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# Page 61 - 1

NOTATION

61
287353800.xls

Copyright 2006 American Society of Civil Engineers
A

GENERAL
#NUM
\$
&
.mpr
[Ctrl] [Shift] [Enter]
[F2]
[F4]
[F5]
a
absolute reference
ampersand
AND
ASD
atan
b
b
bd3/12
c
c
c
c
cc
celerity
CG
CG X
d, dX
e
E
e
Ek
Ep
f
f
F
FEM
FEM
fn
g
g
Greek C
Greek S
Hz
i
i
I
iterative solution
IXX, IYY

## a problem occurs with a number in a formula or a function

cell row and/or column absolute reference
ampersand used in string concatenation
ASCII file extension used in AutoCAD
table entry command
edit key
absolute reference key
row 20
how a cell is referenced by a formula, \$
area * (distance from an axis)2, moment of inertia , in4
& used in concatenating/combining text and equations
Boolean logical operator
allowable stress design
the Y intercept in a graph
moment of inertia for a rectangle, in 4
row 30
speed of pressure wave, celerity, ft/sec
actual damping, lb-sec/in
distance of centroid to the extreme fiber in tension or compression, inches
critical damping, lb-sec/in
movement of the pressure wave in a pipe
center of gravity
CG located in the X direction from the Y axis.
distance, distance from the x-axis
Young's modulus of elasticity, 29,000 ksi for steel, first yield, ksi, k/in
2.71828 base of natural logarithms
kinetic energy

row 40

potential energy
1 /T, Hz, cycles per second
force as in F = ma, F = m z'', lbs
fixed end moment as opposed to pinned end with no moment resistance
fixed end moment
natural frequency, cycles per second, Hertz n /2, 1/T
row 50
gravity, 32.17 ft/sec/sec, 386.04 in/sec,
font
font
Hertz, cycles/sec

9.80621 m/sec

## complex conjugate, imaginary number

moment of inertia, in4
the shooting method -- converging two equations to within a degree of accuracy
moments of inertia about x-axis and y-axis respectively, in 4

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NOTATION

61
287353800.xls

Copyright 2006 American Society of Civil Engineers
A

GENERAL -- Continued
k
k
number of constants in an equation
k
stiffness factor, k/in
K
liquid bulk modulus of elasticity for water this is usually 300 ksi unless the water
contains a significant air bubbles as in papermill stock lines. Air bubbles are
compressible and the value of K must be reduced.
K.E.
l

kinetic energy

L
LRFD
LVDT
m
m
m
M
m, mass
moment distribution

## length of beam or column, in

linear voltage displacement transducer

n
n
n
NOT
o
OR
P.E.
p-delta, pd, P
pline
q
Q
r
Re
right hand rule

row 70
the slope of straight line in a graph
mass, lb-ft/sec, kg-m/sec
moment
weight / gravity, k-sec/in, kg-sec/m
a method of solving multi-span beam-column moments and reactions created
by Mr. Hardy Cross, hence, also referred to as the Hardy Cross method

Poisson's ratio 0.27 to 0.3 for steel
Boolean logical operator
row 80
Boolean logical operator
potential energy
an effect that takes place in columns and slender walls where a column is
already bent and an axial load is applied to it, it will bend more.
soil pressure, k/ft
flowrate in pipe, ft/sec
Reynolds number, unitless factor for air flow

ro

## mathematical rule -- an arrow going away from you rotates in a clockwise

direction
soil modulus of compressibility, lbs/in/in, lbs/in

s
S
s,
Script S
seismic
shooting method
Symap
Symath
Symbol
SymbolSH
Symeteo

## section modulus, I/c, in

stress, psi, lb/in, ksi, k/in, kg/cm, kPa
font
earthquake, E, fraction of gravity, force
converging two equations to within a degree of accuracy
font
font
font
font
font

row 90

row 100

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NOTATION

61
287353800.xls

Copyright 2006 American Society of Civil Engineers
A

GENERAL -- Continued
t
T
period, seconds
t
time at which z' is calculated, second
tabs
TLA
three letter acronym
v
V
shear
v
velocity, in/sec
w
w
Xmm
overall mean denoted in text books as X with double bars on top
z'
z''
zc

velocity, in/sec
acceleration, in/sec
known as x0 in some references, resulting displacement, inch

ZIP

ZIP files (WinZip ) are condensed files for storage and transmission
deflection, inches
damping factor, unitless
PI() in Excel nomenclature, 3.142, unitless
density of the liquid, lb/ft, where water = 62.4 lb/ft
stress, k/in
duration of applied force, second

BOLTS
Ft

tension, kips/in

Fv

## shear through threads in plane, kips/in

H
K root
n
pitch

0.866 P
least diameter of a bolt at the threads
actual width of thread pitch - pitch/4

row 110

row 120

row 130

## CELERITY -- WAVE ACTION

b, circ
shell circumference, ft
arbitrary factor, unitless
C1
C2

## lateral seismic force coefficient, unitless

D
density
dwave

tank diameter, ft
density of stored product, k/ft
wave height, ft

Fa

Fby

G
H
Ht

## specific gravity of stored product, unitless

maximum design liquid height, ft
total height of tank shell, ft

I
k

## wind or seismic importance factor, unitless

factor for D/H

row 140

row 150

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NOTATION

61
287353800.xls

Copyright 2006 American Society of Civil Engineers
A

## CELERITY -- WAVE ACTION -- Continued

Mot
tank overturning moment, k-ft
Mrt

S
T
tank_full
tb

## site amplification factor from API Table

period of first mode sloshing, sec
weight of full tank, k
thickness of bottom of tank, in

ts

shell thickness, in

V
W arm
W sum
W tank

volume of tank, ft
vertical arm to lateral forces, ft
for lateral forces, k
tank shell per foot of circumference, k/ft

Wr

W s tare

## weight of empty tank, tare, k

WT

weight of liquid, k

Xs
Z

height to the CG of the shell usually taken as 2/3 Ht for flexible structures, ft
seismic zone coefficient, unitless
longitudinal stress at bottom of the shell, lbs/in

L-2

row 160

row 170
CONCRETE PULLOUT

## concrete roughness factor

Ab
net cross-section area of bolt
Ac

AP
de

Edge 2
f'c

## edge distance away from loaded edge

compression strength of concrete

fut

fy

## concrete weight factor

concrete strength reduction factor

row 180

## CONCRETE FOUNDATION DESIGN

aX
CGX
center of gravity from the x-axis, ft
d 20

## deflection indexed to soil modulus, inch

eX

to seismic or wind forces located from the geographical center of gravity CG X, ft

IXX

Mot X

Mrt X

Mu

MX

## moment about the x-axis or an axis parallel to the x-axis, k-ft

qx

soil pressure along the loaded top or bottom edge, ksf, working in the opposite
direction of Mot x, k-ft

row 190

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NOTATION

61
287353800.xls

Copyright 2006 American Society of Civil Engineers
A

SEISMIC
ap

Ca

Ct

Cv

Fp

hr

hx

Ip

m
n
n1

## graph slope of straight line

number of samples
factor for the groups in the F statistic

n2
Na

## factor for the number of observations within a number of groups

seismic near-source factor

Nv

SA
SB
SC
SD
SE
SF
soil
T
Z

## Hard rock soil profile

Rock soil profile
Very dense soil & soft rock soil profile
Stiff soil profile
Soft soil profile
Soil requiring evaluation soil profile
soil profile type measured as blows/ft
structural period, seconds/cycle
seismic zone factor
seismic force amplification factor required for structural overstrength

row 200

*W

row 210

row 220

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NOTATION

61
287353800.xls

Copyright 2006 American Society of Civil Engineers
A

STATISTICS
b
CM
df
F statistic

k
m
MSE
MST
n1
n2
R Square, r2
s, s coefficient
SS Residual, SSE
ssreg
standard error se
Syx
t
two tail
V
Xm Ym
Xmm

the Y-axis intercept the point at which the line starts for a given value of X and Y
along the slope m
correction for the mean
degrees of freedom n - k
MST / MSE the chance relation between data groups and within a group the F
statistic determines whether the observed relationship between dependent and
independent variables occurs by chance. Always positive
number of constants in the equation
the slope of a straight line in y = mx + b
mean square for error
mean squares for treatment
factor for the groups in the F statistic
factor for the number of observations within a number of groups
the correlation of estimated and actual y values. A measure correlation varies
from 0 to 1 with 1 being the best correlation
standard deviation, standard measure of dispersion
sum of squares for error = S( Y - Ym )

row 240

## overall mean denoted in text books as X with double bars on top

straight line graph
where a straight or curved line crosses the y-axis, sometimes set to 0

Yc

## a pure number representing the net regression coefficient expressed in units of

its own standard deviation.
a pure number representing the net regression coefficient expressed in units of
its own standard deviation.
x represents standard error of regression coefficient: the dispersion of X
values around their mean.

row 230

the sum of the squared differences for the actual values and the average y
values for each point
the standard error values for the coefficients m1, m2, etc.
Standard Error of Estimate of the dependent variable Y regressed against the
independent variable(s) X
Student's t -- describes the sampling distribution of a deviation from the
population mean divided by the standard error
excluded areas of a Gaussian curve in statistics
lateral force, * W
the mean value(s) of X and Y

Y = mX + b
y intercept

row 250

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NOTATION

61
287353800.xls

Copyright 2006 American Society of Civil Engineers
A

VORTEX
CD

coefficient of drag

CL

coefficient of lift

D
d
d
D cantilever

## max stack diameter at CL of plate

diameter of cylinder perpendicular to wind flow, ft
logarithmic decrement for damping
amplified deflection

d_mean
Dr

## diameter of cylinder to middle of plate, ft

average diameter of stack for DPE calculations

Ds

E
E heat
E_ASD

## Young's modulus of elasticity, ksi

modulus of elasticity at operating temperature, ksi
g_working = Code Seismic /1.4

fn

fv

Fy
g
Hr

## first yield strength, ksi

gravity, 386 in/sec, 32.2 ft/sec
spacing between stiffener rings

k
K 1'

## spring constant, lb/in

ratio of force to structure weight

K 1' '

L
L_
M vortex
M.F.
M.F.
m_air
mass
q critical

## height of stack/structure from TANK inputs

force on stack at critical wind velocity
vortex induced moment
magnification factor, conservatively p /d
foundation magnification factor
viscosity of air, lb-sec/ft
W /g, lb-sec/in
pressure at critical wind velocity, psf, lb/ft

qwind

Re

s
S
Sm

## stress, ksi, k/in

dimensionless parameter, Strouhal number
required section modulus at ring

t
t, t'
Tn

## temperature, degrees Fahrenheit

corroded plate thickness
natural, resonant frequency of structure

V
V_1
V_wind

## wind velocity, ft/sec

first critical velocity at which vortex shedding frequency equals the natural
frequency of the structure
possible vortex shedding wind speed where Re<50,000

V_wind
W

damping

## vortex shedding per resonant frequency of structure

weight, lbs
type of construction factor
coefficient of expansion, unitless
damping factor for type of structure

_air

air mass density, lb-sec/ft4

row 260

row 272

row 282

row 292

row 302

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NOTATION

61
287353800.xls

Copyright 2006 American Society of Civil Engineers
A

WIND
Ce

## Gust Factor Coefficient

Cq

pressure coefficient

Exposure
I
P wind
qs

## Exposure and gust factor coefficient B, C, or D

importance factor
pressure of wind, lbs/ft
wind pressure at a designated height, lbs/ft

Qs

V wind
V_basic

## velocity of wind, miles/hour

basic wind speed, miles/hour

row 312

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NOTATION

61
287353800.xls