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Lean Six Sigma Green Belt

Lesson 3Measure

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Objectives
After completing
this lesson, you will
be able to:

Explain process definition

Create X-Y diagrams

Describe types of statistics and statistical distributions

Collect and summarize data

Perform Measurement System Analysis (MSA)

Differentiate between precision and accuracy

Describe bias, linearity, and stability of measurements

Explain process capability

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Measure
Topic 1Process Definition

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Introduction to Measure Phase


The key objective of the measure phase is to gather as much
information as possible on the current processes.

The key tasks of the measure phase are:

creating a detailed process map;

gathering baseline data;

summarizing and analyzing the data;

performing Measurement Systems Analysis; and

performing process capability studies.

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Process Mapping
Process mapping refers to a workflow diagram which gives a clear understanding of the process or a
series of parallel processes.

First step in process


improvement

Features
of process
mapping

Gives wider perspective


of the problems and
opportunities

Provides a systematic way


of recording

Process mapping can be done by using flowcharts, written procedures, or detailed work instructions.

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X-Y Diagram
The X-Y diagram is a Six Sigma tool that helps in correlating Inputs (X) and Outputs (Y). It can be used
to identify what inputs are more valuable and impactful when there are multiple inputs and outputs

in a project.
Steps to Create X-Y Diagram
1

Capture all the inputs and outputs variables.


2

Insert an impact or correlation factor.


3

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Provide the weightage of output (This explains how each of


the input variable impacts what set of output variables).
After entering all the data, identify the inputs that are
more valuable or impactful and take actions accordingly.
6

X-Y Diagram Template


The sample template of X-Y diagram is shown here.

Use all the value from (b) for each of the


input variable and multiply individually with
the values given in (a), added value is (c).

Capture the
impact value.
Insert weight for
each output.
List down each
of the output
variables.
List down each
of the input
variables.

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Measure
Topic 2 Descriptive and Inferential Statistics

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Types of Statistics
Statistics refers to the science of collection, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of data. There
are two major types of statisticsDescriptive statistics and Inferential statistics.
Descriptive Statistics

Also known as Enumerative statistics


Includes organizing, summarizing, and
presenting the data
Describes what's going on in the data
Histograms, pie charts, box plots, etc., are
the tools

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Inferential Statistics

Also known as Analytical statistics


Includes predicting and drawing conclusions
Makes inferences from our data to more
general conditions
Hypothesis testing, scattered diagram, etc.,
are the tools

Analytical Statistics
The main objective of statistical inference or analytical statistics is to draw conclusions on population
characteristics based on the information available in the sample. A sample from the population is

collected. An assessment about the population parameter is made from the sample.

Q
A

The management team of a cricket council wants to know if the teams performance has improved after
recruiting a new coach. Is there a way the improvement can be proven statistically?
Here, Ya = Efficiency of Coach A and Yb = Efficiency of Coach B
a. Null HypothesisAssumption is Coach A and Coach B are both effective.
Assuming status quo is null hypothesis
H0: Ya = Yb
b. Alternate HypothesisAssumption is the efficiencies of the two coaches differ.
If the null hypothesis is proven wrong, the alternate hypothesis must be right.
H1: Ya Yb

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10

Central Limit Theorem


Central Limit Theorem (CLT) states that for a sample size greater than 30, the sample mean is very
close to the population mean.

When sample size is greater than 30, the sample mean approaches normal distribution.

In such cases, the Standard Error of Mean (SEM) that represents the variability between the
sample means is very less.
SEM =

Population Standard Deviation


Sample Size

Selecting a sample size also depends on the concept called Power of the Test.

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11

Central Limit TheoremGraph


The graphical representation of the Central Limit Theorem is given:

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12

Central Limit TheoremConclusions


The Central Limit Theorem concludes the following:

Sampling distributions are also helpful in dealing with non-normal data.

If the sample data points are taken from a population and the distribution of the means of samples
is plotted, it is called the sampling distribution of means.

This sampling distribution will approach normality as the sample size increases.

CLT aids in making inferences from the sample statistics about the population parameters
irrespective of the distribution of the population.
CLT becomes the basis for calculating the confidence interval for a hypothesis test as it allows the
use of a standard normal table.

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13

Measure
Topic 3Collecting and Summarizing Data

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Types of Data
Data is a collection of facts from which conclusions can be drawn. The two types of data are:
Attribute Data (Discrete)

Variable Data (Continuous)

Is countable and only includes integers such as


2, 40, 1050

Can be measured and includes any real number


such as 2.045, -4.42, or 45.65

Answers questions such as how many?, how


often?, or what type?

Answers questions such as how long?, what


volume?, or how far?

Examples:
o Number of defective products
o Percentage of defective products
o Frequency of machine repair
o Type of award received

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Examples:
o Height
o Weight
o Time taken to complete a task

15

Selecting Data Type


The first step in the measure phase is to determine the type of data required based on the following
considerations:
What variables have been
identified for the process?

Critical to Quality parameters (CTQs), Key Process Output Variables


(KPOVs), and Key Process Input Variables (KPIVs)

What type of data is


selected?
Why should the data type
be identified?

The type of data that fits the metrics for the key variables

Enables collecting, analyzing, and drawing inferences from the right


set of data

It is difficult to convert attribute data to variable data in the absence of assumptions or additional
information, which can include retesting all units.

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16

Simple Random Sampling vs. Stratified Sampling


The differences between simple random sampling and stratified sampling are given here.
Simple Random Sampling

Stratified Sampling

Simple random sampling is easy to carry


out.

Stratified sampling is time consuming


and requires more effort.

Possibility of erroneous results is high.

Possibility of errors is minimized.

This type of sampling cannot indicate


possible causes of variation.

When done correctly, it is capable of


showing assignable causes of variation.

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17

Descriptive StatisticsMeasures of Central Tendency


A measure of central tendency is a single value that indicates the central point in a set of data. The
three most common measures of central tendency are as follows:
Mean

Most common measure


of central tendency
Given by the sum of
entries in a data set and
divided by the number of
entries
Also called average or
arithmetic mean

Also known as positional


mean
Number in the middle of
the data set
Mean of the middle two
numbers in an even data
set
Also calculated using:
Median =

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Mode

Median

Also known as frequency


mean
Value that occurs most
frequently in a data set

+1
2

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Mean, Median, and ModeExample


For the following data set, the mean, median, and mode are calculated:

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 5, 6, 7, 8

1+2+3+4+5+5+6+7+8

Mean

Median

Mode

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4.56

19

Mean, Median, and ModeOutliers


The dataset is modified to include a new value. The new dataset is given:
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 100

The following observations can be made:

The new mean is 15.11.

Almost 90% of the values fall to the left of the mean.

The mean is skewed due to the presence of an extreme data point, 100, called an outlier.

The median of the dataset is unchanged at 5.

When the dataset has outliers, median is preferred over mean as a measure of central tendency.

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20

Descriptive StatisticsMeasures of Dispersion


Measures of dispersion describe the spread of values. Higher the variation of data points, higher the
spread of the data. The three main measures of dispersions are as follows:

Range

Variance

Standard Deviation

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21

Measures of DispersionRange
Range is defined as the difference between the largest and smallest values of data.
For the data set given here,
4, 8, 1, 6, 6, 2, 9, 3, 6, 9

the range is calculated as follows:


Range

= Maximum Minimum
= 91
= 8

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22

Measures of DispersionVariance
Variance is defined as the average of squared mean differences and shows the variation in a data set.
Variance = 2 =

( )2
1

Consider the data set given here:


4, 8, 1, 6, 6, 2, 9, 3, 6, 9

Sample variance can be calculated using the formula = VARS() in an Excel sheet. Population variance
can be calculated using the formula = VARP(). Here,
Sample variance = 8.04
Population variance = 7.24

Variance is a measure of variation and cannot be considered as the variation in a data set. Population variance
is preferred over sample variance as it is an accurate indicator of variation.

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23

Measures of DispersionStandard Deviation


Standard deviation is given by the square root of variation.
Standard Deviation = =

( )2

Manual Method
1

For the same data set:


4, 8, 1, 6, 6, 2, 9, 3, 6, 9

Population standard deviation = 2.69

(using the formula = STDEVP() in Excel)

Sample standard deviation = 2.83


(using the formula = STDEV() in Excel)
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Calculate mean.

Calculate difference between


each data point and the
mean, square each answer.
Calculate the sum of the
squares.
Divide the sum of the squares
by N or n-1 (to find variance).
Find square root of variance.
24

Descriptive StatisticsFrequency Distribution


Frequency distribution is the grouping of data into mutually exclusive categories showing the number
of observations in each class. To create a frequency distribution table:
1

Divide the results into intervals and count the number


of results in each interval.
Make a table with separate columns for the interval
numbers, the tallied results, and the frequency of
results in each interval.
Record the number of observations in each interval
with a tally mark.
Add the number of tally marks in each interval and
record them in the Frequency column.

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Number

Tally

Frequency

IIII

IIII I

IIII

III

II

25

Cumulative Frequency Distribution


A cumulative frequency distribution table is more detailed than a frequency distribution table.

To the frequency distribution table, add three more columns for the cumulative frequency,
percentage, and cumulative percentage.
In the cumulative frequency column, the cumulative frequency of the previous row(s) is
added to the current row.
The percentage is calculated by dividing the frequency by the total number of results and
multiplying by 100.

The cumulative percentage is calculated similar to the cumulative frequency.


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26

Cumulative Frequency Distribution (contd.)


For the following dataset, the cumulative frequency distribution table is given:
37, 49, 54, 91, 60, 62, 65, 77, 67, 81

Lower Value

Upper Value

Frequency

Cumulative
Frequency

Percentage

Cumulative
Percentage

35

44

10

10

45

54

20

30

55

64

20

50

65

74

20

70

75

84

20

90

85

94

10

10

100

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27

Graphical MethodsStem and Leaf Plots


A stem and leaf plot is used to present data in a graphical format to enable visualizing the shape of a
distribution. For example, following are the temperatures for the month of May in Fahrenheit.
78, 81, 82, 68, 65, 59, 62, 58, 51, 62, 62, 71, 69, 64, 67, 71, 62, 65, 65, 74, 76, 87, 82, 82, 83, 79, 79, 71, 82, 77, 81

To create the plot, all the tens digits are entered in the Stem column and all the units digits against
each tens digit are entered in the Leaf column.

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Stem

Leaf

189

22224555789

111467899

11222237
28

Graphical MethodsBox and Whisker Plots


A box and whisker graph, based on medians or quartiles, is used to view the data distribution easily.
Example: The lengths of 13 fish caught in a lake are measured and recorded as follows:
12, 13, 5, 8, 9, 20, 16, 14, 14, 6, 9, 12, 12

Step 1: Rewrite the data in increasing order.


5, 6, 8, 9, 9, 12, 12, 12, 13, 14, 14, 16, 20

Step 2: Find the median for the data set.


5, 6, 8, 9, 9, 12, 12, 12, 13, 14, 14, 16, 20
Median

Step 3: Find the lower and upper quartile.


5, 6, 8, 9, 9, 12, 12, 12, 13, 14, 14, 16, 20
Lower Quartile = 8.5 Median
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Upper Quartile = 14
29

Graphical MethodsBox and Whisker Plots (contd.)


The box and whisker graph can now be constructed.
Step 4: Draw a number line extending enough to include all the data points.

Step 5: Locate the main median, 12, using a vertical line. Locate the lower and upper quartiles (8.5 and 14) and
join them with the median by drawing boxes.

Step 6: Extend whiskers from either ends of the boxes to the smallest and largest numbers (5 and 20) in the data set.

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30

Graphical MethodsBox and Whisker Plots Inference


The following inferences can be drawn from the box and
whisker plot:

Range = 20 5 = 15
The quartiles split the data into four equal parts:

Numbers less than 8.5

Numbers between 8.5 and 12

Numbers between 12 and 14

Numbers greater than 14

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31

Scatter Diagrams
A scatter diagram can be used to:

understand the correlation between two variables;

examine cause-and-effect relationships; and

identify the root cause.

The five types of correlation are:

Perfect positive correlation

Moderate positive correlation

No relation

Moderate negative correlation

Perfect negative correlation

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32

Scatter DiagramsPerfect Positive Correlation


In perfect positive correlation, as the value of X increases, the value of Y also increases proportionally.
Example: Correlation between consumption of coffee and consumption of milk
Coffee Consumption in ml (X)

Milk Consumption in L (Y)

300

15

350

17.5

400

20

450

22.5

500

25

550

27.5

600

30

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33

Scatter DiagramsModerate Positive Correlation


In moderate positive correlation, as the value of X increases, the value of Y also increases, but not in
the same proportion.
Example: Correlation between monthly salary and monthly savings
Salary (in thousands) (X)

Savings (in thousands) (Y)

45

48

6.2

52

55

8.2

57

8.5

58

8.6

60

10

65

12

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34

Scatter DiagramsNo Correlation


When a change in one variable has no impact on the other, there is no correlation between them.

Example: Relation between number of fresh graduates and job openings in a city
Fresh Graduates
(in thousands) (X)

Job Openings
(in thousands) (Y)

80

15

100

15

90

18

95

20

89

20

90

15

95

15

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35

Scatter DiagramsModerate Negative Correlation


In moderate negative correlation, as the value of X increases, the value of Y decreases, but not in the
same proportion.
Example: Correlation between the price of a product and the number of units sold
Unit Price of Product
(in thousands) (X)

Units Sold (Y)

30

1000

32

980

33

970

35

965

38

950

40

920

42

910

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36

Scatter DiagramsPerfect Negative Correlation


In perfect negative correlation, as X increases, Y decreases proportionally.

Example: Correlation between project time extension and project success

Time Extension
(in days) (X)

Project Success Probability


(in percentage) (Y)

80

60

7
10

40
20

13

00

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37

Graphical MethodsHistogram
A histogram is similar to a bar graph, except that the data in a histogram is grouped into intervals. A
histogram is best suited for continuous data.

Example: Number of hours spent by 15 team members on a special project in a week


1.5, 1.5, 2, 3, 3, 3, 25, 3, 5, 4, 4, 4, 4.5, 5, 6, 9.5, 10

The table and histogram for the data are given:


Hours spent (X)

Number of Employees
(Frequency) (Y)

0-2

2-4

4-6
6-8
8 - 10

3
0
2

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38

Graphical MethodsNormal Probability Plots


Normal probability plots are used to identify if a dataset is normally distributed. A normally
distributed dataset forms a straight line in a normal probability plot.

Example: The following data sample is of diameters from a drilling operation:


.127, .125, .123, .123, .120, .124, .126, .122, .123, .125, .121, .123, .122, .125, .124, .122, .123, .123, .126, .121,
.124, .121, .124, .122, .126, .125, .123

Step 1: Construct a cumulative frequency distribution table and calculate the mean rank probability
estimate using the formula:
Mean rank probability estimate =

Cumulative frequency
(n+1)

100

Where n = sample size

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39

Graphical MethodsNormal Probability Plots (contd.)


After performing Step 1, mean rank probability estimations are calculated. The table below lists

them:
X

Frequency

Cumulative
Frequency

(Cumulative
Frequency)/(n+1)

Mean Rank (%)

0.120

1/28

0.121

4/28

14

0.122
0.123
0.124
0.125
0.126
0.127

4
7
4
4
3
1
n = 27

8
15
19
23
26
27

8/28
15/28
19/28
23/28
26/28
27/28

29
54
68
82
93
96

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40

Graphical MethodsNormal Probability Plots (contd.)


Step 2: Plot the graph on log paper or using Minitab, a statistical software used in Six Sigma.
Minitab normal probability plot instructions
1. Paste the data in any column
2. Select graph from the menu bar
3. Select probability plot
4. Select the type of the graph single
5. Click ok
6. Double click the data column
7. Click ok

Conclusion: From this graph, it can be observed that the random sample forms a straight line, and
therefore, the data is taken from a normally distributed population.
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41

Measure
Topic 4Measurement System Analysis

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Measurement System Analysis


The Measurement Systems (MS) output is used throughout the DMAIC process. An error-prone MS
leads to incorrect conclusions. Measurement System Analysis (MSA) is a technique that identifies

measurement error (variation) and its sources to reduce variation.


In MSA, the systems capability is calculated, analyzed, and interpreted using Gage Repeatability and
Reproducibility (GRR) to determine:

measurement correlation;

bias;

linearity;

percent agreement; and;

precision/tolerance (P/T).

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43

Measurement System AnalysisObjectives


The objectives of MSA are as follows:

Obtain information about the type of measurement variation associated with the measurement

system

Establish criteria to accept and release new measuring equipment

Compare one measurement method with another

Form basis for evaluating a method suspected of being deficient

Variation in the measurement system has to be resolved to ensure correct baselines for the project
objectives.

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44

Precision and Accuracy


In statistical measurements, the terms Precision and Accuracy are the two important factors to be
considered when taking data measurements.
Precision

The ability to replicate measurements time


after time, consistent measurements.

It refers to the tightness of the cluster of


data.

Measurement issues related to precision


can be addressed through Measurement
Systems Analysis.

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Accuracy

Clustering of data around a known target.

It is also known as unbiased measurement.

To have a stable measurement system,


focus on the accuracy first by addressing
measurement issues, and get accurate
results.

45

Precision vs. Accuracy


Good precision and accuracy are equally important for a stable measurement system.
Precision
In any measurement system, precision is the
degree to which repeated measurements
under unchanged conditions show the same
results (repeatability).
Example: Hitting a target means all the hits
are closely spaced, even if they are very far
from the center of the target.

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Accuracy
In any measurement system, accuracy is the
degree of conformity of a measured or
calculated value to its actual (true) value.
Example: Accurately hitting the target
means you are close to the center of the
target, even if all of the marks are on
different sides of the center.

46

Combinations of Accuracy and Precision


Examples of the four combinations of accuracy and precision are shown here:

These are not accurate,


however are precise,
all the darts are closer
to each other.

The darts are


random across the
board.
a)

Low accuracy
Low precision

b) Low accuracy
High precision

The darts are close


to the target, but
are not consistent.

All the darts are on


the target.
c)

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High accuracy
Low precision

d) High accuracy
High precision
47

Bias, Linearity, and Stability


Bias, Linearity and Stability are the three aspects of measurement system that helps in analyzing how
good the measurements are.

While performing the MSA, it is important to evaluate these along with precision and accuracy.
Bias, linearity, and stability help you understand what is causing mismatch, if any, or resulting in
inaccurate data.

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48

Bias
Bias is a measure of the distance between the measured value and the True or Actual value. It could
be either on the positive side or the negative side.

Example: An Analog Bathroom Weighing Scale provides an adjustment screw or a dial to set it to zero
prior to weighing.

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49

Linearity
Linearity is a measure of consistency of bias over the range of measurement from smaller number to
higher number and vice-a-versa.

Example: If a bathroom scale is showing 2 pounds less when measuring a 100 pound person, and 5
pounds less when measuring a 150 pound person, the scale bias is said to be non-linear. The degree
of bias changes between the lower end and high end (Linearity issue).

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50

Stability
Stability refers to the ability of a measurement system to show the same values over time when
measuring the same repeatedly.

Example: Suppose the weighing scale shows one reading in the morning and other in the afternoon
for the same item, the measurement system is said to be instable.

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51

Comparison of Variable and Attribute R and R


Measurement Systems Analysis (MSA) should be done for both Variable and Attribute data.

Variable R and R

Attribute R and R

To analyze measurement systems using Variable


or Continuous data.
o Example: Length, Weight, Volume, Time,
Temperature, etc.

To analyze measurement systems using


Attribute or Discrete data.
o Example: Pass/Fail, Yes/No, Count, Color,
Defective/Good, etc.

Measurement system typically involves a


physical gauge and can be measured.
o The result of this is quantification of the
percentage of variation contributed by the
measurement system.

Measurement system typically utilizes manual


or automated counting/monitoring.
o The result of this is quantification of the
proportion of defective measurements, in
DPMO, % Agreement or Sigma Level.

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52

Gage Repeatability vs. Gage Reproducibility


Gage Repeatability and Reproducibility are compared here.
Gage Repeatability
This is the variation in measurements obtained when
one operator uses the same gage for measuring
identical characteristics of the same part repeatedly.

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Gage Reproducibility
This is the variation in the average of measurements
made by different operators using the same gage
when measuring identical characteristics of
the same part.

53

Components of GRR Study


The diagram shows repeatability and
reproducibility for six different parts (16)

for two trial readings by three operators.

Difference in readings between the


operators is indicated by green and
represents reproducibility error (part 1).

Difference in readings between trials by

the same operator is indicated by red and


represents repeatability error (part 4).

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54

Guidelines for GRR Studies


The following should be considered while conducting GRR studies:

GRR studies should be performed over the range of expected observations.

Actual equipment should be used.

Written procedures or approved practices should be followed.

Measurement variability should be presented as is.

After GRR, measurement variability should be separated into causal components, prioritized, and
targeted for action.

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55

Other GRR Concepts


The following are also considered in GRR studies:
Linearity

Bias

Distance between the sample


mean value and the sample
true value
Also called accuracy

Consistency of bias over the


range of the gage

Precision

Degree of repeatability or
closeness of data
Smaller dispersion results in
better precision

Bias = Mean Reference Value


Process Variation = 6 (std.
deviation)

Linearity = |slope| Process


Variation

2gage = 2repeatability + 2reproducibility

Bias

Bias % = Process Variation

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56

Measurement Resolution
Measurement resolution is the smallest detectable increment that an instrument will measure or
display. The number of increments in the measurement system should extend over the full range for a

given parameter.

Examples of wrong gages being used:

A truck scale used for measuring the weight of a tea pack.

A caliper capable of measuring differences of 0.1 mm was used to show compliance with tolerance

of 0.07 mm.

The gage must have an acceptable resolution as a pre-requisite to GRR.

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57

Repeatability and Reproducibility


Repeatability or Equipment Variation (EV) occurs when the same operator repeatedly measures the
same part or process, under identical conditions, with the same measurement system.

Example: A 36 km/hr pace mechanism is timed by a single operator over a distance of 100 meters on
a stop watch. Three readings are taken:

Trial 1 = 9 seconds

Trial 2 = 10 seconds

Trial 3 = 11 seconds

Assuming there is no operator error, the variation in the three readings is known as Repeatability or
Equipment Variation (EV).

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58

Repeatability and Reproducibility (contd.)


Reproducibility or Appraiser Variation (AV) occurs when different operators measure the same part or
process, under identical conditions, with the same measurement system.

Example: A 36 km/hour pace mechanism is timed by two operators over a distance of 100 meters on a
stop watch. Three readings are taken by each:
Trial

Operator 1 Reading

Operator 2 Reading

9s

12s

10s

13s

11s

14s

The variation between the readings is known as Reproducibility or Appraiser Variation.

It is important to resolve EV before resolving AV, as the other way round is counter-productive.

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59

Data Collection in GRR


Important considerations while collecting data are as follows:

The number of operators are usually 3.

The number of units to measure is usually 10.

General sampling techniques are used to represent the population.

The number of trials for each operator is 2 to 3.

The gage is checked for calibration and resolution.

The units are measured by the first operator in random order, and the same order is followed by

the other operators.

Each trial is repeated.

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60

ANOVA Method of Analyzing GRR Studies


ANOVA is considered the best method for analyzing GRR studies due to the following reasons:

ANOVA separates equipment and operator variation, and also provides insight on the combined

effect of the two.

ANOVA uses standard deviation instead of range as a measure of variation and therefore gives a
better estimate of the measurement system variation.

The primary concerns in using ANOVA are those of time, resources required, and cost.

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61

Interpretation of Measurement System Analysis


The result of an MSA could have the following interpretations:
Operators are not adequately
trained in using the gage

Reproducibility Error > Repeatability Error


MSA Result

Calibrations on the gage dial are


not clear
Gage needs maintenance

Repeatability Error > Reproducibility Error


Gage needs redesign to be more
rigid
Gaging location needs
improvement
Ambiguity is present in SOPs
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62

Gage RR Template
A sample template for Gage RR is given:

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63

Gage RR Results Summary


The results page of the data entered in the template is displayed here:

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64

Gage RR Interpretation
The interpretation for the GRR results summary is as follows:
1

Check the value of %GRR. If %GRR < 30, Gage Variation is acceptable, and thus the gage is
acceptable. If %GRR > 30, the gage is not acceptable.
Check EV first. If EV = 0, the MS is reliable and the variation in the gage is contributed by
different operators. If AV = 0, the MS is precise.

If EV = 0, resolve AV by providing operators with training.

The interaction between operators and parts can also be studied under GRR using Part Variation. The trueness and
precision cannot be determined in a GRR if only one gage or measurement method is evaluated as it may have an
inherent bias.

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65

Measure
Topic 5Process Capability

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Process Capability Analysis


Process Capability is how well the process can potentially run, if the
sources of variation are controlled and the process runs on target.

The Business judges its process by looking at the Process Capability,


which is a metric that reflects only the common cause variation,
assuming special causes are controlled.
There are two types of limits, Natural Process Limits and
Specification Limits. The USL and LSL will be as provided by the user.
LSL

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USL

67

Natural Process Limits vs. Specification Limits


The comparison between natural process limits and specification limits is presented here:

Natural Process Limits

Indicators of process variation


Voice of the process
Based on past performance
Real-time values
Derived from data
Consist of Upper Control Limit (UCL) and
Lower Control Limit (LCL)

Specification Limits

Targets set for the process


Voice of customer
Based on customer requirements
Intended result
Defined by the customer
Consist of Upper Specification Limit (USL)
and Lower Specification Limit (LSL)

If the limits lie within the specification limits, the process is under control. Conversely, if the specification
limits lie within the control limits, the process will not meet customer requirements.

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68

Process Capability
Process Capability (CP) is defined as the inherent variability of a characteristic of a process or a
product. It is an indicator of the capability of a process.

Process capability (CP) =

Upper specification limit Lower specification limit


6
OR

Process capability CP =

USL LSL
6

The difference between USL and LSL is also called the Specification width or Tolerance.

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69

Process Capability Indices


Process capability indices (Cpk) was developed to objectively measure the degree to which a process
meets or does not meet customer requirements.

To calculate Cpk, the first step is to determine if the process mean is closer to the LSL or the USL.

If the process mean is closer to LSL, Cpkl is determined.

Cpkl =

X LSL

3Sigma

, where X is Process Average and Sigma represents the Standard Deviation.

If the process mean is closer to USL, CpkU is determined.

CpkU =

USL X

3Sigma

, where X is Process Average and Sigma represents the Standard Deviation.

If the process mean is equidistant, either specification limit can be chosen. Cpk takes up the value of CpkU and
Cpkl, depending on whichever is the lower value.

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70

Process Capability IndicesExample

A batch process produces high fructose corn syrup with a specification for the Dextrose Equivalent (DE) to
be between 6.00 and 6.15. The DEs are normally distributed, and a control chart shows the process is
stable. The standard deviation of the process is 0.035. The DEs from a random sample of 30 batches have a
sample mean of 6.05. Determine Cp and Cpk.

Process capability (Cp) =

Upper specification limit Lower specification limit 6.15 6.00


=
= 0.71
6
6 0.035

CpkU =(USL X)/(3Sigma)=

6.15 6.05
30.035

= 0.95; CpkL =

6.05 6.00
30.035

= 0.48

Cpk = Min (CpkU, CpkL) = Min (0.95, 0.48) = 0.48

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71

Capability Analysis - Cpk and Cp Interpretations


The following interpretations need to be remembered:

A Cp value of less than 1 indicates the process is not capable. Even if Cp > 1, to ascertain if the

process really is not capable, check the Cpk value.

A Cpk value of less than 1 indicates that the process is definitely not capable but might be if Cp > 1,
and the process mean is at or near the mid-point of the tolerance range.

The Cpk value will always be less than Cp, especially as long as the process mean is not at the center
of the process tolerance range.

Non-centering can happen when the process has not understood customer expectations clearly or
the process is complete as soon as the output reaches a specific limit.

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72

Process Capability Studies


Process capability is the actual variation in the process specification. The steps in a process capability
study are:
1

Plan for data collection

Collect data

Plot and analyze the


results

Getting the appropriate sampling plan for the process capability studies depends on the purpose and

whether there are customer or standards requirements for the study.


For new processes, a pilot run may be used to estimate process capability.

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73

Objective of Process Capability Studies


The objective of a process capability study is to establish a state of control over a manufacturing
process and then to maintain control over a time period.

Compare natural process


limits with specification
limits

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Process limits fall within


specification limits

No action required

Process spread and specification


spread are approximately the same

Adjust the process


centering to bring the batch
within specification limits

Process limits fall outside


specification limits

Reduce variability by
partitioning and targeting
the largest offender

74

Process Capability StudiesIdentifying Characteristics


To select a characteristic for a process capability study, it should meet the following requirements:

The characteristic should indicate a key factor in the quality of the product or process.

It should be possible to influence the value of the characteristic through process adjustments.

The operating conditions that affect the characteristic should be defined and controlled.

The characteristic to be measured may also be determined by customer requirements or industry


standards.

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75

Process Capability for Attribute or Discrete Data


For attribute or discrete data, process capability is determined by the mean rate of non-conformity
and DPMO is the measure used. For this, the mean and standard deviation have to be defined.
Defectives

Defects

is used for checking process capability


for constant and variable sample sizes.

is used when the sample size is


constant.
is used when the sample size is
variable.

(1 )

, , and are the equivalent of the standard deviation for continuous data.

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76

Process Stability Studies


The activities carried out in the measure phase are MSA, collection of data, statistical calculations,
and checking for accuracy and validity.

This is followed by a test for stability as changes cannot be made to an unstable process.

Q
A

Why does a process become unstable?

A process becomes unstable due to special causes of variation. Multiple special causes of variation lead to
instability. A single special cause leads to an out-of-control condition.

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77

Process Stability StudiesCauses of Variation


Variations can be due to two types of causes:
Common Causes of Variation (CCV)

Include the many sources of variation within a


process
Have a stable and repeatable distribution over a
period
Contribute to a state of statistical control where
the output is predictable

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Special Causes of Variation (SCV)

Include factors external to and not always acting


on the process
Sporadic in nature
Contribute to instability to a process output
May result in defects and have to be eliminated
If indicated by Run charts, point to the need for
root cause analysis

78

Process Stability StudiesRun Charts in Minitab


The steps to plot a Run chart in

Run Chart of Data


70

Minitab are as follows:

60

First, enter the sample collected data.


Data

Stat -> Quality Tools -> Run Charts

50

40
30
20
10

If p-values for any of the last 4 values


provided in the chart is less than 0.05,

the process has special causes of


variation, and the chances of the

0
1

Number of runs about median:


Expected number of runs:
Longest run about median:
Approx P-Value for Clustering:
Approx P-Value for Mixtures:

3
4
4.0
2
0.500
0.500

Sample

Number of runs or down:


Expected number of runs:
Longest run up or down:
Approx P-Value for Trends:
Approx P-Value for Oscillation:

3
3.7
3
0.220
0.780

process going unstable is high.


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79

Verifying Process Stability and Normality


The causes of variation existing in a process are used to verify its normality or stability.

If special causes of variation are present in a process, process distribution changes and the output

are not stable. The process is not said to be in control.

If only common causes of variation are present in a process, the output is stable and the process is
in control.

For a stable process, the control chart data can be used to calculate the process capability indices.

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80

Monitoring Techniques
Monitoring techniques refers to how well we can monitor the process capabilities. Some of the
monitoring techniques are as follows:

Statistical Process Control techniques;

Control Charts for monitoring both process capability and stability; and

Appropriate charts are used depending on the data type (attribute/discrete and
variable/continuous).

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81

Quiz

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QUIZ
1

KPOV stands for:

a.

Key Process Outline Variables

b. Key Process Output Variables


c.

Key Performance Output Variance

d.

Key Performance Outline Variables

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83

QUIZ
1

KPOV stands for:

a.

Key Process Outline Variables

b. Key Process Output Variables


c.

Key Performance Output Variance

d.

Key Performance Outline Variables

Answer: b.
Explanation: KPOV stands for Key Process Output Variables.

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84

QUIZ
2

The degree of conformity of a measured or calculated value to its actual (true) value is
known as:

a.

Accuracy

b. Precision
c.

Linearity

d.

Stability

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85

QUIZ
2

The degree of conformity of a measured or calculated value to its actual (true) value is
known as:

a.

Accuracy

b. Precision
c.

Linearity

d.

Stability

Answer: a.
Explanation: Accuracy demonstrates the degree of conformity of measured value to its true
value.
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86

QUIZ
3

The degree to which the repeated measurements under unchanged conditions show
the same results is called?

a.

Accuracy

b. Precision
c.

Linearity

d.

Stability

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87

QUIZ
3

The degree to which the repeated measurements under unchanged conditions show
the same results is called?

a.

Accuracy

b. Precision
c.

Linearity

d.

Stability

Answer: b.
Explanation: The degree to which the repeated measurements under unchanged conditions
show the same results is called Precision.
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88

QUIZ
4

When the data measured is consistently higher or lower than expected value with the
same magnitude, it is called:

a.

Bias

b. Precision
c.

Linearity

d.

Stability

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89

QUIZ
4

When the data measured is consistently higher or lower than expected value with the
same magnitude, it is called:

a.

Bias

b. Precision
c.

Linearity

d.

Stability

Answer: a.
Explanation: It is the Measurement Bias that is consistently higher or lower than the
expected value with the same magnitude.
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90

QUIZ
5

What does Linearity in Measurement Systems signify?

a.

Measurement errors

b. Linear Scale
c.

Positive bias

d.

Consistency of bias

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91

QUIZ
5

What does Linearity in Measurement Systems signify?

a.

Measurement errors

b. Linear Scale
c.

Positive bias

d.

Consistency of bias

Answer: d.
Explanation: Measurements performed at smaller levels and measurements at higher levels
have consistent bias over the range of measurements.
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92

QUIZ
6

The sum of the squared deviations of a group of measurements from their mean,
divided by the number of measurements is ________.

a.

variance

b. standard deviation
c.

one

d.

mean deviation

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93

QUIZ
6

The sum of the squared deviations of a group of measurements from their mean,
divided by the number of measurements is ________.

a.

variance

b. standard deviation
c.

one

d.

mean deviation

Answer: a.
Explanation: Variance, denoted by 2, is given by 2 , that is, the sum of the
squared deviations of a group of measurements from their mean, divided by the number of
measurements.
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94

QUIZ
7

The repeatability of an RR study can be determined by examining the variation


between:

a.

individual inspectors and their measurement readings.

b. the average of the individual inspectors for all parts.


c.

part means averaged among inspectors.

d.

the individual inspectors and comparing it to the part averages.

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95

QUIZ
7

The repeatability of an RR study can be determined by examining the variation


between:

a.

individual inspectors and their measurement readings.

b. the average of the individual inspectors for all parts.


c.

part means averaged among inspectors.

d.

the individual inspectors and comparing it to the part averages.

Answer: a.
Explanation: Repeatability is determined by examining the variation between individual
inspectors and their measurement readings.
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96

QUIZ
8

For attribute data, process capability:

a.

cannot be determined.

b. is determined by the control limits on the applicable attribute chart.


c.

is defined as the average proportion of nonconforming product.

d.

is measured by counting the average nonconforming units in 25 or more


samples.

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97

QUIZ
8

For attribute data, process capability:

a.

cannot be determined.

b. is determined by the control limits on the applicable attribute chart.


c.

is defined as the average proportion of nonconforming product.

d.

is measured by counting the average nonconforming units in 25 or more


samples.

Answer: c.
Explanation: The average proportion may be reported on a defects or defectives per million
scale by multiplying the average (, , ) by 1,000,000.
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98

QUIZ
9

Perfect correlation is:

a.

1/1

b. 1+1
c.

1:1

d.

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99

QUIZ
9

Perfect correlation is:

a.

1/1

b. 1+1
c.

1:1

d.

Answer: c.
Explanation: Perfect correlation, either positive or negative, is when a dependent variable
changes equally with a change in the independent variable, and is represented by 1:1.
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100

QUIZ
10

The variation in measurement average between operators for the same part with the
same gage is called ______________.

a.

Gage Repeatability

b. Gage Reproducibility
c.

Gage Repeatability and Reproducibility

d.

Gage Variation

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101

QUIZ
10

The variation in measurement average between operators for the same part with the
same gage is called ______________.

a.

Gage Repeatability

b. Gage Reproducibility
c.

Gage Repeatability and Reproducibility

d.

Gage Variation

Answer: b.
Explanation: Gage reproducibility is the variation in measurement when different operators
use the same gage to measure identical characteristics of the same part.
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102

QUIZ
11

Repeatability is also called _____________.

a.

Equipment Variation

b. Appraiser Variation
c.

Process Variation

d.

Product Variation

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103

QUIZ
11

Repeatability is also called _____________.

a.

Equipment Variation

b. Appraiser Variation
c.

Process Variation

d.

Product Variation

Answer: a.
Explanation: Repeatability or Equipment Variation or EV occurs when the same operator
repeatedly measures the same part or same process, under the same conditions, with the
same measurement system.
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104

QUIZ
12

Which of the following is not true for natural process limits?

a.

They are indicators of process variation.

b. They are based on past performance.


c.

They are defined by the customer.

d.

They are also called control limits.

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105

QUIZ
12

Which of the following is not true for natural process limits?

a.

They are indicators of process variation.

b. They are based on past performance.


c.

They are defined by the customer.

d.

They are also called control limits.

Answer: c.
Explanation: Natural process limits are derived from real-time values. Specification limits
are defined by the customer.
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106

QUIZ
13

In process capability studies, if the process limits fall within the specification limits,
what should be done next?

a.

Center the process.

b. Reduce variability by addressing the largest contributor of variation.


c.

No action is required.

d.

Stop the process.

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107

QUIZ
13

In process capability studies, if the process limits fall within the specification limits,
what should be done next?

a.

Center the process.

b. Reduce variability by addressing the largest contributor of variation.


c.

No action is required.

d.

Stop the process.

Answer: c.
Explanation: If the process limits are within the specification limits, it means the process is
in control, and no action is required.
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108

QUIZ
14

Which of the following refers to the ability of a measurement system to show the same
values over time when measuring the same repeatedly?

a.

Stability

b. Bias
c.

Linearity

d.

Process capability

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109

QUIZ
14

Which of the following refers to the ability of a measurement system to show the same
values over time when measuring the same repeatedly?

a.

Stability

b. Bias
c.

Linearity

d.

Process capability

Answer: a.
Explanation: Stability refers to the ability of a measurement system to show the same
values over time when measuring the same repeatedly.
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110

QUIZ
15

Which of the following limits will be as provided by the user?

a.

Central Limit

b. USL and LSL


c.

Natural Specification Limit

d.

Specification Limits

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111

QUIZ
15

Which of the following limits will be as provided by the user?

a.

Central Limit

b. USL and LSL


c.

Natural Specification Limit

d.

Specification Limits

Answer: b.
Explanation: The USL and LSL will be as provided by the user.

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112

QUIZ
16

Which of the following implies that as the value of X increases, the value of Y also
increases, but not in the same proportion?

a.

Moderate positive correlation

b. Moderate negative correlation


c.

Perfect positive correlation

d.

Perfect negative correlation

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113

QUIZ
16

Which of the following implies that as the value of X increases, the value of Y also
increases, but not in the same proportion?

a.

Moderate positive correlation

b. Moderate negative correlation


c.

Perfect positive correlation

d.

Perfect negative correlation

Answer: a.
Explanation: In moderate positive correlation, as the value of X increases, the value of Y also
increases, but not in the same proportion.
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114

QUIZ
17

Which of the following refers to the grouping of data into mutually exclusive categories
showing the number of observations in each class?

a.

Standard distribution

b. Frequency distribution
c.

Cumulative frequency distribution

d.

Normal distribution

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115

QUIZ
17

Which of the following refers to the grouping of data into mutually exclusive categories
showing the number of observations in each class?

a.

Standard distribution

b. Frequency distribution
c.

Cumulative frequency distribution

d.

Normal distribution

Answer: b.
Explanation: Frequency distribution is the grouping of data into mutually exclusive
categories showing the number of observations in each class.
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116

QUIZ
18

What is the key objective of the measure phase?

a.

To analyze the process

b. To improve the process


c.

To measure the processes

d.

To gather information on the current processes

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117

QUIZ
18

What is the key objective of the measure phase?

a.

To analyze the process

b. To improve the process


c.

To measure the processes

d.

To gather information on the current processes

Answer: d.
Explanation: The key objective of the measure phase is to gather as much information as
possible on the current processes.
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118

Summary
Here is a quick
recap of what we
have learned in this
lesson:

Process definition helps in defining the process and capture inputs and
outputs in the X-Y diagram.

Statistics refers to the science of collection, analysis, interpretation, and


presentation of data. The major types are Descriptive Statistics and
Inferential Statistics.

Precision refers to getting repeatable measurements and accuracy refers to


getting measurements closer to the actual measurement.

Process Capability is how well the process can potentially run, if the sources

of variation are controlled and process runs on target.

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119

Summary (contd.)
Here is a quick
recap of what we
have learned in this
lesson:

Measures of central tendency, dispersion, and graphical methods are used


to analyze sample data.

MSA is used to calculate, analyze, and interpret a measurement system's


capability using Gage Repeatability and Reproducibility.

Variation in a process can be because of common causes and special causes


which determine the bias, linearity, stability, capability, distribution and
defects of a process.

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120

THANK YOU

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