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Measure Phase

- LSSGB_Lesson1_Overview of Lean Six Sigma
- LSSGB Lesson4 Analyze
- LSSGB Lesson2 Define
- LSSGB Lesson6 Control
- Errors in Measurement
- LSSGB Lesson5 Improve
- LSSGB Lesson0 Course Overview
- _CSSBB_2002_001_PDF(2)
- Physics
- cost Management Techniques in Planning Phase of Construction Projects
- Six Sigma Green Belt
- Lean Six Sigma Guidebook
- Intro to Robotics
- Chem 26.1 Formal Report expt 1
- Engineering Metrology And Measurement
- Bioinstrumentation
- Efficiency Ppts
- Orifice and Jet Flow
- Optical Dividing Head
- 2010 Groves total survey error.pdf

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Lesson 3Measure

Objectives

After completing

this lesson, you will

be able to:

Measure

Topic 1Process Definition

The key objective of the measure phase is to gather as much

information as possible on the current processes.

Process Mapping

Process mapping refers to a workflow diagram which gives a clear understanding of the process or a

series of parallel processes.

improvement

Features

of process

mapping

of the problems and

opportunities

of recording

Process mapping can be done by using flowcharts, written procedures, or detailed work instructions.

X-Y Diagram

The X-Y diagram is a Six Sigma tool that helps in correlating Inputs (X) and Outputs (Y). It can be used

to identify what inputs are more valuable and impactful when there are multiple inputs and outputs

in a project.

Steps to Create X-Y Diagram

1

2

3

the input variable impacts what set of output variables).

After entering all the data, identify the inputs that are

more valuable or impactful and take actions accordingly.

6

The sample template of X-Y diagram is shown here.

input variable and multiply individually with

the values given in (a), added value is (c).

Capture the

impact value.

Insert weight for

each output.

List down each

of the output

variables.

List down each

of the input

variables.

Measure

Topic 2 Descriptive and Inferential Statistics

Types of Statistics

Statistics refers to the science of collection, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of data. There

are two major types of statisticsDescriptive statistics and Inferential statistics.

Descriptive Statistics

Includes organizing, summarizing, and

presenting the data

Describes what's going on in the data

Histograms, pie charts, box plots, etc., are

the tools

Inferential Statistics

Includes predicting and drawing conclusions

Makes inferences from our data to more

general conditions

Hypothesis testing, scattered diagram, etc.,

are the tools

Analytical Statistics

The main objective of statistical inference or analytical statistics is to draw conclusions on population

characteristics based on the information available in the sample. A sample from the population is

collected. An assessment about the population parameter is made from the sample.

Q

A

The management team of a cricket council wants to know if the teams performance has improved after

recruiting a new coach. Is there a way the improvement can be proven statistically?

Here, Ya = Efficiency of Coach A and Yb = Efficiency of Coach B

a. Null HypothesisAssumption is Coach A and Coach B are both effective.

Assuming status quo is null hypothesis

H0: Ya = Yb

b. Alternate HypothesisAssumption is the efficiencies of the two coaches differ.

If the null hypothesis is proven wrong, the alternate hypothesis must be right.

H1: Ya Yb

10

Central Limit Theorem (CLT) states that for a sample size greater than 30, the sample mean is very

close to the population mean.

When sample size is greater than 30, the sample mean approaches normal distribution.

In such cases, the Standard Error of Mean (SEM) that represents the variability between the

sample means is very less.

SEM =

Sample Size

Selecting a sample size also depends on the concept called Power of the Test.

11

The graphical representation of the Central Limit Theorem is given:

12

The Central Limit Theorem concludes the following:

If the sample data points are taken from a population and the distribution of the means of samples

is plotted, it is called the sampling distribution of means.

This sampling distribution will approach normality as the sample size increases.

CLT aids in making inferences from the sample statistics about the population parameters

irrespective of the distribution of the population.

CLT becomes the basis for calculating the confidence interval for a hypothesis test as it allows the

use of a standard normal table.

13

Measure

Topic 3Collecting and Summarizing Data

Types of Data

Data is a collection of facts from which conclusions can be drawn. The two types of data are:

Attribute Data (Discrete)

2, 40, 1050

such as 2.045, -4.42, or 45.65

often?, or what type?

volume?, or how far?

Examples:

o Number of defective products

o Percentage of defective products

o Frequency of machine repair

o Type of award received

Examples:

o Height

o Weight

o Time taken to complete a task

15

The first step in the measure phase is to determine the type of data required based on the following

considerations:

What variables have been

identified for the process?

(KPOVs), and Key Process Input Variables (KPIVs)

selected?

Why should the data type

be identified?

The type of data that fits the metrics for the key variables

set of data

It is difficult to convert attribute data to variable data in the absence of assumptions or additional

information, which can include retesting all units.

16

The differences between simple random sampling and stratified sampling are given here.

Simple Random Sampling

Stratified Sampling

out.

and requires more effort.

possible causes of variation.

showing assignable causes of variation.

17

A measure of central tendency is a single value that indicates the central point in a set of data. The

three most common measures of central tendency are as follows:

Mean

of central tendency

Given by the sum of

entries in a data set and

divided by the number of

entries

Also called average or

arithmetic mean

mean

Number in the middle of

the data set

Mean of the middle two

numbers in an even data

set

Also calculated using:

Median =

Mode

Median

mean

Value that occurs most

frequently in a data set

+1

2

18

For the following data set, the mean, median, and mode are calculated:

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 5, 6, 7, 8

1+2+3+4+5+5+6+7+8

Mean

Median

Mode

4.56

19

The dataset is modified to include a new value. The new dataset is given:

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 100

The mean is skewed due to the presence of an extreme data point, 100, called an outlier.

When the dataset has outliers, median is preferred over mean as a measure of central tendency.

20

Measures of dispersion describe the spread of values. Higher the variation of data points, higher the

spread of the data. The three main measures of dispersions are as follows:

Range

Variance

Standard Deviation

21

Measures of DispersionRange

Range is defined as the difference between the largest and smallest values of data.

For the data set given here,

4, 8, 1, 6, 6, 2, 9, 3, 6, 9

Range

= Maximum Minimum

= 91

= 8

22

Measures of DispersionVariance

Variance is defined as the average of squared mean differences and shows the variation in a data set.

Variance = 2 =

( )2

1

4, 8, 1, 6, 6, 2, 9, 3, 6, 9

Sample variance can be calculated using the formula = VARS() in an Excel sheet. Population variance

can be calculated using the formula = VARP(). Here,

Sample variance = 8.04

Population variance = 7.24

Variance is a measure of variation and cannot be considered as the variation in a data set. Population variance

is preferred over sample variance as it is an accurate indicator of variation.

23

Standard deviation is given by the square root of variation.

Standard Deviation = =

( )2

Manual Method

1

4, 8, 1, 6, 6, 2, 9, 3, 6, 9

(using the formula = STDEV() in Excel)

Copyright 2014, Simplilearn, All rights reserved.

Calculate mean.

each data point and the

mean, square each answer.

Calculate the sum of the

squares.

Divide the sum of the squares

by N or n-1 (to find variance).

Find square root of variance.

24

Frequency distribution is the grouping of data into mutually exclusive categories showing the number

of observations in each class. To create a frequency distribution table:

1

of results in each interval.

Make a table with separate columns for the interval

numbers, the tallied results, and the frequency of

results in each interval.

Record the number of observations in each interval

with a tally mark.

Add the number of tally marks in each interval and

record them in the Frequency column.

Number

Tally

Frequency

IIII

IIII I

IIII

III

II

25

A cumulative frequency distribution table is more detailed than a frequency distribution table.

To the frequency distribution table, add three more columns for the cumulative frequency,

percentage, and cumulative percentage.

In the cumulative frequency column, the cumulative frequency of the previous row(s) is

added to the current row.

The percentage is calculated by dividing the frequency by the total number of results and

multiplying by 100.

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26

For the following dataset, the cumulative frequency distribution table is given:

37, 49, 54, 91, 60, 62, 65, 77, 67, 81

Lower Value

Upper Value

Frequency

Cumulative

Frequency

Percentage

Cumulative

Percentage

35

44

10

10

45

54

20

30

55

64

20

50

65

74

20

70

75

84

20

90

85

94

10

10

100

27

A stem and leaf plot is used to present data in a graphical format to enable visualizing the shape of a

distribution. For example, following are the temperatures for the month of May in Fahrenheit.

78, 81, 82, 68, 65, 59, 62, 58, 51, 62, 62, 71, 69, 64, 67, 71, 62, 65, 65, 74, 76, 87, 82, 82, 83, 79, 79, 71, 82, 77, 81

To create the plot, all the tens digits are entered in the Stem column and all the units digits against

each tens digit are entered in the Leaf column.

Stem

Leaf

189

22224555789

111467899

11222237

28

A box and whisker graph, based on medians or quartiles, is used to view the data distribution easily.

Example: The lengths of 13 fish caught in a lake are measured and recorded as follows:

12, 13, 5, 8, 9, 20, 16, 14, 14, 6, 9, 12, 12

5, 6, 8, 9, 9, 12, 12, 12, 13, 14, 14, 16, 20

5, 6, 8, 9, 9, 12, 12, 12, 13, 14, 14, 16, 20

Median

5, 6, 8, 9, 9, 12, 12, 12, 13, 14, 14, 16, 20

Lower Quartile = 8.5 Median

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Upper Quartile = 14

29

The box and whisker graph can now be constructed.

Step 4: Draw a number line extending enough to include all the data points.

Step 5: Locate the main median, 12, using a vertical line. Locate the lower and upper quartiles (8.5 and 14) and

join them with the median by drawing boxes.

Step 6: Extend whiskers from either ends of the boxes to the smallest and largest numbers (5 and 20) in the data set.

30

The following inferences can be drawn from the box and

whisker plot:

Range = 20 5 = 15

The quartiles split the data into four equal parts:

31

Scatter Diagrams

A scatter diagram can be used to:

No relation

32

In perfect positive correlation, as the value of X increases, the value of Y also increases proportionally.

Example: Correlation between consumption of coffee and consumption of milk

Coffee Consumption in ml (X)

300

15

350

17.5

400

20

450

22.5

500

25

550

27.5

600

30

33

In moderate positive correlation, as the value of X increases, the value of Y also increases, but not in

the same proportion.

Example: Correlation between monthly salary and monthly savings

Salary (in thousands) (X)

45

48

6.2

52

55

8.2

57

8.5

58

8.6

60

10

65

12

34

When a change in one variable has no impact on the other, there is no correlation between them.

Example: Relation between number of fresh graduates and job openings in a city

Fresh Graduates

(in thousands) (X)

Job Openings

(in thousands) (Y)

80

15

100

15

90

18

95

20

89

20

90

15

95

15

35

In moderate negative correlation, as the value of X increases, the value of Y decreases, but not in the

same proportion.

Example: Correlation between the price of a product and the number of units sold

Unit Price of Product

(in thousands) (X)

30

1000

32

980

33

970

35

965

38

950

40

920

42

910

36

In perfect negative correlation, as X increases, Y decreases proportionally.

Time Extension

(in days) (X)

(in percentage) (Y)

80

60

7

10

40

20

13

00

37

Graphical MethodsHistogram

A histogram is similar to a bar graph, except that the data in a histogram is grouped into intervals. A

histogram is best suited for continuous data.

1.5, 1.5, 2, 3, 3, 3, 25, 3, 5, 4, 4, 4, 4.5, 5, 6, 9.5, 10

Hours spent (X)

Number of Employees

(Frequency) (Y)

0-2

2-4

4-6

6-8

8 - 10

3

0

2

38

Normal probability plots are used to identify if a dataset is normally distributed. A normally

distributed dataset forms a straight line in a normal probability plot.

.127, .125, .123, .123, .120, .124, .126, .122, .123, .125, .121, .123, .122, .125, .124, .122, .123, .123, .126, .121,

.124, .121, .124, .122, .126, .125, .123

Step 1: Construct a cumulative frequency distribution table and calculate the mean rank probability

estimate using the formula:

Mean rank probability estimate =

Cumulative frequency

(n+1)

100

39

After performing Step 1, mean rank probability estimations are calculated. The table below lists

them:

X

Frequency

Cumulative

Frequency

(Cumulative

Frequency)/(n+1)

0.120

1/28

0.121

4/28

14

0.122

0.123

0.124

0.125

0.126

0.127

4

7

4

4

3

1

n = 27

8

15

19

23

26

27

8/28

15/28

19/28

23/28

26/28

27/28

29

54

68

82

93

96

40

Step 2: Plot the graph on log paper or using Minitab, a statistical software used in Six Sigma.

Minitab normal probability plot instructions

1. Paste the data in any column

2. Select graph from the menu bar

3. Select probability plot

4. Select the type of the graph single

5. Click ok

6. Double click the data column

7. Click ok

Conclusion: From this graph, it can be observed that the random sample forms a straight line, and

therefore, the data is taken from a normally distributed population.

Copyright 2014, Simplilearn, All rights reserved.

41

Measure

Topic 4Measurement System Analysis

The Measurement Systems (MS) output is used throughout the DMAIC process. An error-prone MS

leads to incorrect conclusions. Measurement System Analysis (MSA) is a technique that identifies

In MSA, the systems capability is calculated, analyzed, and interpreted using Gage Repeatability and

Reproducibility (GRR) to determine:

measurement correlation;

bias;

linearity;

precision/tolerance (P/T).

43

The objectives of MSA are as follows:

Obtain information about the type of measurement variation associated with the measurement

system

Variation in the measurement system has to be resolved to ensure correct baselines for the project

objectives.

44

In statistical measurements, the terms Precision and Accuracy are the two important factors to be

considered when taking data measurements.

Precision

after time, consistent measurements.

data.

can be addressed through Measurement

Systems Analysis.

Accuracy

focus on the accuracy first by addressing

measurement issues, and get accurate

results.

45

Good precision and accuracy are equally important for a stable measurement system.

Precision

In any measurement system, precision is the

degree to which repeated measurements

under unchanged conditions show the same

results (repeatability).

Example: Hitting a target means all the hits

are closely spaced, even if they are very far

from the center of the target.

Accuracy

In any measurement system, accuracy is the

degree of conformity of a measured or

calculated value to its actual (true) value.

Example: Accurately hitting the target

means you are close to the center of the

target, even if all of the marks are on

different sides of the center.

46

Examples of the four combinations of accuracy and precision are shown here:

however are precise,

all the darts are closer

to each other.

random across the

board.

a)

Low accuracy

Low precision

b) Low accuracy

High precision

to the target, but

are not consistent.

the target.

c)

High accuracy

Low precision

d) High accuracy

High precision

47

Bias, Linearity and Stability are the three aspects of measurement system that helps in analyzing how

good the measurements are.

While performing the MSA, it is important to evaluate these along with precision and accuracy.

Bias, linearity, and stability help you understand what is causing mismatch, if any, or resulting in

inaccurate data.

48

Bias

Bias is a measure of the distance between the measured value and the True or Actual value. It could

be either on the positive side or the negative side.

Example: An Analog Bathroom Weighing Scale provides an adjustment screw or a dial to set it to zero

prior to weighing.

49

Linearity

Linearity is a measure of consistency of bias over the range of measurement from smaller number to

higher number and vice-a-versa.

Example: If a bathroom scale is showing 2 pounds less when measuring a 100 pound person, and 5

pounds less when measuring a 150 pound person, the scale bias is said to be non-linear. The degree

of bias changes between the lower end and high end (Linearity issue).

50

Stability

Stability refers to the ability of a measurement system to show the same values over time when

measuring the same repeatedly.

Example: Suppose the weighing scale shows one reading in the morning and other in the afternoon

for the same item, the measurement system is said to be instable.

51

Measurement Systems Analysis (MSA) should be done for both Variable and Attribute data.

Variable R and R

Attribute R and R

or Continuous data.

o Example: Length, Weight, Volume, Time,

Temperature, etc.

Attribute or Discrete data.

o Example: Pass/Fail, Yes/No, Count, Color,

Defective/Good, etc.

physical gauge and can be measured.

o The result of this is quantification of the

percentage of variation contributed by the

measurement system.

or automated counting/monitoring.

o The result of this is quantification of the

proportion of defective measurements, in

DPMO, % Agreement or Sigma Level.

52

Gage Repeatability and Reproducibility are compared here.

Gage Repeatability

This is the variation in measurements obtained when

one operator uses the same gage for measuring

identical characteristics of the same part repeatedly.

Gage Reproducibility

This is the variation in the average of measurements

made by different operators using the same gage

when measuring identical characteristics of

the same part.

53

The diagram shows repeatability and

reproducibility for six different parts (16)

operators is indicated by green and

represents reproducibility error (part 1).

represents repeatability error (part 4).

54

The following should be considered while conducting GRR studies:

After GRR, measurement variability should be separated into causal components, prioritized, and

targeted for action.

55

The following are also considered in GRR studies:

Linearity

Bias

mean value and the sample

true value

Also called accuracy

range of the gage

Precision

Degree of repeatability or

closeness of data

Smaller dispersion results in

better precision

Process Variation = 6 (std.

deviation)

Variation

Bias

56

Measurement Resolution

Measurement resolution is the smallest detectable increment that an instrument will measure or

display. The number of increments in the measurement system should extend over the full range for a

given parameter.

A caliper capable of measuring differences of 0.1 mm was used to show compliance with tolerance

of 0.07 mm.

57

Repeatability or Equipment Variation (EV) occurs when the same operator repeatedly measures the

same part or process, under identical conditions, with the same measurement system.

Example: A 36 km/hr pace mechanism is timed by a single operator over a distance of 100 meters on

a stop watch. Three readings are taken:

Trial 1 = 9 seconds

Trial 2 = 10 seconds

Trial 3 = 11 seconds

Assuming there is no operator error, the variation in the three readings is known as Repeatability or

Equipment Variation (EV).

58

Reproducibility or Appraiser Variation (AV) occurs when different operators measure the same part or

process, under identical conditions, with the same measurement system.

Example: A 36 km/hour pace mechanism is timed by two operators over a distance of 100 meters on a

stop watch. Three readings are taken by each:

Trial

Operator 1 Reading

Operator 2 Reading

9s

12s

10s

13s

11s

14s

It is important to resolve EV before resolving AV, as the other way round is counter-productive.

59

Important considerations while collecting data are as follows:

The units are measured by the first operator in random order, and the same order is followed by

60

ANOVA is considered the best method for analyzing GRR studies due to the following reasons:

ANOVA separates equipment and operator variation, and also provides insight on the combined

ANOVA uses standard deviation instead of range as a measure of variation and therefore gives a

better estimate of the measurement system variation.

The primary concerns in using ANOVA are those of time, resources required, and cost.

61

The result of an MSA could have the following interpretations:

Operators are not adequately

trained in using the gage

MSA Result

not clear

Gage needs maintenance

Gage needs redesign to be more

rigid

Gaging location needs

improvement

Ambiguity is present in SOPs

Copyright 2014, Simplilearn, All rights reserved.

62

Gage RR Template

A sample template for Gage RR is given:

63

The results page of the data entered in the template is displayed here:

64

Gage RR Interpretation

The interpretation for the GRR results summary is as follows:

1

Check the value of %GRR. If %GRR < 30, Gage Variation is acceptable, and thus the gage is

acceptable. If %GRR > 30, the gage is not acceptable.

Check EV first. If EV = 0, the MS is reliable and the variation in the gage is contributed by

different operators. If AV = 0, the MS is precise.

The interaction between operators and parts can also be studied under GRR using Part Variation. The trueness and

precision cannot be determined in a GRR if only one gage or measurement method is evaluated as it may have an

inherent bias.

65

Measure

Topic 5Process Capability

Process Capability is how well the process can potentially run, if the

sources of variation are controlled and the process runs on target.

which is a metric that reflects only the common cause variation,

assuming special causes are controlled.

There are two types of limits, Natural Process Limits and

Specification Limits. The USL and LSL will be as provided by the user.

LSL

USL

67

The comparison between natural process limits and specification limits is presented here:

Voice of the process

Based on past performance

Real-time values

Derived from data

Consist of Upper Control Limit (UCL) and

Lower Control Limit (LCL)

Specification Limits

Voice of customer

Based on customer requirements

Intended result

Defined by the customer

Consist of Upper Specification Limit (USL)

and Lower Specification Limit (LSL)

If the limits lie within the specification limits, the process is under control. Conversely, if the specification

limits lie within the control limits, the process will not meet customer requirements.

68

Process Capability

Process Capability (CP) is defined as the inherent variability of a characteristic of a process or a

product. It is an indicator of the capability of a process.

6

OR

Process capability CP =

USL LSL

6

The difference between USL and LSL is also called the Specification width or Tolerance.

69

Process capability indices (Cpk) was developed to objectively measure the degree to which a process

meets or does not meet customer requirements.

To calculate Cpk, the first step is to determine if the process mean is closer to the LSL or the USL.

Cpkl =

X LSL

3Sigma

CpkU =

USL X

3Sigma

If the process mean is equidistant, either specification limit can be chosen. Cpk takes up the value of CpkU and

Cpkl, depending on whichever is the lower value.

70

A batch process produces high fructose corn syrup with a specification for the Dextrose Equivalent (DE) to

be between 6.00 and 6.15. The DEs are normally distributed, and a control chart shows the process is

stable. The standard deviation of the process is 0.035. The DEs from a random sample of 30 batches have a

sample mean of 6.05. Determine Cp and Cpk.

=

= 0.71

6

6 0.035

6.15 6.05

30.035

= 0.95; CpkL =

6.05 6.00

30.035

= 0.48

71

The following interpretations need to be remembered:

A Cp value of less than 1 indicates the process is not capable. Even if Cp > 1, to ascertain if the

A Cpk value of less than 1 indicates that the process is definitely not capable but might be if Cp > 1,

and the process mean is at or near the mid-point of the tolerance range.

The Cpk value will always be less than Cp, especially as long as the process mean is not at the center

of the process tolerance range.

Non-centering can happen when the process has not understood customer expectations clearly or

the process is complete as soon as the output reaches a specific limit.

72

Process capability is the actual variation in the process specification. The steps in a process capability

study are:

1

Collect data

results

Getting the appropriate sampling plan for the process capability studies depends on the purpose and

For new processes, a pilot run may be used to estimate process capability.

73

The objective of a process capability study is to establish a state of control over a manufacturing

process and then to maintain control over a time period.

limits with specification

limits

specification limits

No action required

spread are approximately the same

centering to bring the batch

within specification limits

specification limits

Reduce variability by

partitioning and targeting

the largest offender

74

To select a characteristic for a process capability study, it should meet the following requirements:

The characteristic should indicate a key factor in the quality of the product or process.

It should be possible to influence the value of the characteristic through process adjustments.

The operating conditions that affect the characteristic should be defined and controlled.

standards.

75

For attribute or discrete data, process capability is determined by the mean rate of non-conformity

and DPMO is the measure used. For this, the mean and standard deviation have to be defined.

Defectives

Defects

for constant and variable sample sizes.

constant.

is used when the sample size is

variable.

(1 )

, , and are the equivalent of the standard deviation for continuous data.

76

The activities carried out in the measure phase are MSA, collection of data, statistical calculations,

and checking for accuracy and validity.

This is followed by a test for stability as changes cannot be made to an unstable process.

Q

A

A process becomes unstable due to special causes of variation. Multiple special causes of variation lead to

instability. A single special cause leads to an out-of-control condition.

77

Variations can be due to two types of causes:

Common Causes of Variation (CCV)

process

Have a stable and repeatable distribution over a

period

Contribute to a state of statistical control where

the output is predictable

on the process

Sporadic in nature

Contribute to instability to a process output

May result in defects and have to be eliminated

If indicated by Run charts, point to the need for

root cause analysis

78

The steps to plot a Run chart in

70

60

Data

50

40

30

20

10

provided in the chart is less than 0.05,

variation, and the chances of the

0

1

Expected number of runs:

Longest run about median:

Approx P-Value for Clustering:

Approx P-Value for Mixtures:

3

4

4.0

2

0.500

0.500

Sample

Expected number of runs:

Longest run up or down:

Approx P-Value for Trends:

Approx P-Value for Oscillation:

3

3.7

3

0.220

0.780

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79

The causes of variation existing in a process are used to verify its normality or stability.

If special causes of variation are present in a process, process distribution changes and the output

If only common causes of variation are present in a process, the output is stable and the process is

in control.

For a stable process, the control chart data can be used to calculate the process capability indices.

80

Monitoring Techniques

Monitoring techniques refers to how well we can monitor the process capabilities. Some of the

monitoring techniques are as follows:

Control Charts for monitoring both process capability and stability; and

Appropriate charts are used depending on the data type (attribute/discrete and

variable/continuous).

81

Quiz

QUIZ

1

a.

c.

d.

83

QUIZ

1

a.

c.

d.

Answer: b.

Explanation: KPOV stands for Key Process Output Variables.

84

QUIZ

2

The degree of conformity of a measured or calculated value to its actual (true) value is

known as:

a.

Accuracy

b. Precision

c.

Linearity

d.

Stability

85

QUIZ

2

The degree of conformity of a measured or calculated value to its actual (true) value is

known as:

a.

Accuracy

b. Precision

c.

Linearity

d.

Stability

Answer: a.

Explanation: Accuracy demonstrates the degree of conformity of measured value to its true

value.

Copyright 2014, Simplilearn, All rights reserved.

86

QUIZ

3

The degree to which the repeated measurements under unchanged conditions show

the same results is called?

a.

Accuracy

b. Precision

c.

Linearity

d.

Stability

87

QUIZ

3

The degree to which the repeated measurements under unchanged conditions show

the same results is called?

a.

Accuracy

b. Precision

c.

Linearity

d.

Stability

Answer: b.

Explanation: The degree to which the repeated measurements under unchanged conditions

show the same results is called Precision.

Copyright 2014, Simplilearn, All rights reserved.

88

QUIZ

4

When the data measured is consistently higher or lower than expected value with the

same magnitude, it is called:

a.

Bias

b. Precision

c.

Linearity

d.

Stability

89

QUIZ

4

When the data measured is consistently higher or lower than expected value with the

same magnitude, it is called:

a.

Bias

b. Precision

c.

Linearity

d.

Stability

Answer: a.

Explanation: It is the Measurement Bias that is consistently higher or lower than the

expected value with the same magnitude.

Copyright 2014, Simplilearn, All rights reserved.

90

QUIZ

5

a.

Measurement errors

b. Linear Scale

c.

Positive bias

d.

Consistency of bias

91

QUIZ

5

a.

Measurement errors

b. Linear Scale

c.

Positive bias

d.

Consistency of bias

Answer: d.

Explanation: Measurements performed at smaller levels and measurements at higher levels

have consistent bias over the range of measurements.

Copyright 2014, Simplilearn, All rights reserved.

92

QUIZ

6

The sum of the squared deviations of a group of measurements from their mean,

divided by the number of measurements is ________.

a.

variance

b. standard deviation

c.

one

d.

mean deviation

93

QUIZ

6

The sum of the squared deviations of a group of measurements from their mean,

divided by the number of measurements is ________.

a.

variance

b. standard deviation

c.

one

d.

mean deviation

Answer: a.

Explanation: Variance, denoted by 2, is given by 2 , that is, the sum of the

squared deviations of a group of measurements from their mean, divided by the number of

measurements.

Copyright 2014, Simplilearn, All rights reserved.

94

QUIZ

7

between:

a.

c.

d.

95

QUIZ

7

between:

a.

c.

d.

Answer: a.

Explanation: Repeatability is determined by examining the variation between individual

inspectors and their measurement readings.

Copyright 2014, Simplilearn, All rights reserved.

96

QUIZ

8

a.

cannot be determined.

c.

d.

samples.

97

QUIZ

8

a.

cannot be determined.

c.

d.

samples.

Answer: c.

Explanation: The average proportion may be reported on a defects or defectives per million

scale by multiplying the average (, , ) by 1,000,000.

Copyright 2014, Simplilearn, All rights reserved.

98

QUIZ

9

a.

1/1

b. 1+1

c.

1:1

d.

99

QUIZ

9

a.

1/1

b. 1+1

c.

1:1

d.

Answer: c.

Explanation: Perfect correlation, either positive or negative, is when a dependent variable

changes equally with a change in the independent variable, and is represented by 1:1.

Copyright 2014, Simplilearn, All rights reserved.

100

QUIZ

10

The variation in measurement average between operators for the same part with the

same gage is called ______________.

a.

Gage Repeatability

b. Gage Reproducibility

c.

d.

Gage Variation

101

QUIZ

10

The variation in measurement average between operators for the same part with the

same gage is called ______________.

a.

Gage Repeatability

b. Gage Reproducibility

c.

d.

Gage Variation

Answer: b.

Explanation: Gage reproducibility is the variation in measurement when different operators

use the same gage to measure identical characteristics of the same part.

Copyright 2014, Simplilearn, All rights reserved.

102

QUIZ

11

a.

Equipment Variation

b. Appraiser Variation

c.

Process Variation

d.

Product Variation

103

QUIZ

11

a.

Equipment Variation

b. Appraiser Variation

c.

Process Variation

d.

Product Variation

Answer: a.

Explanation: Repeatability or Equipment Variation or EV occurs when the same operator

repeatedly measures the same part or same process, under the same conditions, with the

same measurement system.

Copyright 2014, Simplilearn, All rights reserved.

104

QUIZ

12

a.

c.

d.

105

QUIZ

12

a.

c.

d.

Answer: c.

Explanation: Natural process limits are derived from real-time values. Specification limits

are defined by the customer.

Copyright 2014, Simplilearn, All rights reserved.

106

QUIZ

13

In process capability studies, if the process limits fall within the specification limits,

what should be done next?

a.

c.

No action is required.

d.

107

QUIZ

13

In process capability studies, if the process limits fall within the specification limits,

what should be done next?

a.

c.

No action is required.

d.

Answer: c.

Explanation: If the process limits are within the specification limits, it means the process is

in control, and no action is required.

Copyright 2014, Simplilearn, All rights reserved.

108

QUIZ

14

Which of the following refers to the ability of a measurement system to show the same

values over time when measuring the same repeatedly?

a.

Stability

b. Bias

c.

Linearity

d.

Process capability

109

QUIZ

14

Which of the following refers to the ability of a measurement system to show the same

values over time when measuring the same repeatedly?

a.

Stability

b. Bias

c.

Linearity

d.

Process capability

Answer: a.

Explanation: Stability refers to the ability of a measurement system to show the same

values over time when measuring the same repeatedly.

Copyright 2014, Simplilearn, All rights reserved.

110

QUIZ

15

a.

Central Limit

c.

d.

Specification Limits

111

QUIZ

15

a.

Central Limit

c.

d.

Specification Limits

Answer: b.

Explanation: The USL and LSL will be as provided by the user.

112

QUIZ

16

Which of the following implies that as the value of X increases, the value of Y also

increases, but not in the same proportion?

a.

c.

d.

113

QUIZ

16

Which of the following implies that as the value of X increases, the value of Y also

increases, but not in the same proportion?

a.

c.

d.

Answer: a.

Explanation: In moderate positive correlation, as the value of X increases, the value of Y also

increases, but not in the same proportion.

Copyright 2014, Simplilearn, All rights reserved.

114

QUIZ

17

Which of the following refers to the grouping of data into mutually exclusive categories

showing the number of observations in each class?

a.

Standard distribution

b. Frequency distribution

c.

d.

Normal distribution

115

QUIZ

17

Which of the following refers to the grouping of data into mutually exclusive categories

showing the number of observations in each class?

a.

Standard distribution

b. Frequency distribution

c.

d.

Normal distribution

Answer: b.

Explanation: Frequency distribution is the grouping of data into mutually exclusive

categories showing the number of observations in each class.

Copyright 2014, Simplilearn, All rights reserved.

116

QUIZ

18

a.

c.

d.

117

QUIZ

18

a.

c.

d.

Answer: d.

Explanation: The key objective of the measure phase is to gather as much information as

possible on the current processes.

Copyright 2014, Simplilearn, All rights reserved.

118

Summary

Here is a quick

recap of what we

have learned in this

lesson:

Process definition helps in defining the process and capture inputs and

outputs in the X-Y diagram.

presentation of data. The major types are Descriptive Statistics and

Inferential Statistics.

getting measurements closer to the actual measurement.

Process Capability is how well the process can potentially run, if the sources

119

Summary (contd.)

Here is a quick

recap of what we

have learned in this

lesson:

to analyze sample data.

capability using Gage Repeatability and Reproducibility.

which determine the bias, linearity, stability, capability, distribution and

defects of a process.

120

THANK YOU

Copyright 2014, Simplilearn, All rights reserved.

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