irregular. the subject of a but whereas the three lower voices are set free five-part fugue have answered after they the subject. It is not clasdcus for the study of the sixteenth-century canon. A not only stricter than a Fugue by virtue of its length This is illustrated by a passage in form also.. in a specimen fugue given him for perusal. yet is it the point (i. a major second may often be answered by a cedens). it will be noticed.

From the practical point of view that is. 52 AND DOUBLE COUNTERPOINT or two places. In this we may see a reaction against the canonic debauches (one can use no other word) of the preceding period. taken from compositions of this less period. and they were usually inserted in the one place where they were peculiarly inappropriate the setting of the mass.CANON. and so on. To make them as difficult as possible for the singers. . Canons per recte et retro. Ockenheim. as much as the student need know about the use of canon in sixteenth-century composition. Pierre de la Rue. 24 and 26. and it . but to pass straight from one note to the next canons by augmentation or diminution were often indicated simply by a bewildering multiplicity of time-signatures placed at the beginning of the single stave. Martini enumerates (in Part II of the Saggia di Contrappunto) no than fifty-six of such enigmas. and other composers of the late fifteenth and early sixteenth century delighted in displaying a most perverse ingenuity in the construction of canons. course. lustitia et Pax se osculatae sunt and so on clama. but was not employed with any great frequency. Canons by augmentation. * ' '. one voice only was written out. and seeing how many new games they could invent. ' applied (as explained on is in each case perfectly correct. The whole piece. Canons by diminution. entirely unexpected — . especially the final cadence. and it was natural that musicians should spend most of their time playing with it. on a single stave. puzzle Canons of every description. perhaps. Josquin des Pres. ecclesiastical dove-cotes. It was a recognized branch of the art. Canon was in fact a nev/ toy. Bac. examination but if the method of two-part horizontal analysis is p. moreover. ' ' ' '. were poured out in their hundreds by these too ingenious minds. ne cesses Otia securis insidiosa nocent meant that the answering voice was to take no notice of rests. and did no harm beyond wasting a good deal of the singer's time. the other voices being expected to take their cue from some enigmatical Latin motto prefixed thus a Canon per recte et retro would be indicated by the words Canit more Hebraeorum '. and creating a certain flutter in the The return to sense and sanity came in due was Palestrina who led the way. notably in measures 9 and 10. Padre delightful as music. Canons cancrizans. . It all helped in the development of musical technique. FUGUE. 37) it will be found that the harmony ' . for wMcli Palestrina would probably bave been ploughed in a Mus. is which is at once and entirely convincing.

For each section the composer had. . of course. II why it is better to speak of the final ' rather than the 'tonic'). at many which glad to follow up. as a rule. 15). the next in chords. Modern theory is inclined to associate it with the French mot and to explain motetus (whence 'motet') as a later Latinized form. the Air and Variations. the Fantasia. and similar collections he will find the first gal. one section being in free polyphony. (2) the chordal. and so on but for the sake of clearness the motets . The Motet is an English student. Similar exploration. but the volumes just mentioned are those most easily accessible to 1. one may remind the reader that interesting experiments were being made. roughly. That may well be so in any case. by the sixteenth century the word was understood (and had long been understood) to mean a piece of unaccompanied vocal music. . from scripture or from the liturgical books. ' : . the words being taken. that main types of is to say. the next a set fugal exposition. of moderate length.VII DESIGN The purpose of this chapter is to explain briefly the choral design followed in the sixteenth century sacred music. The general principle of design in every case is the same the text is analysed. There is no reason why the three methods should not be combined in a single motet. (3) the intermediate. as a rule. The Motet an ancient form of music. and the very derivation of its name is uncertain. ending. and the Toccata. in PartJienia. . the Madri- The instrumental forms lie outside the scope of this volume the same time. and that in the Fitzwilliam Virginal Book. . with a clearly defined cadence on one of the regular modulations of the mode (see p. three methods of treatment at his disposal (1) the fugal. in which the texture is clearly polyphonic and not harmonic or chordal. the suite. and of a sacred character. and each clause of it treated musically as a more or less complete section. the Mass and the Motet . on the final (the reader will understand from Chap. of course. composers were only too for instance. and yet not fugal. the cadence of the last section being. in in secular music. was being attempts in directions later carried out in other countries besides England.

accipe tibi Dominus praeparavit in aeternum. which may be found. which may be translated thus Come. 188-91. Tenor and cantus are in the authentic compass. divided here as usual (for the sake of convenience) the text as follows by bar-lines. the four themes being shown in Exx. and the subject of each is based strictly on the section of melody to which the corresponding words are sung in the antiphon. and it is therefore reproduced at the head of the composition. Now let us turn for a moment to the text. Palestrina's four-part motet. so that the student may more easily follow the method of musical The notation construction. ' ' ' ' whose irregularity is most skilfully regulated now we see that its design. „ „ „ Each of these sections is a complete fugue (in the sixteenthcentury sense. of the spoken word. of course. Before going any further. Accipe coronam. Praeparavit in aeternum. This runs as follows : coronam. . alto and bass in the Plagal. and apportioned to : Veni. ' ' . the modulation is firmly controlled thematic definition the whole thing is clear in conception and logical in execution. in semibreves is the conventional. in its proper liturgical place. is an example of the fugal method. and highly organized. : The whole motet consists of sixty-seven measures. 20-39. The mode is G. is extremely There is no uncertainty in the severe. Veni Sponsa Christi. The melody is treated strictly as a Canto Fermo (not in the scholastic sense !). Measures 1-19. Sponsa Christi. Words and melody form an antiphon. 39-50. which a single The first. receive the diadem which the Lord hath prepared for thee for ever. have already seen that this same counterpoint. quam Veni. rhythm of plain-song follows the natural stress and therefore cannot be exactly reproduced in modem musical notation.DESIGN 54 cliosen to illustrate this chapter are compositions in method is pursued consistently from start to finish. so often declared to be rhythmless '. . so far from being inchoate or muddled. the concessions in each case being well within the limits mentioned at . thou Bride of Christ. Sponsa Christi. is above all things the art of combining rhythms. one must point out how very wide of the mark the prevailing impression that sixteenth- is We century counterpoint is formless or vague in structure '. explained in the last chapter). Quam tibi Dominus. 51-67. A few points are worth mentioning.

illustrates several points of com- harmony. the remainder being in three parts or less. the remainder of it being an exact repetition at the octave by tenor and bass. but one whose rare beauty we can begin to appreciate in the twentieth. each entry being accompanied by free counterpoint in two or more of the other parts (doubtless for the sake of variety) second. prepares the ear for the final cadence. therefore. whose Flf sounds particularly refreshing after the obstinate FP sustained by the bass in the previous measure a progression impossible in the tonal system of — the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. . also. the melodic irregularity is more perceptible to the eye than to the ear. where the C does double duty as the last of these one group of changing notes and the first of another. volume to the octave from the second of two crotchets horizontal analysis (3) is justified by two-part ' '. irregular in two ways first. IV. mode as a whole. but only thirty-six of these are in four-part (not transposed). the order of entry is differThe second fugue is ent. the theme is never announced by itself. (4) In measures 36-8 (bass part) the double skip of fourth followed by fifth is preceded by a step from outside but thanks to the long pause on the C in measure 36. D (measure 50). measures. . . and the clearly cadential nature of the passage. (5) way in which the C. 39.: DESIGN 55 The composition the beginning of Chap. which the three quadruple measures are telescoped by four Another telescope may be seen in the last of I rhythms. In the last section. the first part of exposition is given to cantus and alto in close order. viz. the final close on G. The harmony 14. In each of the other fugues (commencing respectively at measures 20. Note the charming way in Measures 28-30 (tenor part). length is (by convention) in the seventh is sixty-seven measures. The modulations which conclude each main section. and of course. the theme appears twice in the tenor (measures 20 and 26) before it is heard at all in the bass. are all perfectly regular. note the persistency with which the theme (tenor) insists on being heard up to the very end. whose first thematic entry is at measure 28. though selected chiefly as a specimen of fugal construction. C (measure 38). but each time the answer is a real answer. the rhythm of the whole passage being delightfully subtle and intricate. G (measure 19). and the . Measures 26 and 28. The motet. position mentioned in earlier chapters of this The leap (1) Measure (2) is worth noticing. and 51). Its In the opening fugue. softening into B.

22 measures are in three-part harmony four-part 34 „ „ „ five-part 10 „ „ „ same . sextus (whose compass is here roughly that of a baritone). and on this rock I will build church. and the whole composition gives the impression of a firmness and solidity The length of the as clear-cut and stable as the very rock itself. (apart from those on the Final) are all on C (measures 20. is constructed is rather too long to be quoted entire in this book. that each section of the text forms the basis of a clearly marked musical The mode is again G (authentic) and the principal closes section. the voices divide into two threeat the words non praevalebunt part choirs. This table gives us the up by contrasting „ „ different groups of voices possible variety of timbre being employed.' These words are sung in Church to a melody that is virtually the the motet Tu es as Veni Sponsa Christi. roughly. Tu es Petrus (also by by quite a different method. until everything is ready for a climax. except in one passage where for half-a-dozen measures or so. however. in which there is no trace of fugue. ' The text is '. Then. and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it ' | | : | | my and I will give thee the Keys of the Kingdom of Heaven "). 18 six-part „ clue to the musical design. for the next twelve measures. is not built on a Canto Fermo. by tenor. 24. answering each other antiphonally with chords. et super hanc petram aedificabo Ecclesiam meam et tibi dabo non praevalebunt adversus eam et portae inferi claves regni coelorum ("Thou art Peter. The closes are unusually frequent and emphatic. every and the forces gradually when they all join Thus. and 51). the three-part harmony is enlarged to four parts. and the same method is pursued consistently throughout the composition. which is built with one another. Nevertheless. in three-part harmony. of which. quoted) the two cantus parts and the alto start off and deliver a sharply-defined musical phrase of six measures' length.. The motet Palestrina). 47. and its themes are not taken from the plain-song melody at all. DESIGN 56 Our next example. 193) is of sufficient extent to illustrate the method employed. already quoted Petrus. to produce a massive six-part (which is harmony. the following combinations . the general principle of design is to this extent the same. This is answered verbatim. work is 84 measures. an octave lower. but the section quoted (Ex. 32. and at the same time hardly any plain chords or note-against-note counterpoint. from the six-part motet. as follows : Tu es Petrus. in the opening section increased. and bass.

being the bold use of the chord E C G in measure 23. and the effect cumulative. in measures eight and nine in the cantus and alto parts. C. for instance. interesting. There Tu es Petrus almost every syllable of which receives large number of sixteenth-century motets are of this short and simple character. . Even in these few chords. and that must be the justification for inserting this motet in a book which professes to be purely technical in purpose. A note of melody. It needs no great insight to see how easily each of these irregularities could have been avoided by a composer who attached any great importance to them. perhaps. and very often they are of extreme beauty more touching. fellows. every one is in some measure enriched. for their purpose is purely devotional. and there are no comAt the same time the progression of each part is always plications. chordal (the being an example of the third). The method is essenThe writing itself is tially architectural. the consecutive perfect fifths B-E and A-D are simply dodged by a suspension in measure twenty. C 2.t&ee the cantus and alto proceed in consecutive major thirds descending one whole degree. perfectly straightforward. we cannot learn much from them. S. B C 2. and continues until the thirty-second measure. the two lower parts holding the D as to elaboration of workmanship. and more immediate in their appeal than their larger and more intricately wrought Technically. without disturbing its essential simplicity. A. for the first time. Then. inevitably. the only point that calls for comment : . The rest of the work is built on precisely similar lines. T. however small. 194) Palestrina's the three classes mentioned above. . C. As an example of the shorter and simpler type of motet is sub- Bone Jesu. that Palestrina did not. and they make no pretence But by the contemplation of a flawless work of art. of second the main. treated as a passing chord and for the space of a where it is minim beat is heard clashing against the sustained P of the cantus part above. . over the surface. A. however simple. S 16-19. in measure seven by oblique motion. the unison is approached by similar motion. 20-24. is no elaboration of the its own text. A. as it were. T. ' ' : though to ensure the forbidden tritone in the upper parts being given full prominence. the inference being. Here the texture is. perhaps. just enough discord to vitalize the music. the full six-part harmony is employed. there is just enough movement every now and again to cast a ripple. in joined (Ex. when the first main division of the motet ends with a full close on C. .DESIGN 57 being successively employed 13-15. it will be noticed that Palestrina contrives to violate several of the text-book maxims in measure two.

the former is 67 measures long. the Gloria. an ingenious composition by Ockenheim or Ockeghem. as already remarked. Quinti. intended for strict liturgical use. to give some sense of textual continuity. The words of the Mass need not be quoted here. 8exti. Of the two motets quoted in full in this chapter. In the Mass as in the Motet. Missa Quarti. The difference in the length of the composition is due entirely to the method of musical . the latter only 24. But more often the method is mixed.. whereas the same composer's Iste Confessor is but 370. and the Mass was designed. is strictly fugal throughout. Credo. a colossal work like Bach's B In minor Mass. while the more exegetical parts of the text e. g. as a rule. Admirahile Commercium. The essential thing to be remembered by the student of musical design is that they fall into six main divisions (1) The Kyrie. Veni Sponsa Christi and Bone Jesu (Exx. which differs both in text and construction from the ordinary mass). whereas in plain note-against-note counterpoint the text can be set continuously. however. resolving naturally into smaller groups or sub-sections. is some 650 measures in length. and in each case resolves into four sections. each of these sub-sections treated as a separate movement but in the masses of the sixteenth century. is . the Credo are set more simply. a famous composer of the fifteenth century. certain sections (especially the Kyrie. whereas the text in each case is of roughly the same length.&c. the dimensions of the Mass vary a good deal thus Palestrina's mass. while Orlando Lasso's Missa Quinti Toni is predominantly chordal. In the Mass. Subject to this restriction. examples of each kind can be found Palestrina's Missa ad Fugam. (2) The Gloria. treatment.— : DESIGN 58 2. such as the Mass for the Dead. it was not feasible to work on such a scale. 192 and 194). (5) The Benedictus. and Agnus Dei) being treated fugally.g. Toni. (3) The Credo. and very often the title of the Mass is taken from the mode in which it is written e. with no repetition at all if the composer so desires. and Sanctus are sections of considerable length. the Missa Assumpta est Maria is polyphonic in texture but not consistently fugal. the fugal method involving as a rule a good deal of textual repetition. The difference arises from precisely the same cause as the corresponding variety in the length of the Motet. (4) The Sanctus. and evenMissa cuiusvis Toni} : — ^ Or Mass in any mode you like '. of course. (6) The Agnus Dei. Of these. one mode as a rule prevails (except in masses for a special occasion. Benedictus. In this mass the mode can be ' . The Mass.

g. and such kindred varieties of secular music as the Chanson. vol. U . in so a formal type of structure. and in practice it is equally impossible to trace any clear dividing line between the Madrigal so-called. . g. the Canzonet. The theme is usually treated with great rhythmic freedom in Exx. VeniSponsa Christi) or a Latin hymn (e. and Taverner's Westron Wynde is The sixteenth-century another example that will repay study. 45). But the most interesting modern adaptation of sixteenth-century structural principles is to be found in Vincent d'Indy's string quartet in E (op. as for literature. p. the numerous masses on Some of Palestrinas Tye and Taverner on Westron Wynde). Aeterna Christi Munera). or those by a folk-song (cf. whilst the musical texture employed is commonly by changing the position of the clefs on the stave. or on Homme Arme. ii. altered at will v/ . the mass it is built . iii. 178. and also with such cyclic symphonies as Liszt's 'Faust' Symphony and Berlioz's Sympho7iie Fantastique. Every student of Counterpoint may be recommended to make a thematic analysis of that work (which is published in miniature score). of the Madrigal will naturally be looked for in this chapter. All one can say is that the term Madrigal is of wide and vague application. on the one hand. but Professor Wooldridge has missed the real clue to the title. Music. ' ' which a single thematic germ reappears in various transformations throughout all the movements of the work. for nothing will show him more convincingly how much a modern composer may learn from the methods of Palestrina. much as its general outline and character depend on the words chosen for setting. but the Madrigal was never for music. Mass on a Canto Fermo has. Geschichte. but that on the whole it is the secular equivalent of the Motet. but the composer might write on his own themes if he likes. DESIGN 59 But more often the Mass takes its title from the Canto Fermo on which this is very often a plain-song melody (e. also Michel Brenet. Some account The Madrigal. a close affinity with the modern theme and variations. and the Ballet on the other. The name connotes a spirit rather than a form it is not possible to lay down in theory any hard and fast rules for its composition. 195-195 D will be found some of the guises in which the opening strain of Aeterna Christi Munera is presented in Palestrina's mass of that name.. 213. which is the adjustment of the clef. 65. masses (e. Vestiva i Colle and Nasce la gioja mia) are based on themes taken from madrigals by himself or other contemporary writers. in . Musique et Musiciens de Quotations from this mass can be seen in the Oxford History of la vieille France. p. 3. For a detailed explanation see Ambros. indeed. g.

198 without the assistance of a piano. First of all as to Mode. even in his sacred . and their neglect of the more vital elements. the term will be used generically to represent its class. is one of style rather than of form. notably in the work of Orlando Lasso. but to create chromatic progressions in the melody whilst the accidentals not so recognized (Dfi. The technical '^ \ difference between the Madrigal and the Motet. — ^ For an exhaustive (not to say exhausting) account of chromatic experiment in the sixteenth century. Graduals. The tendency in its extreme form may be seen in the works of Carlo Gesualdo. until by the end of the century a complete scheme of chromatic harmony and modulation was within the grasp of a really adventurous musician. will be taken as representing various other types of sacred music. in fact they are clearly symptomatic of a decline. If for the sake of brevity and convenience the term Madrigal is employed. Ab. Jahrh. and the purpose of the concluding section of this chapter. The accidentals permitted by Musica Ficta were introduced not merely to form a cadence or to avoid the tritone. . They are. in their reliance on the easy blandishments of harmony. a logical though extreme development of what had been going on for a long time. the polyphonic. 196 to 198 are taken. rhythmical continuity and firmness of outline. Improperia. these words being used in the same sense in which they have already been taken to define the three outstanding types of motet. The necessity of this will be apparent to any one who tries to sing Ex. Lamentations. nevertheless. such as Hymns. From the early part of the century composers had allowed themselves much greater latitude in the use of Musica Ficta when writing madrigals than when writing for the church. Die An/dnge der Chromatik im iialienischen Madrigal des ZVI. The student must not for an instant think that these are typical specimens of madrigalian writing. just as the term Motet.60 DESIGN a mixture of the chardal. see Kroyer. in short. the student will understand that the characteristic features we shall discover are to be found equally in secular compositions bearing other names. Prince of Venosa. The voices in these madrigals were no doubt doubled by instruments a custom that had been growing in frequency. is not to investigate formal differences. but to emphasize some of the differences in style which distinguish the secular music of the sixteenth century from the sacred music of the same period. Such passages in no sense represent their age. For the moment. so far as technical style is concerned. who shows. despite its title. and so on) were gradually and tentatively introduced ^ one by one. in fact. and so on. from whom Exx. and the fugal. as it frequently will be.

p. : In no composition shall you prove admirable except you put on and possess yourself wholly with that vaine wherein you compose. One of the strongest features of the English madrigalists is their ability to introduce such occasional touches of realism into their work without allowing the habit to master them in the Italian madrigalists the structural continuity and melodic outline are often sacrificed fruitlessly in the attempt to illustrate every tiny detail of the words. Thou art too cruel '). . 199 to 201 show the way in which he endeavoured to employ chromatics to illustrate such phrases as 'lagrime nove' (Ex. Precisely the same chord (augmented sixth) is used by Wilbye in his realistic illustration. History of Music in England. thou say"st (Ex. 200). of "Weelkes. or at any rate further illustration than is afforded by the examples already quoted. uses it in a motet (Civifas SancH tui)} Other well-known instances of chromatic progression on a considerable scale are to be found in the madrigals of Cipriano di Eore. 201 the Cfi here is vouched for by Sandberger. a priori grounds the than strange sharps. The gist of the matter is well expressed by Morley in his Plaine and Easie Introduction ' . 202). who. On are not unanimous. and among the Englishmen. No. so that you must in your musicke be wavering like the wind ' 1 The MSS. ' ' sional chromatics are indeed too common in the madrigalian writing of the sixteenth century to need illustration. The best madrigalists of the best period rely more on rhythm and general lightness of treatment than on recondite harmonies and unexpected chromatics. Byrd uses strange flats more freely improbable . editor-in-chief of Breitkopf and Hartel's complete issue of Lasso's work). but is more likely to have learnt the chord from Byrd.. Occa- words ' all '. dolcezz' amare (Ex. Dt is See Walker. for example a strong liking for and whose madrigals naturallj* exhibit the same tendency. In a brief and summary account like the present it is difficult to describe and illustrate the harmonic licenses to be found in the madrigalian writers without appearing to assign an undue importance to such things. madrigal * My my Throat song runs is sore ' (First set. Exx. 345. 'mutato stile' (Ex. however.' DESIGN music . but as a matter of fact you can turn page after page without finding anything to dismay the orthodox. 27) to illustrate the on sharps He probably knew Lasso's work. with characteristic audacity. who uses the device both melodically (as at the end of Cease Sorrows now ') and harmonically (as at the beginning of Hence Care. But a particularly happy employment of the device by Wilbye to illusis quoted from his madrigal 'Thou art but trate a parenthesis young. ' . 199). 61 — — in the Penitential Psalms.

Morley carried out his own precepts with consummate skill in mastery of rhythmic device he is second to none of his own or of any other period.. followed three bars later by a perfectly orthodox modulation to its relative . as we shall see. they seem more appropriate to the next chapter. the better you shall please .DESIGN 62 sometimes grave and staide. but. and the preference for bold and simple effects the sustaining of the double A. yet the opening pages bring to our minds an almost physical sense of twilight and deepening shadow and has any composer ever voiced more beautifully than Wilbye. in the sixteenth measure.' . the contrast between the serene mystery of nightfall and the anguish of the lonely human whom the night encompasses ? The harmony is curiously modern. . . Sweet Night from John . 203) is nevertheless from the English school the six-part Draw on. on the whole. but its artistic beauty alone would justify its choice. At the entry of the words My life so ill there is an abrupt change to the tonic minor. There is no far-fetched attempt at pictorial illustration in it. at the thirty-second measure. in which an attempt is made to define some of the peculiarities which distinguish the English music of the sixteenth century from that of other schools. triple proportion] and show the verie utmost of your varietie. S. we must also take heed of separating any part of a word from another by a rest. e. as some you may set a crotchet or dunces have not scrupled to do minim rest above a comma or colon in the dittie. the opening section of the madrigal is plainly in the diatonic key of D major. otiierwliile effeminat. — . close) till the sence of the words be perfect. and indeed anticipate in a singular manner such passages as the opening of the middle section of the Organ Fantasia in G major. Bach himself. and the powerful suspensions in the twenty-seventh. you must not make a close (especially a full perfect. had been using it in very similar fashion for twenty years or more. The example chosen to illustrate the madrigal style (Ex. . and the more varietie you show. but rather in the avoidance of them. ' ' . It is too long to quote entire. Some examples from his pen might well have been inserted here. use triplaes [i.. and twenty-ninth measures. The chord of the dominant seventh in the twenty-eighth measure need not startle us. for instance. which are worthy of J. not in the employment of chromatic intervals. for Byrd. . you may maintaine points and revert them. — ' '. with touches of dominant and sub-dominant in the nineteenth and twenty-first measures respectively. but a larger rest than that of a minim you may not make till the sentence be Lastly. Wilbye's second set of madrigals. twenty-eighth. Of course the piece is entirely non-modal despite the flat in the signature. .

as we have seen. is often shorter. is But greater freedom is not incompatible with proper and the formalities of double counterpoint and strict canon are out of place. however. dignity. not of mode. that is to say. that although the fugal through the Madrigal.— DESIGN The major. But the earlier madrigalists Arcadelt. almost every trace . perhaps. and although numerous madrigals can be found in which the answer is strict and the exposition regular. Willaert. serious type. and in the work of Gesualdo. the first written strictly in the Phrygian or Hypo- phrygian mode transposed — in A. the style depends largely on the sentiment of the words. which ' '. the same principle throughout is 63 that of key. that this tendency is universal it naturally becomes more marked towards the end of the century. and their immediate successors closely to the dictates of the does Palestrina six . principle runs it all mere point it may be. with the subThe subject. with a Bb in the signature. may be said. and then as quickly abandoned. but is content to reproduce its rhythmic shape. The formal Fugue is replaced by a fugue of imitation. in his numbers are all modal system. yet the tendency is to greater freedom than composers usually allow themselves in the Motet. and may be said of nearly all the English madrigals. generally speaking. of modal writing has been obliterated. for the Madrigal is not necessarily light- too. Naturally. a notes. even in madrigals of the more hearted. of some three or four quickly taken up by the other voices. interval by interval. . In conclusion. in which the answer makes little pretence of corresponding. for instance. and first set — kept pretty so to a large extent of madrigals. ject. It should not be thought.

who is bound by neither of these limitations. and fortune. and really implies a corresponding difference in outlook. viewed as a whole. can well afford to spend some time on considerations of a purely technical character. or at best concede it a purely technical interest. is certainly their mis- may There a man may have is. for these are the elements of musical speech. In the music of Schumann and Purcell. for in the technique is the clue to the personality. whether between one man or another. can grasp its essential purport. of course. for the composer's message never reaches him at all. It is onlj' with the technical aspect of these differences that we are now concerned it may be remarked. though it is not their fault. They themselves not be able to follow such criticism. He is in far worse case. but he will realize that you cannot have the one without the in the idiosyncrasies of the craftsman he will try to discern the mentality of the artist. for instance. of texture. if Schumann wants to express in music a certain set of convictions or states of mind^ his music is bound to reveal a predilection for certain types of harmony. He will not mistake the means for the effect. yet have no true musical understanding. and another. we are conscious of a profound emotional and spiritual difference. is too often forgotten by those who decry all technical This fact criticism. The real musician. but that difference can only be expressed in music by technical means. probably has a psychological counterpart. whereas the others.VIII SOME TECHNICAL FEATURES OF THE ENGLISH SCHOOL apology is needed for devoting part of a book that is intended primarily for English. students to a consideration of the specially English methods of composition. that is significant. much that will widen his understanding . But this incapacity. though liable to misconception. that every technical difference. they may be unable to deduce the spiritual from the technical. he will find other much . or between one school . and it would be unreasonable to demand that they should be able to do so. which differed in many important No respects from those of contemporary foreign composers. . however. an incapacity precisely opposite made himself mechanically familiar with musical technique. of rhythm. And in the peculiarities of English sixteenth-century craftsmanship.

the prevailing mode is Phrygian. The scalic feeling of Wilbye's madrigal Draw on. 62). . was a compromise. Palestrina's Super flumtna Bahylonis. In this practice he was followed by all the great madrigalists here and there (as for instance in Morley's Hark Alleluia ') you find a piece of deliberate modal writing but the effect is that of an intentional archaism. . say. as to Mode. In Tallis's Lamentations. Even the Phrygian mode. or G with two flats. sweet Amaryllis . sweet Night with its sudden change from tonic major to tonic minor. The sixteenth-century Modal System. and to merge into two general types. as something quite antiquated and remote). the composer of to-day 65 who can what he has thus learnt in terms of modern musical retranslate technique is the man who English musical tradition. The English composers at a comparatively early date seem to have felt that the compromise was doomed. ' ' . His minor movements are written. p. and that a two-scale system must clearly replace the old ecclesiastical modes (of which Morley speaks. and you see at once that the point of view is totally different. has already been pointed out (see above. foreshadowing our own major and minor scales. in which all the modes tended to lose their identity. one might add. which retained a good deal of its individuality. is going to help to restore the true First of all. then. which are not left to the tender mercies of Musica Ficta. but inserted boldly as a key signature). and in this instance. comes a section whose tonality can only be described as ' ' major— a collocation unheard of at that and clearly foreshadowing John Ireland's E minor sonata (published 1919). ' . in the Aeolian mode. as we saw. Such instances are not hard to the diatonic key of Bb time. D with one flat. was roughly handled by the Englishmen. both in its natural and transposed forms (i. with hardly an exception. Another proof of scale-feeling is to be found ' '. e. for instance (composed probably about 1580). but in the middle. the sentiment is curiously un-Phrygian. Of far more significance is Byrd's frank abandonment of both the Dorian and the Phrygian modes. in the Plaine and Easie Introduction of 1597.TECHNICAL FEATURES OF THE ENGLISH SCHOOL of his own And musical ancestry. another very striking one is Wilbye's which (despite a single flat at the signature) is unmistakably in the key of G minor but the last ten measures form a kind of epilogue which is no less unmistakably in the key of G major. But an isolated experiment in modulation of this kind might mean little. Compare the piece with. whose first movement has similarly a second subject in Bb major. at the words plorans ploravit (' she weepeth sore in the night '). find in the English writers Adieu. ' ' ' '.

215 Wilbye takes the same interval sequentially in successive measures ever they have a mind . Mode. perhaps. the one that is most seldom infringed. 216 shows that the same writer is not afraid to treat the strictly forbidden interval of the major sixth with an equal want of now — ceremony. but to pass rapidly and easily from one tonality to another. had he not already been warned that the Englishmen were in many respects a law unto themselves. but always with the same unexpected rapid sweep. as to Melody. Of this we give In these we can see plainly the transition from the old sense of modulation to the new its use. or to secular music Exx. all the Englishmen use to do so. In the it when- Roman school. illustrate a . three striking instances from Byrd (Exx. whereas the Englishmen set greater store by vitality and boldness of outline. Whyte. 213 also illustrates this propensity. 204-6). First of all there its . In Ex. and more genuinely vocal in character. 30 might well be outraged at the sight of the leaps and plunges which the English composers expected their singers to make. moreover. which is continued in the same direction Ex. Exx. indeed. In Ex. and a good many other things. Next. The reader who has marked and digested the rules of progression set forth on p. 211 and 212 from Taverner illustrate not only the bold undulations beloved of that composer. Palestrina and his school aimed at was perfect smoothness of progression and beauty of sound. as well as later men. As artistic ideal in the usual. with whose work Taverner was doubtless acquainted. Ex. of course. demanding from his tenor and contratenor such a range as that shown in Ex. a device invented. it is a case of distinguishing the What technical method. dipping. * ' ' ' ' . but they are more easily conducted. prohibition is of all the rules.. but his fondness for the sequential organization of melody. TECHNICAL FEATURES OF THE ENGLISH SCHOOL 66 in the growing employment of harmonic sequence. it is one of the most remarkable passages in the whole of sixteenth-century music. 207 ? Nor is this angularity peculiar to Byrd. widespread partiality for this type of melodic curve. 209 from Robert Whyte shows the forbidden leap of a major ninth a leap. by Brumel. not to mark a point of repose. and Taverner. nevertheless. that is to say. too indeed. and the whole passage (clearly dictated by the character of the words) shows how freely Byrd was able to move about in such remote tonalities as F minor and Ab major. 206 the harmonic changes at measures 5 and 11 are remarkable. 208 to 216 from earlier composers like Tye. . Ex. in Crowned with Flowers'. apparently. goes by the board altogether of what use to prate of authentic and plagal compass when we find Byrd. now soaring. The modulations are not so striking as some of those in Gesualdo. .

too (though it is not strictly relevant to the heading of the paragraph). They may be classified roughly under four heads 2. . 3. the breach being thus continually widened. Such an experiment could only have been conceived by a mind of . it will be noticed. both from Tye. from Byrd. Many features of great harmonic interest are likewise to be found in the English composers. it will be noticed. The effect. then taken up by alto and tenor. for the passage quoted is merely the climax of a long stretch of two-part writing which is started by contratenor and second bass. In this place. especially for what are called false relationships A few examples have been chosen to illustrate each of these turn. the chords arise naturally from the progression of the parts. and employ them without hesitation on the strong beats of the measure. in Passing Notes. we see the discordant interval of the fourth thus sounded without preparation on the first beat of the measure Exx. preference for the harsher forms of discord. is cumulative. 219 and 220.a piece of carelessness on Byrd's part). as we saw. and finally by soprano and first bass as here shown. accented passing notes are by no means infrequent.: : TECHNICAL FEATURES OF THE ENGLISH SCHOOL 67 is the persistently sequential character of the melody as a whole then there is the way in which the f measures are telescoped sucfinally. and are created at a strong beat of the measure (the signature <t instead of C is here In Exx. it is convenient to point out two other harmonic F 2 . More varied methods of resolving discord. . they are a clear three octaves apart. the soprano and bass alone being in action. . of cadence. diminished triad in both places. from Orlando Gibbons. and the following points are worth attention '. 221. 217 and 218. . 222-5 the clearl}'. but thej'' are only employed. The English composers frequently disregard this metrical restriction they employ accented passingnotes generally with greater freedom. singular daring and originality. A 1. ' 1. we find in the first measure in the third. More experimental formation 4. that of the the chord of the dominant seventh . on the weak beats of the measure. show a similar use of the augmented fifth in Ex. moreover. passing notes create an even stronger discord. . there is the cessively by a ^ rhythm and then by a | astonishing emptiness and hollowness of timbre. as a rule. Greater freedom in the use of accented passing notes. while at one point. In Exx. In the school of Palestrina.

Ornamental Forms of Resolving Discord. however. on the time-signature in Cl it is the minim. It : — fall must form a consonance with the remaining part or parts. creation. may fall a fourth and then rise a third (Ex. but such instances are not easy to find. is clearly analogous. B. but is Occasionally usually the semibreve in O and G it is the minim. and (Ex.: 68 TECHNICAL FEATUEES OF THE ENGLISH SCHOOL a figure to be found very imply a recognition of the chord. It was given as a rule above (p. . Such resolutions as those shown in Exx. 234 the two forms A. and resolution of discord should take place on successive beats. and B. In addition to the forms of resolution mentioned in Chap. 2. D. the intervening note reached by the N. the Gr being a free passing note. with varying degrees of frequency. process. is ' ' . in C the crotchet in O and (^ it may be the minim. 227 and 228). 230). and found its way into the The second (Exx. the following methods are employed. Fellowes regards it as a conscious classify. C. Exx. 237-9 show two distinct varieties. and there is no reason why a student should go out of his way to imitate them in his own writing. In A. for the self-subsisting seventh as a dominant chord of the emphasized. 231). V. three beats thus being required for the whole process. 39) that the preparation. the chord known to modern theorists as that of the added sixth present writer inclines to regard it rather as an unusual type of appoggiatura. in which the introductory note has somehow become detached from the note it prepares. seventh is approached The peculiarities. The duration of the beat depends. first frequently in Byrd. : .B. The as to be a positive so frequently (in the mannerism. 231). 235 and 236 are not to be found. 233). in whose work it occurs manner shown at Ex. and D are shown in combination. preceding beat. 226) is would seem it to more difficult to of the employment Dr. the English writers allow the creation . of course. 229. by composers of the English school A. (though really very seldom). The form D is a particular favourite of Tye. from Wilbye. It may rise a second and then fall a third (Exx. It may fall a third and then rise a second (rare Ex. The passage may serve as a reminder that not only suspended discords but 'changing notes' are treated with greater freedom by the English composers than by the Flemish or Italian. 232 ) In Ex. 232. The suspended note may fall a fifth and then rise a fourth to the note of resolution (Exx. much it is not though freely. except that the F in the upper part is a concord and not a suspended discord.

:

TECHNICAL FEATURES OF THE ENGLISH SCHOOL

69

and resolution of a discord to take place within the duration of
In Ex. 240, for instance (sign C), the process is com-

a single beat.

pleted within a crotchet beat; in Ex. 241 (sign G) within that of

a minim.

not recommended that a student should permit him-

It is

self this rare licence, for it will

exactitude,

and unless

tend to weaken his sense of metrical
rhythmical freedom easily

this is preserved,

Of course there is no reason why a
modern composer should not throw metre overboard and write
frankly in prose rhythm, if he wants to; but such a method is
degenerates into confusion.

radically different from

To

that of sixteenth-century counterpoint.

produced by preparing
it on the next weak
beat (and not vice versa), Ex. 242 is appended.
Such a solecism is
very rarely to be found it serves to show how important it is that
metrical strictness should persist and make itself felt through all the
rhythmic independence of the individual parts.
illustrate the

extremely unpleasant

effect

a suspension on the strong beat and creating

;

3.

The forms

Cadence.

of cadence to be found in the English writers are less

stereotyped than those of composers like Lasso or Vittoria.

These
experiments are not always successful sometimes a composer spoils
a fine composition by ending with a tentative and unsatisfying
cadence that leaves no sense of finality. A case in point is the
Hierusalem, convertere ad Dominum
from Tallis's
splendid
Lamentations a work whose tragic and sombre intensity of conviction is hardly reached by any other music of this period, or
indeed of any period. Yet the effect of all that has gone before is
marred by the hesitation in the bass as it proceeds to the final
The other
cadence (see the penultimate measure of Ex. 243).
cadences in the Lamentations are masterly Ex. 244 is a particularly
;

'

',

;

beautiful one,

the secret of which

is

the juxtaposition

of the

sharpened and flattened seventh (CCl and Cfl). Ex. 245, from Byrd's
Gradualia, is clearly related to it, and though wholly different in
Byrd was a pupil of Tallis, and one
spirit, is no less beautiful.
might easily suppose that he borrowed the idea from his master.
The real inventor of it, however, would seem once again to be the
enterprising Taverner, for in Ex. 246 (quoted in Morley's Plaine

and Easie Introduction) we

find all its essential features,

the details are differently contrived.

though

Morley's comments are of

interest

The

This point
close in the counter (is) both naught and stale.
the lesson was made being a new fashion was admitted for the
but nowadays it is grown in such common use as divers
raritie
'

.

when

.

.

.

.

.

TECHNICAL FEATURES OF THE ENGLISH SCHOOL

70
will

make no

enough be

scruple to use

left out,

though

in few parts, whereas it might well
be very usuall with our Organists.'

it
it

Evidently the cliche was not unknown, even in those days. The
however, have ceased from troubling (at least, those
Organists
particular ones have), and we of to-day can surrender to the spell of

'

',

the cadence without the necessity of reminding ourselves that it
was once common property. Echoes of it are to be found at the end
of Purcell's Full Fathom Five'. Ex. 247 is a quite experimental
feminine cadence from Byrd Ex. 248 (also quite experimental)
'

'

'

;

in this cadence the bass, instead of approaching
the final by the interval of the fourth or fifth, or by the descent of
one degree, comes up to it by a stepwise ascent— a most unusual
progression at a close, which can be paralleled, however, from Palesis

from Taverner

trina (Ex. 249).

B and D

;

The Taverner passage,
by the alto voices in the

despite the bold sustention

measure but two, is not
wholly convincing, but the Palestrina cadence is quite perfect
another instance of the exquisite judgement that enables him to
carry off a situation with which a less unerring genius is not quite
able to cope. Once more, the secret of it is the tact with which the
Etj and the Eb are played off against one another.
Two concluding instances are given from Byrd. In Ex. 250 there
changing note formula, the second
is an unusual treatment of the
note, but as the resolution of a
passing
not
as
a
note being treated
resolution occurring within the
its
prepared discord, the discord and
space of a single beat while to get his harmony right Byrd does
not hesitate to make his tenor sing Etl, although there is an Eb in
the key signature, and although the E, in any case, coming between
D and D, would normally be sung as Eb in accordance with the
customs of Musica Ficta. The cadence sounds so natural and convincing that one does not realize its novel and daring character
Ex. 251 is given to show the free
until one examines it in detail,
(Bb)
at
the final cadence. Byrd uses
seventh
use of the dominant
Ex.
(c£
225), but not as a rule in such an
a similar formula freely
emphatic position. The cadential formula shown in Ex. 222, however, where the seventh (Gr) is treated as an ordinary changing note,
of the

'

last

'

;

is

of constant occurrence.

4.

From

General Characteristics of Harmony.

instances already given the student will have seen that the

tendency of the English school in general is towards a bolder and
more rugged type of harmony than foreign composers permitted
themselves. A few more such instances may be cited. In Ex, 252

TECHNICAL FEATURES OF THE ENGLISH SCHOOL
the accented passing note (Eb) in the alto

weak beat

71

taken in orthodox

is

double clash against
the D of the cantus and the B of the tenor creates a very aggressive
dissonance.
Ex. 253 is similar in character the combination of D,
fashion on a

of the measure, but

its

;

A, E, B, and G into a single chord is remarkable even for Byrd. In
Ex. 254, by using an upward-resolving suspension in the bass, the

same composer manages

to

employ the notes E,

and

F, A,

Cj$

in com-

be seen, after touching D goes down to
Bb, the treatment of the suspended note being thus in strict conformity with English principles, except that the ultimate resolution
But so marked a
is by the fall of an augmented second
Cfi to Bb.
bination.

The

bass, it will

characteristic of English composition

is

better realized

by a perusal

of the music in long stretches than by examining a few singular
instances.

Its

may
who have

in general has a rough tang, which

harmony

not suit every one, but

is

extremely palatable to those

once acquired a taste for it.
There is, however, one peculiar manifestation of it which cannot
be overlooked, and that is the fondness of these writers for what we
Dr. Walker, in his History of Music in
call false relationships.
England, has devoted a considerable part of one chapter to this
subject,

and has

collected

necessary to treat

it

some curious instances

here at any great length.

it is

;

therefore not

The origin of the

found in the rules of Musica Ficta if the student
and note what is there said under heading (6) and
then examine Exx. 255-8, he will see that the progression of the
practice

is

to be

;

will turn to p. 11

parts

is

quite logical.

was a general tendency on the
part of singers at this period, in scale passages, to sharpen the
seventh going up and to flatten it coming down, so that fairly close
It should be added, too, that there

juxtapositions of Btl and Bb,

Ct]

and

CS,

and

so on,

would inevitably

occur quite often, whether specifically intended by the composer or
not.
But the Englishmen went much further than the foreign
composers, for they positively went out of their way to bring about

To us to-day

it seems a perfectly
merely honouring the claims
of the intellect in preference to those of the senses a sacrifice which
a composer of the highest order must always be ready to make.
But our fathers and grandfathers were sadly perplexed at some of
the things they found, and no wonder. Mendelssohn never played
them such pranks who were Tallis and Gibbons and these other
old fogies, that they should dare put such things on paper, and call
it harmony ?
So, armed with a pen mightier than any sword, the
editors with one consent began to edit
timely suppressions and

these clashes in a single chord.

simple and natural proceeding

;

it is

:

;

very little else. The basic idea of the work. and so bring these pages to a close. Despite the many individual features that harmony of the English composers. Rhythm. exhaustible wealth of enterprise than a volume to do justice to this aspect of their technique.^^ ^^^ same time. none the less. Whether this variation is an oversight on Byrd's part. a mistion within a triple measure. as to mark the melody and the above all of rhythmic freedom. was merely a by-product of rhythmical experiment the whole of sixteenth-century texture is essentially an interweaving of independent rhythms. {(^f:> I I I I I . & Co. The essential feature of the madrigal is the persistent conflict of the three-one and the six-two accentuations a conflict. emerged with their hair curled and their beards trimmed. and it would take less true that the peculiar their mastery of rhythmic device. O O and the six-two (p p p ggg). or whether it is intentional. it is by their rhythm that they live. until finally Tallis. the two measures together resolving into 2 + 1 + i. is rhythmically far in advance of any music that has been written since. where the soprano breaks in with quite an independent rhythm of its own. the others all bearing the sign C. and further comment to stumble. which is never allowed to become mechanical note. Ill). for all the music of the period. the seventh and eighth measures. They have no monopoly Finally. nomer. perhaps. I I I 1 I I . (see Chap. for of the five parts only one bears the genuine triple-time nothing less Some examples have already been given ' ' signature (Cf)).TECHNICAL FEATURES OF THE ENGLISH SCHOOL 72 judicious emendations were the order of the day. quite fit for the best Victorian society The examples already but curiously unlike their real selves. for instance. The example from Byrd (Ex. but one or two more may fitly serve to conclude this chapter. the alto complicates matters by contradicting the accents of the soprano in every possible place. quite presentable. Byrd. — C^ trast of the three-one I O G p pa p p) . apart from the simplest concords. which stands for what we should call compound duple time. is of no moment. is the con. as we have seen. and . It is is none the glory of the Englishmen They seem to have an inand resource. This volume has missed its aim entirely if it has failed to make it clear to the student that counterpoint is rhythm. quoted will show the type of passage that thus caused our ancestors — Once the contrapuntal explanation is grasped. is unnecessary. and not (as commonly said) a combination of melodies. the composer's intention becomes perfectly clear. 259) has been chosen to illustrate his fondness for rhythmical combinaTriple measure is. Harmony itself. moreover.

the reader may turn to the short extract from 'Arise. . for they show an equally consummate mastery. The signature here is C but it will be found on analysis that the rhythm of the top part is a regular 4 that of the other parts an equally regular |. our somewhat lengthy list of The reader must imagine both of illustrations comes to a close. lightly and breezily. — : . the writer would be inclined to name Arise. Thomas Morley immortal author of the Plaine and Easie Introduction to Practical Harmony. and to say that the pupil was worthy of the master is both to give him his bare due and to pay him the highest compliment his heart could desire. in this volume. the profundity of Gibbons. and Though Amaryllis dance in green were abandoned with very great reluctance. Morley is perhaps the least of his peers the passion of Weelkes. 205). he is yet one of its most characteristic figures. Our last two examples are both from the pen of Mr. my Dear as the most exhilarating tour deforce in the whole collection. after what has been said before. If the members of a class would put their heads together and sing them. ' ' ' ' . but equally relevant in this place. as one reads a novel. In sheer exuberance of rhythm Morley has never been surpassed there are so many passages in our madrigalists which take one's breath away that one must needs hesitate to speak in superlatives but if driven to an offhand choice. the only musical text-book ever written to be read for its own sake. . and his best work is full of a gusto and vivacity that mark him out as a chosen representative of the Comic Spirit in music. TECHNICAL FEATURES OF THE ENGLISH SCHOOL 73 and the present writer had much which of his pieces to select for the illustration of it My Mind to me a Kingdom is '. hesitation in deciding . For another example. ' ' ' ' . Lord (Ex. Whither away so fast is not far behind. or the radiant imagination of Wilbye. and then go and do it himself. would be pedantry three voices only are employed all the student has to do is to see how it is done. But though not himself the greatest in an age of greatness.. Sonnets. yet with a resolute enforcement of every stress and counterstress that may serve to darken the plot and complicate the issue. As a composer of he has not madrigals.. and with two of the most exciting episodes from this pair of canzonets. they would really learn more about counterpoint in half-an-hour than any master could teach them in a month. Analysis. them sung at racing speed. quoted to illustrate quite a different aspect of Byrd's technique. and Songs of 1588. His technique he learnt from Byrd. and every student should make a point of reading and if possible hearing them for himself. It is a favourite device of Byrd's. get up. Fellowes's edition of the Psalms. Both are to be found in Dr.

Now. . That knowledge must be extensive and thorough. Mr. But we must see to it that that opinion is based on adequate research and thorough knowledge of the period under review we must raise our voice in no uncertain protest against any critic who attempts to pass judgement on a hasty or partial survey proceed. and the preparation and issue of both the sacred and the secular work has been taken in hand of the latter. Arkwright. and it must be a knowledge of their work as well as ours. Fellowes. We need not expect the judgement of the world to coincide with our own. but the attempt will be ineffective and our knowledge. only reply is The to pull theirs harder. things have been changed scholars like Dr. The foregoing remarks. and even where the work of scoring and publication has been carried out. Thus armed. Dr. may give the student some idea of the lines on which technical examination must we can form a just critical estimate of our national achievements in the sixteenth century. be added that materials for such a critique have hitherto been lacking vast quantities of important works have been buried away in part books. Barclay Squire. there is always the chance that something vital may be omitted in the process of sumlarge subject. however. the result has been too often untrustworthy. before . perhaps. but on the consensus of European opinion. . More than that they are not intended to do. we can feel secure. indeed. German critics have pulled our nose in the past there seems every . Terry (to name no others) have been hard at work. A man. and the ultimate verdict on the Tudor composers will not depend on our national predilections. likelihood that French critics will try to do so in the future. but we can insist that judgement be passed only by competent observers. 74 TECHNICAL FEATUEES OF THE ENGLISH SCHOOL Therels always danger in the attempt to deal cursorily with a however great one's vigilance. Mr. and that its foundations rest on a bedrock of reason and justice. it is hoped. may not be his own judge.. marization. unless we are very sure of ourselves . the more important half has already been published. It may. of the material which our scholars have placed at his disposal.

EXAMPLES .

.

"= Ex.103. Ionian. —©3i: Ex. Mediant £. - =«= =541 Mode iii. *5 * Hypoaeolian. Modeviii. L^ 3i: ^^I ^Tr jDl. Mediant G. # Mode iv.7. I S M * * .^u. Dominant F.6. -» & Mode Mediant.) i^ominan. Dominant D. r-(^ X.1. » Dominant C. Hypolydlan V. Mediant D. teFl I IKE Ex. O Mode "^"^-'^^ .4. ^^ A * 3tt: Vii. Dominant G. 35: -e- iF • • Ex. --" Xii Dominant A. •y -rr- Modes Mode ^ Mediant G.. 33: ' Mode Mode «- *> H 8 Ex. Hypophrygian Mode Vi. EXAMPLKS. Mode Ex. Medicint * 3ci: B. 3a: -^- Ex. Dominant Lydian Mediant • C. Hypoionian.8. Mixolydian.U. Dominant E. * m xiv. Mediant Mode F. Dominant A. ii. Mode I. • Dominant E..3. * Not used. ^^^^r^' Phrygian. Hypodorian.5.Hypomixolydian. Aeolian. * j^X"-'^. Xi Xiii. XE O. Mediant A. Mediant E.C • (Locrian and Hypolocrian.P. Dorian. Mediant C. Ex.2. O Zjf=3KZ ix.

13. In 3 parts. Agnus Dei ( . 108. ^^ -»^ N9 op. '. P ^*' r— p~^^^^*^ r -T ^ °" Idem. Missa Bre^is (Credo). s xsi ^J •^ . p. S iH^^^^Vt dfe-^ ^ r ^\<i\ff^(<r aS: ^ W In 2 parts. ( Christe Eieison) nj In 5 parts. (Credo). J?^^/«a C<»/«. U. _ - tX. Jj^^ Co«/%jj'or..10. I. Fy CA. Ex. v^H)^ .12. p„ Palest rina. aO. Ibidem. *i^ rr 19 Ex ^ * Ex «-« ' M-ii- r o^ nfj " :«= P^f TMiDf^ ^^ ^ parts.9.ig " -^ ^^ ^ parts p„ Palestrina. (Sanctus) w :«: :«: iM©: »: 4 parts. iW: 1=«=t: Palestrina. Ps: Pen: VII. MissaTertii ?i ^--^---f^t> ^ s . Mi ssa. 551=22 p ^ s s zoz jm Cy IK ^*" ^ ffi ff Ex. -OA> >V ^ ^ In 3 parts.U. f XE est ^ Palestrina. Ex.11. Xfl«rfa Szow. (Bfenedictus). . Croce. Sectional Cadence. Orlando Lasso. /*!. S 8.4 w W zsn 5^ sn =§= "XT" _Q_ m 3i: ' "cr In 2 parts. ^ f . -In ' ' i i i stzz^t i^ == =g Maria. pa^gg^j-^jia^^ Missa. Assumpta S te -TV -^ fPf^f^ ^r" :§: Tom. Ex. Ex. (Benedictus). ^ ttf oo I^ 6 parts. 4«. Mibsa. =& 0. Sanctus) * ^^ -B- t>d% i •. Missa Quarta. Ex. p Palestrina. mus. Missa. Magn.

^ 1. % ^tI^~^^'= r -»- t* ^ M ^^ ^^ra r Interrupted Cadence (Form l). ^^'^^' Ibidem (Credo Cy S i p^3 J ^ 331 i «L^- s 3=^ I &c. '\h ^*' ^^' Ibidem OVgnus Dei). JU. o^ "*> _ «^ In 3 parts. ^Benedictus). Gau-dent in coe Ex. tX. 3i: . oz.^trina> Missa Brevis (Benedictus) In 4 parts. oc Ibidem. Missa. "^ parts. pait. ^ -sa- ^^ ' f ex. mO ^^ -X51 M r=T^ ^^ IN r ^ » 1^ cfi /. Regina Coeli. Idem. ( m * ^:^:^ 3e: parts. 2 parts. 6? ^ ^•wjc. &c.Ex. 37. Ex.26. 27. 3i: ~Kr 3=t Ex 29 4 ^ '• « S Ex. *= w r-rrr~r -©-=- i=r-~: 0) ort r Plagal cadence in 3 parts. 35. Palestrina.^^ m Tt^ i^a- 3X1 3cr rr r * ^ f In 5 parts. 3 parts.P. yr -cr (Form II). ex. (Gloria) ^ m (fee. Cw qq In 4 parts. Vittoria. J jCt ^f#^ £^ t± Ex. -^ ^ ^ qe fe ^W ^ 7T? Magnum Mysterium. "Phrygian" Cadence.Missa Quarti Ton Orlando Lasso. Gaudent in Coelis. Fy ^^^^Final Cadence. I ^ (lii 0. U.28. vos ovtnes. Yittoria. 103. ^ ^ ^—^-f-f^ ^ j . Oculus non Vidit. Vittoria.

40? (The Fac ut ut ar —^«^ 33: <r S h»- o De um. r ^r^fr"^^^^ SfaMt Mater. i=z4=P Ex. Ex.turn J ^^-^^ ^ r 31: 3x: Ex. r— I S —:^=:§: €>Sta ^ ma-ter do bat - &ri !ZZ— gTTtf- jux lo. 31: :«: H com' bi Q_ "O <> -e>^ pla a in N _Q ^r pep 35=^=3 si 1^ 8~P^ EE^ E te - cum lu ^^ - g-e "1 -te^ is -&- do Chris -turn f^ -am. - ut SI - U.Q. ^. ^ 1 P^ p*^ - Fac ut te A 3X! -Q- o -^ cum ^ ^¥^ g Colu - g-e ^ :^ man - .ro cru ta - -e- cem la- cri A^ A ^^^I^TE mo m £ i o i^ ^ *»- -40-fl 3$ x^ig~:s: :sn 33: -©- §: A £>.ta sa *. 38. 108. Falestrina.39. 40. Ex.P. fac ut ar - de ^^ nrrj modern equivalent). o -^-. .— 5 Ex. it # in a g * : m^-rf=r 0.% fj fr &c. - fi-o 31: b^^zi 35: il« ~cr De — um II at me cor F=^ 4- ^ - um. ut # JOZ <> de-at - me cor um. Ibidem.' do Chris. fff 1^^ f J^ f 33= — 39a Bta ma-ter do bat - 5 JOL a ro lo - - ^S t> \r~: — i\ K>- 33: JSl ^ cru-cemla-cri JUX. - fac TT- >0 :m=^=^ note-values reduced for the purpose of illustration to their approximate ^ man am. bi com - pla ^ ^E^^EE^f^^^^ - &c.

=^(1) .' it ^ re sound &c. 46. lig art most merciful' 3S: - - &c. 43. Neue Teutsche H! III. Idem. le - __ se - al lig: -o- S die. - le - riz^-^—S- . - yet Ex. com. me-re des O. &c. al Ex. .h'. blow your pipes pherd. re ::>2 . Orlando Lasso.. 5 2 sind doch - le al die. vain g thou dost ease in vain ^ _ ^ pour la soif. P. ^^F=^F^- T±=^ #^^ 11. 45. seen ffrom "Arion"] 6 * v=^ ^^-r^^-^^=tri^ blow. I ^=^2 . in - eth.' mal-heu -reux. "Recherche qui voudra'.U.si-ons of ^3 2 she 31: deln "^sm to: ^ - Ex.eth. 44. Bertani. 3-part canzonet. 23 1^ - hie Thy com-pas. me-re des raal - heu-reux. Lectio -(I) (I) ^~J 31 nus J=3 .Ex. 48. ^Ei^^^S rech 3 4 ac me runt fe 4 es &c.42. Morley. du .41. ^ - ing- "Why di. "Ch'ami la Vita" Ex. ^feg^L^:^^^=#^=^ fe£ et no ^48 =r---=t^j^^=Tff^ff^ ir~m Pour I'ombre bel here complaining-?'' ^4 I ^ nel ^43 >-4 rny heart ne-ver q ^ frieth'. . com. ae - Ex. mal - 103 iieu-reux.^ es sind doch se die.pour vive'. &C. pour je g i we. I'orabre et pour la soif.fort. i tu ^^^^^^ lieder. Officium Defunctorum. mi E 4 :=-2 3 -4 cha .8. ?^ grand chaleurs. ray heart sit I ^EEEfeEf tuo 3 ^ ^E ne-ver di eth. "Still Idem. 4 5 Blow. Pevernag-e.rant les thou 4 i&C. Morales.49. • my heart ne-verdi hence a.way. in "O God which Byrd. g-lau tern - - wan ben the cor-ding' to mul tude - ti ^5 ^4 with glee Ex. "F^is que - 3. 47.fort 6 ^4 ipeii^^^ des - ::^4__ Ex. T ta vi la Morley.'^ Ex.

e. Qui &c. # no mi - g fi' - W ff m W=0 ^ Do ne mi - ^^ ni. 54.Ex.lo - ro - sa fac. P.50. 52. 5 >2 V'^'J r Ky ^ - ri .51. r^ [ Fi li. IdenijMissa. tem.o tre - r M ''-n^-^ r - que pro - ce dit. Assumpta Est Maria. fi o -«- Ky ri O. &c. - e.U. Missa. ut te - Ky ^n: cum lu-g'e-am. ut fac. e - lei . 221 vi-vi-fi et - can - 3 ^2 Pa ex Ex. 53. M'isa Papae Marcelli 3 5 -&- 3E g —©- « i^s Ky ^ ^ lei -G- ZSEL - lei ^ - Ex. ^23 in Et m a y * p i spi - ri -turn Sane ~ £ tum Do-mi~num. ar Ex. 4 r^4 t^ 35 s=* Qui ve :3Si - nit &c. e lei &c. 108. Brumel. ^^ e - m <i> - lei son. firrrr Sta bat ma-ter do - &c. Palestrina. Qui cum De Beata Virgine. o ^3=p= 1 ^> a - 1 zst . Qui Ibidem Ex.

U. - bis. ^^ o\ rj ^f g -7? ^ |g mi i bis. l3fe - se ^^ (^ Z2=^ J W » J < > * 3:1: di ^a p^ \ (mun)-di J ^ ^ Jjjj iJ— izz: fg ra /^ g bis.^ — ^ 1 1 . d IP bis. Missa.P. 9 Ex. - . ^m ^ 7- 1^' rv — f 1__P- iSLi- p (? ^ bis. ^^ g^ 0. mi ' se rj ^> - re - a ' fed 1 1 - m S 35: se - re ^S re bis. Palestrina. IS 11 10 tl- r"T^ ^ J < / ^^ gi 13 =. Aeterna Ckristi Munera feflr~o: (mun)- S p rj i J g ^ J» JJJ J o ^ * J di. ^ ^ omi (mun)-di.^ W: bis. /J o re no " 103 — —e- -& ?^ bis. - i fg ^ :^fc=j -g " gj bis. 55.

re - zzz mit - ted (fee. S g^^ftft to or' s'un bel - f ff fior m'ha qua cor si il - rg : to di.ed sins. Songs of Sundry Natures. 57. 103.U. N9 J ^ 2. 56. re-mit - ted &c m ^ - ^ God ed by- sinS. whose ed - "O- wick. fior di strut - ^^ g m'ha qua cor siil - di. ^ bel -d—^ s'un bel siil cor tk^ ^^ s'un orj m'ha qua fior ^=£ ^ S=P ^ m'ha fior • qua d cor si 11 - o- di. 10 Ex.strut &c. O. ted be. Palestrina. —o Right ^ blest are i 3i: they. bel fior. ^i=i- m'ha qua si il - ^m i cor strut di to <fec.strut to &c. ^ Right by God re mit - are blest &c. God re - mit - ted . God mit re ^ whose wick - ted by be. p. # by ^ N they.strut *EE -fit fio ^ fes orj ^ s'un tel J ^ to ^ s'un or' .. Mori quasi J il mio core g -^^^ i9- V-{^\k^ bel s'un fior.strut ^^ A - to Ex. Byrd. orj bel fior - qua m'ha si - cor il di. whose wick ed sins. m jO. whose wick ^ Right V blest are they.

to my * J * guide w=^r-f^ ^ to s^ ^ me make to ^ # -0 my stray JSZ guide __ guide to me make stray &c. . S stray. blind to stray. ^ be blind stray w^ make me stray&c m make me make to stray&c.11 Ibidem N? 16. to make stray&c. to me make. 3x: rTf=f my Idem guide make ^^^ make w^^ stray. to me make to.U. 103. ^^ ^^^ me _1 ^s ^ Ex. iW ¥^ ?z: ^ ^z^r==^ r-' re - re ost no - bis &c o re '*T7W. Four-part Mass.-^ N - re no - - bis &c m^ r=f^i^ bis O. P. m 3^E^ Blind ^^ ^ ^ more no be Blind no be to guide^ mj' ^ make Fi Blind my more no be guide _ make me to stray ^ ^m ^ a mv more be Blind y 2Z be blind 3 me ^t=r=f no more to stray. &c. -iSL^ stray. 58. Ex. 59. me ^ make my me guide no more be stray.

12 Ex. 61? Ex. Conceits and Vapours. Bugsuorthy. 62. 4 / B^=^ Ev - 'ry - bo ^^ - ^dys do ing- ^ Ev it. 60. 103. 63. "Down a Valley!' in Ex. - ing J it it . Ex. U. Wilbye. do J J- dy's do J ing- - 0. ^ J 'ry f - bo % ing - J it. do it. \pl^^f ^m m l» Sesquiquarta ^ Ex. ^ w m^- iS 1S^ -e- N9 10001. P. w=r=0 ^ : e w w a < * ! 3e: :S=3C Jl NO 10002.< .61. bo - dy's m Ev M P ^' do 'ry - bo - do dy's ing- ^ -I ^ - ing" Ev it. Super-tripartiens quartas. Ibidem.

Ui UKr^ ^=^ * &c.Palestrina. 69. j-^ J-J-^ ^ ^p ^ A i ?E £1 (Christ© Eleison). Palestrina. "I though* that Love'! ggr- :^^ r &c. g!3^:^=f^ ^^ ^-^ rf^ — ^^ KbJa^riffe -^ _Q_ 351 I). ^ 5t stiia ^^^^mmmm^ rrr tfff » d \ 5^ m V ^m r=^ 8=31: f^ £ T f &c- i2_ Ex. Idem^ "Have Mercy upon :^ f-^ + r iS- B>rd. '&c.72. U. 1 Ex. Ibidem. Ibidem. r <h Ex. Ex.67. p. ^^ Ex. » r 3 ?^ rr &c. 64. Ibidem. ^d-^jwa S Pe (7af/«. Assumpta est Maria^ (Kyrie I). i me'. ih^ ^T=T &c.71. ^ 3 5 ts Ex. Missa. SaS '^ 3i: s ^ J J " &c. Missa. Ibidem. Ibidem A s i -^ r f" ^ Ex. 103. 3^ » (&C. Wittorisi.66.Missa.' . (Benedictus). 5^^^^^ fe^ Ex. ^^1 o &c.— — Vi Ex. Ibit^em. (Ag^us Dei (^/ J^ 2^^ 3r: T 0.70. ^ f 1^ 22 Ex. 75. r f "^ ^>= Ex. ^jja7«^/a ^j^ Jlfar/a (Benedictus). 76. 65. 3a: :^ (Credo). Vent Creator. 68. ^ % iE Palestrina. O Ex. (Faulty progression). 74. 73. (Christe Eleison). ^ i^ ^JJJJ^ 3 F Ex.

&c. ^ JJ^^^ ^3 J: ^iAE& i^ "S-- Ex. 81. Ex. 88. M-issa Brevis (Gloria). i=r- -H- Ex. Missa. Aiie Regina (Sanctus) Se :&- Ex. Ps: Pen: J ^ II. Idem. 108. U. . Idem. «>" J &c.^^ J. Idem.83.'&^. SI ff &c. ^^ sa Iste Confessor^ Ex. Palestrina. SSI J J- ^ no: * ^ J Orlando Lasso. 82. i- 0.79. 78. 80. ^ Ex.77. — P fr ^ iEE3 &C. I). 85.JamChristusAstm A^nus Dei I). Ex. Ex. Palestrina. Wi. &c. f &c.sa de Feria (Sanctus). &c.^ " . 14 Ex. Idem. ^ r r ^ =§= .P. Missa.ss?i. 89. 87. 311 r 1===^^:^ ^ f ^J 331 r Ex. ^ (Vf m t^ ^—f— ^ ^ Idem. 86. Ex. Petra Sancta -^^ s -€»- Idem. i7/^j Sanctificatus t^- TC ^^^^=prp^^w^^+-ip^^^^^^^^ ^ ^^^^^^ Ex. f ^4 ^-~^ :»: -o- Ex. Gaudent in W\<s. Mis. A I is«-=- (Kyrie Coelis.

Palestrina. VI). Idem Magnificat ^^ ' -\ ! J ^ viii J. p. John Fanner. 97. Palestrina. original signature ^ ^^^^^^P WE^ T ^^ ^ ^E?EEE^ 1 3i: Ex. Da deafa Virgine (Gloria). signature (|)). Fer. Tollite jugutn (fairly slow time-. 93. Brumal. 94. Ex. Palestrina Lamentations. Missa.100. S^ ii Ex.J rv- g -J S- Yi s AS-- Yf=f^====f^ &c ^^ 2=©: F r r ifct * i- est. 3 ^ :5i O- fe= &c. =3= ifc Ex. 103. Ex. 95. U. signature C)1 . Byrd. S^*H^ ^ f Ex. 3^ 3^ -JSLZ—Z Ex. ^jg i ^ r- ^S (quick time. (Lectio I.— . i^ «^ P=f iEEizt tiSE^ fc pi ^d^ i^^ §^^ ^ i ^^^^^ Sr^ J:!=«: iiS ?^ Ex. Missa Brevis V 'Take Time whilst Time dolh lastV (Agnus Dei ^^^ ^£S ^^i^^f-^p i 5??^^P^ F^W :Jr :i &c «: ^^^^^f^ ^ i* 7y^~^«:" «^= &c &c. "I thought that Love' (quick time. 15 Ex. 98. J. Palestrina. Byrd. Lamentubatur Jacob. Idem. I).90. Morales. 99. 96.91. r *c. p. Toni . 92. 4-part madrigal. Ex. Sacerdotes Domini. ^^^ ^ ±=S= ({) A S J J=^^ * F? ^ 5 -part Mass. Hodie Christ us nat us Ex. ^ 0.

# ZTz^Jf.ff * that hear this Voice'. I i: :§: r J J &cj ! 3:4: vj Ex. Ex 105.112 ^±r-YT -JT^"^ T ^^^^^=^==f=:^ r Ex.111.103. Ex.Assumpfa te= ^^rr"' *Tf i ^L &c. -H- :«: ^ * 3i: 33: P. 3^i 3s: &c. Idem. de la Rue.102. Idem. . ."0 you P^ est Maria ^^ in Coelis.110. P. Ave Maria (Osanna). Missa.109. -» :«: 3r: (Osanna).113. Missa. 104. 16 >J J^ 3E I f^ f=f^ fn^ J^^^J f f i . xe: SE: p r^- Jj^ r :»: :«= err' r r O'- 0.115. Ex.35: r« O -mdst -f^ i Ex. Idem.jFj-i r Ex. — -«. Ornamental forms of resolution. 3£ ^ Ex.101. Palestrina^MisssLj Assum^ta est Maria..' t . U. Gandent i * far--^-^ ^^==^ &c. Sion. T^'4J Tollite ^ r^-^ jugum ^ ± ^ rrr^ Ex. :^ :«: ~cr :^^ &c. Lauda :J: ^ ' Ex.108.107.. (Harmonic skeleton) Ex. Palestrina. * M^ Ex 106.Lj-4- ^ Ex. Simplp form of resolution. Byrd. 'Eenedictus). f 3s: 3a: m r^ ± -O- ^ :«= o (l^)-s- &c =B=c 351 —o- t w jCEj >. Ex. 103. Ex.114. J ^ J J J f=P &C.

Eleison). 5.£1. Double suspension of the 3rd as a ^ chord.118. Byrd.Aeterna Christi Munera Ex. Missa. Guerrero. i?tf ^ca^a Double suspension of the 5th. Missa. Palestrina.P. I fM r rr f (Chris. ^^ J^ 3 f ^ F?r^/«fc' 1 322 (it)f &C. Assumpta est Maria iXgnxx^ Dei) (Treatment of the | chord as a Ex. Byrd. Missa ct'€ Feria.. Missa Papae Marcelli^ (Kyrie). Missa.124.117. Ex. ^ i m «: J J Ex.122. _ . &c. 119. Palestrina. 120. sa S * ^^ rf ^ 3i: Ex. Missa de /<?na.-_ Ex.128. Palestrina. Missa Erev^s (Agnus Dei II). followed by that of the 3rd as a ^ chord I). . Missa Brevis (Credo).o„) &c . Palestrina. Ex. is r r^ M=d=^ ^ 1 i ^':^^(Lp::ffro?v'?4^ifttho^dV(cVEt'l6) 1> <^. U. yiissa. J ^ -^^ i Ex.123. ^ &c.125. * i Ex. Si m 1 &c. o double suspension ). €H zss: ^ S ^ T '*r. 17 r-^-v Ex. Agnus Dei L Another instance from Palestrina. (Credo). nomine Jesu Cfiriste. Double suspension of the 4th(Christt. Another instance from Palestrina.. i s ^ r^ ^ ^^ ? J J ^^^ i JOE r ^ 33: -p- (Credo). Palestrina. I r g :^2Z 0. 103.e Elei. 126. ii. Jam Christus Astra Double suspension of the 6th as a ^ chord. Palestrina. (Kyrie Double suspension of the 6th. Another instance from Palestrina j-rr J Ex.116. I Ex.part Mass (Treatment of the | chord as a double suspension of the 6th).121. ^ n 5-par^ass ^^^^ &( te ?: ^ J &c.

fe^ &c.142. Regina ^ -m- Ex.140 sunt ci . (Christe Eleison). -XSL ^=^ est r. 18 Ex. Idem. Luca Marenzia..U. (an actual instance from A. *t ^^m 3! T 3E 3i: Ex. Ex.134. ^=w Ex. 103.137.139. - ^i T^ Assumpta ca - STlri rJ 3x: exceptional). Innocetdes ^ro Ckristo.&c.130. Duo Seraphim \. pec mun ta A ^ T rr i ^— i m a r ^ Maria (Kyrie I).4-^ ^ &c. "Leggiadretto ^ Clorinol' '•' " ti f ^^^ ^^i^=5 ^ — iS" /»- Ex. Idem. Si ? feg H^- Oi- ^=^=:^ WfTf ^ ^^ ^^ =g <» Tf iUA est Maria (Agnus Dei). Aichinger. Palestrina. i^^^^^^ K ^ &- Ex/141^ W J. Gabrieli. ^^ &c. -©33.132. p.(dii pec. ^ r-^'f-p s ' r ^ an 3s: Ex. Missa. Palestrina. Missa. =3: . Ave Regina Coelorum Ex. £ .136.143.si Ex. i ^ •~*Tr~ &c. >^ - —^^^— etc. . Si. Iste confessor (Gloria) * Q a T-r- &c. YTjrrri oc ?z=^ Tff: - ^ ft Ex.(Qui) tol il - lis Missa.ca.ta Ex.135. Coeli (Kyrie II) p. ^ -f^^^^ Ex.131. Palestrina. Missa. Missa.138. but quite Ex.129. Assumpta &C. cl amah ant Ex.133.—— . O. Orazio Vecchi.

i i ^''^^'rrrt Ex. Aichinger. p. J 33: . ^ * S &c. Vittoria.147. fer. Palestrina. Orlando Lasso. II di - con xi. Falestrina. Vittoria. XE f fi Ex.156.154. i XI 3f/jja z/m ro«/ (Gloria). 35 SS ^ i2. iftJJa ^r^v/j # S rf Z5SL fi Ex. &c. r &c Ex.144. S o 5» :§=«: rffffr &c. Lectio II. O Bone /esu. It 3. o o_ Ex. Pen.- hJ :§: f. fi - 3i: * . si Ex.153. »^. Idem. •o (Credo). bft ^ Ex. rssL T^:^ ^ =8^ r r r r Ex. Idem.152. * an ^ ^r "O" &c J St ^ Ex. 146. 150. O vos omnes. 149. ^ V.r^^\ T^ (tebor). Zauda anima mea. - l). Ex. I M^ §^t f con (di)-xi. <So.19 Ex.£> <b -m- ^ ' J&L -«- r^ ^^ ^ JtX &c. ^ J " r^ J r"''"'£rf (ki. f= &c Ps. &c. O Vos Omnes. 1 ^ 0. Palestrina. ft: 3s: r g 3s: jdc t>^'^ Ex. Salvator Mundi. - fi (tebor). U. Palestrina.145.155. (Credo). Lamentations (Lectio Ex. A Gabrieli. Orlando Lasso. Lamentations. Missa Brevis (Agnus Dei) &c.148.151. af -J3i lS^ i &c. iftJJa/'/-oZ?e/««c//f Ibidem.

rr «^ Kyrie eleison.Missa. t* 3E rJ r. ^ ^ 3i: I I r^ - IE ^ f it ^ s: m-^-m.U. I. ( O J ^ o i> rj /v jg—77- ^ XE fCtftr' F=^ ^ rj ]^' -o- ^ ^ A 331 - J lWzJ g J / " o JCff 30: P ^ P -&- 31: 3n: LE —m f f ffT I ?? - J rJ a l>J J ^P^^=^^^ I I ^ 4v S r «- ©O- (S»- r ?c^ Si -©- IE <y itu ^W U g > r^ ^ O.P. Tenor ^ i. 55=: -© fi^ -^ /V ?7 » |:^ rj JJ..Ex. a ax: u 3x: P /v Kyrie eleison. 103. - C -& fi>- . ^^ Bassus. y*. Kyrie eleison. «i Si Kyrie eleison. I Altus.) Kyrie eleison. Tenor E ii. Petra Sancta (Kyrie ^ Cantus. Palestrina.157.

^7550 Vvocum. :«: -"p" ^ Magnum Ex.. ^ m n=a mfrnT-J w-n*-r" n*' g jCE &c. ff -«- E fe «: ZSSL ^ 9 ^^ tv § -»- p- i> #^-* :«: r^ «: o «: «: ^g P ^. ^ -€• (1 _ ^^ ^ 35: . 103.U. Marenzio. I IW: haereditatis mysterium. 158.' Tfl' . Giaches de Wert.21 ^ ^m g* ri < ^^^S ^ =^^ '^ ' ^ -^-^ ^ * ffi)^ J i^ -iS>-=- DCE #-y 3r: f «: a rj :ce= Q g 35: i (C -©- XL (i) -©- ^ J pr i JJJ J (^)^ I igi^^ ti ( — (t.159.P."Chi saiira per &C t> ^at-^ tl XE O. Orlando Lasso. « ^ ^ Ex. 160. P r^ f t::t Ex. f "'r me'.

) -jO. MarenziO} Mistf Rex Ministros.) ^ ^ — "PT ri II.) ^ Ex.— « ^ r 22 Ex. ^ (Subject in alto. 103.163..) -0—5^ g -©-= I* jTjJ-J^lv*. Nos aute m gloriari. zc Ex. {Christe eleison) (Answer by alto.) (Subject in bass. Hassler.) i ZSSL ^ ** ^ l|4|i 3s: Sacrum Convivium.) Ex. In Die Tribulafionts.) ig -o-^ ^ 32 W=W S ^^ ^ (Answer by ^ alto.164. (Answer by contratenor. Soriano.J [-ff | l . O.) (Subject in tenor. Orlando Lasso.) s rj « -^-= p- alto. ^ L i^Jio (Answer by ^ ^P o — (Answer by tenor. ^ E X. Trahe me post (Subject in cantus I ^11. (Answer by Bassus I. Missa. 166. Missa.U.) ^ (Answer by cantus. . Tallis.) ~m—w a JZ (Answer by tenor.162.) J -^^ Ex.) m 4|| P=^ i* . {Kyrie) (Answer by tenor (Entry of Subject in bass.) II.P.Vittoria.) ^ jCC te. Missa. S (Answer by bass. Tallis.) (Subect in alto.) fL.161. (Answer by (Subject in cantus. J | rJ ^ JJJ I I JJ ^ bass. Derelinquit impius. Missa Tertia w ¥ TT IV ^^ Vocum. Ex.167.I 65. (Answer by 31: (Answer by Bassus tenor.) » J^4j>j> -o-4.) ^ ^.

) Sanctus.U P. Sanctus. (Kyrie J &c.103. % S ALTUS. Idem. O * ?7 F?2=# KZ e:±32 ^^ s ^ DEE &c. 3 . 1 i 5^ ^ &c.) Kyrie eleison. 311 II. Missa de Ferta. Missa. Q S — Tenor. 168i Palestrina. Kyrie eleison. O tT - — *^ «- Sanctus. -«- -»- ^j-- r r ^ -©- '^ f^ ^ Ex.* 23 Ex. Veni Sponsa Christi. m (b)fv P rv zz: O ^ O. ^ XE I 3CE &c Kyrie eleison. (Sanctus. ^ f4fe -tS^ ^F^^ Sanctus. -e cr ^^ ? &( Kyrie eleison. i^ * Bassus. J _ K Cantus. ^P^=^ i: -3SL \ ^^ ^^ ^ J ^ P ^ &C. 169.

&c Bassus. Ibidem (the same entries inverted at the Cantus ^=^ by altus and bassus) 12*2" i Tl=^ ^^ -jSI &c./^ Cum Jucunditate. ^ ^^ »=^ Ex.171. . ^ " o e «: &C ALTUS. p^ ** o -Q G- P m ^ ^ TSL &c. Altus. ^ ^ E W=m. Cantus. Marenzio. «=^ ^g ¥=* ' J & Tenor. . * & Tenor.P. Tremuit. ^^ > 0.24 P a.103.U.172.lestrinsiy Terra Ex. Cantus. r r^ Itf^ &c Altus.170. Bassus. ^3| «: ^«^^ f> -e- iS>- xx: ^ Ex. 3f -o- r * J -o- &c.

Idem. $ t> < *J J i> ^ ^^ g) &c. (inversion at the ^ J • * ziz^ /.173. Tenor.P. f^^ n a HE -e- 1^^ O.r &c. . Altus. V Ex. Bassus. ^ i f f Tenor. Bassus. ALTUS.~m W - at the l2tJ>. fe # ? ^ r.F A 25 Ex. s ^^ ^ g* ( # g— P i i> e o &c.174. Te Deum Patrem. ^^ iS*- r ilJ- J "N ^ p (J • m gi ii 1 ^^ ^^ -o- &c. Ibidem. m m . ^' I-' j. ^ ^ij rr .changing to the P # 33: ^^ r 8*3^) &c. 103. (the same entries inverted by cantus and tenor Cantus y.U. lOt^j changing to the 8*?) Cantus.

at the 9*^ changing.and A. . [> -»- :3s: "f^Tf ^J r [g r.176. T and Inversion by C.g f 2Q tX.P. ^ y^ (Subject in Cantits. ^^ Z3j 77-«- 3x: ^^ » ' /J' <! tf ^ *'" (p. Jf m ^ TJ O. g»^' -=-]» i O Mt iS^-^ ^ *J^^ &c Bassus. Princeps gloriosissime. ^ DCE .IOS. 3sr /s/e est Joannes.175< Idem. Triple Counterpoint. Tenor.U. i # ^^ z2: :^-cr- T> — ^ ^ —^'-r— ^^ £ 3: t:* 3CC ^ J w=^ ^m ^ §i ^ zaz :ss: W p gy. •J &c. ^^ ^ Et«t Ex. Idem. ^'' &c.to the 8** B)j ^ Altus.

27

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A

C

B

C

D

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Sweelinck, "Poi che non volete" (Answer by inversion)

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O.U. P.103.

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Ex.178. Marenzio, Te Deum Patrem (Answer by inversion)
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f

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(Answer by inversion in two parts)
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Ex.180. Palestrina,

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ad Fug-am (Kyrie)
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29

Ex.183. Paiestrina, Missa Brevis.

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Agnus Dei

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in one at the unison.
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f.80 Ex. Sacerdotes Domini Pleni Sunt Coeli &c. r o 4=4- . zz: ^^ £ ri-^ r rf^ tip 3=Z2 t> lA ^ -s*-^ r^ i it± 77 |g 3a: / r i 31: cr ^ ^ -€^ >v ^^ - ^=22 ^ —»- ^ r g P ffl . Missa. 184. 103.U. (Sanctus) J o * ^ Pleni Sunt Coeli &c.P. Palestrina. -©- '^•" ri" i *N y #-"-« r ^ ^ ia #=F W^ i> an rj £ i is^-w ry |5^ rv /J ^ ^ P - -T V (Of*' | ^# 32: o i ^ ffl « ^ » r^ 1^ ^ i"^» 351 i ? ^ xe: g g=i::±=2Z -«- |[^-^ g ^ «—o- l l^-^ ^^=^ • fl ) -«(> (^' •^ O.' m jcrrr Pleni Sunt Coeli &c. f. o P ~?g- /v i> Q.» ri o ** re J ^ '' f m P Z2ZZ2Z r e=3CC >.

186. Diliges Dominum Deum.g 31 Ex. r^ go IE X5 g 3E f? CI 3 zzzxs: *> 3 Sl^ f rc ^ r l9 — O.1O8 f? ct- i# #f ~: r^ ^ i 4> o •w 3CC /d *> t 3E zzuzz 15 X>"" -©- f foo ^ 1^ ^ ^^ ^ 3 i ^ J J azza g t rJ a 22 o ' ^^ g* . Byrd. -e Ks [' fi- X51 r. X51 ^ ^? JC£. rj rz—is. in Four. in 5 35: f- ^^m Si «> < fe^ 35r s ^^ ^^ > *> 77~7g m: -xr ^^ an » ©- ^^^ f o rJ XE ^5>— -e- g ( /v rj rj /rJ zss.P.U. per Recte et Reiro. ^ *> m ^? i -4S» Ex. f a o measures).185. Canon Eight ^ J > " tf. Ibidem ^ u i9-<^ rJ^ i> -^' IE I rj r ^ ZZIZZ J i> zzzzz f v /j ^ Si i^ n yj -o- —O- 3a: cr 3 —^r -23 jv t> : . IE -e- 3 K\ rj cr XT ZZZTE C C 33: 6 tt rJ (the last six XE -O- ^ i5HS^ -o- -©- TJ" ^^-^-f^ I.

ro XE -©- in ae - nam. 3t Ve Bassus. - nam. SpQii - sa w g ( • P ^ j> 3s: 35: ^ * g ^=iffi Chris 15 •^ i> M: « P f^ # ( 9 p ^ o- ^ g) -o^ *> P ^=zi "^^m '^'^ ?Z=^ JJ ** «: O. m > Spon sa Chris -»- :«: ic Ve ni. Palestrina. Ve Spon ni.P.190. i* o *^ 19- iS> JCC Ex.192. ^^ ^ 10 ¥.189. Ex. - \> t> quam ti - ^y^-TT^O sa Chris do bi - mi pa prae nus - ra - ^^e- i\- vit ©- -o Co pe. *> p 9^ xs: j n^ -©- fi ^^m -©ni. fe ci - 35: <> - Ac ti. - sa ni. 32 Ex. V Spon - sa 4 d d rJ- m^ Chris b. Vent Sponsa Christi f 5E Cantas.. 3i: Ve Spon ni. f m^ \ ? 6- «> Ve ' f^ x^ Chris * Altus.U. &- -O ter - Ex. ^ Ex.187. - **' J J J rj ^—xr : — r??- A a ^ 13. Motet. \ Tenor. o ^ .191.138. <\ Ex. 108.

ci-pe ^ 25 iL g I << » * r^ <6 ri Q o *> *V fJ g ^=22 ^ —ifj—g- t -©- o— g^ g.J 20 i . rj -e- F \ i> m. -©- P A ^ r^ nam 1 ^ ? 3 ^ 30 =M: 3-f?.P P Ac ^ < ! o jj ^ P ^ ^ Ac a ci-pe CO ^H J ro ci - ^ pe ^ CO ~rr i> ^ nam i ^ - F=^ XSI - ^ - Ac rv ci. 103.pe CO '^ r ? r: ¥ g Ac.mi ^^ ¥ JCC - nus ^ :«= Do-mi-nus /v » P^^ H«=^ r^ j ^ ti-bi Do -mi -« 3x: 6 G- «: ^ Quam O. P. f^ ig ^ _o_ p i 3^ I -o- 35 r^ o €> '" fi P mf -© '^ d a t :«: ^ i ff ^^ ©- « J d: o g m -e- > i 40 ^ t=L I o o o Quamti-bi t> g Quam ^ * p p Quam ti ^—1^ ZZ - bi P Do. ti - bi .U.^ ^ ^ 3lS1 z'.

U.ra-vit - a a m ^^ ^ r=^ f prae ^Y i xjtzzzjzznsi fJ « <9 t=t g /y ^ m 65 ^ g^-TJ 3E O ^^ =S= ^ -w ^ XE 22=52 XE •S^ 0. o- :t=t: .P.34 45 J ^e i fc ji ~N I # ff ? M O' o fg ^ rg-rr ^ ±± *=^ zz=^ P^ - ? jsn ^ Do-mi-nus ^ sL Z2=5=X 2x: prae <y td ^ 50 — t O" - pa 3 3E f 5s: in ae ter ^ ^^s — e ^ 55 O fc ^ W=^ (V ^ gl ^ 1"- \ m g g - pa -©- ^^ - ae ra-vit in 60 3x: XE ^i Tn ter ra -vit in &-& num ^ rJ g} rJ d XE ^-6>- 1 IE (V S ^-^ i - —^ ^- pa ^^ f2^—# « ae-ter O - TSL - 3x: num prae I J XE prae fi num Ji> ffrr ^ o - I ae-ter in ra-vit zx- pa.108.

Palestrina. X5 su-per hanc pe tram - 3E Sextus. - Pe es Pe es Bt trus. ^. II. Cantus.di-fi-ca 2=?z: § - bo ec-cle O.U. Cantus. a P su-per tram.Et ?7-1» 15 ya pe tram ^ :?z: i j2- ae. d^ ALTUS. -e Tu S 7-^ m su-per hanc W I pe — -e>- tram ©- trus. Petrus ^ J. ^ 10 s _ p su-per hanc ^ ft ^ 351 su-per hanc Et 3 Tu Pe es trus. P. I'm es -osu-per hanc Et pe SEE^ -e- Tu Tenor. 1^^^ "Jjj^ .193. (baritone) '^- Bassus.Et su-per hanc pe su-per hanc Et E^ -^- 331 tram - g^ w^w^ g (H'd~^^ l ^ Tu es m ^ Tu es Pe Pe - - trus. Pe es Et trus. I* iw w (first section).35 Ex. trus.103. su-per hanc Et m Et pe S^ XE ^g^ tram ae i o di-fi-ca - dj g i # fdiJahi^t:^ tram ae pe - tram iH* bo ec-cle o c o ^—G—G-^ di-fi- ca bo ec-cle fj n m <y di-fi. Tu. Motet.ca si - ftFlt bo ec-cle —351""= ^ IS t 3CE am jj-j^- :ti: -ope m pe tram ^' ^^ ^ hanc 3s: su-per hanc.

di-fi cle - ii 3n: ec - cle - -o^ si - si- am 33: si 1^ bo ec-cle- & «= ^^? ^-&- bo - ^ y-g ^ m di t-^ 'T bo- bo - o p^ 311 - - ca - T5- cle ^ > di :^ s I ca M bo ec - di.fi - 3a: - di ae.36 ^s ^ TSr 3S1 bo ec cle am f xx: g rj fi ca ae .fi ca ZZ! ^ JtE bo ec - am me am cle cle «^-g ae ca fi di .si-am cle SI - am ec - ae.di-fi =P= cle xx: - ca - si-am me - am ec-cle bo ec-cle.si si - - fi .fi- am me F=^ bo ec - xn ae - fi ii iv 3s: g g p p TSl.U.P.di- ca fi - ca di .ca ZSSl am me W- P am - w- :& "JSSl de .fi ^ am g a ae ^^ Zi bo ec n - rj ae.di . am (P rj zx: me S- am 0.103 ag tii ^ :t=t .

r«a C/irx5/x if««e^ra. S: i ^ de 3s: %f M _ ^^ Melody - i> z: '^t?/«. (from the bass part of "Gia piansi'. Palestrina.195. Palestrina Bo i ^^w ne - Je y^ J^ a i^ mis / - o 3X . Kyne. -e- « ^^ o o pre o - - xx: :§=^ n H ti-o-sis SI i i ^ J «: ^11 r^ loca i\t j tX.Ex. rJ rJ fi Sanctus. no re ^&- Ex. t/g in J jcs: ^ S tu ti ^^ <> fT^ re - tu J.»Ardo per Ex.198. i\ - mm £k. &c.' Ex. ¥ " ri rJ O O \ mo. >Jo gbj ifit 3s. "Ardita Zanzaretta" te'. .197.lbD^ Melody j m Credo. ^ Ex. Gesualdo. - - 3S1 -eei 'y- 87 Bone Jesu. Missa.196. -&^ rr ff .195(' „ . *= ss: XE S: <^ m tj^c.194. in as - :«: San-g^ui. —©- I 33: Tvr> ^ Melody re - o fff «=§: :§^ nos ti ere " -« iJiO« tu Fg=iff I—" r ^'' qui bis I S e- ^ iiH <K se " — m -o Mi su. 35: Ex.U.ne 55?: .1959 Melody I t9-p-i^ 1^^ in I r JJ-U:J Agnus Dei ZSL II. -' . Idem..') O.1959 Melody ^ 31: in Agnus Dei o ^^yg Ex. Idem. ^ 35: J J Ex. 103. F.

J- ^ (H ^^m %^^## ^S m s^ 3i: &c. Orlando Lasso.tfeou says't'.^r 3S £x. on. sweet wi 1Z~ T r (but » ^^g ? k i Iff f te - shes J. shall all — thee)&c fail J^^ T^r^ ^ 1 Ex.' si alto pon g^ir. Sweet Night!' 3 ja_- ?^ draw on sweet nig-ht " pec nig'ht 3x: <'- Draw. best E QZ friend un 1^— on sweet nig'ht. Ss: Draw. friend - IT 5 to those nig'ht. "se son'. T5 un to those .202. 200. -^ T on.P. Wilbye. Idem.203. Wilbye. Madrigal.199. ^P 3^ r^ i i thou shalt wish all i shall Draw.' s en: r ^ r r thee) and fail I I p f n And thou Shalt wish (but wishes &C. '-'Draw ' $ £t tL^ii^^j!^^. "Hor qui Ex. Ex.103."Hora per "Thou far. ^E^ sweet —w~ -g^ on sweet nig'ht. Ex. best ^S ^ 0." — r &c.4 S ^^ P ^=wiMZjE art but young.201.U.

draw on sweet -o draw cares. S ^ Draw 20 .best to -V un 73 to those ^^3 JJt=^J=#i:^ 1^ oa sweet friend night. on — i S^ ^ t -&^ draw ^P friend best S & friend un to those 5 — * -TJ'. — That P^ to ^ trxr those I That cares. to sweet night.U. un to those a - .103.— —— — — 39 15 10 15 m -zj draw -zr- best draw draw on sweet nig-ht ^ wm^ f^ if on sweet niffht. a do ^r -s?- - pe^ sr- to those O.best fc^ Draw un J ^W ^ friend —C XT on sweet night i those cares. IJTcares.ti. those That do ~~o cares ^^ cares. ^^ jCE friend un best do to f a -* on sweet night. - «« on sweet nig-htjbest friend un - <5i those to cares. best friend un from ^ 3 m P W^ rise from rise - + pain - fui ^ ^^^^ pain - ful me-lan-cho f those best friend night.P.

U. •if want of com-fort fares. ^ My My life life so so ill throug'h want of comfort 22 cho Ian ill - cho - ^ ^^ My so life 35: fares. My life ^ My ly. Ian cho - ly. so life so i»- ' ly. 35: throug'h nS 7 cho - s)- ^^ ^ - Ian 35 ^ I - ssc 30 - me XSu 3s: me Ian -©- cares.— — 40 ^ 25 ^^ o' me - ^ * zr lan-cho from ly rJ r} —rsJ - «^ «» pain - pain from ly. me ful - me ful - 3s: ^^ from pain -rr Ian - cho w ^^ - a rise. life - e>-^ p me ful -e^ tr- i me S - ful gl ful - from pain do 3s: y pam from ':z^ m - ^ rise - so 1 .P. z? lan-cho ^ ly. That M W=g- that a do - 2? from rise pain ful «i 6*- That do a — Ian - from rise pain me ful cho - ly. My 0.103.

103.to f m 9 ill - ^ That un I un That fares.that un - to 87 I Jt. i that un to - thee I ^^m ^^ ^ S ^ ill That un 5#— - to m m m fares. to thee That it whol .U. That O. that un-to whol ly. That un - to ^^ un whol I se-crate con ly 0it f^JT ^' ' wholly. aE crate whol it That ly. P.to * * thee.That un - to thee I ^^ crate to thee to - thee con se - thee - crate ^m con gm it 35: it whol-ly €• 3 I - con-se ^ 45 con-se -crate con thee 331 through want of comfort i^ - thee. p J J- i tff^ through want of comfort i faresT" "m ^ to - thee to thee.to A .# — # 41 i ^ E ill 31: want of comfort throug:h ^^ ^ 40 w-f- through want of comfort I ill F thee.|» thee I con-se That un — c^=¥ fares. ^ i^^ thee I con - se ^ itaf - se -crate it crate it whol ly. un - se - crate m to thee.That un. I it whol That ly.

205.204.se-crate thee to &C.joice re-joice '>= -rr Rest!' m re-joice re << Thy g joice re m m into * J Re -joice !>" H 3s: Ex. &c.se-crate I night draw Sweet XE ^ m ^^^ i ly: - 330 32: ^whol - it ly. re-joice r 35: F=^ re-joice re-joice re ? f^ ? H J (re). fe ^ :s= XE i'. . ly: con.- it m -= I > * r r I con —& night draw w wholly: Sweet night draw on iS>- p se-crate - it ^ wholly: Sweet ly: - Sweet s W- con. Idem. Sacerdotes Domini. Byrd.103. ^^ re f ^ joice. i f se-crate whol it ^^ ^ I con. ^ &( let &c. "Arise Lord !>" u -o 3 m '"^t: &c ^ ll' i^i-'- l9 <5^ and iM i &c.U. #— let jEZC ?^ and let the saints re(joice and 0.— ^^ ^ — ^^ pi r un - to thee - coa I 50 ^^ J. I J <^ ? f f k'' <^ (re)- r - joice * re-joice 22: joice re-joice re ^^j J —by joice re-joice - joice J- f &c. Ex.F.and J) fg let &c i g &c.se crate - — i —a un That to thee - un - to thee whol it m -9 whol ly.

213. &c.a (3 J' asr rest - J^ S ^E$E flats. (Agnus Dei).103.wTKT zzz: fj rj rr 'VX'' Ex.*r/ ' Ex. -=g=:ijg ftfrv arnica mea. Missa. "Come.206.U. a &c. Missa Corona Spinea (Pleni Sunt Coeli 3a: ^ -©^ 6^ O *^- 1^.210. woeful Orpheusf \> J rJ- i'j 7 s=^ ZJK. i5-^ r? g 4=i ^ ^i» i ^^ ly*v I make flats make choice choice.1 - g^^^i iM-^ p -»^ i3a: m j^ I fca fe ^^ <g &I 3s: -fs- 0. *> ^=m ±d I I .212. To/a ptilcra /?S=Zi ZL 5» es. Ex. un and u Iff" un li\>J i a=22 i£ and \ 3. ^ SS P^P^ ^^ ^^ :?2: ? 35 =g=^^ -©. a fji T &ig. Taverner. Tye. Gloria tibi Trinitas (Gloria). n a f^ ^^^ ''• a a fj : Ex. Idem.^. ^' ^ Misereatur. s — -« -^^iJjjJ^^I^STfrr (S^ 1'-" r° 1 Ex. (Contratenor) v^oniraienoD (Tenor) vienorj * V Ex. Z?^7^s r) 4 F=^= ^ ^ &c. Whyte.211.43 ^ Ex.207. 209. m : i 1 sharps T couth - i couth - ^-^ ^i^ J p.3s: . Idem. ^H-» — I z? 1 1 ^Z7 J i^^ p &c.P. 77-77 — I^ .208. -vr W^-i'Jf^ sou of J ^ -J U i^ S U I ^^ - f. 1— ZZIEilZfcZZ 351 Ex. Amavit. Ibidem. ^ o . Idem.

I fe^ ^^ Wilbye.221. JT]\j}^^ J."Come Shepherd Swains!' I B^ P IE t . Whyte.U."The Silver Swan'. 216.Gibbons. Idem. ^ j J J r rr r f^ . 225. Four-Part Mass. Aspice Domine (Cf.44 Ex. ^ jrp '&c. Si vL ^y r <> 3ce: ^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^ Ex. Byrd. r 'A_ ii that Age!' ^ ^ l>. ^^^ rJ^tr M^ s^ w^ Ex. 214.P."Florag-ave te i O.219."Love me ' P' i^ fj* i^ I r r r I not for Comely grace'. is Ibidem."Crowned with t:^-^ &c. Laetentur.Ex. (Sanctus).\ JOl. Ex.' Ex. ^^^P &c. Ex.' r ^ ^ 'HI}} I Ex. Idem . Eug-e m Bone {Gloria) Ex. "All as a Sea!' i r i« I&C . Byrd. Fairest Flowers!' P^^ N. 4V if is our Life?" J.c. I <^rPi^ rpir ih\{ \\\^. 215. Idem.' 4^^^r &G. Tye. V'i. "Sing: ye to our Lord'.217..222.244).i'<b- me y=^ f &c.jj=l^ IS 5 ^ ^^^ ^^p^ ^ i^ ^^^E^^ ^ J *> XE ^ o = . "Yet '"rrF &c."What 3^ &c.B. ^Lt^ J „ 7J J Ex.J ^^ ^^ J ^\>i^ } tr S^ "XT ¥^ Flowers'. J ^ Ex. 2^S.IOS. v. Gibbons.' | J ^r J :§: -©- Ex. ^ Ex. f Ex. Wilbye. Missa. Byrd.226.227. Wilbye.224.] u j . Ex. 223.220.

Gibbons. Idem. 229. 230. 239. 7—-=g r^r &c. Ex. Ibidem. Ex. r^cfF^ ^ . 233.235. 232. P Ex.r 45 Ex. ^ 4- ^^^ T f^P^T r ^ J J XE f^=P i^ r ff" ^ &c. Byrd. <'0 Praise God II) ^ &c.103. Ex.231. 238."There where ir ^ ^ J P rr ?^^^ Ex. (Gloria). r — Ex. Byrd. "Christ i i^i^i A ^g{ *'.237. i P r 33: 35: t^ r in his holiness. Euge Bone.P. ^ ^il- ^ rr J 3s: J-J r J J r r 3v: r r 5 ^ P^^ i Ex. ^1 ffp ?^ 31^ J ^ J ^E ^ Risen A-ain!' (Part is ^-^' J f &( ^ 2231 Ex. Ex. Whyte. Ibidem. 234. Deus Misereatur. Tye. I 35: xsc ^ ^^ &c.236. Missa. whyte.U. i r ^ Incorrect resolutions. saw. Tallis. 240. Aspice Domine. "Lord in nJ J J Ex. "Dainty Fine Bird!' Thy wrath ^ f J--^ ^ zl *• F 0. Byrd.' ± 5fe^ ff^^ #S 3s: ^^ Ex.' ^=i^ I ^^ I. Mass (Benedictus).228. -»1» ^ Ex.

Byrd.241. Missa.IOB. fctte mM PE -ar Fer I. Sacerdotes Domini. 250. p <T\ III. 245. 242. ^-^pH i Ex. 246.$ T Ex. 248. frf." . Byrd/'But not too soon!' m rm^ r^ AuUU s ^"=='T=T=r^=^ ^^ J J ^ jJ . J-fJ JJ J. 243."Chrish is ^ ^ ^T-ttHi n . Lamentations Bk. TalUs. ^m r tl ^ ^^ -e- ^ p 9ZIISE: r i^ 3E^ ii 3te tz5 * # o ^W rTf art ^ ^ Ex. Byrd. Ex. Quoted by Morley IW r from Taverner.244. Ibidem. Missa.r Ex. rS -e»- » -i Si- Ex.249. f i ^ i ^^ =F^^ rrr rff -» 'J Zr^=f Z&c S F=^ ^ t. Lectio ia ^ ^ J. i& 3S <> I r <» flFrf^ Jf^^ ^ ^ ^^ ffi^^^-r-p'r^ ^ ^ Ex. Euge Bone (Credo) Risen Ag-ain. i J^ j ^ ^^p m s ki^ 3e: k"<^ I r° » o .>'i * ^ Y^ :^ ^® ^ 8 J J ^ T ^ M: f— Palestrina. Gloria tibi Trinitas (Osanna) ^ . Taverner."Mine eyes with Fervency. Byrd. Tye.P. :.I.^ :«= ^irTirtMm i=^ f^f^Mf ]^f ^^ £ ^ ft O. V N ' \> < '. Ex. i^ a: * 4=U q=t: :i=t- r" Ex. 247. Lamentations. N.U. Lectio * Ex. r^d-^ i-'-'^r >f^ r t* ^- .

iffo- -g^- -ir«f ly - li. ^^ -w- "Come woeful Ex. » (^W --r. Weelkes. 258.ard ne ^ If ^r If wo-men could be fair and M ne fond.257. 259.J ?z: (Wilt) thou &c. sting L_ so ^ ^ S — n^— i -^^ i? !l ] Ex.108. ^ ^^3 IZiZZHS r ss^ tui. if - ver fj ^ and ne fond.255. Idem/'Behold how good a i ^ P thing- Ex. thou wilt despatch me." ¥^r^ I J J ^ FPi^f^=^ ^ 1- Ex. 252. Idem. ver f—p wo-men could be gl--^-^^ wo-men could be - and . St fe=^ ii-4 Tallis. XE 7i ^=S1 ' ^P wo -men could be If — &c. ^ Women dead tc fair: ^>-- ^eU— ALTUS.F. Idem.r O ¥^rf^ ^ 1 &( r Ex.^* i ^-^4ft me.' J J W=^=G^ \f--rf-fr 1T= &c. 4 part Mass.''0 care. f Ex. ^ fJ and fair ^^ ^ g-^ ^ wo men could be fair ^^m "N wo -men could be :i:- If Bassus.— 47 Ex. 256. I^ &c. 251. Lamentations." „ B jrz-fxi » ^^P h. Byrd. SEE^S * grzzx t'lfr &c. s &c. ^^ Tenor.253. Idem/'O That most rare ^ ±Ei^~ f= p^ s Ex. Byrd. ^ He. ^ im- If Bassus."Blessed is Ex. J ^> ^ ^i" ^J. 254. Civitas Sancti I." J 'i^^f"=jf^ Orpheus'. "If Cantus. ver - fj 0.U.d. breast. ?^^ Bf^ 1^ ^ F !*• . Byrd. fair and ne - ver for. P ^+|-^ could be J and ne-ver iond.

down? 1. J)^'. 1 fXTT. "Whither E Cantus.P. run mock me. . or ^^ else what. m XS2 > ne ver - X5Z ^ —o- or that their beau. away so the while) f> % lack ^^ -m • so? a lack ta - ^ the the ken.IJ j =^ pret-ty maid. -cr - ta ken. - a -„ -vef.103. you. down? fair then well maid. - ver - ta ken. ^ -o^ —ce- ty might 35: 721 fond._^ 3^ you mean see I say 1 mean ^ t'-tt'^ t-^^ ^' — ^ run you see I m ^ — well Altus. are what. 260. are you you you £eeS^S down? ^S W^ whilej what. to - -t^ ken? - ?" S g^iiil (for)-sa else fast f-J^—=^ well Canttts. go " ty might con stui con-ti-nue &c. 3-part canzonets. Ex. 33: ti-nue - still &c. I S II nean you see I -' well J ^ s I catch what. 1 do halt? ^ 0 m- you so? a ^m S you. I are catch I zm. what. ^ i ^ you halt? P else to "• . you do halt? or ^^ lack r> T run r a you so? do or W^ mock me. well o -ver 0. still #=f%^ ty might con that their beau or might con-ti . well. O l< - 3s: nue ti- still &c. N?7. ri^. pret-ty maid.U.# M M ^^^ J and ne fair ne - - ver f ondjor that their beau o- ^ -« jo: ty might con - - |S^ ne - ti - nue ver nue - still fond. :M3 m you. to f- mock me. Morley. 5=35: that their teau or fond. you 5 catch ^ you whilej what.nue still. ^ -e- that their bean or ti-nue - &c. i ^ fair and con-ti still.ty might con fond.

Sops i^i=^ ? dea in g^ Sops Spice cake. cake.U. Sops_ in wine Spice ling-. then. 261. dea. I ^j run ^^ N r then a run. Spice ing-.103. in wine. ling-. are ^ ^^ a - pace. ling-. pace. Ibidem. 35: ¥^^ ^ ling-. ^ ^ ^ wine in fc5=T=:J Run are t ^ F^=?^ Run.^ 49 Ex. run ^ ^^^ ^ then. O- pace 0. Cake. ling-. Spice Cake.Sops Fine.' J 1 get up my dear. a -pace. a £ a pace. a are dea a are - ling". Spice ig now a dea ^ i Fine. a run a - - pace. run i ling-.Sops_ ^ ^ are deal Tenor. Run Then. Sops in A'ine ^ £^^^ Sops wm^ a dea. a and =_ then and g-et a ^^ W- get get. and get a bride lace 1 1 . wine wine. Sops in wine.i'. <s 22 pace then. Sops Spice in wine. \ ing". ii^zg^ ^^^ Sops in wine^ Sops ^ run. ^^P run then. Run mm a -pace. Sops_ in wine Up ALTTJP.' ^^^ 3 ^ are now Spice Cake. fe p^^'^ - ^ pace ^ ^ a -pace. ^ Spice cake.P.Sops in in wine. ^^3 ^wine wine. in y ^-^ f Sops in i ^m ^' ^ ^ ' Sops_ Spice cake. run a - a dea Run pace. "Arise \. =^ ^ J deal ^^ run a - run pace. Camtus I N9 20. wine are dea in - ^ 5 w— J IE Spice cakes are cake ^ in wine. a bride lae<? P bride. * \ Cake. Run J *> then.

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ALTHAM. MASS.0'^.M ^^ G' OOT ^5£P 2-^1^fi1 1974 6 ^T 15 iS-ftJr A/»vi wov S^P A ^ AM AM 8 8 OCT 5 AM AM OCT 7 Jcr -M^>M Xft^ c:fi'P ir OCT OCT OCT ll OCT i4 '^^ /^ Library Bureau Cat. 1137 fLLS BmOERY W.Date Due SEP. . 4. EP ML 2 3 OCT I $ aM n 1 --^ Q^^^. No.

0. R.3 5002 00396 6129 Morns. Contrapuntal technique in the sixteenth .