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# SOLUTIONS FOR

## BASIC STUDY MATERIAL

Sol.SMM631101
MATHEMATICS

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## 2nd Floor, 95B, Siddamsetty Complex, Secunderabad 500 003.

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website : www.time4education.com HINTS/SOLUTIONS for M1101

(Sets)
Classroom Discussion Exercise
1.

(c)

A = {, x}
Subsets of A are {}, {x} and A
P(A) = { , {}, {x}, A}

2.

(d)

2m 2n = 96

= 32 3
= 25 (4 1)
= 25 (22 20)
= 27 25
m = 7 and n = 5
3.

(c)

e x for any x R
So A B = .

4.

(b)

A = {x : x 3};
B = {x : x < 5}
Clearly A B = {x : x R, 3 x < 5}

5.

(d) X = {3, 5, 7, 9}

6.

(d)

14. (d)

## U = {1, 2, 3,, 10}

C B
A = {3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8}
B = {2, 3, 5, 7}
C
A B = {4, 6, 8}
B
(A B) = {1, 2, 3, 5 ,7, 9, 10}
A
A C

## The curves will intersect when x = 0

The curves meet at (0, 1)

A B = {(0, 1)}
7.

(c)

## The points of intersection are given by

y2 = 4 y = 2
Points of intersection are (1, 2)
and (1, 2)

8.

(d)

A B = {x / x A, and x B}
(A B) B = .

9.

(c)

## n (A) = 76, n (B) = 44,

n (A B) = 100
n (A B) = n (A) + n (B)

n (A B)
= 76 + 44 100 = 20.

10. (a)

11. (d)
A
B

## 12. (a) A = {7, 14, 21, 28,,.105}

B = {4, 8, 12, 16, ., 60}
A B = {28, 56}
n (A B) = n(A) 2 = 13.
13. (c)

P (P Q) = P (P Q)
= (P P) (P Q)
= (P Q) =

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15. (d)

3
= 300
100
4
n (A C) = 10000
= 400
100
2
n (A B C) = 10000
= 200
100

n (A B C ) = 10000 n (A B C)
= 10000 {n (A) +
n (B) + n (C)
[n (A B) + n (B C) ]
+ n (A C)] +
n (A B C)}
i.e., n (A B C)
=10000 {7000 1200 + 200}
n (B C) = 10000

## There is no region common to

A C and C B.
(A C) (C B) =
16. (a) People who are not teenagers is
U C = C
People who have their weights less than
40 kg = U D = D

## = 10000 6000 = 4000 = 40%.

Required set = C D

17. (c)

## Since k and m are relatively prime, the L.C.M.

of k and m is km.
kN mN = (mk)N = nN mk = n

## n (A) = 300; n (B) = 500; n (A B) = 100

n (A B) = 300 + 500 100 = 700
n (A B) = n [(A B)]
= 1000 n (A B) = 1000
700 = 300

18. (d)

19. (c)

## Since A B = (A B) (A B), therefore

AB=

20. (c)

A B = A C and A B = A C B = C

21. (a)

A (A B) = A

22. (c)

n ( A B ) = n ( A) + n ( B ) n ( A B )
n( A B ) = n ( A ) + n ( B ) n( A B )
n ( A B ) = 65 + 64 n ( A B )
But n ( A B ) 100
n ( A B ) 65 + 64 100
n ( A B ) 29%
x 29% ............ ( 1 )
n ( A B ) n ( A ) and
n( A B ) n(B )
n ( A B ) 65% and
n ( A B ) 64 %
n ( A B ) 64%
x 64% ...............(2)
Combining (1) and (2)
29% x 64%

23. (c)

## Let A, B, C denote the set of all families

and The Chronicle respectively.
40
n (A) = 10000
= 4000
100
20
n (B) = 10000
= 2000
100
10
n (C) = 10000
= 1000
100
5
n (A B) = 10000
= 500
100

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24. (d)

A={2}
B = { 2, 1 }
A B={2}
B A={2,1}
( A B ) ( B A ) = { 2, 2, 1}
n [ ( A B ) ( B A ) ] = 3.

25. (c)

n (A B)

= n ( A ) + n ( B ) 2n ( A B ) (1)
Now n(A B) = n(A) n(A B)
n(A B) = 5 4 = 1
Thus (1) gives
12 = 5 + n(B) 2
n(B) = 9

## Regular Homework Exercise

2

1.

(c) x + 9 = 0 x = 9
x is imaginary.

2.

3.

(c)

## n(X Y) = n(X) + n(Y) n(X Y) is maximum

if n(X Y) = 0
maximum value of n(X Y) is n(X) + n(Y) = 12

X ( Y Z) = ( X Y ) ( X Z)

4.

(d)

n(AB) = n(A) = 6 if A B

14. (a)

5.

(c)

## Number of elements of P(A)

= Number of subsets of A
= 2n(A)
= 25

## x 100 (20 + 15 + 30) = 35

minimum value of x = 35

15. (d)

A = {5, 6, 7} , B = {1, 3, 5, 7}
A B = {1, 3, 5, 6, 7}
A B = (A B) = {2, 4, 8}

16. (b)

A B (A B) = B
n(A B) = n(B)

6.

## (c) It represents the elements belonging to

exactly two of the sets A, B, C

7.

(c)

=7
Let n(A) = m, n(B) = n
Given 2m 2n = 32
2n(2m n 1) = 25
n=5
( 2m n 1 is odd)
m=6

17.

(b)

29

8.

(a)

B
C)

## Let A, B and C be the set of basketball players,

cricket players and general athletics players
respectively.
n (A) = 21;
n (B) = 26;
n (C) =
n (A B) = 14;
n (B C) = 15;
n (A C) = 12;
n (A B C) = 8
n (A B C) = n (A) + n (B) + n (C)
n (A B) n (B
n (A C) + n (A

B C)

A)

= 21 + 26 + 29 14

A (A B) = (A A) (A B)
= A(A B)
= A (since A B

15 12 + 8
= 43.

18. (d)

9.

(c)

P{A} = { , {} } n [P(A)] = 2

10.

(a)

## The number of subsets containing at least one

element = 25 1 = 31

## n(A B C) = n(A) + n(B ) + n(C) n(A B)

n(B C) n (C A) + n(A
B C).

= N12

19. (c)

## Number of students who like at least one juice

=125 + 118 + 117 (60 + 60) + 20 = 260
total number of students = 260 + 70 = 330

20. (c)

## Clearly the shaded region represents B (A C)

11. (c)

12. (b)
13. (b)

A (B C) = ( A B ) ( A C)

1.

(d)

## A = {18, 45, 108, }

B = {18, 27, 36, 45,.}
Z
A BY

## N4 = { 4, 8, 12, 24, .......... .}

N6 = { 6, 12, 18, 24,......... .....}

Assignment Exercise
2.

(a)

3.

(b)

n (A B) + n (A B) = n (A).
A AB

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A B

2m 4 2 n 4 = 3 = 22 2 0
m 4 = 2 and n 4 = 0
m = 6 and n = 4
11. (c)

Since x ( A B ) ,
x A and x B
Option (c) is wrong.

12. (c)

## One half of the men belong to club A

6 belong to club A
One third of the men belong to club B
4 belong to club B

We observe that A (A B) = A B.
4.

(b)

## A B = {5, 6}. So, number of subsets of

A B = 2 2 = 4.

5.

(b)

We have ex = 1 +

x x2
+
+ ......... where x is real.
1! 2 !

AB=
6.

(c)
M

## One forth of the men belong to both clubs

3 belong to club A and club B
n (AB)=7
Thus 12 7 = 5 belong to neither clubs.

n (B M) = n (M)

(a)

22

7.

U = 12

n(A)=6 n(B)=4

13. (b)
= 40 30
= 10

n (AB) = n (AB)
(By De Morgans Law )
= n (U) n (AB)
=
n
(U)

[n ( A ) + n (B) n ( A B)]

14. (c)

## = 1000 (400 + 300 100)

= 400

8.

(c) A B A B A B = B.

9.

(b)

B only =

15. (d)

A = C B ' = C B

B
7

18

2 2 = 48 3= 2 3
m

## The shaded region represents A.

C ( A B ) = C .

18
5000 = 900
100

A
10. (b)

n (A) = 4 and n ( B ) = 7
Minimum of n ( A B ) = n ( B ) = 7 when A B

## The shaded region represents A

A B =

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1.

(d)

By definition.

2.

(c)

n ( AB) = n ( A ) + n (B) 2n ( A B)
= 250 + 350 200 = 400

3.

(d)

## n(A B) = n(A) + n(B) n(A B)

= 100 + 50 25 = 125.

## By the given condition, number of girls who

48
passed with a distinction =
= 24
2
Percentage of girls who passed with
24
distinction =
100 = 15%.
160

13. (a)

n(A B) = 75.
4.

(c)

5.

(b)

A ( A B) = A B

A
24

= A ( A'B)

12
15

6.

7.

(a)

(b)

## Let m be the number of elements in S.

Then 9m = 3 45
m = 15
Again 5n = 10m = 10 15
n = 30

clubs = 53

## Then the number of subscriptions = 30x

Every body subscribes 6 newspapers

30 x
6

30 x
= 240 x = 48
6

14. (b)

## AB, AB and BA are mutually disjoint.

15. (b)

(A B) C = (A C) (B C)

16. (c)

C D = (A B) (B A)
But there is no region common to both (A B) and
(B A)

A
8.

(d)

6
11

## Let the number of news papers be x

Number of people =

12

20

A B = ( A B) (B A )
= ( A B) ( A B )
n ( A B) = n ( A B) n ( A B)
= n ( A ) + n (B) 2n ( A B)

9.

(d)

## All of them are correct

AB
BA
( A B) (B A) = (A B) = C

A
17. (d)

A B = C B and A B = C B
A=C

A B = (, 2) [4, )
= R {x/x R, 2 x < 4}

## 18. (b) n (m) = 120, n (p) = 90, n (c) = 70,

n (m p) = 40, n (p c) = 30,
n (m c) = 50, n (m p c) = 20
n(m p c) = 200 20 = 180
ie n(m) + n(p) + n(c) n (m p) n (m c)
n(p c) + n (m p c) = 180
120 + 90 + 70 (40 + 30 + 50)
+ n(m p c) =
180
n (m p c) = 20

11. (c)

{a, b} P({a, b} )

19.

12. (d)

Number

## 10. (c) A = { x / xR, 2 < x < 2}

B = { x / xR, 2 |x 2|}
= {x / xR, x(, 2] [4, )}
2

of

students who
20
distinction = 240
= 48
100

passed

with

## (b) Delete both a and s from X. Then the resulting set

has 3 elements. Number of subsets of this set is
8. Now put a to each of these 8 sets. Thus there
are 8 subsets of X containing a but not s.

20. (c)

A (B C ) = ( A B )( A C )

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22. (c)

23. (c)

A (A B) = A

24. (c)

A ( A B ) = A B.

25. (c)

## Two sets A and B are said to be

equivalent if n (A) = n ( B )

26. (d)

A (A B)C = A (A B) ( A B = A BC)
=AB

27. (d)

n (m ) = 60 %
n ( p) = 65 %
n ( m p) = 100 20 = 80%
Given that 80% of the students = 16
16 100
Total number of students =
= 20
80
only 3.

A (since A B A)

## B and A B are disjoint sets

B ( A B)=

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28. (b) A B = B A
29. (c)
A

## The shaded region represents P = (AB)

Also Q = A B and R = A B
P = Q R '

B
30. (c)

## HINTS/SOLUTIONS for M1102

(Relation & Functions)

1.

## (a) (x, x + y) = (3, 7)

x = 3, y = 4

2.

(c) n(B) =

3.

(b) Since (B C) = ,
(A B) (A C) = .

n(A B ) 70
=
=5
n(A )
14

(A B) (C D) = (A C) (B D).

4.

(a)

5.

## (d) Since AB contains 18 elements, there are

18
2 relations from A to B

) (

)]

13. (c) The graph shows that for all the positive
as well
as negative values of x, y takes only positive
values. Hence the graph represents y = |x|.
14. (d) Rf = {1, 0, 1}.
15. (a) x [x] = {x}, the fractional part function
whose range is [0, 1)

6.

7.

## (d) The relation is perpendicular to is not

reflexive
and transitive. A line cannot be
perpendicular to itself and line l1 to l2 and
l2 l3 does not imply that l1 l3.

8.

[
[(

1 2x
3 + 32 y + 32 y + 32 x
4
1 2x
=
3 + 32 x + 32 y + 32 y
4
1
= [f (2x ) + f (2y )]
2
=

## 16. (a) Range of cosx is [1, 1]

17. (c) [x] is an integer

## 9. (d) Total number of functions from A to B is

n(A)
(n(B))
3
Number of functions on A is 3 = 27
10. (a) In choice (a), 3 it is related to more than one
element and hence is not a function.
11. (d) f1 = {(1, 1), (2, 3), (3, 5), (4, 7), (5, 9)} But 7,
9 A.
f2 = {(1, 5), (2, 4), (2, 5), .}, which is not a
function.
f3 = {(1, 2), (2, 3), (3, 4), (4, 5), (5, 6)} But 6
A.
f4 = {(1, 5), (2, 4), (3, 3), (4, 2), (5, 1)} which
is a function from A to A.

12. (c)

f (x + y ) f (x y )

] [

1 x+ y
1
3
+ 3x y 3 x y + 3x + y
2
2

## 18. (c) [] = [3.14] = 3 and = [ ] = 4

f(x) = cos 3x sin4x

f = cos sin
= 1 +
3
2
3
=
19. (b)

3 2
2
Since the function is real, we have
49 x2 > 0

x (7, 7)
20. (c) The domain of

(x a)(b x )

, with a < b is

(a, b)
21. (a) Let y =

x
1 + x2

yx x + y = 0
2

b 4ac 0 1 4y 0
2

1
1
y
2
2
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## 22. (a) f (x) = |x| + | x+ 4|

Minimum value of f(x) is 4 and it has no
maximum.
Range = [4,)
23. (d)

f (x) + g (x) =

## f (2) = f (1 + 1) = f (1) f (1) = 3 3 = 3 2

f (3) = f (2) f (1) = 3 2 3 = 3 3
f (4) = f (3) f (1) = 33 3 = 34

.
25. (a) f (x) = 5x |x|
f (2x) = 10x 2 | x|
f (x) = 5x |x| = 5x |x|
f (2x) f (x) = 10x 2 |x| + 5x + |x|
= 15x |x| = f(x) + 10x
f(2x) f(x) 10x = f(x)

ex + ex
1 for all real x.
2

## Range of (f + g) (x) = [1, )

24. (d) f (x + y ) = f (x ) f (y )

1.

2.

(A B) (B A) = .

3.

(d) A (B C)
= (A B) (A C).

4.

## (a) Co-domain is a superset of range

Range = {6, 7, 8, 9}
(c) The first coordinate of the ordered pair
should be from B and second coordinate
should be from A.

5.

x2

10. (a) f x = x 2 +
x

f (z) = z

= x + 2
x

+ 2 f (x) = x

+ 2.

## 11. (b) There is only one element in the range of a

constant junction.

6.

## (d) Since R is reflexive (a, a)R a A, where

n is the given set having R elements. Since
n(A) = n, R having at least n ordered pair.
n(R) n

7.

(a) By definition.

8.

(d) By definition.

9.

(a) f(x) + 2f

## 12. (d) The possible values of signum function are

1 and 0. Hence range will contain 3
elements.

x+3
= 2 x ______(1)
x 1

let y =

x+3
,
x 1

x=

y + 3

y+3
y 1

y +3

+ 2f ( y ) = 2

f
y 1
y 1

replacing y by x

2(x + 3 )
x +3
_____(2)
f
+ 2f ( x ) =
( x 1)
x 1

2 (2) (1)

3f ( x ) =

4( x + 3)
2x
( x 1)

=
4 x + 12 2 x 2 + 2 x
( x 1)

3f(x) =

6 x + 12 2 x2
(x 1)

f ( x) =

6 x + 12 2x 2
3( x 1)

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3 2 cosx 1

xa
when a < b is
x b

## 17. (d) The domain of

1
1

1
3 2 cos 3 x

( , a] (b , )

1
Range of f (x) = ,1
3

2

## 14. (a) f (x) is not defined when 16 x < 0

2
16 < x or when x < 4 and x > 4

x
[4, 4].

also x 2 < 2 + x 2

## 15. (c) By definition of f(x), f(x) is manyone, into.

The range is [0 ,1 )

2 + x2

is 0

x2
2 + x2

<1

2

x 0 x 0
x = R {0}
2

## 16. (b) 1 x 2 > 0

1

x2

(1 x ) 0
2

so 1 1 1 x 2 0
All these hold when

## 20. (c) f (x) = x 1 +

1
x5

x 1 0 x 1, x 5 0 x 5
Domain is x 1, x 5

1 x2 0

x 1
The domain of f is [1,1]
2

Assignment Exercise
1.

2.

## (a) A = {2, 4, 8}, B = {5, 6}.

3.

(c)

(a + 2 , 4 ) = (5 , 2a + b)
a + 2 = 5 and 4 = 2a + b
a = 3 and b = 2 .

4.

=
the number
subsets of A B
24
=2

5.

## (b) By definition R is reflexive.

6.

(d)

7.

(d) R = {(1, 5), (2, 6), (3, 7), (4, 8), (5, 9), (6, 10)}

8.

(d)

x 7, 7

## 13. (b) The domain of log(x a )(b x ) for a < b is (a,

b).
log(x 2) (5 x)
= log(x 2) + log(5 x)
x > 2 and x < 5
14. (d) Let y =

x
x2 5x + 9

yx2 x(5 y + 1) + 9y = 0
b2 4ac 0 (as x is real)

11y 2 + 10y + 1 0
11y 2 10y 1 0

1
f (x ) = x +
x

y , 1
11

[f (x )]3 f (x 3 )

3
1 3
1
1

+
x + 3 = 3 x + .
x x 3
x
x

1
= 3f (x ) = 3f
x

9.

7 x2 0

By definition.

= x3 + 3x +

12. (c)

## Range of the given function is , 1

11

3x + 5
is same as the
4x 7
7x + 5
domain of f 1(x ) =
which is given by x
4x 3
3
R; x
4

## 11. (a) a 0 and a > 0 x R.

x

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1.

(c) If A B, then A C B C.

2.

(a) A B =
(A B) (A B) =
[(A B) (A B)] A =

n(B) = 2
15. (c) 2

## 16. (c) Since n(B) < n(A), there is no one-one

function from A to B

3.

## (c) n[(A B) (B A)] = 5 = 25

4.

(b) A C = C
(A C) B contains 4 2 = 8 elements.

5.

## (c) n[(A B) (B A)]

= n[(AB) (B A)]
= n [(A B) (A B)]
= n(A B) n(A B) = 3 3 = 9.

6.

7.

mn

## (c) Domain = {x: | x | 4, xZ}

= { 4, 3, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4}

=
de cf

; x2 3x + 2 > 0

x 3x + 2

x (1 x ) x
x2
=
1 x
1 x

x
=
1 x

1 x

x (1, ) {0}

9.

## (d) Number of possible relations is a subset of A

B
A B has p q elements
pq
number of subsets for A B = 2 .

= 2.

## 10. (d) By definition, (a, b) [a, b]

2 cos 3 x + sin 3 x 2

0 cos 3 x + sin 3 x + 2 2 + 2

## 23. (a) Substitute x = 1 and x = 3,

image is (8, 72)
2

11. (d) R = x, x ; x N

## x x for all x N except for x = 1

(x, x) R x N
(x, y) R y = x (y, x) R since x

when x = n; n I.
25. (a) f (x) =

x2
1 + x2
2

0 x 2 < 1+ x

## (x, y) R and (y, z) R y = x and z = y

4
x = z (x, z) R
2

13. (c)

x
2

x
0,1 x < 0 x > 1 and x = 0
For

(c) 2

12. (b)

,(2,1),

## 19. (b) Either 11 |x| 0 and 12 |x| > 0

or 11 |x| 0 and 12 |x| < 0
either |x| 11 or |x| > 12
x (, 12) [11, 11] (12, )

21. (a)

8.

{ }

(1,3)

(x 1) (x 2) > 0
x (1, 2) or x ( , 1) (2, )

af = be

(a, b) (e, f)
is transitive also.
1

(1,2)

## 18. (d) By definition of f + g, f g, f and fg, all the

given statements in (a), (b), (c) are true.

20. (b)

## (d) Clearly (a, b) (a, b) and

(a, b) (c, d)
(c, d) (a, b)
Let (a, b) (c, d) and (c, d) (e, f)

ad = bc & cf = de

17. (c) R
=
{(1,1)
(2,2),(2,3),(3,1),(3,2)}

## 2mn = 4096 = 212 where n (A) = m and

n (B) = n
26n = 212 n = 2
B has 2 elements.
n4 = 625
n=5
B has 5 elements.
5.n(B)

1 + x2

< 1 f (x ) [0, 1)

Range is [0, 1)
26. (d) 10 x 0 and 4 + x 0
10 x and x 4
x 10 and 4 x
4 x 10
D (f) = 4 x 10

10

14. (a) 2
= 1024 = 2
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1+ x

1 x

29. (d) 5 x + 5y = 5

## 27. (d) g (x) = log

g(x1) + g (x2)

55 > 0 x <1
x

1 + x1 + x 2 + x1x 2

= log

1 (x1 + x 2 ) + x1x 2

30. (c)

(1 + x1x2 ) + x1 + x2
= log

x
x +1

1 + x1x 2 (x1 + x2 )

x1 + x 2

1+ 1+ x x

1 2
= log
1 x1 + x 2
1 + x1x 2

y= log5 5 5 x

1 + x1
1 + x2
+ log

= log

1 x
1

x
1
2

5y = 5 5x

< 10 2

1 x
1
<
<
100 x + 1 100

x +1
> 100
x
1
100 > 1 + > 100
x
1
i.e., 101 > > 99
x
1
1
<x<
101
99

x1 + x 2

= g

1 + x1x 2

100 >

## 28. (c) Any polynomial satisfying the equation.

f(x) .f(1/x) = f(x) + f(1/x) is of the form
n
xn + 1 or -x +1
3
f(4) = 65 = 64 + 1 = 4 + 1
3
f(x) = x +1
3
f(3) = 3 +1 = 28

## HINTS/SOLUTIONS for M1103

(Trigonometric Functions)
Classroom Discussion Exercise
1.

(a)

P = 2r + l

= 2a +

1
A = r 2
2
P = 2 r + r
P = 2r + r.

x = 2a or

2A
r

7.

(c)

## sinx = cos2x .. (1)

cos12x + 3 cos10x + 3 cos8x + cos6x
= (cos4x + cos2x)3
= (sin2x + cos2x)3 = 1 by (1).

8.

(a)

A+B=

i.e., 2 r 2 Pr + 2A = 0

2.

(d)

## The ratio of the radii is the ratio of the angles in

radian measures. Hence required ratio is 5: 4.

3.

(c)

## For 45< x < 90, cosx < sinx

Hence y < 0

(d)

5.

(a)

m n = (m + n) ( m n)
= 4 sinxtanx

6.

(a)

## Let x = sec + tan

1
= sec tan
x
1
x +
= 2 sec
x

C
2

tan (A + B) = tan C
2

tan A + tanB
1
= cot C =
1 tan A. tanB
tan C
tan A . tan C + tanB . tan C + tan A . tanB = 1

x

tan3 + cot3 = 2
2

1
2a

Pr = 2r 2 + 2A

4.

1
2a

9.

(a)

1 tan 210
=

cos 210 sin 210

## tan 45 0 tan 210

tan 45 0 + tan 210

## = tan 450 210

= tan 24

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10. (d)

11. (b)
12. (d)

13. (a)

## log tan 10 + log tan 20 + + log tan 890

= log [tan 10 . tan 20 tan 890]
= log [tan 10 . tan 20 tan 450 . cot 440
cot 2 0 . cot 1 0]
= log 1 = 0.
sin210 + sin220 + cos220 + cos210 = 2
A+C

=B=
2
4

A+C=
2
tan A + tan C
tan(A +C) =
1 tan A tan C

tan A + tan C
tan =
2 1 tan A tan C
tanA tanC = 1

## But tan B = tan

=1
4
tanA tanB tanC = 1

18. (d)

20. (b)

## sin 6 + sin 4 = sin 8 + sin 2

2sin5 cos = 2 sin 5 cos 3
sin 5(cos cos 3 ) = 0
sin5 . 2 sin 2 . sin = 0

21. (d)
=

x+y 1 1
= +
xy
x y

2 cos 2 x sin 2 x

16. (a)

17. (c)

sin 2
sin . cos =
2
Minimum of sin 2 = 1
1
Minimum value =
( 1) = 1 .
2
2

tan( + ) =

2 sin2 + 3 sin 2 = 0

(2 sin 1) (sin + 2) = 0

1
or sin = 2 ( not possible )
2
1

sin = = sin
2
6

= n + ( 1)n .
6

x2 + y2 = 1
Let x = cos , y = sin
(4 cos3 3 cos )2 + (4 sin3 3 sin )2
= (cos 3)2 + ( sin 3 )2 = 1

n
n
or =
or = n
5
2

sin =

2 cos 2x
sin 2x 2 sin2 x

## 2 sin x cos x 2 sin x

2(cos x + sin x )(cos x sin x )
=
2 sin x(cos x sin x )
=1 + cotx.

15. (c)

1
sin 3
4

x
1 +
y
=
x

## cos20 cos40 cos80

2 sin 20 cos 20 cos 40 cos 80
=
2 sin 20
2 sin 40 cos 40 cos 80
=
4 sin 20
2 sin 80 cos 80
sin160 1
=
=
=
8 sin 20
8 sin 20 8

tanA tanB = x
1
1

=y
tan B tan A
x
tan A. tan B =
y

3 sin 4 sin3
4

19. (b)

1 + tan A. tan B
cot(A B) =
tan A tan B

14. (a)

1 4
+
3
3 =3
tan ( + ) =
1 4
1 .
3 3
sin [sin 2 60 sin 2 ]
3

= sin sin2
4

22. (a)

1
3
cos +
sin = 1
2
2

3
3

cos = 1
3

= 2n
3

= 2n +
3

## In the interval [0, 2 ], =

only
3

tan + tan
1 tan tan

2 tan
2
tan =

1 tan 2
2

1
4
2
=
=
1
3
1
4
2.

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23. (d)

sin22x + sin2x 2 = 0

tan3x . tan7x = -1
1
tan7x =
tan 3 x
= cot3x

= tan + 3 x
2

7 x = n +

1 1+ 8
1 3
=
= 2, 1
2
2
sin 2 x = 1

2x = 2n +
2

= (4n + 1) .
x = n +
4
4

sin2x =

+ 3x
2

2n + 1
4x =

24. (b)

25. (d)

## The given equation is

tan + tan 2 = 3 (1 tan tan 2)

2n + 1
x =
.
8

i.e;

tan 3 = 3

(sin

x + cos2 x

3 = n +

2

tan + tan 2
= 3
1 tan tan 2

i.e.

## 1 2 sin2 x cos 2 x = sin x cos x

i.e.

i.e.

2 sin 2 2 x = sin 2 x

sin2 2x sin 2x
=
2
2

n
+ = (3n + 1) .
3
9 9

1.

(b)

We know that = r

= cos2 + sin2 +
8
8

= r.
2
4

r = 2 cm
2.

3.

4.

(c)

(c)

(d)

## Since the value of sin lies between 1 and 1, we

get sin1 = sin2 = sin3 = 1
3
1 = 2 = 3 =
2
cos1 + cos2 + cos3 = 0
3
sec A + tan A =
2
2
sec A tan A =
3
3
13
2
2 sec A =
+
sec A =
2
3
12
5
12
cos A =
sin A =
.
13
13

7.

(d)

## cos36 = sin(90 36) = sin54

and cos72 = sin(90 72) = sin18
sin18.sin54 cos36.cos72 = 0

8.

(d)

2 (sin6 + cos6 )

cos )
2

=8+

= 1.

9.

(c)

(b)

## sin(18 + )cos(72 ) + cos(18 + )sin(72 )

= sin[(18 + ) + (72 )] = sin90 = 1

11. (b)

Given expression =

1
+ 1 (since sin285 = sin2(90 5) = cos25)
2

7
+ cos
6
3
1 1
= + =1
2 2

=1
4
4

10. (b)

+
sin A sin B

## sinB cos C cos B sin C

sin B sin C
sin C cos A cos C sin A
+
sin C sin A
= cot B cotA + cot C cot B + cot A cot C = 0

1
=9
2

5.

= 3 (1 2 sin2

## sin25 + sin210 ++ sin290

= (sin25 + sin285) + (sin210 + sin280) +.+ sin245
+ sin290

3
3

+ sin2
cos2
=2
8
8

sin

12. (a)

A +C
A C
2 cos
sin

2
2 = cot B
A +C
A C
2 sin
sin

2
2

3
3

+ cos2
+ cos 2
+ cos2
8
8
8
8

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6.

(c)

cos2

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A+C
cot
= cot B
2
A + C = 2B
A, B, C are in A.P.

## cos 11+ sin 11

cos 34
cos 11+ cos 79
=
cos 34
2 cos 45 cos 34
=
=
cos 34

13. (d)

2 + 2 + 2 + 2 (1 + cos 16A )

14. (b)

15. (c)

2 + 2 + 2 + 2 cos 8 A

2 + 2 + 2 cos 4A

2 1 + cos 2A

2 . 2 . cos A = 2 cos A

cos4 + sin4 =1

2 + 2 cos 2A

1 2
sin 2 which is maximum
2

or
4
4

when =

2
2
General solution is = 2n +
.
3
3

16. (b)

17. (d)

tanx (tan2x 3) = 0
tanx = 0 or tanx = 3

x = n or x = n

cos + sin = 2

18. (a)

cos +

2
cos

1
2

sin = 1

4
4

cos = cos 0
4

= 2n 0
4

= 2n +
4

19. (c)

x = n + .
4

20. (c)

## Multiplying by cos x and solving for sinx we

get = n + ( 1)n
.
10

Assignment Exercise
1.
2.

(c)
(a)

l=

4
2 6 = 8.
6

## Angle covered in 1second = 270 2 radians

6210
Time taken to turn 6210 radians =
540

= 11.5 sec.

3.

(d)

a2

b2

c2

## = r2 sin2 sin2 + r 2 sin2 cos2 + r2 cos2

= r2 sin2 (sin2 + cos2 ) + r2 cos2

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= r2 (sin2 + cos2 ) = r2
4.

(b)

sin

5
5

+ sin
+ sin + + sin +

8
8
8
8

= sin
5.

(c)

10. (c)

i.e, cos (2 + 3) = 0

1
5 2

6.

(a)

sin(A B ) m 1
=
sin(A + B ) m + 1

(a)

cos A + cos B
sin A + sin B
sin A sin B + cos A cos B

A +B
A B

cos
2 cos
2
2
=
A +B
A B

sin
2 cos
2
2

= cot 3

8.

9.

(d)

(d)

2
2

= n
.
5
10

A B
A B
+ cot

2
2

cos ec + cot = 0

1
cos
+
=0
sin sin
1 + cos = 0
cos = 1 =

A +B
A B

cos
2 sin
2
2
+
A +B
A B

sin
2 sin
2
2

5 = 2n

11. (c)

7.

cos 5 = 0 = cos

tan A m
sin A cos B m
=

=
tan B
1
cos A sin B
1
Applying compendo dividendo, we get
sin A cos B cos A sin B m 1
=
sin A cos B + cos A sin B m + 1

sin16x

sin 2 sin 3
=1
cos 2 cos 3
i.e, cos 2 cos 3 sin 2 sin 3 = 0

5
=0
+ sin
sin sin
8
8
8
8

## cos (x + y) = cosx cosy sinx siny =

24 sin x
tan 2 . tan 3 = 1

12. (d)

## Since sinx, sin2x, sin3x lies in the interval [-1,1],

the given equation is true only if sinx = 1,
sin2x = 1 and sin3x = 1 which is impossible.

13. (b)

## x is in the third quadrant.

Particular solution is x =

5
4

General solution is x = 2 n +

= 0.

14. (b)

tan (A+B+C) = 0
tan A + tanB + tanC tan A tanB tanC
=0

## 1 tan A tanB tanB tanC tanC tan A

tanA + tanB + tanC = tanAtanBtanC
cosxcos2xcos4xcos8x
1
=
2sinxcosxcos2xcos4xcos8x
2 sin x
1
=
sin2xcos2xcos4xcos8x
2 sin x
1
= 2
sin4xcos4xcos8x
2 sin x
1
= 3
sin8xcos8x
2 sin x

sec + tan =

sec tan =

5
.
4

1 1
Solving, sec = 3 +

3 2

= 2n + .
6

15. (d)

Dividing by 2, we get =

2
3

or
3
6

1.

(c)

2.

(d)

## Secant increases in the second quadrant and

sine and cosine increases in the fourth quadrant

3.

(b)

= cos (720 + 45)
1
= cos 45 =
2

4.

(a)

## tan being an increasing function, the value of

tan increases as increases

5.

(b)

sec + tan = x

1
Arc length = r = 15

= 5
3

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sec tan =

1
x

Solving, sec =

x2 + 1
2x

cos =

6.

2x
x2 + 1

1 cos2 x

sin =

x2 +1

= 2sec2

a 2 + b 2 = 2 + 2 cos( x y )
a2 b2 = cos 2x + cos 2y + 2 cos (x + y)
=
2 cos( x + y ) cos( x y ) + 2 cos( x + y )
= 2cos(x + y)[cos(x y) + 1]
= cos(x + y)(a2 + b2)

sin (x + y) =

8.

x2 1

(a)

cos(x + y) =

7.

cos + cos
4

1
=

cos2 sin2
4
2
=
1 2 sin2

a2 + b2
2ab

(d)

1
= sin( x ) =sinx
cos ec( x )

(b)

2
2

sin . sin
. sin
. sin
5
5
5
5

2
2

5
5
5
5

2
= sin2 . sin2
5
5
= sin236 sin272
10 2 5 10 + 2 5

=
=

16
16

100 20
5
=
16
16 2

9.

(c)

14. (c)

cot cot B 1

=1
cot A + cot B

4
. cos 2 . cos
7
7
7
8
sin
7 = 1
=

8
8 sin
7

15. (a)

cos

16. (c)

## 4 sin 230 sin 370 sin 830

= 2 sin 230 (2sin 830 sin 370 )
= 2 sin 230 ( cos 1200 + cos 460)
= sin 230 + 2 cos 460 sin 230
= sin 230 + sin 690 sin 230
= sin 690
= cos 210

17. (c)

cos x = 2p 2 1
= 2 cos 2 200 1
cosx = cos40
= cos(360 40)
= cos320

sin(45 + x) cos(45 x)
= sin45cosx + cos45sinx
[cos45cosx
sin45sinx]
1
(cosx + sinx cosx sinx)
=
2
=0

= cos.

## cotAcotB 1 = cotA + cotB

cotAcotB = 1 + cotA + cotB
2cotAcotB = (1 + cotA)(1 + cotB)
(by adding cotAcotB to both LHS and
RHS)
cot A
cot B
1

.
=
1 + cot A 1 + cot B 2

a2 b2

a2 + b2

13. (b)

C
cosA + cosB = 4 sin 2
2
A + B
A B
2C
2cos
. cos 2 = 4 sin 2
2

C
A B
cos
= 2 sin
2
2

10. (b)

11. (c)

C
A +B
sin ce cos
= sin

2
2

C
C
C
A B
2 cos
. cos 2 = 2.2. sin 2. cos 2
2
A B A +B
2 cos
sin
= 2 sin C
2 2
sin A + sin B = 2 sin C .

## (sin + cos)2 = 1 + 2sin cos

2

c
b

= 1 + 2 a
a
a2 b2 + 2ac = 0

18. (d)
12. (c)

sec + sec
4

tan =
8

cos
8
sin

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2 sin cos
8
8
=

2 cos2
8

3 tan A tan 3 A
= tan 3A .
=
1 3 tan 2 A

=
=

1
1 + cos
1+
4
2

24. (a)

cos4x = cos2x
4x = 2n 2 x
6x = 2n or 2x = 2n
n
x = n or
3
n
which includes x = n also
x=
3

25. (d)

## The given equation is

2sin4 cos3 + sin4 = 0
i.e;sin4 (2 cos3 +1) = 0

sin
4

= 2 1

2 +1

1
1 tan 1 49 24
cos 2 =
=
=
25
1 + tan 2 1 + 1
49
2

19. (d)

sin =

1
10

and cos =

## i.e; sin4 = 0 or cos 3 =

,
4 2
1
2 4
cos3 =
=
,
2
9 9

10

24
4sin
25
6
24
2sin2 =

5
25
24
sin3
25
sin4 = 2sin2cos2

sin4 = 0 0,

26. (a)

2 tan

sin 2 =

1
+
tan2

1 tan
cos 2 =

1 + tan2

24
=
25

or 2 = 2n
2
3
n

or = n .
2
8
6

27. (c)

sin 6 x sin 2 x
cos 2 2x sin2 2 x

2cos 4 x sin 2x
cos 4x
= 2sin2x.

## cos6 + sin6 = 1 + msin22(cos2 + sin2)3

3cos2sin2(cos2 + sin2)
= 1 + msin22
i.e; 1 3sin2cos2 = 1 + msin22
3

(sin2cos2) = msin22
4
3
m=
4

cos x =
4

22. (a)

23. (a)

3 tan A

tanA
1 + 3 tan A

= 2n
4
4

x = 2n or 2n +

28. (b)

3 + tan A

1 3 tan A

3 tan 2 A

= tan A
1 3 tan 2 A

## sin3x + sinxcosx + cos3x = 1

sin3x + cos3x (1 sinxcosx) = 0
(sinx + cosx)(sin2x + cos2x sinxcosx)
(1 sinxcosx) = 0
i.e; (1 sinxcosx)(sinx + cosx 1) = 0
i.e; sinxcosx = 1 (1)
or sinx + cosx = 1 (2)
(1) implies sin2x = 2 which is not possible
From (2)
1
1
1
sin x +
cos x =
2
2
2

= 2sinC.2sinB.sinA
= 4sinAsinBsinC

21. (a)

## [cos 2 + cos 6] cos 4 = 0

2 cos 4 cos 2 cos 4 = 0
i.e; cos 4(2 cos 2 1) = 0
cos4 = 0 or 2 cos 2 =1
4 = 2n

20. (a)

## sin2A + sin2B + sin2C

= 2sin(A + B)cos(A B)
+ sin2C
= 2sinCcos(A B) + 2sinCcosC
= 2sinC[cos(A B) + cosC]
=
A B +C
A B C

2sinC 2 cos
cos

2
2

1
2

29. (d)

.
2

1
3
or cos x =
2
2
1
5
cosx =
x= ,
2
3 3
3
cosx =
is not possible
2
Solving, cos x =

Solving we get

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tanx =

1
3

x = n +

.
6

30. (d)

and
does not satisfy the given
2
4
equation. Hence choice (d).
Both

## HINTS/SOLUTIONS for M1104

(Straight Lines)
Classroom Discussion Exercise
1.

2.

(d)

(a)

2b2y

## Let the third vertex be (x, y). Then

y 1+ 2
x + 2 +1
= 2 and
=2
3
3
x = 3, y = 5
(3, 5) is the third vertex.

k=

## Given (x a1)2 + (y b1)2 = (x a2)2 + (y b2)2

x2 + a12 2a1x + y2 + b12 2b1y
= x2 + a22 2a2x + y2 + b22

3.

4.

5.

(a)

(c)

(a)

10. (a)

## The midpoint of the diagonal is (3, 2) which lie on

the line y = 2x + a
Hence the value of a is 4.

11. (b)

## The given line is

a(x + 2 y ) + b(2x 3 y ) 5a + 4b = 0
i.e., a(x + 2y 5) + b(2x 3y + 4) = 0
This represents the family of lines through the
point of intersection of x + 2y 5 = 0 and
2x 3y + 4 = 0
Solving these two equations we get x = 1, y = 2.

## 2(a1 a2)x + 2(b1 b2)y + a22

+ b22
a12 b12 = 0
(a1 a2)x + (b1 b2)y
1 2
+
a2 + b22 a12 b12 = 0
2

12. (b)
y = 3x

## Since y = mx + c passes through (3, 5) and

(2, 4), therefore 5 = 3m + c and 4 = 2m + c
Solving m = 9, c = 22

A (4, 1)
135

## A(1, -2) and Q (2, -1) are points on QS

x 1
y+2

=
2 1 1+ 2
xy3=0
Required equation is

Equation of AB is y 1 = 1 (x 4)
i.e., x + y 5 = 0.
B is the point of intersection of this line with
y = 3x.
5 15
B is ,

4 4

x y
+ =2
p q

15

AB2 = 4 +
1
4

x
y
+
=2
2 3
3x + 2y 12 = 0

6.

(d)

## By the intercept form, equation is

5x + 7y + 35 = 0

7.

(c)

3x + 4y 5 k(x + 2y 3) = 0
x(3 k) + y(4 2k) + (3k 5) = 0
This is parallel to xaxis.
Slope is zero
3 k
i.e;
=0k=3
4 2k

8.

(a)

5
, 4
2

## If the required ratio is K:1, the point of division is

7K 1 8K + 1
given by
,
This being a point on
K +1 K +1
6
17
Thus the required ratio is 6 : 17
is 6 : 17.
2x + y = 5 , gives K =

11
= 2
4
AB =

11
11
= +
4
4

11 2
4

13. (c)

## Point of intersection of 4x + 3y = 1 and y = x + 5 is

(2, 3)
Substituting this in 5y + bx + 3 = 0 we get, b = 9.

14. (d)

b=

a+c
2

a+c
ax +
y + c = 0
2

ie a(2 x + y ) + c (y + 2 ) = 0
This represents a family of lines passing through
the point of intersection of the lines 2x + y = 0 and
y + 2 = 0.

k2 + 13k + 5 + k2 + 1 + 14 = 0
2k2 + 13k + 20 = 0
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9.

(b)

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15. (c)

## The equation of the required line is of the form

2x + y + 6 + (x 2y+3) = 0. Since this passes
through the origin, we get = 2.
Substituting, the required line is y = 0.

22. (a)

16. (a)

a1 a2 + b1 b2 = 0
0
= 90

17. (d)

## The lines 3x - 4y + 14 = 0 and

4x + 3y 23 = 0 are perpendicular
the orthocenter is the point of intersection of
these lines.
Solving we get x = 2, y = 5.

18. (c)

21. (c)

20. (d)

4+9

The image (x2, y2) of the point (x1, y1) in the line
ax + by + c = 0 is given by
x1 x1 y 2 y1 2(ax1 + by1 + c )
=
=
a
b
a2 + b2
x 2 3 y 2 8 2(3 + 24 7 )
=
=
1
3
1+ 9
(x 2 , y 2 ) = ( 1, 4 ).

## For parallel lines slopes are same. Hence k = 4.

Dividing throughout with 1 + 1 = 2 , we get
1
1
6
x
y=
2
2
2
1
1
cos =
; sin =
2
2
7
0
= 315 =
4
The points (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) are on the same
ax1 + by1 + c
side of the line ax + by + c = 0 if
is
ax 2 + by 2 + c
positive
7
<0
1 8 + 7

= 13 c = 13

23. (c)
19. (d)

20 + 30 + c

5 + 20

Distance =

=5

3 2 + 42

24. (b)

3 x 4y + 7
3 + ( 4 )
2

12 x + 5 y 2
122 + 52

3x 4 y + 7
12 x + 5 y 2
=
5
13
39x 52y + 91 = 60x 25y + 10
99x 27y + 81 = 0
11x 3y + 9 = 0.

25. (c)

## Let the origin be shifted to (h ,k).

Then the new equation is

(y + k )2 + 4(y + k ) + 8(x + h) 2 = 0

Coefficient of y = 0 2k+ 4 = 0 k = -2
Constant term = 0 k 2 + 4k + 8h 2 = 0
3
4 8 + 8h 2 = 0 h =
4

## (7, 0) is a point on the line

7
>0
1+ 6 + 7
(0, 0) and (1, 3) are on the same side of
x + 2y + 7 = 0

1.

(c)

2.

(a)

3.

(c)

2 1+ 5 3 + 0 + 9
,

= (2, 4)
3
3

3
x2
4
3x 4y 8 = 0.
y=

## Let the point be P(x, y)

(x + a)2 + y2 + (x a)2 + y2 = (2a)2
x2 + y2 = 2a2

5.

(c)

Required equation is ax + by = 1

6.

(c)

B (4, 2)

x
y
+
=1
a b

## (1, 3) is the midpoint

a
b

= 1 and
=3
2
2
a = 2 and b = 6
x
y
Required line is
+
=1
2 6
3x + y 6 = 0

450
A (2, 0)
Slope of AB is 1
AC is vertical where C is the new position of B

AB = 22 + 22 = 2 2

)
7.

4.

(c)

## Given slope = 3 and c = 2

4
Equation of the line is y = mx + c

1 3
+ =1
a b

(a)

## Since a, b, c are in A.P, therefore b =

a +c
2

a
c
(2x + y) +
(y + 2) = 0,
2
2
which always passed through (1, 2)
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8.

(c)

3 4
1
a 2 3 = 0
2 1 3

(a)

## Any line perpendicular to the given line is

x 2y + k = 0. Since it passes through (1, 2), we
get k = 3
Hence the required line is x 2y + 3 = 0.

15. (b)

+ 2 4 + 3

Then P is
,
+ 1
+1

a=5
9.

14. (b)

## Equation of the line is

(4x + 3y 7) + (8x + 5y 1) = 0
(4 + 8) x + (3 + 5) y 7 = 0
3
4 + 8
3
Slope =

=
2
3 + 5
2
8 + 16 = 9 + 15
i.e., = 1.
Equation of the line is (12x + 8y 8 = 0)
i.e., 3x + 2y 2 = 0.
a b c

10. (d)

b c a =0
c a b

11. (d)

12. (a)

i.e., a3 + b3 + c3 3abc = 0
Equation of a line parallel to 4x + 10y 8 = 0 is
4x + 10 y + K = 0 . It passes through (2,2) .
Hence 4 2 + 10 2 + K = 0 K = 12
required equation is 4x + 10y + 12 = 0

m1 = 3
m2 = 1

tan =

m 2 m1
1 + m1m 2

2
1
=
1+ 3 2

2
3
,m4 =
3
11
2 3

3
11 = 22 9 = 1
tan =
23
33 + 6 3
1+
11 3
1 1
+
2
3 =1
tan( + ) =
1
1
6

+ = .
4
m3 =

13. (d)
A
x+y6=0

5x - 3y + 2 = 0

D
C

B
x - 3y 2 = 0

## By solving the equations 5x 3y + 2 = 0 and

x + y 6 = 0 we get the point A (2, 4)
Altitude AD is 3x + y + k = 0
It passes through (2, 4)
k = 10
equation of the altitude is 3x + y = 10.

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18. (a)

P lies on x + y + 1 = 0
3
=
2
16. (d)

17. (a)

## With the given sides, the vertices are A(0, 0),

B(1, 3), C(2, 1)
Equation of the line through (1, 3) and
perpendicular to x + 2y = 0 is
2x y + 5 = 0 ..(1)
Equation of the line through (0, 0) and
perpendicular to 4x + 3y = 5 is
3x 4y = 0(2)
Point of intersection of (1) and (2) is the
orthocentre
Orthocentre is (4, 3)
The lines 3x 4y 2 = 0 and 4x + 3y 11 = 0 are
perpendicular
The orthocentre is the point of intersection of
these two lines.
3x 4y 2 = 0
4x + 3y 11 = 0
x
y
1
=
=
44 + 6 8 + 33 9 + 16
x = 2, y = 1.

## If (x, y) is the image of (x1, y1) in the line

ax + by + c = 0, then
x x1 y y1
(ax1 + by1 + c )
=
=
a
b
a2 + b2

x 0 y 5 (0 2 5 )
=
=
3
4
9 + 16

x = 3, y = 1
19. (c)

## If P (h, k) is the image of A (4,13) in the lines

5x + y + 6 = 0, then
h 4 k + 13
20 13 + 6
=
= 2
= 1
5
1
25 + 1

h = 1, k = 14 .

5
1
2

20. (b)

a2 + 16

3
10

52
2 a + 16
2

3
10

a2 + 16 = 5
a2 + 16 = 25
a = 3.

a2 = 9

Assignment Exercise
1.

(c)

[x (a + b)]2 + [y (b a)]2
= [x (a b)]2 + [y (a + b)]2

6.

(a)

Area =

bx ay = 0

2.

3.

4.

5.

P (h, k) lies on 3x + 2y 13 = 0
3h + 2k 13 = 0
Q (k, h) lies on 4x y 5 = 0
4k h 5 = 0
Solving them, we get h = 3, k = 2
Equation of PQ is y 2 = 1 (x 3)
x+y5=0
x y
(b) The equation of the line is + = 1
a b
where 2a = 3b
3 1
This passes through (3, 1) = 1
a b
3 3
3

=1
a=
a 2a
2
b=1
x
Required line
+ y = 1 2x + 3 y 3 = 0.
3

2
(b) ax + by + 13 = 0 passes through (2, 5) and
(3, 0)
2a + 5b + 13 = 0
and 3a b + 13 = 0
Solving, a = 6, b = 5

## The equations of the sides are

(c1 c 2 )(d1 d2 )
a1b 2 a 2b1

2 1
=2
98

(b)

(d)

c=

a+b
2

1
1

ax + by + c = 0 a x + + b y + = 0,
2
2

a b c

7.

(c)

b c a =0
c a b
i.e; a3 + b3 + c3 3abc = 0

(a + b + c ) a2 + b2 + c 2 ab ac bc = 0
a+b+c=0
(since a b c, a2 + b2 + c2 ab bc ca 0)

8.

(b)

## Solving the first and the second equations, the

point of intersection is (-1, 1). This lies on the third
line.
Substituting, we get k = 4

9.

(c)

4x + 3y 7 = 0
8x + 5y 1 = 0
Solving, the point of intersection is (-8, 13).
3
The required equation is y 13 = (x + 8 )
2
2y 26 = 3x 24
3x + 2y 2 = 0.

10. (b)

x y = 0 or x = y
This line is equally inclined to the x and y axes
The angle it makes with y = 0 (x axis) is 450.

11. (c)

## The midpoint of (1, 1) and (3, 5) is (2, 3).

Slope of the line joining (1, 1) and (3, 5) is 2
1
Slope of its perpendicular is
2
Equation of the right bisector is

1 1
which always passes through ,

2 2
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1
(x 2)
2
x + 2y 8 = 0

1 + 3
1
= tan1
= tan 1
1+ 3
2
Angle between the lines x + y = 0 and
x + 3y 6 = 0 is given by
1

+ 1
1 3
= tan 1 1
= tan
2
1

1+

## Angle between the lines 3x + y 4 = 0 and

x + 3y 6 = 0 is given by

y3=

12. (b)

## The lines x = 7 and y = 5

are perpendicular
the circumcentre lies on the third line
5x + 7y 35 = 0.

13. (b)

## The required line can be taken as

tan
sec
x+
y=k
b
a
It passes through (a sec , b tan )

3+
3
= tan1 4
= tan
3
1+ 1

as the base.
1

## a sec tan b tan sec

+
=k
b
a

a2 + b2
sec tan
ab
Equation becomes
k =

y
x
a2 + b2
tan + sec =
sec tan
b
a
ab
ax
by
ie;
+
= a2 + b2
sec tan
ie; ax cos + by cot = a 2 + b 2 .

14. (a)

## Slopes of the three lines are

1
m1 = 1, m2 = 3, m3 =
3
Angle between the lines x + y = 0 and
3x + y 4 = 0 is given by

15. (a)

## The lines are parallel.

25
Distance between the lines is

17
2

5 + 12
2

33
26

33
52

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1.

(c)

Area =

1 b c
1
1 c a
2
1 a b
=

1 b
c
1
0 c b a c
2
0 a b b c

1
[ (c b) (b c ) (a b) (a c )]
2

=
1
2
2
bc c b + bc (a2 ac ab + bc )
2
1 2
=
a + b2 + c 2 bc ca ab
2
=
1
2
2
2a + 2b + 2c 2 2bc 2ca 2ab
4
1
= (b c )2 + (c a)2 + (a b)2
4

3.

(d)

## Area of triangle formed by the straight line

ax + by + c = 0 with the coordinate
axes is

c2
2 ab

1
2m 1
2
tan 45 =

= 1
m
m+2
1+
2
1
m = 3 or m =
3
Thus from (1) the required equations are
3x y 7 = 0 , x + 3 y 9 = 0
9.

(a)

= ab

1
units.
2

intersection.

## The sides are given by 5x + 2y + 5 = 0,

5x + 2y 5 = 0, 5x 2y + 5 = 0, 5x 2y 5 = 0.
These lines form a rhombus.
255
Area =
= 5 sq.units
52

11. (d)

Slope of AC =

3
C 2,
2

A(4, 0)

## Orthocenter is O (0, 0) and circumcenter C is the

3
midpoint of AB. ie; C = 2,
2

OC = 4 +

6.

(d)

9
=
4

25 5
=
= 2.5
4
2

## Solving 4x + 5y = 0 and 11x + 7y = 9 we get

5 4
,
solving 7x + 2y = 0 and 11x + 7y = 9 we
3 3

## Any line perpendicular to 3 x + y 3 = 0 is

x 3y + K = 0 .
It passes through (2, 2) k = 4.
equation of the line is x 3 y + 4 = 0
Putting x = 0, we get the intercept.
4
y=
3

10. (c)
B(0, 3)

1
2

c2
49
=
.
2ab
4

Required area is

If a, c, b are in G.P; c

(a)

(d)

(b)

y2
= m ... (1)
x3

2.

5.

8.

(a)

(b)

4.

7.

## The given sides pass through the origin, while the

given diagonal does not. Hence, the required
diagonal must
pass through the origin. Thus,
the
only correct choice is (d).
Consider P(a, b), Q(a, c), R(d, c)
c b
Slope of PQ =
0
0
Slope of RQ =
da
PQ is perpendicular to QR
Q(a, c) is the orthocentre.

4+3
7
=
2 1 3
3
slope of BD =
7

1 1
Midpoint of AC is , which is (the midpoint
2, 2
of BD also)
equation of BD is
1 3
1
y = x +
2 7
2
ie; 6x 14y + 10 = 0.
ie; 3x 7y + 5 = 0

5 4
1 1
get ,
midpoint is 2 , 2 .
3 3

1
3+
The other diagonal should pass through (0, 0) and
2
12. (c) The angle is given by tan =
=1
3
1 1
1+
, . Hence its equation is y = x
2
2 2
Aliter:
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=
13. (b)

14. (a)

15. (a)

## Any line perpendicular to

(1) + (2) 8p = a

p2 =

20. (d)

x cos y sin
+
= 1 bxcos + aysin ab = 0
a
b
a2 b2

## perpendicular distance from (, 0) is

b cos ab
and
2
a sin2 + b2 cos2

b cos ab

P2 =

a sin2 + b2 cos2
2

P1P2 =

a 2b 2 b 2 2 cos2
a 2 sin2 + b 2 cos2

R (1, -1)

p=

b 2 a 2 sin2 + b 2 cos2
a 2 sin2 + b 2 cos2

) =b

sec 2 + cos ec 2
a2
1

+
cos2 sin2
2
2
4p = a sin 2
Similarly q2 = a2 cos2 2
4p2 + q2 = a2.

= a2 sin2 cos2

22. (c)

## The lines are 6x + 8y 10 = 0

and 6x + 8y 45 = 0
Distance between them
c 2 c1
10 + 45
35
=
=
= 3 .5
=
2
2
10
36
+
64
a +b

23. (d)

Using

2a 3 + a2 1 4 < 0

19. (b)

a 2 sin2 + b 2 cos2

p=

p2 =

1+14<0
i.e. a2 + 2a 8 < 0
ie; (a + 4) (a 2) < 0
a lies in the interval ( 4, 2)

b 2 a 2 a 2 cos2 + b 2 cos2

21. (b)

a 2 sin2 + b 2 cos2

x + 3 y = 2a

18. (b)

a 2b 2 b 2 a 2 b 2 cos2

x cos 60 + y sin 60 = a
3y
=a
2

Point is (, 0) and (, 0)

P1 =

## The equation in normal form is

x
+
2

a2
.
8

(2)

x
4
a2 b2
sin cos =
sin cos
b
a
ab
ax sec by cosec = a2 b2

17. (c)

cos2 + sin2

4p2 = a2 cos2 2

Let =

S
m
2

=1
tan = 1
5m
1+
2
5
5
5
5m
m = 1 + m or + m = 1 +
2
2
2
2
3
7
m=
of
7
3
3
3
, PQ is y 4 = (x 3 )
When m =
7
7
i.e., 7y 28 = 3x 9
3x 7y + 19 = 0.

(1)

a cos 2

2p =

Also

x
y
cos + sin = 1 is
a
b

P (3, 4)

sin2

4p2 = a2 sin2 2

a2 b2
sin cos
ab
required line is

5
2
Slope of PQ = m

= a2 sin2 cos2

k=

Slope of PR =

1
cos2

## The triangle is right angled. So the circumcentre is

the midpoint of the hypotenuse, Hence
circumcentre is (3, 3).
Equation of the line is 4x + 2y + c = 0
c
=5
y-intercept =
2
c = -10
equation is 4x + 2y 10 = 0
i.e., 2x + y 5 = 0.

x
y
sin cos = k
b
a
This passes through ( a cos, b sin)

16. (a)

a2

p2 =

ax + by 1 + c
x x1
y y1
=
= 2 1

2
2
a
b
a +b

x6 y8
=
1
1

6 8
= 2
(x, y ) = (8,6 )
2

a
sec + cos ec 2
2

24. (c)

## The side of the square is equal to the distance

between the parallel lines which is equal to

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29. (b)

7+5

2 = 19
20
62 + 82

2 x + 4 y 11 = 0

19 2
20

30. (a)

19 2
361
area =
=
4 2 20
800
25. (a)

equation

9 6
2

6 +8
2

5
2

26. (a)

h +1 k 4
(3 + 4 11)
=
= 2
3
1
9 +1
h=5, k=6

27. (b)

## Line joining (1, 2) and (5, 4) is x 3y + 7 = 0.

If (h, k) is the foot of the perpendicular, then
h 1 y 0
(1 3 0 + 7)
=
=1
1
3
1+ 9
1
12
h = ,k =
5
5

28. (b)

## 2x + y = 7 passes through (2, 3) but it is parallel to

the given lines, so it will not make any intercepts
with them. Point of intersection of x 2 = 0 with
2x + y 3 = 0 and 2x + y 5 = 0 are (2, 1) and
(2, 1) respectively. The intercepts made by
x 2 = 0 with them is 2 unit. x 2y + 4 = 0 passes
through (2, 3) but perpendicular to the given
parallel lines
The required intercept is the distance between
the parallel lines is

3 5
4+1

2
5

## The other bisector is perpendicular to

x+y2=0
Hence the equation is x y + k = 0
This passes through (1, 1) k = 0
Equation of the other bisector is x y = 0

(2, 3)
choice (b)

## HINTS/SOLUTIONS for M1105

Classroom Discussion Exercise
1.

(a)

5i.
4.

2.

(d)

(d)

Let 7 24i = a + ib
7 24i = a2 b2 + 2iab.
Equating the real and imaginary parts, we get
a2 b2 = 7 and ab = 12.
Now a2 + b2 =

(a

b2

q s
+

p r
= tan

q s
1
p r

+ 4a 2b 2

= 25

2a = 32 a = 4
When a = 4, b = 3
When a = 4, b = 3.

3.

(d)

qr + ps

= tan 1
pr qs

5.

(d)

(x + 1 + i) (x + 1 i) (x 1 + i) (x 1 i)
=(x2 + 2x + 1 + 1) (x2 2x + 1 + 1)
=[ (x2 + 2) + 2x ] [(x2 + 2) 2x]
=(x2 + 2)2 4x2 = x4 + 4.

6.

(c)

## The given equation is

(1 + i) (3 i) x 2i (3 i) +

7 24i = (4 3i)

## 5i + 4i4 3i3 + 2i2 i

= 5i + 4 + 3i 2 I = 2 + 7i

= tan 1(1) = n +

p
s
tan1 + tan1
r
q

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(2 3i) (3 + i) y + i (3 + i) = i (3 + i) (3 i)
(4 + 2i) x 6i 2 + (9 7i) y + 3i 1 = 10i
(4x + 9y 3) + (2x 7y) = 13i
Equating real and imaginary parts,
4x + 9y 3 = 0
2x 7y = 13
Solving, we get x = 3, y = -1.
7.

(c)

15. (a)

## i2 i73 + i54 + i15 i21 + i32

)=

1
i2

=1

i4k +1 = i
where k Z
i4k + 2 = 1
i4k + 3 = i
i4k = 1

Aliter :

16. (b)

9.

AB = BC = CD = DA = 13
Also
AC2 = | 17 7 i | = 338
AB2 + BC2 = 169 + 169 = 338 = AC2
ABC is right angle
ABCD is a square.

( 5 + 2i)

40

5 + 2i

= 3 39 a + ib
40

= 3 39 a + ib

3 40 = 339. a 2 + b 2

8.

12 + 6k
= 3
4 + 2k

## i15 i21 + i32 i73 + i54

(3 + k )2 + 3 k 2
(1 + k )2 + 3 k 2

a2 + b 2 = 3

a2 + b2 =9.

## (b) (5 + 2i) = 21 + 20i

Conjugate of (5 + 2i)2 is 21 20i.
(b)

x 2 + y 2 = x + iy
=

10. (d)

11. (c)

2+ i
=1
2i

+ i cos
2

= sin i cos
2

= cos 2 + i sin
2

## Complex conjugate of sin

13

2
12. (a)

13. (d)

19. (d)
2 i 3 2i 1 + i
1 i

+ i sin
12
12

z +1
=
z 1

3 + k + i 3 k2
1+ k + i 3 k2

1
= cos i sin
x

x 6 = cos 6 + i sin 6
1

+
4 6 3

x6

## cos + i sin cos + i sin

4
4
6
6

cos + i sin
3
3

i 3 + i or i 3 + i

Given 40 (x 2 + y 2) 25 10 = 2500
1
x2 + y2 = .
4

= cos

z = sin + icos

= cos + i sin
2

z2 = cos ( 2) + i sin ( 2)
1
and 2 = cos( 2) isin ( 2)
z
1
z 2 + 2 = 2 cos( 2)
z
The point P can be obtained by rotating the
complex number 3 + i in anticlockwise and
clockwise direction. Hence P can be either

= 65 .

= cos + + i sin
4 6 3

14. (d)

18. (a)

(2 i) (3 2i) (1 + i)
(1 i)
=

17. (b)

= cos 6 i sin 6

x6

20. (a)

1
x6

= 2 i sin 6

Putting x =

3
in the given equation,
2

9 3
p6=0
4 2
p = 1
2x

21. (c)

1
3i
=
3+i
10
3+i
=
10
6
1
+=
and =
10
10
=

Required equation is x 2

6
1
x+
=0
10
10

ie; 10x2 6x + 1 = 0
a = 10, b = 6 and c = 1

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22. (d)

23. (a)

Since , satisfy x3 1 = 0
3 = 1 and 3 = 1, 2 + + 1 = 0

4 1
2
4 1 6
1
3
4 3 =
= = .
2
2
=

++1=0
(2 2) + ( ) = 0
+ + 1 = 0, + = 1
( + )27 + (100 + 100)27 = + = 1
= ( + )27 + ( + )27 100 = , 100 =
2

r
and

r
p2 + q + r = 0 p + q =

p 2 + q + r = 0 p + q =

24. (a)

= (1)27 + (1)27 = 2
4x 2 + 2x 1 = 0
1
1
+ = and = 2
4

+
=

p + q p + q
r
r
=

4 2 = 1 2
4 = 2
3

(1 2 )
2

2 r
x
r p

2
p

## Regular Homework Exercise

1.

(b) Let z =
z=

2.

(a)

2i
2+i

(2 + i)
(2 i) (2 + i)
2

2+i
2i

Let 11 + 60i = a + ib
11 + 60i = a2 b2 + 2iab
a2 b2 = 11 and ab = 30

(a

a2 + b2 =

b2

9.
=

(b)

3 + 4i
.
5
= sin

+ 4a2b 2

= 61

11 + 60i = (5 + 6 i) .

2i 3 (2i 3 )(2 + i)
=
2i
(2 i)(2 + i)

(c)

4.

5.

(a)

4i + 2i2 6 3i
4 i

10. (d)

11. (b)

Argument =

12. (b)

2.5.10 ( 1 + n2)
= |1 + i| |1 + 2i| .|1+ ni|
= x2 + y2

13. (c)

## 58 = 58 x which is true only

when x = 0.
Thus number of solutions = 1.

14. (d)

## The given complex number has modulus 1 and

argument .
2

8 1
+ i.
5 5

3x + i(4x 6y) = 2 i
Equating the real and imaginary parts, we get
3x = 2 and 4x 6y = 1.
2
x=
3
11
Thus 4x 6y = 1 y =
18

( 4 +

) (

( )

2
2
2

= 64

6.

(d)

## Modulus is a non-negative real number.

7.

(c)

z . z = z = 130.

+ i cos
2

2
We cannot compare two complex numbers since
there is no ordering in the set of complex
numbers. [Note that the comparisons in (a), (b)
and (c) are in R, the set of real numbers]

2a = 50 a = 5
When a = 5, b = 6
When a = 5, b = 6

3.

i cos
2

= cos 2 i sin

## Complex conjugate of sin

15. (b)

=
3 4 12

3 +
3 [x + iy ] = 3
2
10

10

3
i
Now
+
2
2

= cos

20

20

= cos + i sin
6
6

20

20
20
+ i sin
6
6

1
3
and y =
2
2
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8.

(c)

z z =0 z

= 0 z =0

x=

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x2 y2 =

16. (d)

400 = (399 . ) =
Again 2 + + 1 = 0 and 2 + + 1 = 0
+ = 1
400 + 400 = + = 1

1 3 1
=
4
2

Given that

5k 2 1
=9
1

20. (c)

We have

k2 = 2
Now, discriminant = 4k2 4(5k2 1)
= 8 4 (10 1)
<0
The roots are imaginary.

i+ 3

17. (c)

## Interchanging the constant term and the

coefficient of x we get the required equation as
qx2 px + 1 = 0

i+i 3

i+ 3

18. (c)

If

2 + i 3 is a root then

i+ 3

2 i 3 also a root.

200

= cos

i+ 3

i 3

x3 1
, x 1 0
x 1

= 2 cos

## , are the roots of x + x + 1 = 0

2

1+ 3

i 3

Similarly
i+ 3

Required equation is x 2 2 2 x + 5 = 0

x2 + x + 1 =

3 + 2 3i 1 1
3
= +i
4
2
2

= cos

## Sum of the roots = 2 2

Product of the roots = 5

19. (c)

(i + 3 )

200

+ i sin
3
3

200
200
+ i sin
3
3

200

= cos

i 3

+
i+ 3

200
200
i sin
3
3

200

200
1
= 2
= 1
3
2
= (2)200 + 200
= 400 + 200 = 1

3 1
= 0 1 3 = 1
1

3 1
= 0 1 3 = 1
1
400 = (399. ) =

Assignment Exercise
1.

(b) i6 + i7 + i8 + i9 = 1 i + 1 + i = 0.
8.

1 2i
(1 2i)
=
1 + 2i
5

(a)

2.

(c)

Square root =

3.

4.

(b)

(d)

(1 2i) .

1+ i
(1 + i)2 = 1 + 2i 1 = i
=
1 i (1 + i) (1 i)
1+ 1
yaxis.
2

which

lies

(a)

on

## (d) |z1| + |z2| = |1 + 2i| + |2 + 3i|

1+ 4 + 4 + 9

=
Modulus, r =
tan =

1
3

3 +1 = 2

3
i
3 + i = 2
+
2
2

= 2 cos + i sin
6
6

a2 + b2

a2 + b2 = 1

Let z = x + iy.
zi

= 1 x 2 + (y 1)2 = x 2 + (y + 1)2
z+i
y = 0, which represents

the x - axis

10. (c)

6.

(a)

9.

## 3 + ix y & x + y 4i are conjugates

x2 + y = 3, x2 y = 4.
Solving, we get x = 1, y = 4

(a)
1.

7.

1=

5.

## Equating modulus on both sides, we get

1 ix
= a ib
1 + ix

( ) 3

arg ( 3 + i) =
6

arg 1 + i 3 =

1+ i 3
arg
3 +i

5 + 13

11. (d)

= =
3 6 6

1
3
1+ 3 i = 2 +
i
2
2

1+ 3 i

5
5

= 25 cos
+ i sin

3
3

and 1 i 3

= 2 cos + i sin
3
3

Thus, 1 + i 3

5
5

= 25 cos
i sin

3
3

) + (1 i 3 ) = 2 cos 53
5

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= 25 = 32
12. (c)

We have z1 + z 2 z1 + z 2
z+2 z +2

14. (b)

15. (c)

( )
= ( 1+ i 3 )

x + iy = 1 i 3

100
100

( z 4)

4
13. (b)

k = 31 42i

100

1
3
=2100
+i
2
2

Sitas equation is (x - 2) (x - 5) = 0
i.e. x2 7x + 10 = 0
Mamatas equation is (x + 6) (x + 1) = 0
i.e. x2 + 7x + 6 = 0
Correct equation is x2 7x + 6 = 0
x = 1 or 6.

1
3
=2100
+i
2
2

100

sin ce1 + i 3
= 100 =

x = 299, y = 299 3

## Sum of the roots = 6i

the other root = 3 10i
Product of the roots = k

1.

(c)
are

## The co-ordinates of the vertices of the triangle

( 7, 3 ),, ( 3 , 7 ), , ( 7,

3, 7 + 3

8.

(c)

Multiplicative inverse of a + ib =

1
Area =
(x1(y 2 y3 ) + x 2 ( y3 y1) + x 3 ( y1 y 2 ))
2

1
2

[ 7 (

( 7 + 3) + 3( 7 +

3 3

( 7 3 )( 3 + 7 )]
21 + 7 3] = 5 = 5

9.

(a)

a ib
a2 + b2

z 5i
= 1 x 2 + (y 5 )2 = x 2 + (y + 5 )2
z + 5i

y=0

2.

(b)

1
7 7 21 +
2

(2 + 3i)(1 + 3i)
(1 3i)(1 + 3i)

2 + 3i
=
1 3i

3.

(b)

5.

(c)

z=

11. (c)

(c)

## The given points form a rectangle.

(5, 2)

(5, 2)

(5, 2)

12. (a)

(5, 2)

(b + ia)5 = [ i (a ib ) ]5

= i5 (a ib )5 = i ( i ) = i + .

a 2 + 2a ib b 2
a +b
2

13. (b)

1 i
2

1
.
2

## The point 4i lies on positive y axis.

(x + i y ) 13

= p + iq

x + i y = (p + iq)3
= p3 3pq2 + i (3p2 q q3)
3
x = p 3pq2 and y = 3p2 q q3
x y
+ = p2 3q2 + 3p2 q2
p q
= 4 (p2 q2).

1
1 i
=
1 + i (1 + i) (1 i)

Re z =
7.

2ab
a2 + b2

1
i

## In both cases |z| = 1

2 7i 6 4 7i
=

.
4+9
13 13

(a + ib)
(a ib)
(
a + ib ) (a + ib )
=
(a ib) (a + ib)

( i2 = 1)

z=

Im z =

6.

(d) i4 + i8 = 1 + 1 = 2.
(a)

z 2 (iz + 1) + i(iz + 1) = 0

z 2 + i (iz + 1) = 0 z 2 = i or z =

(1 2i) (2 3i)
1 2i
=
2 + 3i
(2 + 3i) (2 3i)
=

4.

10. (a)

7 + 9i
10

9
2 + 3i
Im
=
1 3i 10

1
a + ib

14. (a)

Let 5 12i = x + iy
5 12i = x2 y2 + 2ixy
x2 y2 = 5 and xy = 6

Now x2 + y2 = x 2 y 2 + 4x 2 y 2
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= 13
2x2 = 18 x = 3
When x = 3, y = 2
When x = 3, y = 2

z 7 = 1
z

86

+z

22. (d)
+z

175

289

( )

= z7

12

( ) + (z )

z2 + z7

25

7 41

= arg (-1)
= .

23. (a)

= z 1 z = 1 .

16. (c)

iz 1 + z i = 2

iz + i2 + z i = 2
i(z + i) + z i = 2

x + 2 = 7i

x2 + 4 + 4x = 49

## z + i + z i = 2 , which represents a line

x2 + 4x + 53 = 0

segment
[Note: [|z z1| + |z z2| = k represent
(i) a straight line if |z1 z2| = k
(ii) an ellipse if |z1 z2| > k ]

x3 + 4x2 + 53x + 5 = 5

17. (a)

z
arg( z ) arg(z ) = arg

z2

## = ( 1)12 z 2 + ( 1)25 + ( 1)41.z 2

2

1 + i (1 + i)2
=
=i
1 i
2

1+ i
arg
=
1 i 2

5 12i = (3 2 i)

15. (b)

21. (c)

x + iy = (1 t ) + i t 2 + t + 2
x = (1 t )

y = t2 + t + 2

24. (c)

y 2 = t 2 + t + 2 (1 x )2 + (1 x ) + 2
2

y
7

4

x
2

7

4

18. (d)

z1 z1
=
z z z1 z2
2 2

19. (b)

We have Z +

|Z| = Z +

25. (b)

(|Z| 3)

1 sin + i cos

= 1 cos + i sin
2

argument =

26. (d)

9
9
+
Z
Z

|Z| 3

z
=1
3i
z
2
|z|
z

18

18

+ .
4 2

|| = 1

9
|Z|

18

|Z| 3 +

= 2(9 41)

= 2 sin cos + + i sin +
4 2
4 2
4 2

|Z|2 6 |Z| + 9 18
2

= 2 sin sin + i cos
4 2 4 2
4 2

9 9

Z Z

6+

= 2 sin2 + i2 sin cos
4 2
4 2
4 2

= 1, a hyperbola

9
=6
Z

Z+

3
9

= x + 4
2
4

) (

41 i + 3 41 i

64.

= x 2 3x + 4

(3 +

3i
2

|z| = z

## So maximum value of |Z| is 3 + 18

=1

3
i
2
2

x2 + y2 = x2 + y (where z = x + iy)
2

## 20. (d) 1 + i 3 = 2 cos + i sin

3
3

1+ i 3

= 8 cos + i sin
3
3

y=

= 8 (cos + i sin )
= 8.

27. (b)

3
, a straight line.
4

Let z = x + iy
z z1 z (3 + 2i)
=
z z 2 z (4 + 5i)

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(x 3 ) + i(y 2)
(x 4 ) + i(y 5 )
[(x 3) + i(y 2)][(x 4) i(y 5)]
=
(x 4 )2 + (y 5)2
(x 3 )(x 4) + (y 2)(y 5 )
=
(x 4)2 + (y 5 )2
i(y 2)(x 4) (x 3 )(y 5 )
+
(x 4)2 + (y 5 )2
=

28. (b)

## In a parallelogram diagonals bisect each other.

z + z3
z + z4
= 2
1
2
2
z1 + z3 = z2 + z4

29. (a)

## In a square, lengths of the diagonals are equal.

|z1 z3| = |z2 z4|

30. (b)

x 2 7 x + y 2 7 y + 22

3 +i

= cos + i sin
2
6
6

(x 4)2 + (y 5 )2
+i

3x y 7

(x 4)

3 +i
= cos x + i sin x

2
6
6

+ (y 5 )

z z1
=
arg

z z2 4

3 + i = 2 cos + i sin
6
6

3x y 7
x 2 7 x + y 2 7 y + 22

## So from the given equation, we get

x
x
cos
+ i sin
=1
6
6
x
x
= 1 and sin
=0
cos
6
6
x
x
sin
=0
= n; n
6
6

=1

x2 10x + y2 6y + 29 = 0
(x 5)2 + (y 3)2 = 5
|(x 5) + i (y 3)|2 = 5
| (x + iy) (5 + 3i) |2 = 5
| z (5 + 3i) | =

x = 6n
x
Now cos
= 1 cosn = 1
6

n is a multiple
of 2

12,

24,

## HINTS/SOLUTIONS for M1106

(PMI, Sequence and Series)
Classroom Discussion Exercise

1.

n=

2.

## (b) a + 17d = 108 and a + 107d = 18

d = 1 and a = 125
th
126 term = 125 + (126 1) x 1 = 0

5.

(a)

798 252
tn t1
+ 1 = 79
+1 =
d
7

(b) a = 5 , d = 5
t20 = a + 19d = 5 +19 5

3.

4.
d=7

= 20 5

a(b + c )
b(c + a)
c(a + b )
+ 1,
+ 1,
+1
bc
ca
ab

are in A.P.
ab + bc + ca ab + bc + ca ab + bc + ca
,
,
are in
bc
ca
ab

1
1
1
(c)
are in A.P
,
,
a+b c +a b+c
1
1
1
1

b+c c +a c +a a+b
ab bc

=
b+c a+b

A.P.
1 1 1
,
,
are in A.P
bc ca ab
1
1
1
, abc , abc
are in A.P.
bc
ca
ab

abc

a2 b2 = b 2 c 2

a, b, c are in A.P.

a2 + c 2 = 2b2
a2, b2, c 2 are in A.P

6.

(d) x2 = x1 + d
d = x 2 x1 =

(x

+ x1

)( x

x1

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x 2 + x1

Similarly,

x 2 x1

=
1

x3 + x2

x3 x2

1
xn1 + xn
1

1
x2 + x3

xn xn1

+ x1

13. (d) ar = 2
2
8
9
36
a . ar . ar ar = a . r

)( x

x1

n 1

d
xn + x1
1
1
1

+
+ .....+
x1 + x2
x2 + x3
xn1 + xn
xn x1

## 14. (b) Let the numbers be a, ar, ar .

2
Given a + ar + ar = 21
2
a ( r + r + r ) = 21

(1)

a.

1 r3
= 21
1 r

2 2

(n 1)

1 r6
= 189
1 r

(d) a = 1; tn = 101; d = 2; n = 51
51
[1+ 101]
2

S=

51 102
= 2601
2

term = S2 S1 = 30 9

8.

(b) 2

9.

(b) a + 2d = 5
a + 6d = 3 (a + 2d) + 6
a = 3 and d = 4
S32 = 16 [ 6 + 31 x 4] = 1888

= 21

## 10. (c) a + (n 1) d = 164

n
. [2a + (n 1) d] = 3n2 + 5n
2

a + 164 = 3n + 5
Now, a = 3 1 + 5 1 = 8
Thus 3n + 5 = 86 n = 27
11. (d)

(2)

xn + x1

nd

## Also given a + (ar) + (ar ) = 189

2
2
4
a (1 + r + r ) = 189

7.

4 9

= (ar )
9
= 2 = 512

d
n

12. (d) 2b = a + c
2b
a+c
7 =7
b 2
a
c
(7 ) = 7 . 7

xn1 + xn

xn x1

But xn = x1 + (n 1)d

(x

+ .......+

=
(n 1)d = xn x1 =

x 4 x3

x 4 + x3

x1 + x2

m
m.p2 + p
2
mp
=
(mp + 1)
2

m
[2 + (m 1) x 1]= m(m + 1)
2
2
m
m(3m + 1)
S2 =
[4 + (m 1) 3] =
2
2
m
Sp = [2p + (m 1)(2p 1)]
2
m
=
[2p + 2pm 2p m + 1]
2
m
=
[m(2p 1) + 1]
2
m
S1 + S2 + S3 + .....Sp = {[m(2p 1) + 1]}
2
S1 =

Aliter:
The only numbers in the given choices
whose sum is 21 are 3, 6, 12
2
15. (d) (1333
4 2...433) + (1555
4 2 ...
435)
n digits

n digits
2

## = (3 + 30 + 300 + ..+ n terms ) +

(5 + 50 + 500 + + n terms )

3 10n 1
5 10n 1
+
(
10

1
)
10 1

10n 1 3 10n 1
+ 5

9
9

(10 1)(10
n

+ 14

## 16. (a) Let the terms be

a

27

a
, a,ar.
r

1
1
a=
8
2

a
21
r a + (a ar ) + r ar = 16

a2
21
+ a2r + a 2 =
r
16
1
1 21
1 + r + =
4
r 16
1+ r +

1 21
=
r
4

4 r 2 + r + 1 = 21r

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4r 2 17r + 4 = 0
1
r = 4 or
4

19. (b)

n+

n+

1
2

## Given arn 1 = arn + arn + 1

an + bn

an+1 + bn+1 = a

1 1
1 1
Numbers are , , 2 or 2, , .
8 2
2 8

17. (b)

an +1 + bn +1

Given

n+

5 1
= 2 sin180 .
2

1
2

or n +

2
1

n+

+ a 2 .b

1
2

1
2

=1

1
1
=0 n=
2
2

.
2
20. (d) b = ac gives x = 4 so that the numbers
are 4, 6, 9
27
2

4 term =
th

But r is positive
r=

n+

1 5
r=
2

1 1
2 .b 2

( a b )= b ( a b )

rn
= rn + rn r
r

r +r1=0

= (ab )

384
5
r =
= 32
12

## 18. (c) (2k + 3) (k + 2) = (4k 1) (2k + 3)

k=5

r=2
22. (c) n

th

term =

2 n 1
2n

= 1

1
2n
n

Sum to n terms = n

2
n 1

=
n

1 1 1

2 2

= n 1 + 2n .
23. (d)

=
2
7
6

24. (d) tn =

2n + 1 = 21

or n = 10

n = n + 1
n

Sn =

(n + 1)
2
n(n + 1)
+n
2
=
2
n(n + 3 )
=
4

## 25. (d) (1 2 ) + (3 4 ) + + (49 50 ) + 51

2

512 = 1326

= 1(3 + 7 + 11 + + 99) +

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## Regular Homework Exercise

1.

2.

3.

(d) 7 t7 = 11 t11
7 [a + 6d] = 11 [a + 10d]
7a + 42d = 11a + 110d
4a + 68d = 0
or a + 17d = 0
t`18 = 0
(b) Tn = a+(n-1)d
th
60 term = 3+59 5 = 298
(a) a = 20; d = 1;

tn = 99

n
S = (a + tn)
2
99 20
n=
+ 1 = 80
1
80
S=
(20 + 99) = 40 119 = 4760
2

4.

5.

(a) Tn = a + (n1) d
= 4 3i + (n 1) (i 2)
= 6 2n + i (n 4)
Equating the imaginary part equal to
zero, we get n = 4.
th
The 4 term of the sequence is purely real
.
th
4 term = T4 = 2.
(c) n = 9,
S9 =

6.

(d)

d=

1
;
6

a=

1
2

9
1
1 3
2 + (9 1)
= 2
2
2
6

1
1 25
n = 25
+ (n 1) =
6
6
6

## But, the given A.P is increasing,

and hence x = 36.
10. (d)

k4
4
Solving k = 16
=
2k + 4 k 4

r= 3 ;

tn = 36 3
n1
4
ar
= 36 3
4

4
3

( 3)

n 1

n 1
2

= 4 36

= 36

n1
= 6 n = 13
2

n-1

## 12. (d) a = 3, ar =192, Sn = 381

n-1
n
r = 64 i.e. r = 64r
3(r n 1)
= 381
r 1
n

## i.e. r 1 = 127 (r-1)

64r 1 = 127r-127
r=2
n-1
6
2 = 64 = 2
i.e. n = 7
2

13. (b) ar = 32
st
product of 1 5 terms
2
3
4
5 10
a.ar.ar .ar .ar = a .r

14. (d) a =

3
, r=2, nth term = 384
4

3 n1
4
n-1
(2) = 384 i.e 2 = 384 x
4
3

=2
7.

## (a) a = 11, d = 2, a n = 99,

an = 11 + (n 1) 2
99 = 9 + 2n or n = 45.
S = 2475.

8.

## (c) Let the numbers be a-d, a, a+d

a=5
2
2
5(5 d) + 5(5 + d) + (5 d ) = 71
2
d = 75 71 = 4 i.e. d = 2
The numbers are 3, 5, 7

9.

(d)

a = 1,x = t n = a + (n 1) d
where d = 5
x+4
n=

5
n

## [2a + (n 1)d] = 148 gives

2
x+4

(1 + x ) = 148
10

x = 41, 36

2 5

= (ar )
5
= (32) .

n = 10
3 10
(2 1)
3
3069
=
x1023 =
Sn = 4
2 1
4
4
2

15. (b) x 5x + 6 = 0
(x 3).(x 2) = 0
x = 3 or 2
roots are 3 and 2.
= 3 and = 2
G.M. = = 2 3 = 6 .
16. (c) There are now n + 2 terms in the A.P.
2 + 2d =

1
1
(7 2d). Solving, d =
.
2
2

## Also, 2 + (n + 1)d = 7. Solving, n = 9.

17. (d) T1 = 2; T2 = 3 = 2+12
T3 = 7 = 2+12+22, --------Tn = 2+12+22+--------+(n-1)2

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(n 1) n ( 2n 1)
6
n(n 1)( 2n 1) + 12
=
6

18. (d)

(1 + 1) + (2
2

i +
2

i =1

+ 2 + ..... + n2 + n

i =1

3025

## 20. (b) n .1 + (n +1)2 +(n +2)3 +-----+ n + n 1 n

= [ n +2n +3n +---+n.n]+1 2+23+---+(n1)n
= n (1+1+3+----+n) + (n 1)n

n(n + 1)
2
+ n n
2

= n

i=
+
6
2

+
6
2
2

=n

## n(n + 1)(2n + 1) + 3n(n + 1)

6
n(n + 1)2(n + 2)
n(n + 1)(n + 2)
=
=
.
6
3

n(n + 1) n(n + 1) 2n + 1

+
2
3
2

= (n1)

n(n + 1) 3n 3 + 2n + 1

2
3

=
19. (c) 1 + 2 + 3 + ... + n =

= 55 55 =

= 2+

n(n + 1)
= 55
2

n(n + 1)(5n 2 )
.
6

n3 (n + 1)2
13 + 23 + 33 + .... + n3 =

Assignment Exercise
1 1 1 1
=
b a c b
ab bc
=
ab
bc
b c bc c
=
=
a b ab a

1.

(d)

2.

(d) 2b = a + c

5.

(d) a + (p 1) d = q and a + (p + q 1) d = 0
a + ( p 1) d + qd = 0
q + qd = 0
d = 1
a + (p + q 1) d = 0
a + (q 1) d + pd = 0
a + (q 1)d p 1 = 0
a + (q 1) d = p

6.

a+c
ac
2

b ac =
2

24

ni =

4 (b ac) = (a c)
3.

## (d) , + d, + 2d be the angles

+ + d + + 2d = 180
0
3 + 3d = 180
Given + 2d = 2
2d =
d=
3 +

7.

3
0
=180
2
3
0
= 60
2

## (c) G1 = {3}, n(G1) = 1 Ist term of G1 = t1 of

A.P.
G2 = {7, 11}, n (G2) = 2 Ist term of G2 = t2
of A.P
2
G3 = {15, 19, 23, 29} n (G3) = 4 = 2
Ist term of G3 = t (2 2 )of A.P = 15
3

## G4 = {31, .}, n(G4) = 8 = 2

Ist term of G4 = t (2 3 ) of AP

n(G8) = 2 = 2
Ist term of G8 = t (2 7 ) of A.P
8 1

= 40
0
largest angle is 80
0

4.

n(10+n-1) = 1620
2
n + 9n 1620 = 0
(n + 45) (n-36) = 0
n = -45 or 36

## (d) Sn = 16200, a = 100, d=20

n
[200 + (n 1)20] = 16200
2

24
(2a + 23d)= 12 89 = 1068
2

8.

(d)

n
[18 + (n 1)11]
2
=3
10[4 + 19 4]

## n[11n +7] = (60)(84)

This has no positive integral solution.
Thus n does not exist.

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9.

th

ac=ba=db

## (b) n term of the first A.P.

= 4 + (n 1)7
= 7n 11
th
n term of the second A.P.
= 61+(n-1)2 = 2n+59
7n-11 = 2n + 59
5n = 70
i.e.
n = 14

ac =

bc
2

## 15. (d) 1 + 8 + 27 + 64 + . n terms

= 13 + 23 + 33 + ........... + n 3 =

## 10. (a) 7 + 77 + 777 +

=
=

7
[9 + 99 + 999 + to n terms ]
9

7
[(101) + (1001) + (10001) + ]
9
7
=
10 + 102 + ...... + 10n n
9
7
=
10n +1 9n 10 .
81

[(
(

11. (a)

n 2 (n + 1) 2
.
4

) ]

3 .( 3 )n 1 = 243 = 35 n=10
2

12. (a) ar = 8
2
3
4
5
10
a . ar . ar . ar . ar = a . r
2 5
5
= (ar ) = 8
13. (a) Let the numbers be

a
, a, ar
r

a
, a, ar = 216 a = 6
r
36
+ 36 + 36r 2 =364
r2
9
+ 9 + 9r 2 = 91
r2
9r 4 82r 2 + 9 = 0

i.e. (9r 2 1) (r 2 9) = 0
r = 3 or

1
(+ve Nos.)
3

1.

2.

## (c) p[a+(p-1)d] = q[a+(q-1)d]

2 2
a(p-q) + [(p -q ) (p-q)]d = 0
i.e.
a+(p+q-1)d = 0, p q
th
(p + q) term = 0

3.

## (c) Let there be 2n terms in the A.P

a + (a + 2d) +
+ [a + (2n 2) d] = 72
[2a + (n 1)2d] = 72
n
2

n [a + nd d] = 72 (1)
(a + d) + (a + 3d) +

n
[2(a + d) + (n 1)2d] = 90
2

n [a+ (n 1)d + d] = 90
i.e., n(a + (n 1)d) + nd = 90
i.e., 72 + nd = 90, using (1)
nd = 18
Moreover,
[a+ (2n 1)d] a = 30
(2n 1) d = 30
2nd d = 30
2 18 d = 30
d=6
n=3

+ (a+(2n1)d) =
90
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4.

1
1
and a+(n-1) =
m
n
1
1
Solving, d =
and a=
mn
mn

(c) a+(m-1)d =

## mnth term = a+(mn-1)d

1
mn 1
=
+
=1
mn
min

5.

(b)

6.

A, B, C are in A.P B = 60

b
3
sinB
=

=
c
sin C
2

7.

sin 60 =

a2 516a + 2048 = 0
a = 512 or 4
r n 1 =

2048

(512)2

or

2048
42

r > 1 r n1 =

2048
= 128 and a = 4
16

a rn 1
=1020
(r 1)

a(128r 1)
= 1020
r 1
4(128r 1)

= 1020
r 1

## 128r 1 = 127r = 254

r = 2.
n1
n1
7
r = 128 2 = 2
n1=7
n = 8.
a
, a, ar be the numbers in G.P.
r

## 12. (a) Let

a
, 2a, ar areinA.P.
r

C = 45 A = 75

2(2a) = a + r r 2 4r + 1 = 0
r
r=2 3

(d) tp = 9p + 2
t1 = 9 + 2 = 11
tn = 9n + 2
Sn =

ar ar n 2 = 2048

sinC =
2

## 11. (d) r > 1

n1
a + ar = 516
a2r n1 = 2048

n
[2a + (n 1)d]
3n 1 2
=
5n + 1 n
[2A + (n 1)D]
2
n 1
a +
d
2
=
n 1
A+
D
2
Since we are looking for the ratio of
n1
the 4th term,
=3
i.e.
n=7
2
Required ratio
3 x 7 1 20 5
=
=
= .
5 x 7 + 1 36 9
(c)

p : q : r = 1 : 2 : 3.

n
(t1 + tn ) = n (11 + 9n + 2) = n [9n + 13]
2
2
2

## Given G.P is increasing.

r=2+ 3 .
3
2
1

=
14 21 49
1
a=
7
2

13. (d) a =
8.

(c) Tn = a . r

n-1

(G.P)
2
3

th

8 term = 3. =

128
729

9.

(a) a . r = 6
4

11

2 and a. r

= 2 .6

r = 2. 6 . 3 = ( 6 )
7

i.e. r = 6 and a = 2
rd

3 term = a . r

= 6 2

## 10. (c) q p, r q, p are in G.P

2
(r q) = p (q p) (1)
Since p, q, r are in A.P,
r q = q p = d,
the common difference.
2
(1) d = p.d
d = p, d 0
q = p + d = 2p
r = p+2d = 3p

## 14. (d) ar = 256

6
ar = 64
2
r =4
r=2
th
th
Since 9 term is > 7 term, r = +2
15. (b) t n = 2n(2n + 2) and n = 20 gives
t 20 = 1680
9

3
ar = 4 (2)
6

## Dividing (1) by (2); r =

a=

8
6
t7 = a r
3

9
3
3
or r =
4
2
8 9
= = 6 .
3 4

17. (c) ar
. ar = m n
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a .r =mn
p 1 2
(ar ) = m n
p 1
ar = mn
2

2p

1 + = rr
+r = r1
=
10

18. (b) ar = x; ar = y; ar = z
4
10
7 2
2
i.e. x.z = a.r .a.r = (a.r ) = y
19. (c) 2p = a + b (1)
2q = b + c (2)
from (1) and (2); p + q =

a+b b+c
+
2
2

a + 2b + c
=
2

x+y
= 2 xy
2
x+y 2
=
2 xy 1

x + y + 2 xy

b
= (a + 2b + c )
2

2pq
= b p, b, q are in H.P.
p+q
20. (c)

23. (c)

x + y 2 xy

and 4pq = (a + b) (b + c)
2
= ab + b + ac + bc
2
= ab + 2b + bc
= b (a + 2b + c)
2pq

a
1 r
1
2
3
S1 =
= 2 , S2 =
= 2x =3
1
1
2
1
1
2
3
3
4
S3 =
=3x = 4
1
3
1
4
p
p +1
Sp =
=px
=p +1
1
p
1
p +1
S =

S 1 + S 2 + S 3 + S p

x+ y
x y

n1

## = ar +ar +-------1000 terms

2
1998
) ---(1)
= ar ( 1+r +-----+r
1

1000

2n 1

## = a +ar +------1000 terms

n=1

2
1998
)----(2)
= a ( 1+r +-----+r
1+
1+
(1) (2)
=r
1

3
1

3 +1

3 1

b
a

c
a

b
c
= 1+
a
a

2 ( + ) = 1 +
is 1 + + 2 + 2 = 0

1 + 2
2

+2

,---------

n =1

2b = a + c

2n

1 + 2 = ( + 2)

+=

26. (d)

a . ar . ar . ar . ar
5
10
2 5
5
= a . r = (ar ) = 6

1000

## 25. (c) a, x, b are in A.P i.e. 2x = a+b

a, y, z, b are in GP
2
2
y = az and z = by
3
3
y +z = yz (a+b) = 2xyz

ar 2 = 6

3
1

## 24. (a) From the data given, we have a, b, b + 3, b

+6
are the numbers so that a = b + 6
b + 6, b, b + 3, b + 6 are the numbers
2
b = (b + 6) ( b + 3)
2
2
b = b + 9b + 18 b = 2
numbers are 4, 2, 1, 4

(p + 1) (p + 2)
p2 + 3p + 2 2
1=
=
2
2
1
= p (p + 3)
2

( x + y)
( x y)

x 2+ 3
=
y 2 3

=2+3+4+------+p+(p+1)

21. (a)

r 1
.
r +1

## 27. (a) 4, a1, a2, ------a7, 52 are in A.P.

52 = 4+ (91) d
48 = 8d
6=d
a6 a5 = d = 6
a1 + a7 = 4 + 52 = 56
(a2 + a6 = a3 + a5..)
2

19 20
= 36100
2

28. (c) S =

## 29. (a) S = sum of squares of first 20 numbers

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n (n + 1) (2n + 1)
6
20 21 41
S20 =
= 2870
6
b
c
30. (b)
+=
=
a
a

b2

Sn =

b
+
=
a
2 2

()2

b
a

( + )2 2 =
()2

i.e.,

b2

i.e.,

bc 2

a3

Multiply by

2c
a
a2
bc

b c
a
+ =2
c a
b

b a
c
are in A.P
,
and
c b
a

a b c
are in H.P.
, ,
c a b

b
a

c
b c2
=
a
a a2

## HINTS/SOLUTIONS for M1107

(Limits & Derivatives)
Classroom Discussion Exercise
1.
lim

h 0

(a)

[2 h]

lim

x 1

[x + 1] = lim [1 h + 1] =
x +1

h 0

= lim

1 h + 1

x 2

2h

= lim

h 0

1
1
=
2h 2

6.
2.

3.

(c)

(d)

lim

x 3

## (d) LHL = lim

lim

RHL = lim+

x 1

x [ x]

(x 4 ) (x 5)
x5

x 5

= lim (x 4) = 1

x 1

x 5

LHL RHL
Limit does not exist.

x 1+

## lim f (x ) does not exist

x1

2 x 5
n n

7.
4.

x 2 + 5 x 14
= lim x + 7 = 9
(a) lim
x 2
x 2
x2

5.

(c)

lim

x2

3x =1

x 5

lim f (x ) lim f (x )
x 1

( x 1 +

x4
= lim (x 5 ) = 0

## lim f (x ) lim 3(x + 1) = 6

x 1+

1
lim
2 x 2

(x 4) (x 5)

x 5

lim f (x ) = lim 2x + 3 = 5

x 1

(x 1) (3 x )

x 1 3 x

(x 4) (x 5)

x 5

| x 3|
3x
= 1
= lim
x 3
x 3 x 3

1
2

(a)

lim

x 5

2n x 52n 1

5
xn
2
= lim
5

x 5
2 x
2

n 1

5
= n
2

x2
x 1 3 x

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8.

(b)

9.

(a)

lim

x 2

t 0

t
(put x2 = t)
t
cos +

4
2

= lim

t 0

10. (d)

lim

x 0

1 cos + 3 sin

4 sin cos
2
2
= lim

0
2 sin2 + 2 3 sin cos
2
2
2

2 cos

2
= 2
= lim

0
3
sin + 3 cos
2
2

x2
x
cos
4

= lim

sin

t
4

x0

13. (a)

## For 1 < x < 0 , [x ] = 1

xLt0
14. (b)

sin[1 + [x ]] sin 0
=
=0
[x]
1
(2x+3)2 = 4x2 + 12x + 9

f(x) = 8x + 12

sin(10 + x ) sin(10 x )
x
= lim

2 sin

= lim

x
lim 2

lim 2x
180 = lim sin 2 = 2
lim
=
lim

x 0
x 0
0
x
x

180

15. (b)

2 cos 10 sin x
x

y = x+

1
x

dy
1
= 1 2
dx
x

dy
= 0 at x = 1
dx

= 2 cos10

11. (a)

lim

sin sin x / 2
2

( x )2

16. (d)

) , put t = x

f(x) = sinx
1

f(x) = cosx f =
2
3

t
sin sin2
2 2

= lim
t 0
t2
= lim

sin cos 2 t / 2

= lim

sin sin t / 2

t 0

= lim

lim

t 0

( sin

t/2t

t2

t2

17. (a)

lim

h0

when x , 0
3
Put = x

lim

2 sin

1 2 cos +
3

h0

| 3 + h 3 | 0
h

lim

f (3 + h) f (3 )
=
h
=1

h0

f (3 h ) f (3 )
=
h

| 3 h 3 | 0
= 1
h
f(3) does not exist

18. (a)
12. (c)

LHL = lim

RHL= lim

h0

sin sin 2 t / 2

t 0

t2

t 0

## f(x) = sin (+x)

5 9 x2
f (2) f ( x )
lim
= lim
x 2 x 2
x2

x2

9
+
x

= lim
x 2

(
x
2
)
5
9
x

(
x
+
2
)
(
x

2
)

= lim
x 2

2
(
x

2
)
5
+
9

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19. (a)

5+ 5

= 1 sinx

dy
2
2
cos2 x
= cos x sec x + 1
dx

f(x) = cosx

f = 0
2

= 1 + (1 sin2x)

= 1 + cos2 x
= 2 sin x.
2

20. (b)

lim

x2

xf (2) 2f (x )
x2

23. (c)

24. (b)

f (x ) f (2)
= f(2) lim 2

x2 x 2

sin x

x
x 1

dy (x 1) x
=
dx
(x 1)2

(x 1)2

sin x x cos x
sin2 x

25. (c)

22. (a)

xy = x+y

y=

= f(2) 2 f(2)

d
dx

f(x) = 3 cosx

= lim

x 2
x2

f(x) =

3 cos2 x 1
sin x

= 3 sinx

x2

x 2

21. (d)

f(x) =

= lim

1 sin2 x
1 + sin x

xy = c2 y =
dy c 2
= 2
dx
x

cos2 x
f(x) =
1 + sin x

c2
x

## Regular Homework Exercise

1.

(c)

x7 + x 3 + 1 1 1 + 1 1
=
=
x 1
1 1
2

lim

x 1

4.

(c)

=
1
1
lim
=
n0 2 h
2

2.

3.

(a)

(c)

lim

x 1

= lim

x 1

lim f (x ) = lim x 2 1 = 3

x 2+

lim

x 0

x 2

(d) RHL =

x x

x 0

lim

LHL =

x2 + 1 2
x2 + 1 + 2 = 2 2

4+h4

h 0 4+ h 4

= lim
= 1

5.

x2 1

lim h
=1
h0 h

lim

4 h 4

h 0 4 h 4

x 1

h
lim
h 0 h

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lim
h
= 1
h 0 h

12. (d)

1 + cos 2 x + 2

lim

( + x )2

RHL LHL
the limit does not exist.
6.

(c)

= lim

2 (cos x + 1)

= lim

2 (cos(t ) + 1)

= lim

2 (1 cos t )

x b
| x | b
= lim
x>0
lim
x b b x
x b b x

(a)

lim f (x ) = 6 +

x2

t2

x 0

lim f (x ) = 4

x 2

t2

x 0

= 1

7.

( + x )2

= lim 2 2

x 0

= 2

8.

(d)

= lim
x 8

lim

x 8

x 2 82

13. (c)

x x 16 2

x 2 82
x8
3/2
x8
x
83 / 2
= 16

lim

x 0

14. (d)

1
3 1/ 2
8
2

sin2

t
2 =

t2
4
4

cos x
=1
sin x

x 1+

lim f (x ) = 7

x 2

8 2
=
3

lim f (x ) = 7

x 2+

9.

(a)

x 2

sin x
sin( t )
lim
= lim
x x
t 0
t

## The domain of the function is [1, 3]

so that (d) is also true

(put x = t)
= lim

t 0

10. (a)

lim

sin t
=1
t

15. (d)

2 sin x sin 2x
( x )

= lim

t 0

f(x) =

2
x
2
x2

f(1) = 2

2 sin( t ) sin 2( t )
t

(Put t = x)

f(x) =

16. (a)

2 sin t + sin 2t
t

= lim

= lim

2 sin t
sin 2t
+ lim
x 0
t
t

f(a) = 1

t 0

t 0

=4

= cos(x+a)

17. (d)

Left f(0) = lim

11. (d)

lim 2 cos 5

x 0

sin x
= 2 cos 5 .
x

h0

Left f(0) =

f (0 h) f (0 )
h

lim =

h0

1
h

## the left limit does not exist

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18. (d)

1 + h3 0
=
= lim

h 0
h

## f(0) does not exist

tan2 (a + h) tan2 a
lim
h0
h
=

lim

h0

f (a + h) f (a )
= f(a)
h

= 2 tan a sec2a

19. (c)

h 0

20. (d)

## f(x) = sin 2x = 2 sinx cosx

f(x) = 2(cosx cosx sinx sinx)
= 2(cos2x sin2x)= 2 cos2x

f (0 h) f (0)
h

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Assignment Exercise
1.

(a)

2.

(d)

lim

x 3

x2 3 9 3
=
=3
x 1
2

x4

lim

x + 12 + 4

x + 12 16

x + 12 4

x 4

lim

1
= 4.1. = 1
2

x + 12 4

x 4

= lim

x 4

sin
sin x
2
= lim 4
.
x 0
x x

9.

(c)

1 sin x
lim

cos x

=8

cos x 0

= lim
= = 0
1 + sin x
2
n
3.

(d)

lim

x 0

=
=

4.

(1 + ax ) (1 ax )

) (

2
2

lim 1 + ax 1 ax
x 0 x 1 + ax + 1 ax

lim 2a

f(x) = x9 93

10. (a)

f(x) = 9x8

f (1) = 9

=a

x 0 2

11. (d)

Standard result.

RHL= 2x ]x =0 =

12. (b)

sin2 x

lim

x 0

lim = 0.
5.

(d)

lim

x 0

6.

x
does not exist
x

x 0

(x + 1)8 18
x +11 (x + 1) 1

lim

(a)

x2

x 0

14. (a) 3.

f(x) = 2cosx+1

2 sin2 x
4. x

(d)

15. (c)

lim

x 1

(x

lim

+ 3 2
x
x 1

=8

## 2 sin x 2 sin x. cos x

x3

x 0

= lim

x 0

x 0

(x

3 2 3
.1 =
2
2

x +3 +2

x + 3 + 2

(x 1) x 2 + 3 + 2

## 2 sin x(1 cos x )

x3
2 sin x.2 sin2

= lim

=
8.

3 sin x

2 x

=8

cos 3 x cos 5 x

lim

x 0

2 sin 4 x sin x

sin2 0
=0
0 1

f(x) = 2 sinx

lim

7.

(x + 1)8 1

lim

(c)

13. (a)

x 1
2

x +1
x + 3 + 2
2

2
1
=
4
2

x
2

x3

1.

(d)

lim

x a

2x
is = 1
a+x

2.

(c)

lim

x 2

x + 2 2 2
=
= 2
2x 2
2

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3.

= lim

(a) lim x [x ] is

x2

x 1

x 1

13. (a)

lim

x 0

=10=1

(b)

5.

6.

1
5

lim

x4

(d)

[x] + 1 4.
By definition

Since lim

x 0

x3
lim
= lim
1 x 3
x 3 1

x 3

(b)

lim

(x 3)3x
(3 x )

## lim x cos ecx = lim

(b)

tan 5x 3x
5 x sin 3 x

tan 5 x
3
53
x
lim
=
=1
sin
3
x
x 0
53
5
x

x 0

= 9

7.

x 1

= lim x lim [x ]

4.

sin(x 2)
(x 2)(x + 3)

x 0

x 0

sin mx
= m and
x

tan mx
=m
x

14. (b)

lim

x 0

x sin x
x sin x
= lim
1 cos x x 0 2 sin2 x
2

x
=1
sin x

=2

8.

lim

(b)

x 0

1 cos 2x
= lim
x 0
x

sin x
=
x

lim

15. (c)

9.

(b)

lim

x 0

2 sin x + 1
1 + tan x

1 cos x

x (1 + cos 2x )

lim

2 sin2
lim

x2

x 0

x
2 lim

1
x 0 1 + cos 2x

= lim

x 0

x2
4

lim

lim

x 0

sin 3 x 3 sin x
x

= lim

x 0

=4

lim

x
4

1 tan x

(1 + tan x )(1
2

2 sin x

(1

2 sin x (1 + tan x )

cos 2 x

(1

(1 + tan x )

2 sin x (1 + tan x )

4 sin3 x
x3

1 1
=

(1 + 1)1 2 .
2

2
1
=
2. 2 2

lim

x 0

tan 5x sin 8x
= 3
x

16. (b)
12. (c)

2 sin x (1 + tan x )

=
x

11. (d)

(1

1 tan2 x

x
2 1 2
4

1
4

10. (a)

lim
x

2 sin2

1 2 sin2 x

lim

x 2

sin(x 2 )

sin x

sin x
.
x

2x
x
1.0 = 0 as x 0

x
2

x2 + x 6

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17. (c)

18. (b)

x0

lim

x 0

sin x 0

lim

1
1
= =1
1
sin
x
18
lim

x 0
x
18

lim

x n

(8 + x )13 (8 + x2 x3 ) 3
1
(8 + x )13 (8 + x2 + x3 ) 3

2 sin 3 . sin
. 3 = 3.
2. 3 .

20. (b)

lim (1 + x )(1 x )
=

x 1
cos x
sin (1 x )
2
2

(1 x )
2
2.2 4
2
. (1 + x )
= as x 1
lim

x 1

sin (1 x )
2

(1 + x )(1 x )

lim

lim

x 1

lim

x 1+

lim

h0

21. (a)

sin 2

sin 2
cos
2

lim it = lim
0
1 cos 2

= lim

22. (d)

lim
x

1
3

x 2 + x3
2 1 +

1
3

1
3

x
x 2 x3

+
2
24
24
24 = 1 x + x
=
2
2
3
1 x x
x
x
x

24 24 24

Limit = 1.
26. (d)

= xLt1

2(1 x)
0

## 1 n(n + 1) xn1 + n(n + 2)(n + 1)xn

2
n(n + 1)2 + n(n + 2)(n + 1)
=
2
n(n + 1)[n + 2 (n + 1)]
=
2
n(n + 1)
=
.
2

= xLt1

sin 2 0
=
=0
cos 2
1

x
x 2 x3
1+

24
24
=
x
x 2 + x3
1+
1+
24
24

= 2.

cos 2 1
sin 2

cos 2
= lim
0
(1 cos 2)

x 2 x3
2 1 +

1+

h 0

1
3

## (Expand using binomial series and neglect

higher powers)

x2 1
x 1

(x + 1) (x 1) x = 1 + h
(x 1) x 1
(1 + h + 1) (1 + h 1)
(1 + h 1)

2 1 +
8
x

2 1 +
8

x 1

25. (a)

=
19. (a)

sec 2 (x )

cos 3 x 0

1 + cos 2 x 0

= lim

x
2

sin 3 x
2 sin 2 x

(LHospitals rule)

3
sin 3 x
Lim
2 x sin 2 x
2

= 1,
sin
2

23. (b)

lim

lim

24. (c)

sin 2

cot

2
cos ec 2
= 1.
1

## lim (x n )cot x = lim

x n

= 0 =
2

x n

x n
tan x

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(x 1) n
n

## 27. (b) f(x) =

x 1
x 1

=
=

x xn 1 n (x 1)

(x 1)2

xn+1 nx x + n

(x 1)2

x2
= lim 2x = 0
= lim
2
x 0 tan x

x 0 sec x

By L Hospitals rule.
29. (d)

Required limit

x 1

n (n + 1)
=
.
2

28. (d)

lim

2 cosx

f = +
2

x 0

x 0

1 + cos 2x

f(x) = 2 sinx

(n + 1) xn n 1
x 1
2 (x 1)
n (n + 1) xn1
lim

= lim
=

f(x) =

1
. cos x
log sin x
sin
x
= lim
1

1
x 0
2
x
x

30. (b)

f(x) =

1+ sin 2x

## = cos2 x + sin2 x + 2 sin cos x

1/ 2

= (cosx + sinx)
f(x) = sinx+cosx
f(0) = 1

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