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Form with base verb talk

Present Simple

talk, talks

Present Continuous


Present simple (and not present coninuous) is used

with verbs of sensual perception, cognition,
possession and emotion

But if the verbs given above describe an event or

action, they can be used in in present continuouis

Present Perfect

has/have talked
(auxiliary has/have and
the main verb in the past
participle form

Present perfect is used with the words already, just

and yet
has/have been talking
(have/has been and the
Present Perfect Continuous
present participle (-ing)
from of the verb)

The present perfect indicates completion of an

action/event while the present perfect continuous
indicates partial completion and continuation of the
event/action in the present

Both the present perfect and present perfect

continuous can be used to talk about activities or
events that are repeated again and again until now.

Past Simple


In contrast to simple past, the present perfect tense is

used to talk about something that happened / existed
in the past and continues to happen/ exist.

Past Continuous


The past simple indicates a completed past event /

action while the past continuous describes the event /
action happening at a time in the past
The past simple can also be used to talk about a
permanent or a long term situation that existed in the
To talk about repeated past actions or events, the past
simple is used.
However, if we want to emphasise the repeated events
that occurred for a limited period of time in the past,
the past continuous is used.

Past Perfect

had talked
had followed by the past
participle of the main

Past Perfect

Past Perfect continuous

Future Simple

Future Continuous

Future Perfect

had followed by the past

participle of the main

had been taling

will talk
(modal auxiliary verbs
like will / shall and
present simple tense or
present continuous

will be talking
( will be and the verb in
-ing form)

will/shall have talked

( will have + past
participle form of the
main verb)

Present continuous, Present Simple and be going to

Present continuous, Present Simple and be going to

Future Perfect Continuous

1. To describe habits or things that happen regulary,
2. To describe something that is always true
1. To describe an event or action that is
continuing/happening at the time of speaking,
2. To indicate that a situation is or may be temporary,
3. To describe repeated actions or events that are
happening at or around the time of speaking

The shops open at 9 'o clock
The sun rises in the east
It is raining. Take an umbrella with you
I usually read novels, but I 'm reading
poetry these days for a change.
She is visiting the old age home everyday
these days.

1. The verbs of sensual perception are see, hear, smell,

taste and feel
2. The verbs of possession include have, possess, own,
consist of and comprise.
3. The verbs of cognition include understand, know,
forget and remember.
4. The verbs of feeling/emotion are love, like and hate

They have a house in the city. (not 'are

I forget it. (not 'am forgetting")

We like playing chess. (not 'are liking')

I am seeing the doctor this evening. (visiting)

We 're having breakfast at the moment.


1. To indicate an action that took place in the past but the

exact time of the action is not known or is not considered
important enough to be mentioned.

The teacher has already taught us this


2. It suggests some kind of connection between what

happened in the past and the present moment. In other
She cannot write. She has burnt her hands.
words the effects of an action/event that happened in the
past are felt at the time of speaking
I 've already seen this movie. The bridegroom has just arrived. The teacher hasn't yet come
1. To talk about a situation or an event that started in the
past and is in progress even at the time of speaking.( the
time period is indicated by using the preposition since or

They have been living in Hyderabad for

over twenty years now.

2. To focus on how long an action or event has been


The prices of newspapers have been

falling rapidly since last December

Vijay has been playing the violin for over three hours
now. (She is still playing now.)

Vijaya has played the violin at several

concerts for the last three years.

It has been raining since this morning

He has tried for admission to MBBS for

three years

It indicates that something happened /existed at a

specific time in the past. The specific time is mentioned
using an adverb of time: else it is assumed that the
hearer knows the time of the event/action from the

The president reached the airport at 9 'o

clock. He was very hungry then. Alexander
Fleming discovered Pencilin.

He stayed in London for three years. (= He is no longer

staying there)

He has stayed in London for three months

now. (= He is still staying there.)

Past habits are described by using the past simple or the

modal auxiliary used to

In those days, I watched TV every

Sunday.We used to get up early in the

The negative of used to is didn't use to.

We didn't use to get up early in the


Would is used to talk about a habitual activity which was

typical of a person.
1. It is used to talk about a temporary situation that
existed at a particular time in the past
2. It is also used to to indicate two past simultaneous
events or actions

They were visiting London last summer

While I was getting into the bus, I lost my purse

When he realised that they were teasing

him, he got angry.

When I was young, I played football. (not I was playing

I visited Tirupati three times last year.

Everyone was sleeping when I was

preparing fro my interview

She worked all her life. (not She was

working all her life.)
She prayed for my health everyday.

They were practising day and night to win the game

I realized that I had forgotten the tickets at

Whenever there are two past consecutive events, the first
event can be described using the past perfect form.
The train had left the platform, before I
reached the station.
Before he left for Japan, he donated his
house to a school.( =Before he left for
Japan, he had donated his house to a

If the chronological order of the past events is made clear

by using a time adverb (after, as soon as, before, by the
time etc) then the past simple can be used instead of the
Jaya returned all the books after the
past perfect.
librarian reminded her. (=Jaya returned all
the books after the librarian had reminded

With the words already and just, the past perfect is used
(not the past simple)

They had just finished cooking, when we

went to their house.
Preeti had already resigned by the time we
wanted to persuade her not to do so.

1. Will, shall and is/are going to are commonly used to

indicate future time. They are all used along with the
base form of the verb to indicate future time

We will meet him tonight. We shall visit

the doctor tomorrow. Ajay is going to call
Prem today

2. Both is/are, going to and will are used to express

prediction of the event or action is based on one's own
opinion or one's past experience.

I think there will be a lot of students for your

lecture. Why don't you sing? We'll all enjoy

3. Is/are, going to is also used to talk about intentions

and plans already made sometime ago about a future

The Chief Minister is going to be chief

guest. (plan). I 'm going to visit Hyderabad
after the examinations. (intention).

However, will is used to report plans in formal English

Will is used to express a decision made on the spot while
speaking. It also shows willingness.
Shall can be used instead of will in statements about the
future with / and we ( However, it should be kept in mind
that will is more common than shall.)

1. It refers to a future activity/event but it indicates a

previous arrangement.
2. It also refers to an activity / event going on at a
particular time in the future.

It indicates an event / action that will be finished by a

particular point of time in the future.

1. Both the present continuous and be going to can be

used to indicate future plans / arrangements that have
already been made. But the present continuous is used
for a 'definite' arrangement.

The Chief Minister will address the

gathering at 10 a.m. Coffee will be served
at 11 a.m
I 'll come along with you to the exhibition.
It's very late. We'll leave now.
Whe I pass my MBBS, I shall / will serve
rural people.
We shall / will remember you after we
leave the college.
Krishna will be helping us in getting
vegetables from the market. ( a previous
This year Mr Ram will be teaching Physics.
( a previous arrangement)
Next Monday, at this time we will be
participating in a painting exhibition.
By next Monday, we will have finished our
By 2010, the Outer Ring Road will have
been laid.
We're meeting the Prinicipal at 11 a.m
John isn't seeing us this evening. (definite)
We've discussed this topic in great detail.
We're going to take a decision now.
The Krishna Express arrives at 8.30 p.m

2. The present simple is used to talk about fixed events

such as reference to a timetable or a calender

2. The present simple is used to talk about fixed events

such as reference to a timetable or a calender

Our college reopens on 15 June every year

Independence day is on a Wednesday this
Look at that wall. It is going to/ will fall

3. When predictions are made or reported be going to or

will is used.
The weather report says the rain is going to
continue / will continue for 24 hours more.
When the train arrives, we'll look for him.
Do your work until I ask you to stop.
Before anybody sees us, we'll arrange the

4. In adverbial clauses introduced by words like after,

before, when and until and in conditional clauses with if, If Veena comes here, no one will talk to her.
unless, in case and provided, the present simple is used
Tell me in case you have any problem.
Unless you get 60% marks in all the
subjects, you'll not be eligible for the