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ANSYS WB 14 in correlation to experimental

investigations

Schmailzl Anton, Amann Thomas, Glockner Markus, Fadanelli Martin,

Prof. Dr.- Ing. Marcus Wagner: Head of FEM- Laboratory

Prof. Dr. Ing. Stefan Hierl: Head of LMP- Laboratory

UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SCIENCES Regensburg

Regensburg, Germany

Summary

Joining thermoplastic requisitions is a popular technique to build sophisticated plastic applications.

Therefore the laser-transmission welding process is used to join thermoplastic polymers in visible

regions. The clamping force in this case plays a decisive role when it comes to the weld quality.

Simulating the clamping pressure with finite element techniques is therefore highly attractive to

understand the principal of the process. Thermoplastic polymers under tensile load often show a brittle

behavior coupled with softening. Simulating such materials is quite difficult for fem programs. In this

case a finite element study of the tensile test in LS- DYNA and ANSYS Wb 14 with respect to the

material models was analysed. The experimental data get validated in comparison with the FEM

solution for a tensile test. The material models and the problems in simulating softening behavior for

thermoplastic polymers were discussed.

Keywords

thermoplastics, plastics, nonlinear material, material modeling, LS-Dyna, ANSYS, ABS, softening,

NLISO, MAT 24, laser transmission welding

30th CADFEM Users Meeting 2012

October 24-26 , 2012 Kongress Palais Kassel

Motivation

In nearly every kind of technical requisition thermoplastic polymers are involved. To leave out the

requirements for traditional manufacturing techniques for polymers, joning processes for thermoplastic

parts are attractive. Welding techniques for polymers are well known, but if the requirements of welds

are higher ordered such as non visible or serried welds nearly all welding methods reach there border.

A welding method which connects thermoplastic material by laser was developed ten years ago. The

process is shown in fig. 1. Small joining zones and a good performance for visible welding zones

makes the process interesting for several industrial applications. The Laser penetrates a transparent

polymer and is fusing an absorbing polymer. The heated absorbing polymer heats the transparent

polymer by heat conduction. When it comes to the quality of the welds the clamping pressure between

the joining partner plays a decisive role.

To deal with these circumstances, FEM- methods to determine the clamping pressure between the

joining partners are prospect benefit for the technical use of the process. The material behavior during

the welding process is essential for the fem analysis. Therefore, a benchmark for nonlinear fem

simulation with ANSYS Wb 14 and LS- DYNA was realized. A tensile test of a ABS (Acryl- ButadieneStyrene) polymer was analysed to provide material parameters for the simulation with respect to the

deformation speed.

1.

The test specim for the tensile test distiniguish between brittle, duktile with and without a yield stress

point. [2,5] Generally the mechanical behavior of ABS can be characterized as brittle. [7] First plastic

strain occurs at the yield stress of 30MPa. At the Stress of 38 MPa strong sliding of the sliding planes

leads to a decrease in stress. The stress strain behavior analysed in the tensile test at a deformation

speed of 1mm/min is shown in fig.2 .

tensile test (deformation speed: 1mm/min)

40

35

Stress [MPa]

30

25

20

15

10

5

0

0

4

Strain [%]

30th CADFEM Users Meeting 2012

October 24-26 , 2012 Kongress Palais Kassel

The irreversible poisson deflection at break is not visible in a macroscopic analyse. According to the

test specimen DIN 527 [2] the material properties for Test 13 are shown in Tab.1.

Tab1.Material properties of ABS

yield stress

tensile modulus

possions ratio

30 MPa

2200 MPa

0,3 (assumption)

stress at break

6,5 %

34 MPa

The necking effect of this ABS specimen is slightly distinct. The elastic region before reaching the

yield stress shows a good correlation between the six tensile tests. At a deformation speed of 500

mm/min break occurs earlier and the material behavior is more brittle without plastic flow. Elastic

material models seem to be adequate to describe the mechanical behavior if focus is on the elastic

region.

Stress [MPa]

40

30

20

10

0

0

0.5

1.5

Strain [%]

2.5

For FEM analysis with plastic strain the stress strain values have to be implemented in true stress and

true strain. Therefore the experimental data is transformed into Hencky- Strain,

(

(

[3,6]

2.

2.1

There are several material models in ANSYS Wb 14 which describe elasto-plastic material behavior.

To simulate the damage of the material beyond the yield stress there are difficulties to deal with for

example the decreasing stresses which cause converging problems. The Material Models BLISO,

MLISO as well as BLKIN and MLKIN can not handle the damage of the material. To simulate the

elastic- plastic region in front of the yield stress point these models are adequate. For high strain rates

the mechanical behavior of ABS the decreasing stresses are dissapeared and the material acts more

brittle so that a elastic material model is often adequate (compare to Fig.3). To simulate the elasticplastic region for low strain rates the material model MLISO was choosen. This model uses an

isotropic hardening rule with a multilinear elastic-plastic model.

30th CADFEM Users Meeting 2012

October 24-26 , 2012 Kongress Palais Kassel

The data for plastic analysis in ANSYS have to be implemented in plastic strain and cauchy stress. In

this case the total strain has to be substracted from the elastic strain. [1]

The material model MLISO therefore needs the Youngs Modulus and the possions ratio for the elastic

model and the plastic strain and the cauchy stress for the plastic behavior. The first calculated plastic

strain should be set to zero so that the calculation keeps running. [4]

2.2

It is possible to describe the hardening behavior in an exponential equation.

(

Softening can be simulated if the Rinfi parameter is negative. The visco-plastic formulations of

Perzyna have to be implemented for a converging solution.

(

It is possible to use the material model NLISO in an invariant way. A fitting of parameters is possible to

simulate softening behavior but studies for implementation are necessary.

Material Properties for NLISO

40

38

35

30

25

20

15

10

5

0

0

0.01

0.02

0.03

True Strain [mm/mm]

0.04

0.05

0.06

2.3

Load Settings

In this case the static- mechanic analyse settings are used for the simulation. The geometry is

modelled and pictured in Fig.5

30th CADFEM Users Meeting 2012

October 24-26 , 2012 Kongress Palais Kassel

To simulate the induced stresses a displacement of 5 mm and a restriction of a fixed bearing was

implemented. Due to the fact that there are many nodes where the stress is at the same level necking

can occur several times. To create one necking zone in the simulation the measuring zone was

created with a concave radius of R=20000 mm, which is still in the tolerance of DIN 527 [3]. In this

case, the stresses increase when passing the yield stress. This is because of the last hardening

parameter of MLISO.

2.4

Mesh Settings

To get a homogenous mesh the sweep setting was used to create a mesh with an element size of 1

mm. The used element type is SOLID 186.

2.5

Solution

The deflection of ABS induced by the Poisson effect is at a low-level, the force reaction induced from

the displacement can be used to calculate the stress in the tensile area. Since there is less Poisson

deflection at break, this approximation is probably appropriate. The maximum stress in the detected

zone can be analysed with the normal stress tool. The displacement of the measuring zone has to be

identified to get the strain of the probe. Therefore the displacement of the lines D and E in the global

coordinate system are recorded. The induced geometric nonlinearity can be considered with a tick at

the option large deflection for analysis with large deflections. When simulating thermoplastic

material, elastic material modeling is even at two percent strain not appropriate compareable

according to Fig.7.

Simulated stress- strain curves (large deflections on/off)

50

40

38

30

20

linear material - large deflections on

fault linear material - large deflections off

fault linear material - large deflections on

experimental data

10

0

-2

-5

-10

0

0.5

1.5

strain [%]

ANSYS Conference &

30th CADFEM Users Meeting 2012

October 24-26 , 2012 Kongress Palais Kassel

2.5

As shown in Fig.7., the linear material formulation in correlation to the nonlinear material behavior

goes up to 10% deviation.

Simulated stress strain curves (Large deflection on/off)

40

38

35

30

25

20

large deflection on

fault large deflection off

fault large deflection on

experimental data

15

10

5

0

-2

-5

-10

0

0.5

1.5

2.5

strain [%]

The elastic- plastic behavior in front of the yield stress is tested with a second load step. In the second

load step the displacement was set to zero as shown in Fig. 9.

Large Displacement On/Off

40

35

30

Stress [MPa]

25

20

15

10

Large Displacement on

Experimental

0

0.5

1.5

2.5

Strain [%]

The elastic- plastic behavior of the strains are appropriate when analysing the irreversible deformation

induced by loads.

2.6

Results

The elastic- plastic behavior models for ANSYS Wb 14 are proven and adequate for analyses with

brittle thermoplastic material. When using an elastic- material model the fault can reach up to 10%

because of nonlinear material behavior. For high strain rates elastic material models are appropriate.

For the elastic- plastic material model MLISO the deviation is less than five percent.

30th CADFEM Users Meeting 2012

October 24-26 , 2012 Kongress Palais Kassel

3.

Simulation in LS-DYNA

LS-Dyna provides more than 200 material models. For the simulation of the tensile test a nonlinear

material model is needed. There are several models which occur in connection to the simulation of

thermoplastics. For example, Mat_003, Mat_019, Mat_024, Mat_076, Mat_081, Mat_082, Mat_089,

Mat_112, Mat_123, Mat_141 and Mat_187.

Two material models were selected for the simulation. First Mat_024 because it is very common in use

with the simulation of steel components. The second one is Mat_187. Mat_187 is one of the latest

material models and is especially developed for thermoplastics.

3.1

Mat_024 is an isotrop, strain rate dependent elasto-plastic material model that uses a user-defined

stress versus strain curve. A failure criterion is implemented by using plastic strain or a minimum time

step size.

Mat_187 is an isotrop, strain-rate dependent elasto-plastic material model. The yield point of typical

thermoplastics is lower for pulling than for pushing. Therefore, material models that are based on

uniaxial loading tests, as Mat_024 is, deliver to small values. For a better representation of

thermoplastics Mat_187 uses separate stress-strain curves for pressure, shear, bi-axial strain and

uniaxial strain at different strain rates. Therefore, a lot of experimental investigations are necessary.

The yield surface is a quadratic function defined by the four load curves as shown in Fig. 11.

3.2

Hexaedron elements are used for meshing the geometry by sweep method. The element size is 1

mm. Solid elements with constant stress are used for the simulation. Explicit dynamic is used for short

time phenomenas. For the tensile test referring to DIN 527-1 a displacement velocity of 1 mm/min is

recommended. To hold computation time slow the displacement velocity is increased to 100mm/s.

This results in oscillations, especially at fracture of the probe. Therefore, fracture is prohibited by not

inserting a fracture criterion i.e. plastic strain at fracture.

30th CADFEM Users Meeting 2012

October 24-26 , 2012 Kongress Palais Kassel

PRESCRIBED_MOTION_SET

DOF=1 VAD=0

BOUNDARY

X=1

ROTX=1

Y=1

ROTY=1

Z=1

ROTZ=1

BOUNDARY

X=0

ROTX=1

Y=1

ROTY=1

Z=1

ROTZ=1

3.3

For the analysis and comparison of simulation and experimental data with MATLAB some values are

necessary. The cross section area of the tensile probe as well as the force in pulling direction can be

written down by using plots. According to DIN 527-1 the change of length in a tensile test with

thermoplastics is related to a measuring length of 50 mm. Node history of two nodes (with 50 mm

distance in pulling direction) shows the displacement of each node. The difference between both

displacements is the resulting change of length of the tensile probe.

Mat_024 and Mat_187 show almost the same characteristics until reaching the yield stress. There is a

maximum deviation of 3% between experimental data and simulation in the linear elastic region.

Tension rapidly decreases due to first stress localisation (9% maximum deviation). Energy gets

nascent through sliding of the sliding planes. This leads to resultant accelerations and therefore to

oscillations as seen in fig. 13. These oscillations can be reduced with a lower displacement velocity.

Stress is decreasing in the plastic area with Mat_024 because of further stress localisation at higher

strains. Mat_187 shows a growing plastic zone instead of further stress localisation at higher strains.

Therefore, Mat_187 is reflecting the true mechanical behavior of the experimental tests better than

Mat_24 does.

The deviation of Mat_187 is below 3% in the plastic area, compared to Mat_24 with a maximum

deviation of 10.2%.

Stress-Strain (Using The Experimental Curve)

40

30

Mat024

Mat187

Fault Mat024

Fault Mat187

Experimental

Mat_187

Mat_187

20

Mat_24

10

-10

-20

0

Strain [%]

ANSYS Conference &

30th CADFEM Users Meeting 2012

October 24-26 , 2012 Kongress Palais Kassel

The results show that simulation below the yield point, as needed for the simulation of the clamping

pressure in the welding process, is possible with both material models but Mat_187 is the better

choice if plastic area is needed. Both materials are not able to simulate the softening of the

experimental data correctly.

ABS shows a very untypical mechanical behaviour at low strain rates as DIN 527-1 recommends. The

negative gradient usually disappears by transforming the engineering stress vs engineering strain in

true values because the stress is related to the remaining instead of the original cross section area.

ABS shows no increasing stress related to the remaining cross section area, which means that there

is still a slope. This slope leads to numerical problems. There are two possible solutions to fix this

problem if needed:

Fix the experimental data by removing the decrease in stress strain relation (positive

gradient). This leads to a hardening. If necking is desired it is necessary to insert a slope in

the modified true stress vs true strain curve.

Introduce artificial visco-plasticity.

To test the solution by fixing experimental data all experimental values behind the yield stress in the

stress strain curve are deleted and one last curve point (stress) is added at maximum strain. This

stress has to be higher than the yield stress to reach a positive gradient. The three curves in fig. 14

show the difference in the resulting stress-strain curve when using a stress value of 39 MPa, 40MPa

and 42 MPa. The yield stress is 38.8 MPa.

Artificial Hardening

45

42 MPa

38.7 MPa

40

40 MPa

39 MPa

35

30

25

Set Point: 39MPa

20

Set Point: 40MPa

Set Point: 42MPa

15

Simulation-39MPa

10

Simulation-40MPa

Simulation-42MPa

Referenz

Modifying the stress-strain curve seems to be very sensitive to the gradient and is therefore not

recommended in this case.

30th CADFEM Users Meeting 2012

October 24-26 , 2012 Kongress Palais Kassel

[1]

A. Arriaga et. al. Finite- element analysis of quasi-static characterisation tests in thermoplastic

materials: Experimental and numerical analysis results correlation with ANSYS. Polymer

Testing 2007(26):284305.

[2]

Prfbedingungen fr Form- und Extrusionsmassen;83.080.00(527-2). Berlin: Beuth Verlag;

1996

[3]

Hanser, Carl; 2010.

[4]

Gebhardt C. Praxisbuch FEM mit ANSYS Workbench: Einfhrung in die lineare und nichtlineare

Mechanik. Mnchen: Hanser; 2011.

[5]

Peter Eyerer et. al (ed.). VDI- Buch: Prfung von Kunststoffen und Bauteilen. Berlin, Heidelberg:

Springer Berlin Heidelberg; 2008.

[6]

Stommel M, Korte W, Stojek M. FEM zur Berechnung von Kunststoff- und Elastomerbauteilen.

Mnchen: Hanser; 2011.

[7]

w.-s. Lee, H.-C Shen. Comparisons of deformation and fracture behaviour of PC/ABS blend and

ABS copolymer under dynamic shear loading. Maney for the Institute of Materials, Minerals and

Nining 2004.

30th CADFEM Users Meeting 2012

October 24-26 , 2012 Kongress Palais Kassel

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