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NOTATION

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GENERAL
#NUM
$
&
.mpr
[Ctrl] [Shift] [Enter]
[F2]
[F4]
[F5]
a
absolute reference
Ad
ampersand
AND
ASD
atan
b
b
bd3/12
c
c
c
c
cc
celerity
CG
CG X
d, dX
e
E
e
Ek
Ep
f
f
F
FEM
FEM
fn
g
g
Greek C
Greek S
Hz
i
i
I
iterative solution
IXX, IYY

a problem occurs with a number in a formula or a function


cell row and/or column absolute reference
ampersand used in string concatenation
ASCII file extension used in AutoCAD
table entry command
edit key
absolute reference key
moving around the spreadsheet
row 20
how a cell is referenced by a formula, $
area * (distance from an axis)2, moment of inertia , in4
& used in concatenating/combining text and equations
Boolean logical operator
allowable stress design
arctangent, radians
the Y intercept in a graph
moment of inertia for a rectangle, in 4
row 30
speed of pressure wave, celerity, ft/sec
actual damping, lb-sec/in
distance of centroid to the extreme fiber in tension or compression, inches
critical damping, lb-sec/in
movement of the pressure wave in a pipe
center of gravity
CG located in the X direction from the Y axis.
distance, distance from the x-axis
Young's modulus of elasticity, 29,000 ksi for steel, first yield, ksi, k/in
2.71828 base of natural logarithms
kinetic energy

row 40

potential energy
1 /T, Hz, cycles per second
force as in F = ma, F = m z'', lbs
fixed end moment as opposed to pinned end with no moment resistance
fixed end moment
natural frequency, cycles per second, Hertz n /2, 1/T
row 50
gravity, 32.17 ft/sec/sec, 386.04 in/sec,
font
font
Hertz, cycles/sec

9.80621 m/sec

complex conjugate, imaginary number


moment of inertia, in4
the shooting method -- converging two equations to within a degree of accuracy
moments of inertia about x-axis and y-axis respectively, in 4

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NOTATION

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Copyright 2006 American Society of Civil Engineers
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GENERAL -- Continued
k
k
number of constants in an equation
k
stiffness factor, k/in
K
liquid bulk modulus of elasticity for water this is usually 300 ksi unless the water
contains a significant air bubbles as in papermill stock lines. Air bubbles are
compressible and the value of K must be reduced.
K.E.
l

kinetic energy

L
LRFD
LVDT
m
m
m
M
m, mass
moment distribution

length of beam or column, in


load resistance factor design
linear voltage displacement transducer

n
n
n
NOT
o
OR
P.E.
p-delta, pd, P
pline
q
Q
r
Re
right hand rule

row 70
the slope of straight line in a graph
mass, lb-ft/sec, kg-m/sec
moment
weight / gravity, k-sec/in, kg-sec/m
a method of solving multi-span beam-column moments and reactions created
by Mr. Hardy Cross, hence, also referred to as the Hardy Cross method

number of bolt threads


Poisson's ratio 0.27 to 0.3 for steel
Boolean logical operator
row 80
Boolean logical operator
potential energy
an effect that takes place in columns and slender walls where a column is
already bent and an axial load is applied to it, it will bend more.
AutoCAD contiguous line
soil pressure, k/ft
flowrate in pipe, ft/sec
Reynolds number, unitless factor for air flow

ro

mathematical rule -- an arrow going away from you rotates in a clockwise


direction
soil modulus of compressibility, lbs/in/in, lbs/in

s
S
s,
Script S
seismic
shooting method
Symap
Symath
Symbol
SymbolSH
Symeteo

section modulus, I/c, in


stress, psi, lb/in, ksi, k/in, kg/cm, kPa
font
earthquake, E, fraction of gravity, force
converging two equations to within a degree of accuracy
font
font
font
font
font

row 90

row 100

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NOTATION

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GENERAL -- Continued
t
T
period, seconds
t
time at which z' is calculated, second
tabs
TLA
three letter acronym
v
V
shear
v
velocity, in/sec
w
uniform load, k/ft
w
uniform load, lbs/inch
Xmm
overall mean denoted in text books as X with double bars on top
z'
z''
zc

velocity, in/sec
acceleration, in/sec
known as x0 in some references, resulting displacement, inch

ZIP

ZIP files (WinZip ) are condensed files for storage and transmission
deflection, inches
damping factor, unitless
PI() in Excel nomenclature, 3.142, unitless
density of the liquid, lb/ft, where water = 62.4 lb/ft
stress, k/in
duration of applied force, second

BOLTS
F/thread
Ft

Fv * area of thread in shear


tension, kips/in

Fv

shear through threads in plane, kips/in

H
head
K root
n
pitch
w thread

0.866 P
bolt head
least diameter of a bolt at the threads
number of threads/inch
spacing of threads, inch
actual width of thread pitch - pitch/4

row 110

row 120

row 130

CELERITY -- WAVE ACTION


b, circ
shell circumference, ft
arbitrary factor, unitless
C1
C2

lateral seismic force coefficient, unitless

D
density
dwave

tank diameter, ft
density of stored product, k/ft
wave height, ft

Fa

minimum yield strength in compression, k/in

Fby

minimum yield strength in bending, k/in

G
H
Ht

specific gravity of stored product, unitless


maximum design liquid height, ft
total height of tank shell, ft

I
k

wind or seismic importance factor, unitless


factor for D/H

row 140

row 150

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NOTATION

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CELERITY -- WAVE ACTION -- Continued


Mot
tank overturning moment, k-ft
Mrt

righting moment, k-ft

S
T
tank_full
tb

site amplification factor from API Table


period of first mode sloshing, sec
weight of full tank, k
thickness of bottom of tank, in

ts

shell thickness, in

V
W arm
W sum
W tank

volume of tank, ft
vertical arm to lateral forces, ft
for lateral forces, k
tank shell per foot of circumference, k/ft

Wr

total weight of tank roof and insulation, 0 when included in Ws, k

W s tare

weight of empty tank, tare, k

WT

weight of liquid, k

Xs
Z

height to the CG of the shell usually taken as 2/3 Ht for flexible structures, ft
seismic zone coefficient, unitless
longitudinal stress at bottom of the shell, lbs/in

L-2

row 160

row 170
CONCRETE PULLOUT

concrete roughness factor


Ab
net cross-section area of bolt
Ac

shear area AC (base plate or shear plane)

AP
de

effective area of projected cone onto the surface of the slab


edge distance toward loaded edge

Edge 2
f'c

edge distance away from loaded edge


compression strength of concrete

fut

bolt ultimate tensile strength

fy

specified yield strength = Fu tensile for bolt material

concrete weight factor


concrete strength reduction factor

row 180

CONCRETE FOUNDATION DESIGN


aX
the 1/3 point of the triangular soil loading profile, ft
CGX
center of gravity from the x-axis, ft
d 20

deflection indexed to soil modulus, inch

eX

eccentricity of all loads including dead and live loads, the slab, and moment due
to seismic or wind forces located from the geographical center of gravity CG X, ft

IXX

moment if inertia about the x-axis or an axis parallel to the x-axis, ft 4

Mot X

overturning moment about the x-axis, k-ft

Mrt X

righting moment about the x-axis from loads

Mu

ultimate moment for LRFD design

MX

moment about the x-axis or an axis parallel to the x-axis, k-ft

qx

soil pressure along the loaded top or bottom edge, ksf, working in the opposite
direction of Mot x, k-ft

row 190

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NOTATION

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SEISMIC
ap

in-structure component amplification factor

Ca

CA seismic coefficient soil type

Ct

structural frame type factor

Cv

seismic coefficient soil profile

Fp

attached structure force

hr

to top of structure above grade, ft

hx

element connection elevation above grade, ft

Ip

attached structure importance factor

m
n
n1

graph slope of straight line


number of samples
factor for the groups in the F statistic

n2
Na

factor for the number of observations within a number of groups


seismic near-source factor

Nv

seismic near-source factor

structure response factor

SA
SB
SC
SD
SE
SF
soil
T
Z

Hard rock soil profile


Rock soil profile
Very dense soil & soft rock soil profile
Stiff soil profile
Soft soil profile
Soil requiring evaluation soil profile
soil profile type measured as blows/ft
structural period, seconds/cycle
seismic zone factor
seismic force amplification factor required for structural overstrength

row 200

*W

row 210

row 220

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NOTATION

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STATISTICS
b
CM
df
F statistic

k
m
MSE
MST
n1
n2
R Square, r2
s, s coefficient
SS Residual, SSE
ssreg
standard error se
Syx
t
two tail
V
Xm Ym
Xmm

the Y-axis intercept the point at which the line starts for a given value of X and Y
along the slope m
correction for the mean
degrees of freedom n - k
MST / MSE the chance relation between data groups and within a group the F
statistic determines whether the observed relationship between dependent and
independent variables occurs by chance. Always positive
number of constants in the equation
the slope of a straight line in y = mx + b
mean square for error
mean squares for treatment
factor for the groups in the F statistic
factor for the number of observations within a number of groups
the correlation of estimated and actual y values. A measure correlation varies
from 0 to 1 with 1 being the best correlation
standard deviation, standard measure of dispersion
sum of squares for error = S( Y - Ym )

row 240

overall mean denoted in text books as X with double bars on top


straight line graph
where a straight or curved line crosses the y-axis, sometimes set to 0

Yc

the computed/expected value of y

a pure number representing the net regression coefficient expressed in units of


its own standard deviation.
a pure number representing the net regression coefficient expressed in units of
its own standard deviation.
x represents standard error of regression coefficient: the dispersion of X
values around their mean.

row 230

the sum of the squared differences for the actual values and the average y
values for each point
the standard error values for the coefficients m1, m2, etc.
Standard Error of Estimate of the dependent variable Y regressed against the
independent variable(s) X
Student's t -- describes the sampling distribution of a deviation from the
population mean divided by the standard error
excluded areas of a Gaussian curve in statistics
lateral force, * W
the mean value(s) of X and Y

Y = mX + b
y intercept

row 250

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NOTATION

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VORTEX
CD

coefficient of drag

CL

coefficient of lift

D
d
d
D cantilever

max stack diameter at CL of plate


diameter of cylinder perpendicular to wind flow, ft
logarithmic decrement for damping
amplified deflection

d_mean
Dr

diameter of cylinder to middle of plate, ft


average diameter of stack for DPE calculations

Ds

static deflection for DPE calculations

E
E heat
E_ASD

Young's modulus of elasticity, ksi


modulus of elasticity at operating temperature, ksi
g_working = Code Seismic /1.4

fn

natural frequency, 1 /Tn frequency, cycles/second

fv

shedding frequency of vortices, Hz

Fy
g
Hr

first yield strength, ksi


gravity, 386 in/sec, 32.2 ft/sec
spacing between stiffener rings

k
K 1'

spring constant, lb/in


ratio of force to structure weight

K 1' '

ratio of force to structure weight and modulus

L
L_
M vortex
M.F.
M.F.
m_air
mass
q critical

height of stack/structure from TANK inputs


force on stack at critical wind velocity
vortex induced moment
magnification factor, conservatively p /d
foundation magnification factor
viscosity of air, lb-sec/ft
W /g, lb-sec/in
pressure at critical wind velocity, psf, lb/ft

qwind

0.00257 * (V mph) generic wind pressure calculation

Re

Reynolds number, unitless

s
S
Sm

stress, ksi, k/in


dimensionless parameter, Strouhal number
required section modulus at ring

t
t, t'
Tn

temperature, degrees Fahrenheit


corroded plate thickness
natural, resonant frequency of structure

V
V_1
V_wind

wind velocity, ft/sec


first critical velocity at which vortex shedding frequency equals the natural
frequency of the structure
possible vortex shedding wind speed where Re<50,000

V_wind
W

damping

vortex shedding per resonant frequency of structure


weight, lbs
type of construction factor
coefficient of expansion, unitless
damping factor for type of structure

_air

angle used in calculating a partially loaded ring, radians


air mass density, lb-sec/ft4

row 260

row 272

row 282

row 292

row 302

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NOTATION

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WIND
Ce

Gust Factor Coefficient

Cq

pressure coefficient

Exposure
I
P wind
qs

Exposure and gust factor coefficient B, C, or D


importance factor
pressure of wind, lbs/ft
wind pressure at a designated height, lbs/ft

Qs

wind stagnation pressure at standard height

V wind
V_basic

velocity of wind, miles/hour


basic wind speed, miles/hour

row 312

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NOTATION

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Copyright 2006 American Society of Civil Engineers
A