"
Applications
. of the
Tl1eory of. Plasticity
111
Soil Mecha11ics
1. Salcl1yon
Ecole Polytcchlliquc
Ecole Natiollolc des POllts el Cllm(s.w]es. Paris
Trallslat iOIl hy
hy Ille (/1111101'
;1 Wilcyllllcrscicllce Pllblimlioll
. I
New York
Brisbane
Toronto
I'
Ic~s (ljJpliCOliolls
l!)'Itl
En~lish
I~yrolk:;
translation Copyright
'
~ 
To
Pr(~/(!ss()r .! ('(Ill 1I1017del
II
I
Contents
Foreword
XI
14
15
16
I (i
19
19
20
22
24
2()
3
~
9
9
12
I~
20
2X
29
3I
32
35
38
38
vll
4()
40
40
41
43
43
45
45
47
47
4X
4X
50
50
51
5:1
54
5(i
)(i
5()
5R
59
() I
(i2
62
()2
(i3
63
64
()5
65
(l7
67
70
74
Chaplcr IV Appcndixl's
'1
nonhomogcne()us material .
77
77
I Gcneral
77
I Presentation
2 Adlllissihk ridds . Dissipalion
3 Static approach
4 K i nema t ic approach .
5 Rem,lrks on the results of the theory 0[' limit analysis
6 M inimlll11 principles .
7 Limil analysis ill the sludy 01' plane strain pmbkms orUnCOlllain 'c d
plaslic flow
8 Interpretalion of tile solutions for the case ofa Coulomb malerial
9 Other applications of limit analysis in soil methanic.,> .
RcI'ercnces .
96
96
97
99
102
102
104
105
IOH
I I2
I 13
114
115
119
122
126
Chapter V Appendixes
A An. alternalive presenlation ol'the thcory orlimil analysis. L~xlensi()11
I Introduction
129
129
Referencc.') .
150
IX
~
.. .
..
_ . _ _ _ 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _
. . . . _ _ _ _ _ _ . . _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ .. _ _ _
.. .
_f
B Bonneau's lheorem .
I Thc problem .
2 Origin of thc prob1cmThe case or incomplete solutions
3 Lemma
4 Statemcnt of thc diffcrcnlial rclations ncces:.;arily veri Iicd a long (G)
5 Remark:.;
Refercnccs .
Index
ISO
lSI
151
152
153
15()
156
157
Forelvo/,d
  ____~I'
I .
r'
J.S.
_LJ
CHAPTER I
General considerations
011
the jJlastic
I
I
I
Thi5 chapter defines the plastic behaviour of materia15 and gives the cor
responding constitutive laws. The viscosity effects of the materials arc ignored
and hence the behaviour is independent of physical time. The subjeet5 dealt with
arc therefore elasticity and plasticity and not viscoelasticity or viscoplasticity.
Finally, a discussion on the application of this behaviour pattern is outlined
for t he case of soils.
1. Yield Criterion
Plasticity is characterized by the existence of a yield I}oint beyond which
permanent strains a ppcar.
Consider for example a simple tension test in which the stresses and strains
arc assumed to be homogeneous. J7igure l.Ia depicts the stressstrain rclationship.
(J"
(J"
a;
1\
(a)
( b)
Fi~lIrc
1.1
Along the path OA the behaviour is clastic; i.e. the path is reversible. However,
once point A has been passed (i.e. a > au)' the path is no longer reversible.
If, for instance, the sample is unloaded after reaching point 1) and the stress (J
falls to zero, then the unloading path is given by Be, which is parallel lo OA
(provided the linear clastic properties of the material arc not altered by the
plastic deformation). After unloading there remains a slrain (;", repre5ented by
I
.'
t.
oe,
alld, termed the permanent strain. The stress 0'0 is defined as the original
yield point. If the test specimen is again loaded the path is reversible along ell,
becoming irreversible when a > 0'1/' In this case the stress 0'1/ is defined ;IS the
cllrrent yield point.
Figure I.la represents the case in which 0'/1 is a fUllction of the permanent
slr;lin
and Ihlls ililistrates workhard('"ill{/. In fo"igllre 1.Ih the slress 0'1/ is ;1
constant ami the material is said to be pel:(ecly p!os/.ic.
II mllsl be emphasized that the onset of pl;lslicity is not indicated by the
nonlinearity of the stressstrain eurve beyond point A but by the irrelJersi/Jilily
of Ihe path beyond this point.
More generally, it has been proved that the concept of the yield point in the
lin iax ial c(lse may be rerlaced by a yield criterion for a small (macroscopic)
element of material subject to any action characterized by a tensor of applied
stresses 0". J is a scalar function of the state of stress of the material, such that
J(O") < 0 corresponds to the elastic range of the material and J(O") = 0 cor
responds to the appearance of the irreversible deformations.'
Usually, it is the equality
,r
(I)
J(O") = 0
which is termed the yidd criteriol/. The fUllclion/is often called a yiddfilllC/iol1
and the su rface J(O") = 0 in the stressspace {O"} is the yield or loadil1Y sUllace 2 of
I he 111 a terial.
With a per/eclly plastic material, the yield function does not vary and the
yield surface is fixed, with plastic strains occurring only if 0" is on this surface
and .'itays on it.
With a workhardening material, the yield function varies as the permanent
deformation continues and discrimination must be made between the original
and current yield surfaces. Additio~l(d plastic strains appear only if 0" is situated
OJ
~
Figure 1.2
~pcakillg. Ihi~ classical rcprcsclltalioll
slrc~sIcnsor is nol corrcct (it docs not rcspcct
Slriclly
.r
on the yield surface and movc.<; outward. The yield 5urrace is now extended by
cr, a5 represented graphically in Figun; 1.2.
In order to take the workhardening errect into account the yield criterion
will now be written as.
I(cr, E) = 0
(2)
where E stands for all the workhardening parameters. These arc dc!ined as the
supplcmen'tary parameters which, ;lIong with the act \1al state of st ress, m;,ke it
possible to determine tile plastic 'behaviollr' of the materi;d. In n)()st instances
such parameters arc fUllctions of the stressslrain history.
Various theories have been proposed in order to explicate a form for the
hardening parameters. Among others arc the hypothesis of a unique parameter
corresponding to the work expended in the plastic deformation (sec [21 J,
and Mandel's theory [32J).
2. Form of the Yield Criteria
2,1 Convexity
It will be seen ill Section 5 concerning the relation between slress and strain
that a hypothesis cOlllmonly accepted for metals and somc othcr materials,
the principle of maximum plastic work, implic.<; that the yield surface is convex
in the space {cr}. It follows that I can then be chosen as a convex function of cr.
This means, from a mathematical viewpoint, that if cr l and cr 2 verify
J(cr l ) ~ C)
and
f(cr 2 ) ~ 0
Then the yield surface is a convex surface in the stressspace {cr}. Tile allthor
bclievc.<; that the convexity of tile yield function' can be considcred as a gcncr;dly
valid feature for normal materials, including those for which the principle of
maximum rlastic work call be neither proved nor even admilled.
In fact, it is sufficient that each or the elementary ~nechanisms necessary for
plastic?,~ow in a small macroscopic clement corresponds Lo a convex condition
for cr. \(he clastic range of the clement is then determined by the interscction
or the plastic \anges or each mechanism and IS therefore a convex domain In
the space {cr}. )
2.2 Denling wilh I11Cllerial sYl11llletries
Il is possible ,to be more cxplicit concerning the form of the yield criteria for
the case of material symmetries. In fact, lhe yield criterion must deal wilh these
symmetries.
I
Or 'loading runclion.
we
(,h'"; , 1/( ..
~ t .',
.. \ )
/ .\.
:V
, r ,I
.:, 11 I'
....
II
.'f:.'':l
.\1 .1
' . t
,"
.~
,,~
1'"
I:'
"
.t:
' '77
, ' '/)"
_____11
~ UJ), l\\r~! 1
I
,,'
"'1 ./ \ vv ,
1.
~,~
(J'
is decompose<.\
. LI
'rU I,
I
'~' H
"!ir;!,
~V \
(Jjj "
jJ'jj
,\" \
(~ 1
;
~ ~i6 6,111" .) {' ;)
'/
J\
l,\yU "
(r'ijj being compone\lts of Kronecker's unit tens(.>r, l~, / clepclld~ oilly o~~ s"p ,
The 1l1;lterial plaslic behaviour require." no moddicalloll 011 adding any IsbC'
lropic stale of slress.
For ;111 isotropic, ductile ll1aterial /.<.Iepends only on the invarianls of s:
0i : :
.
D1 0
JL
I
"'J 7 
\ (J '\'
" ')  )/
I }
O'jj
.'I 0
= , .1 7, =
/"
'
...
S;j 
I co co
'i')jj')jj'
,,/ '
.'
' .
(,.1)..,,
I .
(),y
\.
'
:i'Sjj'~jI('\j'
IJ 1,f I
1 \I ,
..
/(
(4lj.
'\,
V' :
where /{2 is a constant. This is known as the Von M ises criterion. It can easily
be checked that in the stressspace 0' 1'0' 2' O'J the yield surface is a cylinder
or revolution about the vector (I, I, I). The yield point in pure shear is given by k.
'fhc limit in pure tcnsion is kj'J.
~ ~ 6,'" 6) 1 
,I"I
( .
The criterion is
'
, 0' I 
0' I I I
~r
0'11
2k
plays no part.
,
I
,...
...
r
\
'\~
,.
./
//\1
,/
Y
I " ,'.
b~
~';
/ _
_' I
. (5)
..
/~,'
,.
" ~~:
,
This is, in particular, lhc case ror 'Taylor's isolropic workhardcning', which dcpcnds on one
scalar paramclcr.
Unless lhc conlrary is spccificd, lhc summalion convcnlion ror rcpcalcd subscripls is uscd.
sup
{Ii; 
lij 
Ii.~, n.I'
21.:}
; " I. 2. ;I
"'" I. 2 \
j?}J
~~oJj
It will be veririedthilt in the space i i i ' a 2 , li J lhe yield surf:lce is;1 hex;lgonal
prism parallcl to the ilxis ( I, I, I). The yield point in pure shear is givcn by k.
The limit in pure tension i.; 2/';.
According to the results of Section 2.2, the Trescil yieldfunclion (equillioll ()))
can also he expressed hy means of lhe invariants of a (and, in this C:ISC, the
invi\l~iants ofs). In the presenl case this raises some problems since a closed I"orm
in J~ .I, eCJlliv:delll 10 (<1) does not exisl,l and presenls no pr:lctic:d inlerest.
~~ft~ Jr fA
J
u).\ 2.5 Intrinsic Clln'C (Mohr, Ca<Jllot)
Mohr. followed by Clquot. proposed
'\.."\'.;\)~I~\~ r
for Cln isOll'(lpic material:
f
:1
II ",
CI
r'~
(7)
the principal strcs.;es Ii I' Ii l' Ii.! being ordered according to Ii, ~ Ii J. ?:: Ii.\" (AS no
ambiguity can be expec!ed the distinclion bctwccli Ar;d,ic alld l{onl;11l indices 1
is no longer maintained.) Thc func!ion {j must be determincd eXI)eriment:dly
and is found 10 hilve the following properties:
{j ..... if (Ii I I Ii))': it bccome.; zero ror :1 positivc vCllue of (Ii, + Ii .,) whcn
(a I + a.l)/2 is lhe isolropie tensile strength: and when (a, I a.l) '" . rfJ, fJ tends
10 a limit so that Tresca"s criterion is round asymplotie:"ly (sec [:U:n.
The characteristic or this type of yield critcrion is th;lt thc intermediate
principal stress has no illOlicnce.
Equation (7) gives a relationship between the radills (Ii,  1i.l)/2 ;Ind the
abscissa (iii I a;l)/2 of the cellire of a Mohr's circle ill accordance with the
6' /6" ?i 0,;~ ' 6 , state of stressc.<; at lhe point under consideralion. This verifies lh:ll Mohr's
/"
circles represenling atl the limit states have :In envclope, termed lhe intrinsic
() '.
eu rve .
i'
Adopting Hitl's notation gives the expression
 {J
For the stress representation given by Mohr. Figure 1.3 shows Mohr's
circles corresponding to various stales of Ii mil equilibrium and the illtrinsic
curve eIlveloping these circles.
Ir I =
(8)
h(a)
is the equation of this curve, where Ii and rare thc normal anc! tangential
components of the stress 011 a plane.
I
2
..,. .
.1
Thc cxprcs$ion for I(a) as a funclion of Ihc unordcrcd principal s(rcssc.~ is analognus
(0
(6).
:t>~(T
I,'igllrc 1.:1
F"or a material having a yield criterion given by equation (7) the following
condition applies.
In order that the stress slate at a poinl M docs not violate the yield criterion,
i.e. it s;\tisfies I(a) ~ 0, it is necessary and sufficient that Mohr's circle does not
intersect the intrinsic curve: thus,
(9)
is valid for all the planes through point M.
If, and only if, the yield criterion is reached, there exisltwo planes on whieh
=: 11((1').1 These planes are symmetrical to each other with respect to the
planes of the major and minor principal stresses.
lei
, .'.
and (9) becomes
(I 1)
In the stress space (Ci p Ci 2 , Ci:\) the yield surface is a hexagonal pyramid which
admits the axis (I, I, I) as a ternary axis of symmetry and the bisector planes as
planes of symmetry (a consequence ofisolropy). The eross section has t he form of
;\ hexagon. Complementary dala in this respect will be found in classical works
(for example [JO]).
II will bc a~sllmcd Ihallbc rclalionlrl = /rIfT) i~ real; i.c.lhc family ofeirdcs has a rcal cnvclopc,
I;.qllation (X) reprcscnls two :Ires symmelrieal ahout OfT. The problem or the shapc of Ihe inlrinsic
cllrve h:lS bcen discussed (,flal'or 'angular' sunl111il); aec(lrding 10 Ihc aulhor'.~ opinion,there is nil
real difliculty. Onc mllst not forgel, moreovcr, that most oftcn, the physic.! phenomenon cor
respontling 10 thc vieinilY of thc slim mit or thc inlrinsic Cllrvc h;ls a diffcrcntnaturc: brillic fracture
occurs wil honl plastic yielding.
.
1
1 Thc somcwhat lin usual minlls sign is duc to the adoptcd sil~n cOllvcnlion. 11 ill's convention and
othcr common notal ions arc choscn 10 make further reatling casier.
(.,
Drucker ;In(\ Prager [IIJ proposed a criterion for soils that is related to
Mises criterioll just :IS Cou!omb"s criterioll is re!:lted tn that ofTresca. The yield
stllface is ;1 rig'ht cir~ular cones with axis (I, 1, I). It is rcgular, a fact which
C;1I1 prove acivant;lgeous for some calculations.
The loading function for this criterioll is written as a fUllctioll of t he inv;lriants
of the strcss tensor ;\I1d of the deviator. If
it ;ISSUl11eS t he for m
= (/1 1
+ .I ;'/2
k.
For porolls materials. the clastic range is .:Iosed in all directions. The IItili/.alion rIll' soils, which
arc granular matcrials. or Coulomb's yield critaion or or olher criteria or the 'open' intrinsic
curve type corresponds to a <Illite jll~tiriGd approximation ror the range or actual stresses.
\
7
"
.   .  _ . _ _ 0 0 . _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ . _
.... _
........ . . .
For ductile materials, there is no brittle fracture, no sUll1mit zone, and the
loading surface is open towards the two directions corresponding to the iso
tropic prcssurcs and tcnsions.
2.9 Anisotropic results
The previous paragraphs have presented the main yield criteria used for
isotropic materials. Real materials arc often anisotropic (metals, soils or rocks
sec, for example, [IJ and [53J fort)Qth laller types of materials).
Vilrious authors have dealt with the problem of anisotropic plasticity in
cluding Hill [1921 who obtained interesting results for a metallurgy problem,
Caquot and Kerisel [5J, who introduced the notion of a tensor or anisotropy
and the authors of [24, 22J, etc"
J,
3. Plastic Deformation
As. stilled in Section I, pilssing thc yield point or crossing the yield surface
corresponds to the appearance of permanent deformations. Plastic deformation
is dcfined as follows. In the normal case, where the elasticity of the material
COllcel'lled is lincar and not modified by the plastic yielding, the plastic deforma
tion is the pen:lanc.lt deformation after complete unloading of the material,
assuming the unloading to be clastic. After a given degree of workhardening it
may hilppen that the real total unloading cannot be completely clastic, so that
lhe zero loadi;lg no longer belongs to the clastic range of the clement. In this
case, I he pl;lstic deformation is the permanent deformation obtained after a
virtual elltirely clastic total unloading. (Sec Figure 1.4 for the e<lse of a uniaxial
loading process.)
P ',
.
~~
Figure 1.4
The exact definition of the plastic deformation, valid in all cases, refers to
strainrates. If I) is defined as the strainrate tensor then, at each moment of the
loading palh, the tOlal strain rate /lij (the result of the test) and the clastic strain
The loading functiolls proposed hy these authors arc exprcssed \lsillg Eulerian slrcsslcllsor;
as already stated, this is approximate.
rate ,,~'J. ;II"C known (;111 infinitesimal unloading is suITicicnl). Tile pl;Istie slrain
rale is Ihe difference between these two: i.e.
I
/J
IJ
IJ~.
IJ
I ,,!'.
IJ
lJ:'j
( 12)
5. Flow Huk
The previous definitions makc it possible to determine thc onsct of the plastic
deformation, and its nature. In order to have a complete knowledge of the
constitutive law of plasticity, the questions of mechanism and magnitude must
also be considered. The answer constitutes the now rule.
Figures 1.1 and 1.4 clearly show thai the constitulive law canl10l lead (as is the
case in elasticity) to a unique relation between the actual stale or stresses and
the actual strain. (Thus, Ihe points 0 and C correspond to the same loading
state but 10 different deformations). The actual deformation depends on the
10;Iding path followed before reaching Ihe ;Ictllalloading st;lte. 2
I f the actual state of st ress and t he workhardening state, i.e. the ;lctual values
of the workhardening parameters representing the loading history, arc known.
then the increment of deformation may be determined from thc incrcment of
I Rigorously spcaking. (irccn's straintcnsor OUl!ht to havc bccn uscd: IllorCOv\:r, thc notion of
untoadcd statc Ill' neutral state is fundalllental hcrc: thc I:hllil:c of this rckrcncc conliguration,
invcstigatcd in (2\), 4J. 52J for the isotropil: I:asc, W;IS I:ardully looked at by M;lIldcl [J6, J7] in
morc gencral cascs.
lit doc.~ not dcpcnd on timc sincc viscosity phcnomcna havc bccn excludcd . Thc limc lakcn into
account in statil: or quasistatic plasticity is thcrcforc no morc than a kincmatil: paramctcr. the
sl:ale of whidl I:an hc modified as desired. Thcrcfore timc can play no role whatever in A,J.',A in
equalions (14) and (15). In :Ictual fact, a matcrial's irrcvcrsiblc deformations :Ilways contain 01
viscous parI, ;lIld physical lime musl be prcscnt in thc now rulc, ;111(1 cven in thc very nolion or
yicld point, which dcpcnds on thc loading spccd. (This is indicatcd in particular by thc theory of
dislol:ations for mctals [511].) Thc study of viscoplasticity, after a purely phenomenological OIp
proach that Icdto limitcd rcsults, now sccms 10 bc leading to a morc rund;lIllcntalthcory. (er. [15J
whcrc thcrc arc also refcrcnccs to formcr studic.~ of thc subjcl:t).
Obviously cnough, thc utilil'~ltion of thc modcl or plastic behaviour without visl:osity will he
justilicd for phcnomena in whidl visl:osity docs not prepondcr;ltc.
.1
slres.<;. (I n the uniaxial case of Figures l.J a and lA, /: plays the role of the work
ll:lrclening parameter!). Such a stressstrain relation is termed an incremental
constitutive law.
III the general case of muItiaxialloading the tensorj<~[ formula is given by
(II: = fM(G, E, dG)
which is independent or
dirrerential form
(cr, E) dcr
(13)
v = .16'(0", E, 0)
'A{t~ 'i k
J;'
r /\~:(
14=A+1\
thcn
.
or,
JJ1
(d/;Jl)jj =
9. E)e
( 14)
( 15)
Because orthe material behaviour being different during 'loading' and 'unloading'
characteristic of plasticity), Ajj.llil will assume two different
expreSSIOns.
These expressions may be specified as rollows. According to the result of the
tests indicated in Section I, the plastic deformation ofa workhardening material
for which the yield criterion is satisfied occurs only if loading continues (Figure
1.5).3 If 'the differential of J at constant workhardening' is denoted by
(irrevcr~iblity
oj
d .{ = ' da
I>
ocr
/ole
'
, 1111
(16)
For a perrectly plastic materi:1I (Figure 1.1 b), when fT = fT II and dfT = 0, Ur. is undetermined . We I
can say that any material exhibits some workhardening, lillie though it be, that makes this result I
physically insignificant. This workhardening is, in some cases, small enough to be neglected in ,
problems likely to be simplifieu by :;0 doing.
1 Strictly spea king, objective definitions (derived from Truesdell, for instance sce [33]), must be ,
takcn ror UIT and a in formulae (14), (15).
I
It is known that in this easc the yield surraee, according to the very uclinition of workhardening.
this dcrormatioll condition, simple in the case of loading with only one para
meter, may be expressed by d,/ > O. Then
(dr.") I..)
1= 0
d ,/ = 0
I
((0; [) =0
OJ
~
Figure 1.5
d ,/ < 0
there is no plastic dcformiltion
(dl:I') I..) = O. I
Moreover, the passage is continuolls from one case to the other: i.e.
if
d,J'\.O,
thell
.
Therefore, each linear form (c1r.I')ij in dCT llk or equation'( 14) is zero wh~1 the linear
form d 1/ in dfT j . kofequa tion (I G) is zero. These forms are therefore dependen t and
dr.:j
~J;Y;;,E}t 1/
(17)
Thus, the increment\~of l(,lls()/~l<; present in dr. 11 only via the scalar ~/.
Because of this, the principal directions of the plastic deformation increment
as well as the ratios of its principal values do not depend on the incrcments of
strcsses. This fact was verified by Morrisson and Shepherd's experiments (1950)
on the tension and torsion of metal wires.
In the case of an isotropic material subject to isotropic workhardenin@s an
.J
{)
11
               =         
i.;otropic tcnsorial function of cr and has therefore the same princip:d directiolls
as cr. It follows that dt:'" and cr have identical principal directions. 1
To summarizc, for a workhardening material, the general argument makes
it possible to srecify the stressstrain relation for the plastic deformation ill the
form
J(O'/ol<' E) = 0
aJ
.)
flO'
/ole
<I 0'1Ie
oj .
if
{ . dO';;' 0
00'
1.1<
/ole
(11;") .)
. . = h in the other cases
No more can besaid about the flow rule without any comrlcl11cntary hyrothcsis.
For perfectly rlastic millerials, the stressstrain relation is simply
of
=0
.: dO' . . =
nO'. .
.)
.)
Vi'
( 18)
/.~
(cr  cr*)v'"
Gcometrically, lhe inequality (I S) shows lhat if tcnsors v" and cr (both sym
mctlriCal), (llrCttW;~l.te~ bO~fve~torstol fa Si X<li I1l(cn)siOllal sdP~fcc.(~CC [32])t' ~hle
sca ar pro( lIC fff1JI.'{jIl IS:? I cr IS 011 le sur race J cr = oan I cr IS no 1 ou Sl( e
il. This implics thc convexity of the loading surfacc and v'" is an outward normal
10 lhis surface at point cr. z
Mllthematically, taking into account the symmetry of lensors vI' and cr, and
the fact thaL J is symmetrical in O'ij and (Jji' the following argument applies.
If the surface is rcgular at point cr, then
yl'
..t
of
oa'
(19)
More pre\:is\:ly, II and cr, (II:" amI cr, Vi' and cr have at least one sy:;tclII or principal dircctions in
\:Oll1l11on.
" Figure 1.(, wa.~ drawn for thc case in which thcre is isotropy, aiming al greater simplicity.
I
r~02
r: i g \II" C Ui
I
I
I
A ~ 0. 1
"I' E }J)I(a),
(20)
COIiSCIIIICIICCS
Assuming the validity or the principle or Ill<lXilllUIll plastic work (i.e. the
convex loading runclion to be also Ihe plastic pOlenlial) leads, in the case or
workhardening, to
v!'. =
I)
OrTij
:l
Ii
(frT M,
u!'.
I)
.f =
and
cJI .
;._. rT/Ok ~ ()
(JrT/O k
I IJ/(er)
(21 )
cOile
ofolllwardllorlllaJ:;
10
11
. ..i' :' .,
oj
= Aoa j
if
J=0
of
va""
0= 0
:1
/,"
and
(22)
= Aro, A ~ 0 if J 2 = k 2
v" = 0 in the other cascs.
v"
and
.J 2
=0
For a Tresca material, the now rule, referred to the principal axes, is
VI'I 
AI
V"2
= 0' :V"I =
..t' A ~
0
~
if
and
Vi;
= A+
II, V~
=
.urv~
=  A, A ~
O,.u ~ 0
if
O"J
>
0"2
0" J 
0":1
aJ
0"3
>
0"3
= 21c
= aI
0"2
= 21<
etc.
8. Validity of the Principle of Maximum Plastic Work for the Case of Soils
From experimental results, the principle of maximum plastic work appears
to be valid for materials whose yield criterion is independent of the average
pressure ( aj3). This is the case for ductile metals, and also for clays with
4) = 0 (undrained soil). For thcse plastic deformation occurs without volume
change.
Nevertheless, investigations on such materials have been carried out using ;
Trcsca's criterion and the Ilow rule associateu with a Mises' potential (e.g. [2IJ).
For a soil following Coulomb's criterion (10), the principle of maximum
plastic work would lead to the following now rule: .
V~' =
..t(\
I)~ =
uj
+ sin
4))
= ..t(l  'sin
(M
A~O
O~ vr + v~ ~ 2A sin 4> ~ [1 
(23)
A.
vi = 0
,,~~
(24)
= A.
A.~O
vr =
IIi
v~
=  A.( I
(25)
 sin v)
A.~O
in which the angle )' is the socalled angle or dilation or the elemen!. (I' is positive
if there is dilation.)
In fact, angle II must vary as the plastic deformation or the clement proceeds,
and therefore it would be dirfieult to use rule (25). However, aecording to [23J.
satisractory results are obtained by considering an idealization of the malcrial
with v constant, 0 ~ )' ~ r/I, as proposed in [I X], [45J, and used, for example,
in [50].
Thus, it may be considered that soils have a Coulomb yield function (angle (/I)
 and a Coulomb plaslic polcntial (allgle I' ,I (/I) dirrcrcnt rroll1 the yield fUl1clion.
9. Final Remarks
It mllst be emphasiz.ed thaI the definition of plastic behaviour ror a material
consists of two paris:
(I). The yield criterion.
(2). The flow ru Ie.
The yield crilerion (or, more accurately, the yield function) intervenes in the
flow rule only for a workhardening material. In this case it is used to 'measure'
the intensity or load supported by the clement of material. Only when the
hypothesis of the principle of maximum work is effected does the yield criterion
also define the now rule.
15
I '
These aspects have Ilot it/ways beell well distinguished, as indicated by Roscoe
[49], for 'M ohrCoulomb's rupture criterion'. This point will be dealL wiLh when
sludying plane plastic Jlow.
10. Application of the Plasticity Model to Soil Behaviour
The prediction of soil behaviour via plasticity models does raise numerous
problems. However, the resllits obtained by this means have proved of interest
for many engineering problems. This point will not be discussed here, but
reference will be made to relevant literaLure.
As stated in Section 9, Lhe eondiLions for applieation of the yieldpoint and
yieldcriterion concepts, concerning their significance for soils on the one hand
and the question of the now rule on the othe, must be examined. For this kind
of analysis reference will be made, for examfJlc, to [47] and [51].
With respect Lo the yield criterion the experiments performed with true
triaxial apparatus [14,28] indicate that the Coulomb criterion in the form of an
intrinsie curve models true behaviour fairly closely.
Regarding the now rule, there has been much discussion in the case of soils.
Various authors [7,13,25,26,31,34,38, 54J have attempted to determine a now
rule by consideration of the kinematics of the granular medium, the basic con
cept being that the plastic deformation takes place by sliding. Othcrs [15, 17,
18, 4lJ prcferred the approach based on the notion of a plastic potential different
from the yield criLerion, and have proposed now rules such as those indicated in
Section 8.
Finally, we must note that Mandel's works [36, 37J, which introduced a
director lrihedron for each clement of the plastic medium, might be useful for
granular media. In particular, light eould be shed on the problems connected
with the nOIlcoaxialily of tensors vI' and (J for isoLropic materials.
I
I
References
[I] J. Bi"rcz (1962) Contribution ;" I\~tudc c1c)i proprietc)i mecaniqucs dcs sols ct dcs
materiaux pulverulcnts, Thcsis Dr. Sc., Grcnoblc (1962).
[2] .I. P. Boehlcr and A. Sawczuk (1970) E'lllilihre limitc dC)i sols allisotropcs, J. M('c.,
9,
[J:1 J.
('1('1.
I
I
533.
/r..
I()I [).
[28J P. V. Lade (197:1) Discussion, scssion II. 1'l'IIe. .\'.\;;111'. 111/ lile role 4 1'/lIslic:ily ill
Silil M Cdll/llics, Ca m bridgc ((j. B.), I :115 Sept. 197:1, pp. 12')I)S.
[29] E. 11. Lcc (1969) Elasticplaslic dcformalion allinitc strains,.I. Apl'l. M cd,., S('ric I~,
36, n" 1. Pr>o 10.
[30] J. Legr:II111 ( IW)')) C (lins dt' M c:collicille dcs Sills, E. N. P. C, Pa ris.
[JI] J. M:llldcl (1947) Sur Ic.: ligncs dc glisscmcnl ct Ie calcul des dc.':placements dans la
dc.':forlllatioll pl:l~tiqlle. C./LAc:.,'ic:., I'I/ris, 1.22.'), pp. 1272 127:1.
[n] J . Mandel (1964) Contribulion thc.':orique .\ l'c.':tude de l'c.':cnlllissage cl des lois de
\'ccoulcmcnl plasliquc, Proc. 11(// 11Il. CCJII{/I'. Apl'l. Mec:lr., Miinieh, pp. S02S09.
[D] J. Mandcl (1966:1) /\Ilc:c(/lIiqll<' des Milh'lIx ClI/llillllS, Vol. II, G:llilhicrVillars, P:\Iis.
[J4J J. Mandel (1966b) Sur Ics c.':qualions d'ccoukmcnl dc.'i sols idc.':aux en ddorlllation
planc ct Ie conccpl du doublc glisscmcnl,.I. M('c:I,. Phys. Solids, 14, pp. :10330X.
[35] J. M:lI1dcl (1969) COllI'S de Sciellc(' ties Mol.(:,.imlx, Ecole N:llionalc Supc.':ricul'l; dcs
Mincs dc Paris.
2(1, n"
17
.........~
[:lo] J.
. "..",

18
CHAPTER II
1. Introduction
I) .
IJ
II
1
E 1 (5 I)..
I/.IS ..
I)
if.i 2 ~ 0
(1jj
where
IJ
I'
IJ
II =
11 .
= E a..
II' =
and
.11
[J(.l1,.I."/~).I2 ~ 0
I + II
.
I'
.
=  E0  IJ..  eLI,
E IJ
k 2 ()
(1 )
The objective is lo delermine the actual state of stress and strain of an elaslo
plaslic syslem. The problem is to be solved incrementally following the loading
path. This differential approach is dictaled by the incremenlal form of lhe
19
cOllstilutivc cquatioll. In gCllcral,the slate ofstrcss alld slraill withill the syslem
dcpcllds on thc /o(lI/iIlY /m", followed to attain thc actual loading.
Thc incremental method of solution is as follows. I\t any time I the stress and
displ;lccmcnt fields arc known, and by using the equilibrium equations, the
constitutivc equation. ((I) for instancc), and thc boundary conditions imposcd
On the velocities and on the rates of the imposed forces, it is possible to deter
mine the stressrate field O'jj <lndthe velocity field u j throughout the whole solid.
It is then possiblc to determine thc stress and dis(Jlacemcnt fields at time (L + dt).
It must be emphasized that for each time increment, the boundarics between
thc clastic and plastic zoncs vary and must be redetermincd. Point!'; situated
within the clastic zones (I(rr) < 0) during the prcvious time step now lic within
plastic zoncs, and (Joints situated within the (Jlastic zoncs during the previous
step (/(rr) = 0) now lie within clastic zones (an occurrence known as 'local
unloading'). This movement of state boundaries is the main source of praetical
dirriculties.
Only a few problems, in which im(Jortant sim(Jlificatiolls arise due to geo
metrical symmetry, can be solved cX(Jlicitly by analytical means (see [12] and
[13J). Usually, numerical methods (based on minimum principles) are used.
The:\c in vol ve d iscretizat iOIl in space (for example, by means or the finite clement
lllclhod [{J, [15], [17J etc.), as wcll mi inlilllc. The approximalion in time may
Ie:ld 10 problems of convergence of the Ilumeric;tl schcme, tiS indicated in [9J.
Numerical mcthods havc been used (assuming slllall deformations) to solve
problems concerning Tresca or Mises materials with positive workhardening
(or evcn negative), or Coulomb material using either the associated now rule,
or olle or Ihe rules indicated in Chapter I.
20
~
 I
ing or perfeelly plaslie. owing 10 Ihe eonlinllily o/" Ihe malerial Ihrollgh Ihe
boundary bel ween the el:lstie and plastic zones.
Finally, whcn Q rcachcs thc valuc QI' the plastic zoncs havc dcvelopcd
surlicicntly to makc Ill/col/tail/ed plC/stic .flo IV possible, i.e. plastic ddormatiolls
arc no longcr containcd by clastic zoncs.
From this point on, the bchaviour of thc systcm dcpends IIpon whether the
matcrial is workhardcning or pcrfectly plastic. In thc latter casc, with geomctry
changcs bcing neglcctcd, thc deformation in the plastic zones bccomcs unlimited
for Q = QI' This unlimited deformation of a part of thc system, undcr constant
loading. is known as collapsc. Thc value Q. is tcrmcd the lill/it lood of t he system . .
In the case of a workhardening matcrial the deforlll;ltion in the plastic zones is
stirl dctcrminatc. With gcomctry changes bcing ncglcctcd, thc loading must
incrcasc bcforc dcformation can continuc.
As an cxamplc, thc planc problem of a uniform prcssurc with variablc in
tcnsily Q, applied to the surface of a halfplanc consisting of a pcrfcctly plastic
Tresca matcrial, I may be considcrcd. Qo is found to bc equal 10 n/.;., and the
plastic zone thcn consists of lhc scmicircle with diamctcr A'A (Figurc ILia):
for lhc limit load Q. found 10 bc cqual 10 (n I 2)1.:, lhc plaslic zone may be
rcprescntcd schematically as in Figure 11.1" and thc malcrial can flow towards
lhe sllrface in bOlh direclions.
\
\
"
"' .......
(a )
, ,
/
,/
fco
./
//
(b)
Figure 11.1
"
21
l~~______ _
.. "',
___ _
clastic deformations, that boundary is proved to be the locus of the points Q()
defined on each of the abovemen tioned loadingpaths by the first appearance
of plasticity in the system. It is a convex surface for the hypothesis of a convex
yield function and of linear elasticity.
If the load is increased beyond this boundary, the clastic domain of the system
changes and an aClual elastic boundary of the system, limiting the actual clastic
domain is defined. The domain is, so to speak, hauled by the loading point Q.
This is the 'workhardening of the system' due to the workhardening of the
plast ic clements of the system and the incompaLi bility of the plastic deformations
(see [5J). Obviously the actual clastic boundary depends on the loading path
followed.
The load being increased along a given loading path a point Q 1 is reached
for which uneontained plastic now becomes possible. The locus of points QJ
corresponding to all the loading paths is termed the yield boundary 0/ the syslem.
/\s an example, P'igure II. 217 taken from reference [5J, shows the different
boundaries for the structure represented in Figure II.2a.
Or
Or
~'~
~qrr~"
Figure 11.2
r"irslly, it is obvious that if the stage of uncontained plastic flow has been
reached then t he deformations are no longer Ii mited to the order of c1astie
derorJmllions and it may now bc necessary to take geometry changes into
account. This has the following eonsequenees: for It perfectly plastic material,
either the load necessary to continue the deformation increases endlessly, or it
increases and reaches a maximum, thus giving rise to instability and collapse.
22
...
23
  l
develops.
(2). The load increases continuoLlsly as the plastic deformation develops.
In the first case the collapse or the structure is defined either by the critical load
parameter Qc' which co~responds to plastic instability, or by a criterion of
maximum admissible plastic deformation. In the second case, a criterion of
maximum deformation is used. When the geometry changes are negligible, all
these criteria will lead to the value QI' Thus, the problem lies in estimating a
priori whether it is possible to forgo the accurate elastoplastic investigation and
to deal with the collapse of the structure using the limit load QI'
The efficiency of the methods available for the determination of Qp dealt
with in Charter V, compared to the difficulties of the accurate or even simplified
elastoplastic solution, is the main reason for the imporlance of the theory or
limit loads and or the usc or the rigid plastic scheme associated with it. It is
essential, however, to be aware of the limits of the application of this theory.
S. Examplcs
5.1 A simple structure
To illustrate the concepts or clastic limit and yield limit, an example is taken
rrom [5] and [7J, as represented in fo'igllre Jr.).
)9Ijr('( [v.~
~1'\ U)l
(8 T) b,..
7 ()" .
Q
'
I~
txrr;_
AC : : 1,
,.
(~. (~o
: L. \J L
(fl ({ . /lC
C~ =~Q,
v~D
Lo
=
. yD
( nr \
cl=L 'f.
:z L
~ ~D %"1
~C
(;)1\
Figure J 1.3
. '
24
f    . : . . . .       

j
I
cOll1pression. The structure is subject to the action or two rorces I Q :lllti  Q ilt
A and C. Such loadillg is dependent upon only olte paralllc!cr. The s),stelll Itas
one degree of redundancy and is assumed to be initial1y unstressed.
Ir T denotes the tension in bar AC, we can obtain through statics the rorces in
all the bars:
AC: T, CD and CIJ: (Q  T)J2/2, nD: (Q  T).
T= QJi
2
Thus, the greatesl rorce is exerted in AC, and the clastic limit or the struclure
is:attained ',::hell this force ~lai,.1s the plastic limit ora bar; hence,
V\,'t5(j ~ t/Jy,Q
~
r
Qo=Ly2
If Q exceeds Qo' the rorce in AC remains egual to L, i.e. T = L. The forces in the
ot he'I:t),li:s: irc tl"1C"rCTorcknown :
CD and Cll: (Q  L) ;;. IJD: (Q  L):
().
/~~F L
25
,[
            J
\.
[ I ] F. l3aguclin cl al. (1972) Expansion of cylindrical probes in cohesive soils, JI. Soil
Mull. & Foulld. Div .. A.S.C.E. 98, No. SMI, Nov. 1972 pp. 11291142.
[2) J. Courbon (1%5) ComplCmellls de Rbislallce des Maleriaux. PI(Jslicile. E.N.P.C.,
Paris.
[J] P. lIabib (1973) Precis de Geoleclll/ique. Dunod, Paris.
[4] S. K.obayashi and C. H. Lee (1970) Elastoplastic analysis of plane strain and axy
symn1etric Oat punch indentation, llll. J. Mecil. Sc., 12, pp. 349370.
[5] .I. Mandel (\964) Contribution thcorique a I'ctude del'ccrouss:lge el des lois de
f'c!coulemelll plastique. Proc. I II" COllgr. 1111. Mech. Appl., Munich, pp. 502509.
[G) .I . Mandel (1966) Cours de M ecallique dr.s Milieux Contil/us. Ga uthier Villars, Paris .
[7] .I. Mandel (1969) Cours de Science des Malcriaux, Ecole Nationale Superieure des
Mines de Paris.
stress systems by the lillite elenlent method, 1111. JI. Mech. Sc.. 9, pp. 143155.
[10] \) . Radcnkovie and J. Salenc;on (1971) Equilibr.e limitc el ruplure ell M ccanique dcs
Sol.l', I.e Comportenent dcs Sols avantla Rupture, Journces Franc;aises du C.r.M.S.,
n" Sree. Bulletin de Liaison des Laboratoires des Ponts et Chaussees, pp. 296302.
[ I I] .I. Salcnyon (1969) La theorie des charges limites dans la resolution des problcmcs
[ 12] J. Salcm,:on (1966) Expansion d'unc eavitc . . . dans un milieu clastoplastique, Ann.
[ lJ) J. Salenc;on (1969) Contraction d'une eavitc ... dans un milieu clasloplastique,
[14] J. Salcn<,:on (1974) Plaslicitc pour la Mceaniquc des Sols. C.l.S.M., Rankine
26
r151
27
J" . '
CHAPTER III
problems dealing with c1astoplastic materials only in the limiting case when
phenomena arc studied for which either the clastic part of the deformation is
negligible compared to the plastic part, or the clastic properties have no influence
whatever.
r_,.
' . ....
(I
priori.
The unknowns in the problem arc no longer the stressrates and velocities,
as they were in Chapter II for elastoplastic problems, but rather the stresses
28
(I). Incipient uncontained now, where the geometry is the initial geometry,
(2). Permanent lIncontained now, where the geometry remains ullchanged,
i.e. a perpetually incipient 110w,
(3). Selfsimilar lIncontained now, where the form of the geometry remall1S
similar to the original.
In actual fact, these three types of problems arc of the same nature and cor
respond. in one way or another. to the study of incipient uncontaincd now. The
system is then said to be in a lill/it eqllilihri/lll/ state.
3.1 An example
On studying again the example of the structure dealt wilh in the previolls
charter. it may be seen that the following. data parlieipate in the determination
of the clastic limit (Qo ='LJ2):
29
3.2 General case; rec()urse to the rigidplastic material for the dclerll1inatioll
of the limit loadings
/\ system (2:::1) is constituted by an clastic perfectly plastic material (M I)
of which the elastic moduli al each point M are given by
)..1~.llk(M)
A second system (1: 2) has the same geometry but is constituted by an elastic
perfectly plastic material (M 2) of whieh the clastic moduli arc
)...2. , .(M)
' ) , ,,,
i~.....
'
= p)...I. , .. (M)
(p> 0)
I). '"
The yield criterion and nowrule are the same for the two materials.
For the system (1: 1) a history of loading (II I) is given by the values of the
body forces Fl and the boundary data (T'!)I on STI and (ut) on SUi at moments
in time, t.
The loading history (II 2 ) is given for system (1: 2 ) at the same moments, t, by
the data
(Tf)2 = (Tf) 1
(U;I)2=(U;')I/p
on
on
S J"j
SUi
Then, if the geometry changes may be neglected for (1: 1) following (H I)'
and for (1: 2), following (fJ 2)' it is obvious that, at each moment t, the stress fields
arc identical in (1: 1) and (L 2 )
and the velocity fields u l and u2 are related by
u2
r
I,
= ul/p
In particular, in the plas(ic zones the values of parameter ).. ~ 0, left arbitrary
in the !low rule, are)..1 and )..2:)..2 = )..I/p .
The plastic zones arc the same in (1: I) and (1: 2) at each moment. Doth systems
will, therefore, reach the uncontained flow state at the same 1110111ent, i.e. for the
same limit loading. If, in particular, p tends to infinity, it can be seen that system
(1:,,,), following history (11 fY.)' and constituted by the rigidplastic material (M ..,J
defined by fI approaching the limit. In system (L:J the imposed vclocitic.<; arc
everywhere zero except on the point of u ncontained flow.
Thus, the following result can be stated: for the assumption of negligible
geometry changes, the limit loadings of an clasticperfectly plastic system can be
determined by progrc..'>sing to the limit in the corresponding rigidperfectly
plastic limit liystem.
.
Similarly to what was stated in Sections 3.1 and 3.2 the limit load (and limit
loadil1g in the case of several parameters) may be defined as the load correspond
ing to the appearance of uneontained plastic flow in the corresponding rigid
perfectly plastic limit system.
10
I
I.
['J
4. Governing equations
J(a;))
i
oa
axJ] +
JI,)
pX. = 0
= Vli
v. . = ).(iJ[/iJa., A.
(for instan(.;e I)
;;: 0 in the case ofa standard material).
.
I)
(2). The rigid rcgioll in which there is no deformation occurring;
I~j =
(5)
aa.. +
__...2.1.
a'\:j
(6)
pX . = 0
(3)
It can be seen that in the plastic zones exactly sl,fficient eqll<ILions to deter
mine the unknowns aij' Ll j (stresses and velocities) arc available. However,
in the rigid ;!.ones three furl her equations arc necessary to determine the stress
fieltV whilst the velocity ficJd corresponds to motion without deformation
(rigidbody motion).
The plastic zones (I) arc the regions of the system whidl C;ln be deformed and
the rigid zones (IJ) arc the llmlcformecl regions. The di~tinction bel ween these
two types of regions may not appear logical since it is possible to belong simul
taneously to both types. As a mailer or fact it come..'> from certain peclliiarilie..<;
I
1
II will be noticcd thaI in thc c)t a III pic of Section 3.1 uniqueness was implicitly taken into ilccounl.
This is not surprising since in these regions the strcsses do nol intcrvene in the constitlltive equation.
31
'
.: '
'
5. Boundary Conditions
5.1. Classical prcscnt:ltioll
/:,
I\s stated previously, with the rigidplastic scheme it is possible to deal only
with uncontained now problems. The boundary conditions must take this
fact inlo account; i.e. they must be consistent with uncontaincc\ now. This leads
to the introduction of consistent boundary conditions, as introduced by
Mandel [0,7]' Howcver, as defincd in this text, the problem always reduce..<; to
onc of detcrmining thc limit load, ami may be stated as follows. ~(tI/(' :'iys(elll is
s/l/~ic'c('d (,0 (II/ (lction (?t' (l UiIJe!1l type, tllell (.lie IJa/ul: (!( (,his ac:t.ioll for which UlI
, collwilled.f7ow (okes pLaCe!
32
I
j
(i.e. those conccl"Iling the forces applied to the system) Illust be of a somewhat
variable character. Thlls, the bOlllldary cOllditilllls will llecess;II'ily contain
some data concerning velocity, which in t he expression for the work done by the
external forces provide the variable dynamic conditions. With the problem being
delined with bOllndary data for the velocity, the solution will necessarily be one
of uncontained plastic flow, and the limit loading will he obtained as the cor
responding value of the loading.
An cxainple is shown in Figure 111.1, involving the indentation of a rigid
perfectly plastic halfplane by a rigid pUllch moving vertically.
y
A'
       ______~~~~~WUL__ "~
0
+0
Figure 111.1
Ixl >
Ixl <
(I,
a=,
)'
'"r
(I,
'.\",1'
0,
=0
/I
)'
II
33
J
16
(;,I
~A(
\t~~,,\V
\ r:
~lLL lJ1.JA_._;'
.{
o
~ ~ ~ 11 y'V'
~r
~
v
\~ \;
cr/H~' Iii ~.<z. Vl)/~ H010 r/f~t~~[~1.2, b a (t:r (/Vr7
Similarly, l~le problem of the indentation of a halfplane by a smooth
!) ( "V
_.
;/
r/
/,
rigid
pUlIch under the action of an axial vertic:d force F is another example (Figure 3).
The condition of A'A in the direction Oy is neither stress nor velocity data.
I t is known that the distribution of u). must be that of a rigid motion. and thc
distribution
(1 corresponds to an axial re~;u1tant force.
y
or
y
F
1(
A'
Figure 1/ 1.3
il f'
'"II "
,
..
(T
34
II II.
9Jv"' 
tdr
() ,
Y' ~ , "
\1"/)"IN t
\"
\ '6, ("If' \I
,6(, (() I,
,
~, O~(,
0
J. ,
",
;r
'/'!~_
'11
JI'
(<T' y)d V
=:
J'i
T u liS 1
Jv
(Ii'"'
(7)
udV
T,
tI
dS
'rill
.
I
dS I
s',
I TIJ'~
(8)
ciS
s..
cnn be errected (T;l and 11;1 denot e the given value.<; or the comp
oncnt s or the
stress or veloci ty on S), which is not alway s trlle. Thc formu lal
ion in tcrms of
, loadin g param eters aSSllllles thal
(9)
H"
u . (HII) E H"
This is alway s possib le in the practi cal cases where the comp
onent s Q.(a)
of Q(a) are 10t1ding param eters of the system . The vector q(v) Illay
be termed the
strain rate of the system . 1
The proble m therer ore rcsides in determ ining the limit value.<;
or veclor Q,
togeth er with the corres pondi ng stress and veloci ty fields.
The proofs are found ed upon the inequ. llity of the princi ple
of maxim um
work (Chap ter I, Seclio n 6):
(10)
from which
(0  0*)'
I
o.
35
This inequality imrlic,<; the convexity or the yield fUllction which i:\ also Ihe
pla.<;lic rotential.
The inequality (10) is not rigidly binding and It IS Important to investigate
under what circumstances the rollowing eqllality holds trlle.
(0'  0'*).
= 0
( I I)
For equality, when v ;;p 0, both (J' and 0'* must belong within or on the yield
sllJ'face. Since 0' is sitllaled on the surrace in accordance with the as:\umplion
Ihal v ,/0,0'* cannol be internal :\ince the surface is convex and v is directed
along an out ward normal at point 0'. Thererore, owing to the conv(".xity, the
segment O'*cr lies wholly within or on the yield surface. On the contrary, accord
ing to equation (II), the segment belongs to a place either external or tangential
Lo the yield surface. Consequently for (I J) Lo be true for v ,p 0, Ihe segment 0'*0'
mLlst be part of the yield surface. It follows obviously that if this surface is
striclly convex, 0' = 0'*.
6.2 Theorem
or uniqueness
. Hill's classical theorem of uniqueness of the stress field is established for Ihe
assumption of boundary conditions of t he type described in Secl ion 5.1, for
which the reduclion given in equalion (8) is pos:\ible. II will be seen later that
an analogolls theorcm is valid for the case of boundary conditions expressed
in terms of loading parameters.
For consistent houl1dary condit.ions of lhe type descri/Jcd il1 Scction 5.1 lhere
exist. several solul.ioIlS, Imt lhere is uniqueness o.f thc slress field in the ref/ions
/orll1ed hy comlJinil1[j the deformed zones of these various solutions (.for ccrtain
COII1 pleme/ilary (LSSUll1plions).
COli
0.2.2
Slalelllent
(~f
SeIJeml solutions C(ln exist for boundary conditions (ijlhe type rJiven ilL Section
5.2, cor/"(~spOl1(linrJ to /oadin{J depending Oil a finitc l1umber o.f paramelers Q;
lVi til Q heillfl tile loadin{1 /or which I1l1colilailleri .flow takes place al/(I ci tile
slroill r(lle 0/ lhe syslem at unconlained ]low. However, therc is uniquel1ess 0/ the
slressfield ill lhe reuiol1,'ilornwd hy c:omhillillU the r/c;{orl1lcd zones (ijlhesc v(/rious
soit/liol1s (for cerlain complemenlary (i.'iSUll1ptioIZS).
6.2.3 Proo.f
For the case of each of the previolls statements, Iwo possible solutions are
(ai, Vi), (a 2 , I?). Applying the principle of virtual work to fields ((JI _ (J2)
and (Vi  1)2) yields, in the case of Section 6.2.1,
36
(<J'
<J ')(v'
~ \.,) d I' =
t,. ('/';' 
T;')(,,:  ,,;) dS
r (T
Iv p(F 
I
j'
J.. . .
I
Tn(Il~'
F)(11 1
u~')c1S
1(2)
d JI
J"
(a l  ( 2)(yl  y2) d II
(Qjl 
j=
Qn((ii  (i;)
=0
( 13)
at any point of the system (JI). The lefthand side of equation (13) is zero in the
following cases :
(I). If Vi = ,,2 = 0 (i.e. in the zonc.<; which are rigid in both solutions),
(2). In the zones that are deformed in at least one solution (i.e. in the regions
formed by the combination of the deformed zonc.c; in each solution).
If only one ~ensor
is nonzero, e.g.
y',
(a' _( 2 )y'
=0
which is equation (II), studied in Section 6.1. If both tensors are non7.ero,
equations (13) and (II) imply that
(a'  ( 2 )y' = 0
and
(a 2
a')v 2 = 0
again equation (11). From the conclusions of Section 6.1 we call deduce that
a' and (}"2 belong to the yield surface:
In addition the segment (}"'(}"2 belongs to the yield surface, from which it follows
that if this surface is regular (i.e. there is only one tangent plane at each point),
then Vi and v 2 are colinear.
Thus, if we define D as being the combination of the deformed zones cor
responding to each solution, the following conclusions can be made.
37
.f
I
I/ .; .
, ,J " .. .
.~
, ;. .
(2a) . The now regime at any point of D ;s the same in all solutions (same face
or same edge). In the case of the face regime, there is proportionality between
the strain rates in the different solutions (in particular, they have the same
principal directions).
The statel11ents corrc.'>ponding to (3) and (4) arc more complicated (sec [5J).
7. Remarl{s
I"..,..
"
...
References
I: I]
38
N()(ioll.~ de PI(/sticit(',
[J] R. J lill (1951) On Ihc slale or stress in a plastic rigid hody al the yield point,
I'IIi[.
Mag., 42, PI'. 868875.
[4J W. T. Koiter (1960) General I heorems ror clastic plastic solids, In Prowcss ill Solid
M cchallic:s, Ed. Sneddon a Illi 11 ill, N ort hII olla nd Pub!. Co., Alllsterda m.
,I
[5J J. Mandel (1965) Sur I'unicite dll champs des contraintcs lors de l'cquilibre limite
dans un miliell rigideplastique, C.U.llr.Sc:., Paris, 2GI, pp. 3537.
[6] J. Mandel (1966) !!'{(:C(/I/it/IIC rlc.~ Mi/;(,lIx COl/til/liS, Vol. II, Gauthicr Villars, Paris.
[7J J. Mandel (1972) Unicitc et principes variationnels en viscoplasticitc, Pla.~lid(f
d Vi.~('n/'[{/s{ir:i{(:, Ells. I). lb(\cnkovic and J. Saknyoll, EdisciclH;c, Paris, 1'774,
PI'. 186202.
[8J J. Salcn~.on (1969) La theorie des charges limitc..<; dans la resolution des problcmc..<;
[9J
[10]
,,
}
39
I.
._       
.
CHAPTER III
Appendix
I
A SYSTEM
1. Possible Loadings
1.1 Boundary conditions
Vi
S./. (\ S
I
II.
(/>
S'T , V Su, = S
I .
I .
1.2 Definitions
The suit. of possible dynamic dala, lei' has components?; over S"/"l (i = 1,2,3).
F (body forces) throughout V (such that equilibrium is possible).
The suit of possible kinematic data, J c' has components u, over SUI (i = 1,2,3).
Ii suit of possible data, J, is formed by the union ofa suit orpossiblc dynamic
clala and a suit of possible kinematic data:
1 = lei
lc
It is easily seen that the sets of all suits of possible dynamic data, of all suits
40
of po~~ible kinematie data, and of all suits of possible data, may be given
structures of linear spaces in It The first two of those spaces, generally of infinite
dimension, will be denoted by ~ and
A st.atically (ulllli:o;siIJle strcssjidd i~ a stresslield a associated with :l suit of
possible dynamic data, and expressed as
rc.
as.A.
as~.
1(\ E ~,
if its components
I
(all.
all .)
u='+~
ij
aX j
(JXj
II
1(\ E!2},
.Ie E
(',;j'.
Ii
J....
"
= n ,,' lJ'r
41
.J '
~.
 J
(I). The set of all the permitted suits of dynamic dala constitule a linear sub
space:~
I'
c:!)J;
(2). Tile seL of ail the permilleu suils of kinemalic daLa is a linear subspace
c:
r(/
I'
re'
'
!:01"
where
1<"
and
where
.
'"
. J.'''
:Y(a, li)
Q(O"). <"I(V)
=
j
Qj(a}qj(v).
== 1
2.2 Properties
The vectors Q(a) corresponding lo all the stress fields 0" S.A. associaled wilh
all the feasible suits of dynamic daLa, constiluLe an IIdimension linear space,
{Q}. A veclor Q(a) will be called a loading ofLhe body. Likewise, the q(/}) vectors
,corresponding to all the strainrate fields associated wiLh all the sets of kine
malic dala constitute an ndimension linear space {it}. {Q} and {q} are dual.
2.3 nClllarJ<s
For a given .1'1 E :.0., Lhere are usually several possible sLrcssfields, and several
Q(a) vectors corresponding to these fields.
Actually, if
a I S.A. ass. i , IE
0) I'
and
~ I'
thell
a,  a 2 is S.A. ass. 0 E
~ p'
but it docs nol necessarily follow that Q(O",) = Q(a z). An analogolls property
holds for J C E r(/ 1" , U, 4(u).
42
A single Q vector can correspond to several S.I\. fields a but all of them arc
associated with II singk .III E !'i'll" An :lllalogous property is valid for (i, II (the
J c arc then identical apart from rigidbody motion.) A ej(v) veclor is called a
strainrate of a body.' It has been asslIllled in the definition in Seetion 2.1. that
fIJ" and ('(1" are linear subspaces. This implies that, in the loading process,
the constant data must be zero. for the ease in which constant data would
exist (for example, dynamic data representing body forces or load on partof a
surface), these should be considered as variable. and only given their prescribed
vailles at the end.
X_'
__t_i_t___!..
t_t_t_~_t_J..LL..L...L.LfL't..J....LJ._+_t
Figure III.A.I
At
0.:),
for
= 0;
([1 is arbitrary).
/I
43
,i
On A'A
for S.,.., '1"1 = 0;
for Sell , u 2 =  U
+ Ux.
(U,
are arbiLrary).
Hence,
and
(jl 
f~:
112
dx 
.[n u
dx,
Q2
= N,
Q3 = M.
44
CHAPTER IV
1. General
This chapter deals with a class of uncontained plastic now problems the
solution of which incorporates important simplifying features. For this reason
the form of many fundamental Soil Mechanics problems has been reduced to
that of plane plastic now.
These problems will be studied very closely, as they are rather difficult, espe
cially in the logic involved which is sometimes inlricate.
The probel11s of axial symmetry can be solved similarly for certain hypotheses
(e.g. the criterion of the intrinsic curve type, HaarKarman's hypothesis [2IJ).
These problems are dealt with in Appendix n and readers requiring more com
plete informalion are advised to read references [I, 12,21,39,54,60]' .
Only the case of isot ropic m:llerials will be deal I wil h lhough anisot ropy has
been studied in plane plastic strain [2, 7, 13,25, 26].
2. Kxprcs.o.;ioll of {he Yield Crilcriol\
The plane str;lin normal to the Oz axis is clcrinecJ by the following condit ions.
/I .~
.~
= ()
(I)
whence,
/I.\' :
=/J
=/J:: =0
.
)':
(2)
In the deformed, i.e. plastic zones, in which the factor A =P 0, equation (2)
represents three equations which generally make il possible Lo express (1., "C.,,:,
"C .1 as funclions of (1 .~, (1)" t.~)'. The yield crilerion satisfied in thcse regions can,
therefore, be wrillen as a function of only lhree components (relating lo the plane
(x, y)):
(3)
.%
I There
45
._      
Since oilly lhe case ofisolropic materials is deall with the yield criterion may be
expressed as a fUllction of lhe principal stresses:
(4)
Ullder plane strain conditions , Oz, being a principal direction of v, is also a prin
cipal direction for <T.l Selling rT: = 0") (with unordered principal stresses) allows
equation (2) to be written as
IJ )
(5)
= 0
Assuming the material obeys the principle of maximum plastic work it follows
from equation (5) that
iJF
... = 0
(6)
arT)
Thus, equations (4) and (G) deline the yield criterion in plane plastic strain, viz.
F(rT" (J 2> (J)) =
(4)
iJF
=0
(6)
arT)
it
(T I
and
0"2
(7)
is obviously, as a consequence of the convexity of F, the equation of the projec
tion in the (T) direction of the apparent boundary of the surface F = 0 onto the
plane of (T I and rT 2' This is a real curve symmetrical with respect to the bisector
((J. = (J2' (J.l = 0). Thus,.r is symmetrical in rT. and (J2' and may be wrillell in
the form
'
(8)
i.c. in thc plane (x, y) a criterion of the intrinsic eurve type exists.
g(  p, R) =
(9)
where R is the radius of the Mohr circle and  p the abscissa of its centre. Later,
the intrinsic curve is assumed to be real.
The theorem derived may be summariz.ed
follows.
as
II is sialed in Chapler I Ihal in lhe case or isolropy v and rr necessarily have the same principal
Jire!:1 ions. A very dela iled dis!:lIssion or Ihis reslill a risinl~ rrom Ihe !:onsl illll ive la w lin king v. rr and
/)rr/D( (in which Ihe relalionship belween v and f)rr//)( is linear) will be round in [25]' (See also
[2] and PO]).
46
work, (/IIY yield crilaio/l ill pl(/lle pl(lstk sl/'{/ill /"(~dllc(!s to a criteriOIl (~rthc intrillsic
curve type ill the pla/le 0/ the straill.
For an isotropie material, with a yield criterion of the intrinsic curve type, e.g.
a sDil obeying the Coulomb criterion, it may not be necessary to refer to the
principle of maximulll plastic work to arrive at forllluia (R) or (9): it is surficient
that (1:, a principal stress as defined previously, is the illtermediate principal
stress.
This may be a consequence of the assumption of plane plastic strain and a
particular now rule, not necessarily that of a standard material. It occurs, for
example, if a flow rule similar to equation (25) proposed in Chapter I is lIsed, or
if the constitutive law of a standard Mises material is adopted.
It is also true for an isotropic material with a yield criterion of the general form
F(al' a 2 , a:\) = 0 (F being convex and symmetrical), and plastic strain obeying
the flow rule of a standard Mises material. Again, in the plane of the strain the
criterion is represented by a real curve symmetrical with respect to 'the bisector
(a, = (12' a J = 0), i.e. a criterion of the intrinsic clI\'ve type. 1'1'0111 hereon it will
always be assumed that the envelope of the Mohr circles is real.
Under the conditions stateu the results to be developed ror the stress field arc
valid for such nonstandard materials.
4. Equations for Ihe SIrcsscs
Under the specified conditions for the validity of equations (8) or (9), three
equations are available for the thrce unknown stresscs in the plastic zones, which
are independent of the velocities.
/(a.\" a,.,.,. )
aa + '~'~
01'
+ pX
ax oy
orx c)a,.
' + , I f) Y
ax ely
_2
(3)
= 0
r
= 0
(I I)
= 0
The main interest in plane plastic strain problems is due to this particular
circumsLancc. If the boundary conditions are appropriate, it is possible to
proceed in two stages, starting with the determin(Jtion of the stress field in the
47
..1 ';', ,

..'.
 
~.J
plastic ZOIlCS, without illvolvement of the velocitics, and only then determining
tile velocity field.
However, this procedure proves to be more complcx than indi cated here, and
it is onen necessary to make usc orthe veloeities for the determ ination ofthestress
rield, e.g. to select one out of two possible stress solutions. Nevertheless, this
possibility of dealing firstly with the stresses and then with the velocities, does
make the work considerably simpler.
It should be noted, moreover, that the system of equations (3,11, 12) and the
accompanying conclusions are normally valid in zones where rT z is the inter
mediate principal stress and a state of limit equilibrium prevails, when the mate
rial obeys a yield criterion of the intrinsic curve type. Therefore the results of the
following Section A can be applied i.n elastoplasticity problems to zones in limit
equilibrium (J = 0) which meet these conditions.
In the rigid zones (denoted as btype zones in Chapter III), three equations
arc needed to determine the stress field ifit is assumed that rT z is a principal stress.
One equation is lacking in order to determine the three stresses
rT ,rT ,t' ,as the
.
y
xy
yield criterion supplies no more than an inequality.
.~
=  fJ  R cos 20
't' ... y
r.
( 13)
I< sin 20
 Txy
Figure IV.1
R = R(p),
(14)
oa.~
ap + _
dR ap
___
 Cos 20
ax ax ell' ax
. 20;ao
 2R SIt1
( 15)
ox.
or .. ar
ax ay
~,~
au
an(I
)'
ay
The deriva tive dRjdp is easily estima ted from Figure IV.2. Here,
denote s the
angle betwe en Ox and the tangen t lo the intrins ic curve at the
point of contac t
with the Mohr circle having a centre of abscis sa I'
dR
dl'
Sill
( 16)
(P
llilJ
Figure IY.2
II
The system of equati ons for the stresse s in the plastic zone is
thus transf ormed
by the introd llction of new variab les. Eqllat ion (3) is eql.,ivalei1
t to (13) and (14),
and equati ons (11) and (12) becom e
DfJ (1  a
x
''/
SIl1 ./)
. 2 0 ()()
cos 2)
0  2 R SIl1
I
ax
I a
()I' SI11
. 2 ()
y
. ao
Sill ()
I 2R cos
. "'.
+ op
oxsln' l's1l12 0' +
0 00
2Rco s2 ' ax
op
 oy(l
20 
oy
~7)<
IN
 sl11 cos20 )
. 2 ao
+ 2 R SIl1
0 oy + (l Y
= 0
49

          
This is a quasiI inear system of two eCj\la tions of the first order for the ul1known
fUl1d ions, f1 and n, of the tw() va ria bles x a nel y. It ca n be shown t ha t if the en vclope
of the circles defined by relation (14) is real, i.e. if the intrinsic curve is real sin
qJ ~ 1), the system of equations (17, 18) is always hyperbolic. Also, (here arc
two families of real characteristic lines.
(I
6. Characteristic Lines
Any classical melhod of delermining the characteristics shows 1 that, al any
poi 11 t of the pi astic zone, t hey arc defi ned by
f'igurc J V.3
II
For example. wriling lhal, alonga characlerislic, Cauchy's problcm is impossihlc or indctcrminate.
50
I
i
I
i)()
 2H sin
op .
5111 </>
ax
cos
4) 
2R sin
ao
1)  (J.y
cos 2
4)
4) fIX
=
ay
(20)
I I' Y = 0
(21 )
(JJ>
fly
(JO
2 H cos
1) (}y
On mulliplying (20) by cos 1) ~lIld (21) by sin 4) and adding, a relalion is oblained
in which only partial derivalives wilh respecl lo x :Ippear:
j)n
.
+ p X cos 4) + p Y Sill 4) = 0
(}J>
ax
ox
(22)
21<
 dp  .. dO I I)(X 1 X tan 4) dS ......
cos 4)
X + Y tan
whence
1)
= A is the
CJ.
=0
(23)
2R
up +  dO
cos 4)
= pA ds
=0
(24)
2H
up  _
. dO
cos 4)
= plJ
ds
{I
= O.
(25)
If the material obeys the COlilomb criterion, then cqll:tlions (24, 25) dlle to
Mandel [35J, in the case ofa homogeneolls material and for any intrinsic curve,
reduce lo Kotter's equalions (31, 32).
In the Appendix to Chapler Y, which deals with BOilIleall':; theorem, Kotter's
equalions are oblained by considercltions thal clearly indicale lheir physical
meanmg.
8, Computation of the Solution
The mathemalical properlic.<; described in Sections 5, G, and 7 are of greal
practical inleresl, as lhey make it easy to compute the solution of the stress
problem in the plaslic zones. As the problem is hyperbolic, lheclassical method of
characlerislics (Massau's melhod [4IJ) can be used lo lind the solulion.
1 In
51
,\
I;"igurc IV.4
(~
The process can then be repealed by making the points (k, k + l) (amounting
to a number /I  I) play the rolc of the points k in the preceding stage. Thus, the
solution is calculated along the characteristics; whence the result already stated
concerning the domain of detcrlllinancy. Clearly, the liller the mesh, the more
accurate will be the approximation of the solution obtained.
This method can also be used to compute the solution from data of jJ and 0
on two convcrging arcs of characteristics, as well as in other cases (see, for
example, [26]')
It is not intended to become involved in the details of numerical analysis but
merely to give the principles of the method of characteristics, using the simplest
pattern of [inite differences. Obviously, more complex patterns can be used 1 both
to determine the intersections of the grid and to discretize the relations along
the characteristics. The essential point is that the solution is found by using the
characteristic lines and the relations along them.
I
NOle tha t both the mesh refinement and the refinement of the discretization pattern contribute 10
an improvement or Ihe :\ceuraey of a Ilumerieal solution.
52
'I
The method ofchar<lcteristics is the basic tool for the solutions of pI <Inc now
problems and is usually carried out numerically. Only in exceptional cascscan
analytical solutions be found, as indicated later in a classical example. The
method has been much used by Sokolovski [5558]'
In the c<ise of no body forces, equations (24) and (25) may be wrillen
2R
+   dO
cos (P
= 0
along an
2R
dp    dO
cos (/)
=0
along a
dp
CJ.
II
line
line
=  ~
(26)
II
along an
CJ.
line
const. 
CJ.
along an
fJ
line
L  ()
= cons!.
L I 0
(27)
L= l'j2k
which results in Hencky's relations [24J:
I' I 2"0
J1  2"0
(28)
Ir l=Catan</1,
R = (H
p) sin (/'
where
11 = C cot
l'
( 16)
dp = (iHjsi n (/'
which yields
L
or
=    =   og I~
2
cot 4)
L =    l o g (f/ I 1')
2
(29)
53
l~'  9.2 Case of a Trc.c;ca criteri oll with cOllservntjvc hody forcc.<;
When dealin g with Tre~ca'~ criteri on, (/) = 0 and the charac
teristi c linc~
con~titlltc a net of ort!t0f /o/w[ CU/'l}('S.
If the body forces are derive d from a potent ial V, as is most
comm on, then
()V
A =  .
{)sl1.'
()V
JJ =
()s"
d(p
(30)
Figure IVS
From cq\l:\lion~ (27),
L.M  OAt = LN  ON
L r  0/. = LQ  0Q
OQ
() I'
LN I ON = LQ
whenc e,
54
0M =
1,
(31 )
\.
I
0(
Figure I V.6
I
Onc may lakc, ror instancc, Ihc curvilincar abscissa along a givcll fI (rc.~p. (X) linc.
rc.~ull is rrom a particular C;ISC of BOllncau's thcorem Cl)], givcn in Appcndix Il orChaplcr V.
z This
55
.~I
'.
Jo
 J
 ~
  
filiI is constituted by logarithmic spirals (circles III the case of the Tresca
criterion) ;1/HI radii (see J7igure IV. 6).
In the general case for the Tresca criterion, where the charactcristic network
is orthogonal, the fJ (resp. a) characteristics are the involutes of the envelope
(E) Wigure [V. 7). The abscissa on (E) of the point of contact T of each a line
with (B) is denoted by s and the distance TM from this point of contact to the
corresponding point on a {I line by r (Figure IV.7). It is known that fI = s I r
is a constant along each fJ involute of (E).
r________r________
Figure IV.7
Hence, allthe rectilinear segments comprised between two slip lines of the other
family have the same length.
"row Rule
12.1
The participation or Ihe flow rule has been dealt with in Seclions 2 and 3.
For materials with a criterion or the intrinsic curve type it was found to be
I
Thc indetcrminacy of thc solution of COlI/chis problem on a slip linc arc with charactcristic data
arises from (he indctcrminacy in the calculation of the normal derivativcs.
56
unllecessary for the now rule to be that of the standard material ill order (0 have
(he stress problem in I he plastic zones formulated in the manller indicated. Thus.
it was possible to deal with (his problem without fully specifying the now rule,
provided thal cerlain conditions wcre satisfied . On the contrary it is obvious
that the flow rule musl be thoroughly defined for the study of the velocity
rroblem.
.
As a simplification. only the case ofa standard Tresca material is to be investi
gated. It is known that the behaviour pattern in such a case is acceptable for
metal and undrained clays (4) = 0).
The case ofa standard material with any type of intrinsic curve is dcalt with
in Appendix A. Although the hypothesis of the principle of maximulll plastic
wor~ is not physically realistic in the case of cj) f: 0, it is lIsefulto deal with the
problem under this hypothesis:
(1). On the one hand, the solution for the standard malerial can supply
information with respect (0 the bchaviour of the rcal material (cr. in Chapter
V, Radenkovic's theorem, [48J);
(2). On the other h~lnd, as indicated in (he Appendix, (he study of thc velocity
problem for a. standard material with any type of intrinsic curve supplies all
the information required to dc(erminc solutions for nOllstandard matcrials
which, in plane problcms. have hoth a yield criterion alld a plastic potell(ial
of the intrinsic curve type (sec, fur eX:\Il1plc, [t.!{j).
12.2 The s (andard lila terial
where
F(o.~,
/(0." a .. r'.lJ = 0 is the projection of this criterion onto the plane (s. y)
so that
0:(0.,. 0)"
DF
=0
()ox:
Therefore
(33)
57
,I
     
r71
u.. = A:'IforA
()(J . .
I)
O,i,j = 1,2
(34)
I)
Thus ./: the 'criterion in the plane (x, yr, is also the two dimensional plastic
potential.
r;or lhe case where F depends only on the dcviator,
((7' . __ (7')2
...... ~ ___......... L .
.2 .2
+ ...D'
I .. 1~~
2
k2
(:\5)
where
Vxx
= A(J.\. 
(7'),)/2
Vyy
(7')/2
Uxy =
A((7'y 
(36)
A. xy
'./ ~ '
With thc stress problem being solved as indicated in Part A, i.e. the stresses
being dctcrmincd in the plastic zones, the corresponding veloeitics arc now
rCCluircd.
The zones in which <T was not determined arc assumed a priuri to be unde
formed i'.ones, in which the yicldstate is not necessarily rcached. The motion is a
rigidbody motion, and the velocity field is determined from the boundary
conditions. Intercst will now concentrate on the velocity distribution within the
plastic ".ones.
. As only II Tresca material is being investigated, the CJ. and Ii characteristic
lincs arc orthogonal.
At a point M oftlle plastic zone, let Mx and My be axcs langcntialto Ma and
M/f(J7igure IV. 8).Then,atM,(7'."'.. = I} = (7'.
= k.
y' .\')'
(T
M
Figure IV.B
()u)tJx) = (auJay) =
o
0
58
1
2
(Ju)ay)
+ (au/ax)
k
= A~ 0
(37)
(hI' direr(iolls
dUll dV(I
I
"(I
;)a
dO
(J~)
= 0 along II lines
Oilrr
(J9)
aSfl
14. Examples
Normally the determination of the velocity field in the plastic zone is carried
OLlt using the method of characteristics. It is possible in some cases to determine
the explicit form or the soltltion. An exa Il1ple is given by the velocity fields associ
ated with the simple stress fields met in Section 10
J8].
po,
~.'~.~ = ~~~x = 0
(1.,
(J.I'
Hence, the form of the general solutioll for the velocity field in a homogeneous
stress field is
a(s)
(40)
(41 )
ellrvc.~ along which :\ differelllial
59
I,~' ~ ',
,
..~
        _ .
figure IV.9
Figure IV.I 0
"II
dO = 0 along a. lines
(42)
/r
lines anc! variab le on thea lines, ,Inc! 1', consta nt on thea lines
and variab le on the
Equ;ll ion (42) implic s that VII is a functi on of 0 only; for instan
ce,
V"
;\lIt!
(43)
= f'(O)
sincc
()V
_II
DO
tJ
II
il follow s lhat
(44)
Equat ions (43) ;IIH.I (44) give the genera l form of the soluti on
for the vc10ci tics
The necess ary condi tion (39) is, theref ore, (since dS" = clp
and ds", = r dO)
wri llcn as
 {I'(p)
60
f"(O)
r1 ~ 0
(45)
(2). As the velocity flux through the discontinuity line must be conserved,
because of the incompressibility of the material, the velocity jllJIIP is necessarily
tangential. This is the very jump condition foreseen above.
(3). If, for instance, the line of discontinuity of \I is an Ci. line, then in the close
neighbourhood of this line Geiringer's equation can be applied: with dv"
up dO = 0 following the Ci. line and v,. being continuous ~Icross the ex line, the
propagation eqllation results; i.e. 2
d[lJ.,]
= O.
Figure IV. I I
It will be noticed that the characteristic lines which arc the maximum she'lr
stress lines appear as the possible lines of sliding. From this comes the fact that
and fJ lines arc usually termed sliplilles. This is in agreement with some experi
mental results in Soil Mechanics [2, 22J (Figure IV. I I).
Ci.
The need for laking inlo accounl Ihe weak Solulions of lhe malhemalical problem appears in
praclieally all examples. This is clearly sugge:;led by cxperimenls as one orten observes lhe locali
7;llion of lhe deformalion in very lhin zones which may be considered as sliding alollg a surface.
1 Square brackels indicale lhe disconlilluily.
I
61
C. ST UD Y OF AN EX AM PL E
On
O)~
(j
) s
On OX ,
=  q,
l'
= 0
> 0: l' = 0,
s < 0:
t =
0,
till
(j
= n(a I s)
= 0
'/M == a+ s
Thi~ is wha l
62
10
18. Construction
or the Solution
/' = 
If I
I k
=q+
whcncc, on 0 A
p
= (q +
k)
2kw
If 2
(46)
63
'I
I~'
"
~ 
~
~~

each a line (rrom equati ons (]8)) and 011 OA. Il" = n(lI I s).
Since "II = 0, there
is soil sliding under nealh OA (which is admis sible as 0 A
is smool h) rrom A
towar ds 0, and
V/1 = n(a
s)fi
(47)
"/1
D.(aJi: +
2y) = J(y)
Figure IV.13
Hence v/1 = n(af i + 2(R  r)) = g(p) = g(r) with the notati
ons of Sectio n
14.2. A check is made tha t g(p)  rg'(p)' ~ O.
In OeD, the field is identi cal to that in OAB.
Finall y, there is a discon tinuity of the veloci ty along ABeD .
[oJ = D.afi is
positiv e when A /JeD is crosse d in the direct ion of the {J lines.
x
Figure IV.14
(J 2
= (n
2)1c
J
This soluLion is valid regardless or the rricLion condiLions beneath the plaLe.
The symmetry of the problem requires tilat the equilihriulll under I.he plate is
homogeneous.(lf Lhere is fricLion, the velocity distribuLion is symmeLric, but if
there is no friction, the velociLy disLribuLion depends on an arbiLrary non
decreasing funcLion or y, namely the sliding velocity of the soil underneath the
plate.)
21. Rcmarks
Oil
thc Sollltioll
For the general case of Section 19, the solution is valid only if q is not too
great. Intuitively, it is seen that if q becomes too great the material tends to
collapse on the lefthand side of A towards AX.
The above solution is not complete as stresses in the rigid zone under AJJCJ)
have not been considered. To fully solve the problem, it is neccssary to deter
mine the stressfield that satisfies the equilibrium equations, and the boundary
conditions ror the stresses, and does not violate the yield criterion. I t is sufficient
to prove that it is possible to find sllch a rield (which, furLher on, will be called an
admissible stress field). I
The theory or limit analysis, which will be presented in the rollowing chapter,
will make it possible to give a clear significance to the results obtained.
22. The Case of a Coulomb Material
The same problem is now studied ror the case of a weightless Coulomb
material. In accordance with Sections 2, and 3, only the stressfield is considered,
as this does not require a fully specified now rule. (Appendix A contains all Lhe
information necessary for studying the stresses and the velocities. It should
be noted that in the classical.works dealing with a Coulomb material (eg. [55J
and [58J), the velocity field is usually nottakell into account.
The reasoning required ror the construction or the solution will not be re
peated in detail. The drawing for the problem is modified as indicated in Figure
I V.15. The characteristics are not orthogonal ill this case.
q
~~.J.~~l'''::r*&.''*~
Y
o
x
Figure lV.IS
I
II ha:; been proved Ihat Ihi:; can <lclllally be done ir q i:; not
(00
great [51]'
65
., .
~.
"
                         ..1
As ror:l Tresea material. the stress applied on 0;1 is a principal stress (as on
It is Ilecessary to know whether this stress is major or minor (i .e. <11 or (1 2 ).
In Section 17, this was made known by the participation or the velocity rield.
In this problem the movement of the plate is into tbe soil, and hence the stress
on OA is necessarilY<1z
Mandel [J8] proposed that in the case ora Coulomb material when the now
rille is lert unspecified, the selection of the solution sbould be based on the
solution for the same problcm in the case of a Tresca material with associated
now rille. In classical Soil Mechanics lextbooks eilher tile question is never
po.';eci or it is solved by 'physical' considerations via the concepts of 'ma~iml1lll'
or 'lI1inimum equilibriulll' of active and passive pressure. As exrlained later in
Chapter V the choice can be made ollly by using the theorems of limil allalysis
for sl.(lndard (lnd lIollslone/(lrr! mOlerials. The real significance of the two above
interpretations is that the Coulomb material is assumcd to be a standard one
on.
[SJ].
In tbe present case, we derive that in OeD the field is homogeneous and
rr =  fJ = <1 I' whence (OC, 0 Y) = n/4  #2. In OAI3 Ihe field is homogeneous
and Ihe pressure II under the plate is the greatest pressure, i.e. /I =  <12 alld abo
<12
I R. Ilcnecp =
II 
_
cot (/)
[I I /I
L =  .  . log   
I'
2
I I sin (/)
n=
(n+ II) = (q
II)
I+~in(/)
I 
5111
(/1
CJ.
lines, gives
1: 2 "'IAI\0/'
(48)
For the c'lse where (J) = n/2 (the rroblelll of the bearing capacity of a footing on
a weightless soil) the solution is given by
.
P
IIII
= 
[[ I (q
I + si n (/)
[I) __.__
1
SIn
4)
I;"IAn ,"
GG
(49)
~.
..
i
I
I
I
The solution process developed for the gcneral case (Sections 7 ami R)
makes it possible to study directly by a single calculation the problem of a
cohesive Coulomb material with selfwcight :Ind with or without surface load.
Usually, the calculation of bearing capacities or coeflicients of active and
passive pressure is executed in parts, applying the socalled ll1el.hod of super
position. For instance, if the bearing capacity is required for a footing on a
cohesionless soil (c = 0) having 1, f.:. 0 with selfweight and wilh a surface load,
then these loads arc studied separately.
(:I) The prohlC'1I/ (~r the /Jcoril1(! copocily of (lll/olainlwil h se(rII'(~i{/hl (//ullVilhollt
a sUI/ace load.
A stressfield () I is found which satisfies the equations of eqlJilibrium with the
body forces and the boundary conditions, with imposed stresl'CS being zero at
the surface. Also,
f(cr l ) = 0 in the plastic zone
/(cr I) ~ 0
(b) The prohlem clthe hcarill(j copocity o/a IVci(jlztlcss /lUlI.erial IVir.h a sUI/ace
load.
A stressfield cr 2 is fOllnd which salisfies the equations of equilibrium withoul
body forces and the boundary conditions, with stress on the surface being equal
to the surface load. Also
/(cr 2 ) = 0
/(cr 2 ) ~ 0
I
A.s nlready slaled. lhe slresses arc nol sludied oUlside lhe rlal;lil: zones. The heurislie hypolhesis
is made Ihal lhe slressfield can be eXlended in each rigid 7.one while rc.~pecling lhe equilibriulll
equalions and Ihe boundary condilions. wilhoul violaling lhe yield erilerion. This omission is
imporla.nl, nnd will he sludied Ialer in Chapler V.
67
Then, the stress lield cr = cr l + cr 2 salislics the equilibrium equations with the
body rorces, the bOlll1dary conditions with the surface 10(ld, and, as a consequence
of the form of f,
f(cr)
.:::;;
0,
everywhere
(The clastic range of the material, f(cr) < 0 is a convex cone with a summit 0).
At a given point, f(cr ' I cr 2 ) = 0 only if f(cr ' ) = f(cr ' ) = 0: and, ifboth tensors
cr l and cr Z have the same ordered principal directions and therefore the same
marginal plane facets, /"/ = h(cr). Here cr is known as a field in 'safe' or limit
eC] II j Ii bri lim.
.:::;;
and
f(cr 2 ).:::;; 0
=::>
f(cr i
cr 2 )
= f(cr)
.:::;; 0
the equality f(cr) = 0 being obtained only ir f(cr ' ) = /(cr'J.) = 0, cr l and cr 2
having the same ordered principal directions.
cr '
= cr
 HI
reduces the problem to one in which the same equilibrium equations, with the
body forces and the boundary conditions modilied by adding a normal pressure
equal to 1I, must be satislied. The Coulomb yield criterion applies without
cohesion .
For the calculation of bearing capacities, this amounts to the application of a
fictitious surface load which is taken into account just as any surcharge. The
confining pressure H is then subtracted rrom the calculated pressure.
The utilization of the theorem of corresponding states is evidently not essen
tied. It is possible, as demonstrated in Section 22, to carry out calculations with
both surface load and cohesion for a weightless material. Theconnection between
the two terms is selfevident in the formulae. Nevertheless, this theorem is very
useful to perform reductions in the formulae, a priori, before making use of
dimensional analysis considerations, for example.
68
23.3 Consequences
The application of the method of superposition leads, in the case or calcula
tions of bearing capacity, to the classica I relationship due Lo Terzaghi:
(50)
where N ,N ,and N are, in the case ofa homogeneous material, functions of </)
only. With cllarts ofcN y ,N " and N as functions of </) availa ble, it is possible to
calculate Pull for any values of q, C, y and U.
from the practical viewpoint, this relationship has advantages. j n fact, in the
global calculation, the different parameters arc mixed, giving through conside
ratioll~ of dimensional analysis, a relation for Pull of the form,
C
H(I~'II
,+
ylJ
(j
/.</) )
tan ()
(5 j)
or, equivalently,
/'''11 =  Ccot</) I (I I C~ cot (/J).N
(YlJ
 .  . </) )
(I + C cot </)
+ C coJ </)
N,,(I+ Ccot</)
as functions of
I
N" . 2(q
rlJ
C cot </J)
constituted (I very narrow band. Thus, the utilization of the glolxll calculation
ror the b~lring capacity of a footing no longer appears impossible from the
pr:lctical viewpoint.
23.4 Rcm:uks
69
    
          
 J
for the constitutive law for a Coulomb soil to be speeilied, which is not normal
practice in Soil Mechanics. Likewise, attention mllst also be given to the friction
conditions (rollghness) bet ween the soil and, for example, a footing.
Generally, the stated results are true if the flow rules of the materials, with or
without cohesion, are identical for corresponding states. (This is actually the
case for all the flow rules currently proposed for soils.)
On the other hand, as regards the proof of the superposition method, the latter
is supportecl by the concept that, since the 0 1 I (f2 field is 'safe', the corres
ponding bearing force (for the example of a footing problem) is necessarily an
linderestimation (in the sense of safety) of the real bearing capacity. It will be
secn in Chapter V I hat this apparently intuitive idea is but the static theorem of
the theory oflimit analysis, the validity of which has been proved only in the case
ofa standard material. Stated otherwise, the proof of the method ofsllperposition
implicitly assumes that the'considered Coulomb material is standard .
.' r
~~~~~y
( .......
x
Figure IV.16
(J
on OX,
= 0, a
0;
==
'!
In the case of Section 22, the inclination of the stressrree surrace ({J # 0) would involve no compli
cation wilh respect to the proposed sollilion.
70
pre~sure
tJp .
  sin
as
/1
tJ" cos II
= 0
I _.
tI.I'
tJp
ax =
I
}'
cos (IJ
2
til'
whence,
.
Sill
sill /1
sin
fJ
;:;+
~
. sin
/1
S1I1
e/>
~Arcs'n.
(52)
or
o = n2 +
/1 I
. sin II
   Arc Sill  2
si n elJ
(53)
The choice between these two possible values corresponds to that which has
already been operative in the cases of a Tresca material and a weightless
Coulomb inaterial. Thus, the indeterminacy is removed as illdicated in Section
22. The rule. is tha t for a passive pressure the solu tion is tha t correspond ing to the
greatest force on the wall, i.e. expression (52), in which (J, is closer to the normal
on the stressfree surface than in rcla t ion (53). The la tter ex pression corresponds,
therefore. to the case of active pressure.
The field is now known in the domain of determinacy of 0 Y. There appears to
be an indeterminacy as the value of the normal derivative of 0 along 0 Y can be
71
I ;.
I:' "
' 
cocfficicIlIS.
In fact this valuc is fixed, and is nccessarily I'.cro. To prove this it is convenient
to write (17) and (18) using axes 0 X and 0 Y. Then oO/oy, op/ay and the derivat ivcs
of higher order with respect to Yare zero on 0 Y. Equations (17) and (18) must
besatisfied within the whole zone in limit equilibrium. Thercfore, from the equa
tions dcrived from (17) and (18) by difrerentiation,
ao
(54)
'' = 0
ax
In this field, 0 is constant, the characteristics are straight lines and the stresses
depend only on X: the zone within the angle (0 Y, OC) is in Rankillc cquilibrium.
The solution for the angle (OC, 011) must now be determined. This can be
done using the known values of p and 0 on the OC characteristic and a known
reilitionship ror 0 on the noncharacteristic line OA :
o=
1t
p = yrS(w), 0 = O(OJ)
where rand
(JJ
(55)
Sli i la b Ie.
4)
 p(1  sin
(f",
t"w,
p( I
sin
4) cos 2 (0
 (J)))
4) cos 2 (0
 (J~))
(56)
I\s fJ :111<..1 () have the rorm (55), the boundary conditions on OC and 011 are
sa I isficd, being homol hetic with respect to o. Here the angle () is independent of r,
and the stresses 011 OC are proportional to r (as shown by integration of(24) on
OC). The equilibrium equations in polar coordinates yield
0(1'
ar
at"
(1'
(1'
72
ow
'
= 0
(57)
. ~
........., ..._ 
 . ~
.....  ~
'"
. .. ..... ,, ~
~_
where
)', 
I' cos
0)
(J)
It can, therefore, be seen that"the form of solution (55) is admissible. The terms in
r vanish, and (57) is reuucecito the system (58) of two differential equations of the
dS
elm
dO
=
dw
I
sin (/)
(5~)
Equation (58) is to be ~olved with the data of S(w) anel O(w) on OC, and of
O(w) on 0/1, which gives, apparently, one condition too many. Actually, as OC
(58) are indeterminate on OC as a starting line with these data, and the data on
OA must be taken into account so as to determine the solution (by thc socalled
trial and error method). Thus, S((I)) and hence [1, and O(w), are obtained.
IV.17. It is seen that in this case, unl ike tha t of Section 22, there is 110 fa n in 0, only
From the Soil Mechanics viewpoint, the solution of this problem gives the
~~r~~~~Y
Figure I V.17
For the calclllat ion of bearing capacity by application of the method orsliper
position, the Nc and N q coefficients or(50) are given by (49). For Ny the solution
must be determined for a footing all a soil with selfweight, having 4) '1= 0 and
without cohesion. To do this, the a bove solutio 11 is used for the case of the aperture
equal to n. The corresponding characteristics network consists, on the right
hand side, of the network of J7igure IV. 17 (ror the aperture n), bounded by both
71
.J . ... .
rJ.
and
/1 charactt:ristics which are biseCted by the axis of the footillg; and the ldt
11;111(1 side of I he net work is formed by sYlllllletry aboul Ihal axis (:\4). lJnlikt: lilt:
value of Nand
N q that of N y depends on the friction condition under the fooling.
r.
References
.1
[IJ I3. G. 13erezancew (1952) Prob/ernc dc l'I1qllilibrc Limitc d'ulI Milieu PullJh'lIlclII ell
Symetrie Axialc. Moscow.
[2J J. P. f30ehler and A. Sawczuk (1970) Equilibre limite des sals anisotropes, 1. d~
Mec(/l/iqIJc, 9, No. I, pp. 533.
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74
r                  
75
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.I. Mer.alliqllc, II, No. I, pp. 135146.
[52j J. Salcnyon (1972) Prolongement des champs de Prandtl dans Ie eas cJu materiau de
Coulomb, A rchiues of Mec"anics, 25, No.4, pp. 643648.
[53) J. SalelH,:on (1974) Plaslicilc pour /{/ M cca/lique des Sols, C.I.S. M., Rankine Session,
July 1974, Udine, Italy.
[54] R. T. Shield (1955) On the plastic flow of metals under conditions axial symmetry,
Prac. Roy. Soc., 233, A, nr. 1193, pp. 267287.
[55] V. V. Sokolovski (1960) Slalics of Soil Media, l3ullerworths, London.
[56] V. V. Sokolovski (1962) Complete plane problems of plastic flow, 11. Mecll. Phys.
Solids. 10, pp. 353364.
l57J V. V. Sokolovski (1963) Limit equilibrium or granular medium with variable
wcight,11. Meclt. Pllys. Solids, JJ, No.6, pp. 395410.
[5H] V. V. Sokolovski (1965) Slalics of flranular media, Pergamon Press, Oxford.
[59] A. J. M. Spencer (1964) A theory of the kinematies of ideal soils in plane strain
conditions,1. Meclt. Phys. Sol., 12, 5, pp. 437351.
[60] W. Szc7..cpinski (1967) Wstep do analisy procesow obrobki, Insl. Podsl. Prahl.
Ter.hn. Polish Ac. Sc.
[(il] .I. P. Tournier (1972) Compartelllent d'une cOllche compressible limit par un
substratlllll rigide cl soulllise ;', unc change vertieale applique par line semclle
filante, Thesis Ph. D., Sherbrookc Univ., Canada.
[62] G. P. Tschebotariorfand J. R. IJayliss (1948) Determination of the shcaring strength
or varved clays ilnd their sensibility to revolding, Proc. 2nd IIIL. COil! Soil M echo
Rollerdal71, 1, pp. 203207.
[oj] A. Winzer ami G. F. Carrier (1949) Discontinuities of stress in plane plastic now,
.fl. Apl'l. Medt., TrailS. A.S.M.E., 16, pp. 346348.
76
CIIAPTERIV
The proble m orunc on tained now in plane strain is consid ered ror an
isotro pic,
nonh omog eneou s, rigidpJas lic ma leria I, assum ing tha I there is
homog eneity
norma l to the plane or dcrorm alion.
As in the case or homog eneity , it is shown that ir the mater ial is
'stand ard'
(i.e. it behaves accord ing to the princi ple or maxim um plastic work)
, any yield
criteri on may be reduced, ror plane strain proble ms, to an intrins
ic curve
criteri on in the plane or the strain .
Alternatively, if the criteri on is or the intrins ic curve type, it surficc
s that the
plane of stra ini ng conta ins the princi pa I stresses so tha t the preced ing
conclu sion
still holds. This condit ion can result from relatively broad assum
ptions for the
now rule.
Furthe r, the proble ms or plane strain , for the case or mater ials
having an
intrins ic curve criteri on in the plane or the strain , i.e. a criteri on whose
expression
varies with the locatio n, will be studiedo
2. The Proble m of the Stress esGe neral Case
2.1 Stress charac teristi cs
For the stresses in the plastic zone the system of equati ons is
(I)
va + _~
c'h:
ax ay +
_0'
0
flX = 0
(2)
~o+.l.+pY=O
(3)
77
01

.r
= 
P I R cos 20
111

P  R cos 20
1: .tCl'
I< sin 20
(4)
The yield criterion, which is an intrinsic curve in the (x, y) plane, is solved as
follows.
R(p,
(5)
x, y)
a"nd the angle </), defined in Figure IV.A.i, for the intrinsic curve at point (x, y)
makes it possible to evaluate the derivative:
aR
(6)
op
Equation (1) is equivalent to (4) and (5); and (2) and (3) arc transformed into
o[J (I _
__
~
SI11
oj{
+
ax
tJ [J.
. 20 +
+ __
sin (/) Sin
cos 20
2 I<' cos 2 aT
00 ; 0p (1
up.
S111
20
oR .
+
ay
S111
21< cos 2 0 00
20
+ pX = 0
DR .
oj{
ax
oy
2R
Slll
(7)
2 0 DO '
(8)
1<, </1, tJH/Dx, tJR/<'Jy arc known functions of p, x and y. p and 0 arc unknown func
Figure IV.A.l
I
(.'1:. y) is a syslem of orthogonal coordinates. X and Y ;Ire the components of the body foree F
78
The system (7, S) is of the same type, and has identical properties lo lhal ob
tained in the homogeneou:i case.
The slopes of the characteristic lines are once again
(~+
e1y/clx = tan[o
(~)J
(9)
2R
ao
ax +
aR
ay
P (X cos
(P +
.
Y SIl1
1)
= 0
(11)
in which only thc derivatives with respect to x of thc unknown functions fJ and ()
playa role (oR/oy being known).
2.2 Coordinate system associated with the characteristic lines
xa. and xP form a new system of coordinates, the coordinate lines of which are
thea and {J lines (Fiugre IV.A.2), and Ea.. Ep at each point M are the local vectors
linked to this system:
X = const.
along each
c( l i l')c
.
0(
X = cons!.
along each
f3 line
~,
and these ,directions, which correspond to the points of contact of the Mohr
circle with the intrinsic curve al point (x, y) are denoted by (J (resp. a) . These are
the surfaces on which
(10)
11'1 = "(a,x,y)
 ax cos 1) 
Figure IV.A.2
79
.: ';',J
Thcn, the
a~~ociated
II I
II I
e = E E
(!
= E E
a
a a'"
'" "
and dM = dx"'ea . (The xtZ arc Ilollholollomial coordinates.) ell, efl rorm the duid
basis (associated by the Euclidian inner product) and
dM = clxa .ea 1
Thc rollowing notation
i~ u~cd .
rJ_ =
t'f
axa'
 aXa
",
f .J
2R
rJ p I  tZ
cos cf)
.
[p Fa I
aa 0 
() R] =
( 12)
whilst
dp
2R
+ dO

( pP + a
aR) dx
IX
2R
' .. __ .1 .
= 0.
( 13)
,r  ,)
X"
cos (/)
aXa
= 0
( 14)
. These cquations are, ror a nonhomogeneous material with any intrinsic curve,
thc homologucs or Kotter's equations ror a homogelleous Coulomb material.
It can be seen that these equaLions arc deduced from those obtained in the
homogcneous case, by replacing R(p) and cf)(p) by R(p, x, y) and (/J(p, x, y) and by
adding fictitious body forcc~.J
I The
lial
COlli ra va ria III coordi lIa Ics dx 4 , d .... p a rc I hc obi iq IIC com POIlCIl Is or <1M 011 thc lin it basis,tangclI
the lillc:, a, {I; dx., dX II are the orthogonal projcction:. or Ihis very vector on Ihi:. basi:..
10
2 The
I'~
F~
~. [X sill {o
cos '/' _
= _ I [_ X sin
cos
tI,
+t)} _. y
{a  (~ + !)} +
I
(~[.
4
= ir /{
cos
and
{o
Y cos
tJH/()x p = all f{
I
)}]
{a  (~4 + !)}]
2
as runctions or au/ax and oH/tJ.\'.
AlIclltiolllllllst hc paid 10 thc inversion orslIgscripts : the fictilious body rorcc.~ arc not derivcd lIsing
I{ as a potential.
80
[ 18]),
Da R
a.(/ R
0:
ancl
fJ
ax
ox
= ok
aXil
I ok
 si n
ov
ak . ( 0  TC)
=  Sin
ax
<1
ok
( 0  TC)
I cos
ay
<1
= dXa' /,"
( 0  TC)
dp
al'
2k(x, y) dO  ( ~
os(/
dp  2k(x,
al'
y) dO  ( ox:
+
pP
for an
Cl
cix = 0
fora
pF(/ dx(/ = 0
0:
line
fJ
line
Fa
0:
line
=  aJl/ox
Cl
and
d(f>
d(p
ok
P V)
P JI)  2/\ dO  
2k dO  
aX{1
ok
ox
ds = 0,
for an
( IS)
for a
dx(/ = O.
II
line
4. The Case
or a Coulomb Material
R(p.x.y) = psin
[(Ms.),)]
[4J(.x:,y)]
whcncc,
2R dO
+ I
cos ()
 ( pF
CI
cos
C)
0
4) a
Cl
dx = 0,
for an
0:
line
x(/
ac)
for a
fJ
line
81
The stress problem can be solved as indicated without having the now rule
rully defined, provided that it satisfies certain conditions. In order to solve the
velocity problem it is necessary to have the flow rule completely defined. The
case of a standard material will be considered, and then it will be seen how to
deal with the case of some nonstandard materials.
Asslllning the stress problem is solved wilhin the general framework of Section
2, the velocity problem may be formulated as follows. The twodimensional yield
critcrion in the plane of the deformation also appears as the twodimcnsional
plastic potential. Therefore,
oj
= A
a(J1
V12 =V 21 =O
(16)
.r
(17)
( 18)
IJ 2 2
=  A( I  sin
(M
A~O
Thc value of (/) is known at each point (x, y) from the previous stress solution and
the velocity problem is seen to be linear.
82
Xfl,
(J 9)
I
I
or, alternatively,
Da IJ..
DflufI=O
=0
} (D",IJ fI
(20)
+ Dflo)~O
where the D's denote the covariant derivatives, the expressions of which arc as
follows.
D
U
.. a
DfI /I
= () U
I)
'" a . .
=
a
al)
fI
a
DUfl = ()
a
Dflufl =
1If1
c7f1I1f1
+
+
Il
a
II
tan
I)
{I
cos 1) fI
II
_1 afl
'" eos
 ' </)) 2
,I)
I!
1.) (0 + 1.) +
4)a (0 
I , ()
u ,
a
,/I rJ ( 0
tan
0
(I
rJ 4> =
'"
I,
()  </))
2
_ 4))
2
4) a{I (0
__
I
cos
/I{I
II
tan ,/JrJ
a
(21 )
(0 \ '2I
</) a

fI cos
a.. '/J
a'l)
a.. p' acl)
 + ap ax"
(22)
(II
are fixed orlhogon<ll coordin<ltc.~ in which Ihe nonholllogeneily i$ dcrined . The exl's denote the
eosines of the <lxes x' with respeet to the t'lllgent$ to the C( and {1lines at the eonside~'cd point :
I x'
t/))
,  eos (7t
0    ..
4
2
(I
n; = cos (0 ~ + ~)
I
'
(/ 2
= sin
.'
nIl =
sin
(0
(
(1
t/))
' 7t 
4
2
t/))
+ 4'7t + '2
83
L.
5.} Interpretation of (he results
/)aY,. =
the
rJ.
0 implic~ that the extension rate along the a. line i ~ I.ero. Therefore,
line is a characteristic for the velocities and
/) IJ
" "
= U IJ
a a
v tan
a
(/))
4)ua ( 0 
(/))
 "(I U 0  cos 4) a
2
= 0
(23)
is the relation along this characteristic. The same applies for the (J line, with
/)//v{I
G///}{I
va
v{ltan 4)U{I (0
(~) =
(24)
Finally,
(V
1) +
(0 _4))2
tan 4)) a (0 + 4)) ~ 0
2
V _I ) a
p cos 1)
{I
v//
(25)
and
dx{l > 0
84
Du (dM). elM ~ 0
(26)
DVtJ' (23)
(27)
r 
'~'
"P '
... . _
.......
. .  . . . .;.
~__
_ ._
y.~
:orb
~b
""
I,
"
~x,
Ya
Va
~C{
0(
I
I
I
I
I
@\j"
"
b........ 
CD
~CI{
@\
,
""\ ~
0\
@)
b~"
","
"itf
Vx,
"
"
",
",
,,"
@)
Figure lV.A.3
and the rcciprocal can easily be seen, i,e. ir (27) is sati:died VdM in the sector
(0:, fJ) then (25) is verified .
Obviously, ir configuration (1) is relevant (27) is certainly verified, but for (c),
(27) is not verified. There is somc doubt concerning conIigurations (b) and (d).
The construction of the hodograph orten provides a convenient means to
check if the condition of posilivily is fulfilled (a rcsull indicated by Ewing and
Hill [7J in the case of a homogeneous Tresca material).
[vJ = 0
and the discontinuity concerns
"II
[vJlJ
0:
line,
= 0
and the disconlinuity concerns va only. These are the discontinuity conditions.
The propagation equations or the discontinuity are obtaincd by applying (23)
or (24) on both sides o[ the corresponding discontinuity line. Thus, rollowing an
0: line,
DJvJ
aJvJ 
[vJ
tan
aa
(/)) =
0 "2
85
and rollowing a
II
line,
if 4>
[VIIJ
= 0
[u..]
~ 0,
DJuaJ
if4) = Constant
[uJ
[ufJJ ~ 0, Dp[ufJJ = 0
[ufJJ = [ufJJo exp [(0  00)
tan
CPJ
5.6 A comment
011
= 
(5)
R(p, x, y)
whence,
~R
up
86
x, y)
(6)
The now rule is such that v has the same principal directions as
/J I
(f
and
v2 = 0
II)
(28)
A~ 0
v(p, x, y) ~ c/J(p, x, y)
(a I
;::.
a2
;::.
a J)
Thererore, these are nonstandard materials with a yield criterion or the intrinsic
curve form, ,:nd also a plastic potential or the inlrinsic curve lype, both functions
dcpcnding on x and y due to lack or homogeneity. This is agcncralization or a
Coulomb material wilh a Coulomb or Tresca plastic potenlial, as studied by
numerous authors (e.g. [2,46, 14, 16, 17,29, 31, 32J).
According to the flow rule the deformation plane contains the extreme
principal stresses in the plastic zoncs. Thus, the problem for the stresses is set
and solved as in Section 2.
As the stress field is determined in the plastic zones the velocity problem can
also be solved in the same regions.
According to Section S.O the strain rale \' al each poinl mllst admil as direc
tions of zero extension the directions rand (5, which form with a I the known
angle
I(
=+=
i+
v(J}, x, y)
(29)
and thc factor A. must also be positive (J7igure IV.A. 4). Expressed differenlly,
the velocity problem , being linear and hyperbolie, admils as its characteristic
lines the (y, (5) lines, with slopes given by
dy = tan [0
d.x
=+=
(~Iv)_/
2
(30)
(31 )
= 0 along a (5 line
(32)
D,)v,)
Figure IV.A.4
87
I
I
\.
,J '; ' ., ,
f)'llly
~ 0
(33)
Eqllalions 01, 32. 33) are ohlained from (2325) by replacing (IX, II, (/J) by
(y, f~, v). I
EXAMPLE: Taken as an example is the problem of the indentation of a half
plane or a homogeneous. weightless Coulomb material, with an interna I angle
of friction </' and zero angle of dilation v (deformation without volume change).
Figure IV.A.S
Figure IV.I\.5 represents the networks or the characleri."tic~ (<'l.. fJ) and (y, /j).
The (a:, II) characteri~tic net work is classical. consisting or homogeneolls fields
with rectilinear G1l<lracteri~tics, and Prandtl's fan (vector radii and logarithmic
spirals). The (y, c) characteristic network consists of orlhogonalline~: straight
line~ in APEF'A', AGI1. A'G'H'. and logarithmic spirals in AFG and A'F'G'.
The pressure on A'A i~ given hy the u~ual reslllt
P
ull
=  fI +
I + ~in (/)
",
(q + /1) .. e" Ian
I  ~in (/)
88
f .
Howevcr. Drcschcr [4.5]' on dcaling with thc cxamplc or Figurc I V.A.5. which
is a particular ca~c or thc problem studicd in (2), shows that thc dissipatioll is
ncgativc in somc !.OIlCS whcn \' '1. 1>.1
7. Discontinuity of the Stressfield
Thc solutions considcrcd in Scct ion 2 ror t hc strcss prohlem arc 0111 y a pplica blc
whcrc t hc strcssficld is con tinuous. In somc problcm~, wca k soil! tions ror strcsscs
must bc con~idcrcd. i.c. solutions admitting lincs or discontinuity or thc strcss
licld.
Thcsc solutions will bc cxamincd rirstly rrom thc vicwpoint or stresses. :111<.1
thcn or the strain rates. in ordcr to dctcrminc thc ncccssary conditions ror thc
vclocity rield ;liong a linc or discontilluity or strcsscs.
7.1 Conditions for stresses
The discontinuity conditions ror thc ~trcssricld arc obtaincd by applying thc
continuity or strcs~ to thc surracc or discontinuity (Figurcs IV.A. 0(/ and /I).
With thc axi~ Ox placed. ror convcnicncc, along thc normal (0 thc sllrrace or
discontinui(yat M.
/'1
1/'2.\'.\')cos'20 2
..
(0)
Figure IV.A.6
I
(b)
For v = O. there is equivalence between the condilion J. ~ 0 (generally more restrictive) and the
thermodynamic condition of nOlinegativity of the dissipalion.
89
J
In the particular case of a Coulomb material ((p independent of p), equation
(J4) leads to
(35)
sin (Ot  02) [sin 1) cos (OJ  02) : cos (01 + 02)] = 0
whence, if the solution corresponding to the continuous field is ignored, the
relation between 01 and 02 in the case of the discontinuity is
sin 4> cos (01 
cos (01
()2) 
and therefore,
tan0 2 =cot()1
(}2) ::.~
(J6)
I  sin 1)
. 1>
I + SIn
Figure IV.A. 6h clearly shows that in the case of any intrinsic curve (convex
and 'opened' in thedirection a < 0) the values of I and 02 corresponding to the
discontinuity are situated, with respect to the values
tPl
= 1>(pl'x,y)
and
tP2
(37)
= (P(P2'X,y)
...
..
() I
.
(}2
__
n/2/
3n
rp
4
 I  .
______
~~;~~~2U1)1
'! _ 1'2 < () .. ~~ 1:;J'~;:1)~< () <
'24242
42
422
I
. n

._           
(J8)
Moreover,the discontinuity lines or the stress field do appear thus in the solutions or some elasto
plastic prohlems ror a standard Tresca material. e.g. indentation oran acute angle wedge [20)'
90
(a )
____
IT
,.
Figure IV.A.7
91
.J~ .... .
~J
        
(1
domaill.
I\.s already state (Section 5), once the stress problem has been solved the
velocity problem is linear and hyperholic.
I\. classical theorem implies lhat, in each domain where the stressrield is
continuous, the discontinuity lines for the velocities are the characteristics for
the velocity problem.
[f(C) is a line of discontinuity in the stressfield then, according to the previolls
statement, a discontinuity of the velocity along (C) in tile domain (I) (resp . (2))
can cxist only if(C) is a velocity charactcristic in the domain.
Thercrore, the following conclusions may be stated:
for (J stamford mdtcrial,it is known that the velocity characteristics are
identical to the stress characteristics (Section 5.4.) and it follows from Section 7.1 .
that (C) is not a velocity characteristic. There can be no discontinuity of velocity
along (C) either in domains (1) and (2).
(2). For (j nonstandard mo[aial, a now rule of type (28) is adopted. I\.s the
material has any intrinsic curve (convex, open in the direction a > 0) it is
assumed that, beside the condition v(p, x,y) ~ (M", x, y), II is a nonincreasing
function of " . In these conditions, ror
(I).
VI
and
v(P I ,
X,
Y)}
(39)
v 2 = v(p 2 ' x, y)
(]2
II I
and v 2
liS
     
n
2
n
(PI
> 01 >  
_. __ . _ __
n
VI
> () > ..    .
I
  
._
n
1)1
n
r/)I
 > 0 >  . 1
4242
_.
It
]__ _ .
n
4
42
. _ _____ __ . _
I'
_. 1
. ___ _
421
0_.
 : (
+ .I'.1.
    
n
(PI
n
  +   > n >  .
~\
+ :! > () > _
2
 : (
n
2
j ~ ;
(40)
92
In:
() 2 = 4
I
I' 2
(42)
Table (40) shows that (41) and (42) cannot both be trlle simultaneously. Thus.
in the case of a nonstandard material of the type indicated. there can exist a
discontinuity of the velocity along (C) in the domain (I) (resp. (2)). if condition
(41) (resp. (42)) is satisfied along (C). Then (C) is a velocity characteristic in the
domain (I) (resp. (2)) and the velocity discontinuity is governed by the equations
of Section 5.6.
r
j
7.3.2.
(C).
Since [IIJ = 0 and the velocity is continuous. thc derivatives tangcntial to thc
stress discontinuity line are also continllolls (Had'llnard's relations) or,
[u,.J
== 0
[11.... ,.1
= 0
/
[p,.J
= 0
(43)
ConSC(IUCIICCS:
A now rule of type (2R) is adopted. and on both sides of the discontinuity line
p.,.),
2
("1) sin 0
(1l 2 )
(44)
93
r        
COS201J}
(45)
Accor ding to the values or PI and Pz (whence 01 and (}2 by (34)), it mayo
r may
not be possib le to determ ine values or A > 0 such that (45) is satisfie
d. Jr this is
not possible, the only solutio n will be AI = A. = 0 and hence,
z
(46)
The strain rate tensor s arc zero on both sides or the stress discon
tinuity line,
so that the line is inextensiblc.
Firstly , the case or a standa rd materi al with any (convex) intrins
ic curve is
exami ned. For each value or p.
v(p, x, y)
q>(p, x, y)
I'
0)
2
{)2
or
(47)
and hence
(v)\
= (V)2'
Thus, ror a stal1dard materi al with any (convex) intrinsic curve, the
discon tinuity
lillc or stresses is inexte nsiblc .'
_The case or a nonst andard materi al or the type indica ted in Sectio
n 7.3.1. is
now consid ered. The sign or the ratio,
P(OI,0 2'V\,V 2)
= cos '0
~ z
(48)
94
() 1
0 if I Ill: solutions
(49)
<   () I
n
4 "In
22
 I 
~n:
References
[I J D. Llerthel. J. C. Hayot, ;111<1 J. Salenc;on (1972) Poin\:onnement d'un miliclI scmi
infini ell materiau plastique de Tresca nonhomogcne, Archi[)es of Mechanics, 24,
No. I. pp. 127138.
[2] E. H. Davis and J. R. Booker (1971) The bearing capacity or strip rool rrom the
standpoint or plasticity theory, Univ. Sydney, Civ. Eng. Lab. Research rept. No. R
170.
[3J E. H. Davis and J. R. Booker (1973) The elrect or incrca~ing strength with depth on
the bearing capacity or clays. C(:ot('('hniqllc. 203, No.4. pp. 551563.
[4] I\. Drescher (1971) A note on plane now or granular media. Proh/C'I1IC de' 1(/ Rh<;o
10Uic. SYl1lfl. Fmn('(}Polol/(/is. Warsaw, 1971, pp. 135144.
[5J I\. Drescher (1972) Somc remarks on plane now or granular media, Ar,hives I~r
Mechanics, 24, No. 56, pro S37S4H.
[6] A. Drescher, .K. Kwaszc7.ynska, and Z. Mroz (,1967) Statics and kinemalics or the
granular medium in the case or wedge indentation, Archil}e.\ (!t MCc//(//lics, 19,
pp.99113.
[7] D. J. f. Ewing and R. Hill (1967) The rlastic constraint or V. notched tension bars.
J. Meel!. Php. Solids. [5, No.2, pp. 115124 .
[8] G. Favretli (1965) Impront:l di lin punzonc rigo SIl un materiale non omogeneo,
Il/yc{llIiaria McccaniC(l, 14, No.9, pro 3750.
[9] G. Favretti (1965) Dipendenza rra durc7.7..1 e prorondila di ci IllentazioncAppli
cazione della t co ria d ella ria st ici t;i dello s t lid io tco rico del pro hi ema, II/(l CO II icra
Mecctlnica. IS, No.6.
[10) G. Favretli (1966) Indentation ora rigid punch on a plastically nonllOll1ogeneow;
material, Mccctll/iw. I, No. J/4, pp. 83 ..94.
[I J J P. Florentin and Y. Ga briel (1974) Force porlante d'lIne rondation S\II' sol vert iealc
ment nonhomogcne, Tr(/l}.jill a'etudes E.N.p.e.. Lab: Mccaniqlle des Solides, Ec.
Poly tech. Paris,june 1974.
[12] H. Geiringer (1953) Some recent results in the theory or an ideal plastic body,
Adpallces ill Applied Mechallics. Academic Press, New York.
[J 3] A. P. Green (1954) 011 the use or hodographs in problems or plane pla~tie strain,
J. M(',h. Ph.l's. Solids. 2 No.2. pp. 7380.
[14] Dent 1lansen. 1\ theory of Plasticity for ideal frictionless material. Thcsis.
[15J R. Hill (1950) The Mathematicalthenry of Nasticity. Clarendon Press, Oxrord.
[16} R. G. James and P . L. Bransby (1971) A velocity field for some passive earth pres
sure problems. Gcotecllllique. 21, No. I, pp. 6183.
[17] A. W. Jenike and R. T. Shield (1969) On the plastic now or Coulomb solids beyond
original failure, JI. Appl. Mech .. TraIlS. A .S.M.E.. 27, pp. 599602.
[18] A. 1. Kuznetzov (1958) The problem of torsion and plane strain or nonhomogeneous
plastic bodies. Arch. Mech. Stos., 4, pp. 447462.
95
I.
..I ~ "
': \.
11')j E. II. Lee (1950) On stress discontinuities in plane plastic now. Proc . .l,.d S)'l1Ip.
Appl. Mallt .. McGraw Hill cd., pp. 2IJ22R.
[20) J. Najar, J. Rychlew~' ri and G. S. Shapiro (1966) On the prohlellls of the clastic
rlastic state of an infinite wedge. Bull. Ac. Pol. Sc. 14, No.9, pp. 515522.
[21) J. P . Obin (1972) Force rortante en dcrormation plane d'un sol verticalcmellt non
homogcne. Thesis Univ. Grenohlc.
[22) W. Olszak and J. Rychlewski (1962) Geometrical properties of stress fields in
rlastically nonhomogeneous bodies under conditions of rlane strain. Pr9c. Int .
Syll/p. 2"d ord. In Elaslicily. Piaslicily and Fluid Dynamics. Haifa.
[23) W. 0Is7'<lk, J. Rychlewski and W. Urbanowski (1962) Plasticity under non homo
geneous conditions. Advances ill Applied Mechanics. Academic Press, New York,
pp. 132214.
[24J J . Ostrowska (196R) Initial rlastie now of semispace with a strong layer non
homogeneity. Arch. Mech. Slo.\' .. 20, No.6, rr. 651668.
[251 W. Prager (1955) The sign of rlastic rower in the grapilicaltreatlllent of rrohlems
of r1ane plasticIlow. Quart. A1'1'1. Malh .. 13, No.3, pp. 333335.
[26] J. Rych1ewski (1966) prane plastic 110w for jump nonhomogeneity. In/. 11. Nun
Linear Mech . 1, pp. 5778.
[27J J. Salenc;on, M . Barbier and M . Beaubat (1973) Force portante d'une fondation sur
sol nonholl1ogcne. Proc. 81h 1111. COil! S"iIMecli . & Foulld. Ellq .. Moscow. 1.3,
rr. 219224.
[28J J. Salenc;on (1974) Bearing capacity ofa footing on a (/) = 0 soil with linearly varying
shear strength. Geolec!lIliqlle, 24, No.3, pp. 433446.
[29J I\. 1\. Serrano (1972) EI metodo de los campos associados. f'roc. 51h Elir. COil!. Soil
Malt .. pp. 77 81\ .
[30J Ie T. Shield (1953) Mixed boundary value prohlems in soil mcchanics. Quarl. Appl.
Malh . ll,pp.6175.
[31) W. Szczepinski (1971) Some slipline solutions for earthmoving processes. Archives
of Mechanics. 23, No.6, rp. R85896.
[321 W. S7.czepinski and H. Winek (1971) On some problems of large flow of soils.
Symr . FrancoPolonais, Problcll1cs de 101 Rhl:ologie, Warsaw, 1971, pro 353365.
[33J 1\. Win7.er and G. P. Carrier (1948) The interaction of discontinuities surfaccs in
plastic fields of stress. .11. Appl. Mecl!. Trans. ASME. 15, pp. 261264.
[34) 1\ . Winzer and G. F. Carrier (1949) Discontinuities of stress in plane plastic now.
11. ApI'/. Mcch .. Trans. ASME, 16, pp. 346348.
,' ~ ,
96
I:
r  
2. The Strcss Problcm
2.1 Statement of the Problem, HaarKarman hypothesis
= (J
:,"
= 0: (J
The stressfield
lar require that
"I
<r
(l)CI)
is independent of 0).
0"
is a principal stress.
a(J,:
ar
cl:.
__ . I .... ..
OeJ,:
or
c]CJ::
az
(J
(J
_!.. . . !"
I I)F = 0
I'
(J,:
(2)
pF: = 0
I'
(3)
{) = 
((J
(4)
(J,)/2
.'
(5)
(6)
R = R(p. r. ;;)
and
(eJ 2
= (J.
or
CJ 2
(J;\)
(7)


ForO = (Or,a l ),
a r =  p I R cos 20
az
ar :
R cos 20
 p 
(8)
R sin 20
a '0' =  J1  d~
where
r. =  1
I:
corres ponds to
a = a l'
M
(9)
a = aJ
= I I
(II
(6)
R = R(p, r, ;;)
and
(IO)
lienee , ror the stress fiekl in the plastic l.one, the system of
partia l differe ntial
equati ons ohtain ed hy applyi ng (6, R, 10) to (2) is
()Jl
Dr
4) cos 20)
i)(}
Dr
ap
1) sin 20  IDz
a(}
DI<
til<
cos 20 + I:
+ ___ cos 2() +sin 20 + I<      + pF
Dr
elx
()p
__ sin
elr
1) sin 2(} +
(II)
DO ' Dp .
()(}
ar () z (1 + Sin 1) cos 20) I 2R sin 2(} 
(lz
2R cos 20   ()I<
i)r
= 0
r
DR
20
2() .. .. . cos 2(} .\. R sin
'' ' I /,F.
n;;
1'
=0
( 12)
(<X, (J lines)
1>/2)]
2R
Uf' + 'd O  { pP
cos
98
DR
+ iJx(I
R
r cos
[. , (
SIn
0
(n+(1)))
4
( 13)
dp 
_~~
cos </J
dO 
{PF
11
(1.'\"
v._

all
2u
all
(}z
aw'
1 all
all  .~
II
= _ ___r +. .!!!
(OJ,
21J
no)
~
/'
r OW
(f'
= _f~
II"" Uz '
all.
= 
c:
( 16)
ill
( 17)
).
O. 11
O. r.
( 18)
(,)(1'
tJ rm =V Zfl)
=0
( \9)
Assum ing that the velocity field is also axially symm etric (on condit
ion that this
assum ption be compa tible with the bound ary condit ions), (16) and
(19) yield
au
.!!!.
Dz
== 0
(20)
99
  J
(21 )
whence, II ,wilh the form u = exr, representing a rigidbody rotation ahout Oz.
rr)
'"
(22)
Taking
resli Its
II
= r. 2 cos 1)
(23)
/I fIf1
(24)
Va/I
II
""
(A + ~) cos
(25)
(P
from (17) and the expression for v"HI' from (16) into account gives the
vfIf1
= 
u
(I +
2,.
~
2~ (1
I:
(26)
sin (p)
.
(27)
r. SIn 1)
which show that the ex und IJ lines ure velocity eharucteristies. Equation (26) is a
differential relation valid along the ex (resp. 27, fJ) lines. These relations can also
be written in terms of ur and uz from the classical formulae expressing v and
IJJl/1 as functions of vrr ' vr :' l'~z and from (16). Equations (26) and (27) arc the
relations along the velocity characteristics.
a~
~ 0,
bill this cOlldilion alone is not sufficient. r;rom eqllations (17) ancl (22) is ob
tained.
(2R)
Then
A~ 0
100
<!::>
(A+"2)1) cos
)1
~ i cos 2 1)
2 cos 1>
V II ~ a
Lind also
1/
2vall ~  1:_'(1
+ I:sin eM
(29)
o~
"(p, r, z) ~ t/>(p, r, =)
Then the strainrate tensor has the same principal directions as cr and its
principal values are
/J I
.
= ( A. + I+r.)
2 /1 (I + SIl1
=  (A. I
/J ( l ) tI)
= 
~
2 /1) (I
v)
si n \')
(30)
A. ~ 0, /1 ~ 0, r. = :I: I
IIcnce, following the hypothesis that the velocity field is axially symmetric
1/
,,~
Ct. ,
al
(1)
The relations along the velocity characteristics are given by (26, 27) in which
(Ct., p, 4 are replaced by (y, D, 1'). The same argument applies for thc conditions
of positivity (28, 29).
101
                
4. Weak Solutions
The properties of the weak solutions for stresses are analogous to those for
plane problems. The discontinuity lines I are not the characteristics. The dis
continuity condition expresses the continuity of the stress. (7COM is discontinuous.
4.2 Weak solutions for velocities
The lines of discontinuity of the velocity are the velocity characteristics, iX, {l
in the case ofa standard material, and y, 0 in the case of the nonstandard material
of Section 3.2. Expressed by means of equations (26, 27, 28, 29), this statement
implies that
(1). For crossing of an '(l (resp. p. or y resp. b) line vp is continuous (resp. (l or
o resp. y) and the discontinuity concerns only vlJ (26, 27);
(2). Crossing an (l (resp. {l or y resp. (~) line, [vlJ] ~ 0 (resp . {l or y resp. 0) (29),
and [va] must be such that (28) is verified on both sides;
(3) . The equation of propagation is also slightly modified with respect to the
plane case, and becomes
()a[II]
il
= 
 (~+
1:.)J (1 +
42
I:
sill (/J)
(32)
sll1ce
[uJ = [uJ cos [ 0
(~ +
i)]
These arc the Iraces in Ihe meridian plane of the surfaces of discontinuity of the axially symmetric
stressfield .
102
[6] A. Haar and Th. Karman (1909) Zur theorie der Spannungszustiinde in plastischen .
und sandartigen Medien, Nac/" . Ge.f. Wiss. G(juingell. Malh. Plrys. KI.. pp. 204218.
[7] D. D. Ivlev and R . I. Nepershin (1973) Impression of smooth indenter into a rigid
plastic halfplane, /zv. AN. SSSR, Mrkhallika Tverdogo Tela, 8, No.4, pp. 159163,
Ellgi. Trallsl. M ccizanics of Solids. pp. 144149.
[8] J. Mandel and F. Parsy (1961) Quelques problcmes tridimensionnels de la thcorie
du corps parfaitement plastique, Scm. PlaslicilC. Ec. Poly technique, P.S.T., No . 116,
pp.105127.
[9] Z. Mroz (1967) Graphical solution of axially symmetric problems of plastic now,
Z.A.M.P .. 18, pp. 219236.
[10] R. Negre (1968) Contribution a I'ctudc de I'cquilibre limite des sols el des materiaux
pulverulcnts et cohcrents, Thesis Dr. Sc., Grenoble.
[II] J. Salenc:;on, M. Croc, G . Michel and A. Pecker (1973) Force portante d'une fonda
tion de revolution sur un bicouche, C.R. Ac. Sc., Paris, serie A, 276, pp. 15691572.
[12] R. T. Shield (1955) On une plastic now of metals under conditions of axial sym
metry, Proc. Roy. Soc., 233, A, 1183, pp. 267287.
[13] R. T. Shield (1955) Plastic now in a converging conical channel, JI. Mech. Pllys.
Solids. 3, pp. 246258.
[14] R. Sibille (1944) Ca1cul approche des solutions de Prandtl dans les cas de revolution,
C.R. Ac. Sc. Paris, t. 258, gr. 2, pp. 20172019.
[15] A. J. M . Spencer (1964) The approximate solution of certain problems of axially
symmetric plastic now, JI. Mech . Phy.\". Solids. 12, No.4, pp. 231243.
[16] W. Szczepinski (1967) Wstep do analisy procesow obrohki, /II'SI. Podsl. Prob/.
Techn., Pol. Ac. Sc.
[17) W. Sz.c7.epinski, L. Dietrich , E. Drescher, and J. Miatowski (1966) Plastic now of
axially symmetric notched bars pulled in tension, JII/. .It. Solids (l1Ii1 Structures
2. pp. 543554.
103
.
I
I. '; .
 
  
 J
CHAPTER V
I. Presentation
This chapter deals with the theory of limit analysis and its applications to
Soil Mechanics . No mention will he made (except for didactic purposes) of the
prohlems related to the application of this theory to the design of strllctures,
i.e. the socalled limit design of structures. For this purpose reference may be
made, for instance, to [7, 8, 40].
The chosen exposition is classical and simplified (similar to that of [37J).
A slightly more axiomatic and detailed presentation will be found in the
Appendix , with the possible extensions of the theory to the case of nonstandard
materials [44, 45J.
The concept of limit loading of a system was introduced in Chapters I I and
II I, an d here only the essen tials of the previolls argumen t will he repeated .
1.1 Definition of the limit loadings
13y considering a system made of an clasticperfectly plastic material, sub
ject to a loading process depending on n parameters Qi (Q = loading vector),
the socalled il1itial elastic limit load QO was defincd , corresponding to the
appcarance of plastic deformations, for any loading path starting from the
,neulral state of stress. Theset of all these loadings Q O is the initial elastic houl/dary
n(rlw system . For the loading path going beyond QO, the limit loading is defined
OJ
initial elastic boundary of the system
Figure V. I
104
as the loading which generates uncontained plastic now for the (/ssumptio/l of
negligible gcometry c!IlI/lgcs. The set of limit loadings has been callcd the yield
boundary of the system (Figure V.I) for reasons to be explained in this chapter.
It was shown in Chapter III that, since the geometry changes are assumed
negligible up to the appearance of the llncontained plastic now,the limit loading
on a given loading path can be determined by considering the system as con
stituted by a rigidplastic material (defined by passing to the limit) provided that
this system follows the same loading path as the elastoplastic system considered
initially. Hence, the possibility arises of defilling the limit loadings on the rigid
plastic system (obtained in each case by passing to the limit) as the loadings
required for the appearance of uncontained plastic now in the elastoplastic
system.
Finally, introduction of the rigidplastic system obtained from the initial
system by eliminating the elastic deformation of the material (without passing
it to the limit) results in the limit loadings defined above being loadings for
which there is a nonzero deformation of the associated rigidplastic system.
In this chapter a study will be made first of the loadillgs for which there is a
nonzero deformation of the associated rigidplastic system. For convenience,
these will be called limit loadings without specifying 'of the associated rigid
plastic system.' This omission will appear justified ([ posteriori in the case of
systems satisfying the principle or maximum plastic work :1t any point.
1.2. Determination of the limit loadings. Variational approach
The determination of the limit load (in the case of a loading with one para
meter) or of the yield boundary of the system (in the case of a loading with
several parameters) requires the construction of complete solutions of the
problem of uncontained plastic now for the rigidperfectly plastic system. This
is often difficult, and hence a variational approach is used. Two theorems will
be demonstrated, which make it possible to obtain under and over
approximations.
2. Admissible Fields. Dissipation
(I)
In this formulation, there arc no constant data except those equal to zero. If some data arc non
zero constant. they will be deall with as though they were variable, and will he given their pre
scribed values atlhe end of the solution.
105
      1
2.2 Plastically admissible strain rate tensor
At a poin t M of the system where the loading function is [, and where the
plastic flow rule assumes the form (t)which is not necessarily that of the
standard materiala strain rate tensor v is said to be plastically admissible
(P.A.) if the flow rule (L) may be solved for this tensor; i.e. if
3(1, f(1) = 0
(L)
and
(1   
(2)
2.3 Dissipation
A stress tensor (1 is associated with a plastically admissible strain rate tensor v
by relation (2) in the expression
(3)
<1V
= n(v)
(4)
\.
Proof:
Let (11 ard (12 be two stress tensors associated with v by (2), in which
convex and (L) is the flow rule for the standard material.
Then
=0
for
(11
:f(1I)
for
(12
:f(12) = 0
v E A(Jf(1I)
VE
A(Jf(12)
A>O}
A>O
is
(5)
whence,
I t follows that
106
kJ2vijVi~
(6)
ca~e
In the
0", 0",
>
0" J
= 2k
(11
(12
>
0"1 =(12)(1J
(1J
v, = l
(7a)
v2 = 0
l'J
= ),
(13
= 2k
v1 l
;.~O
v2 = Ii
Ji ~ 0
(7b)
I!J=lp
+ /v 2/ + /vJ /}
(8)
Ii
(9)
li j )
and this velocity field must satisfy the kinematic boundary conditions of the
problem.
P.A.: at each point of the system, the strainrate tensor must be plastically
admissible.
2.6 Dissipation in an admissible strainrate field
Under the hypothesis of the principle of maximum plastic work, the dissi
pation in an admissible strain rate field is defined by the integral
(10)
n(v) d V
CT,
107
~ ', .
will be dellot ed by K . K c W.
It should he noted, in partic ular, that any limit loadin g is admis
sible. (More
over. for the loadin g paths of Section 1.2, of an e1astoplastie struct
ure for the
assum ption of small deform ations , all the loadings, from 0 to Q
I inclusively,
are admis sible loadin gs.)
3.2 COllvexity of K
(12)
since
and
J'ro(!f
From the definition of the loadin g param eters (Chap ter III, Sectio
n 5.2)an d
the fact that IT = 0 is plastically admis sihle the materi al being nonh
arden ing
the load Q = 0 E K.
It is assum ed that K does have points at infinity, and (I..) denote s the
direct ion
of one of these points . Since 0 E K and K is convex, the whole semia
xis OL E K.
\08
.\.
           .1
Lei Q* be prescribed E Ot.
To say thai OJ. E K up 10 inrinilY implies thai, oul of all I he admissihlc slrcss
fields associaled wit h Q*, thcre is (al least) one which remains admissible if it is
multiplicd by }.(positive),howcver great it may bc. Thus, this lield must consist
of an isotropic pressure at any point of the solid.
If there are no body forces this pressure is constant, and Q* is a loading which
corresponds to a uniform isotropic pressurc throughout thc solid. If it exists
then it is a loading proportional to one p;lrameter, and proves the foreseen
result. 2
In the case of ductile materials, for which the loading surface is open in the
directions of thc isotropic pressures and tensions. K call have a point at infinily
in two opposile dircctions.
3.4 Limit loadings
It is assumed that the mat.erial constituting the system obeys the principle of
maximum plastic work .
TIIEOltEM: Let Q be a limit loading and it the corrcsponding strain rate of the
system: Let Q* bc an admissible loading; we hav~:
(Q  Q*).
q~
( 13)
Proof:
As a and a* are the admissible fields associated with Q and Q* and v denotes
an admissihle field associated with q. by definition.
(Q  Q*)
q=
1.
(0"  0"*)
dV
II may be that the loading proeess under study admits 'no unirorm pressure field in the solid as
being statically admissihle.
The result is true in the case or non7.ero constant hody rorces. For body rorces variable as runct ions
of III parameters, the directions or Ihe points at infinity. ir they el\ist, are inside the pyramid built
upon the corresponding posit ivc semial\es.
109
l,
3.6 COllsequences
p!~lstic
Proof:
Let Q be a limit loading point and q the corresponding velocity vector. It is
known that Q E K.
I r it is assumed tbat Q is inside K, then 3" > 0, so that 13(Q, '1) c K. [B(Q, tJ)
= sphere with a centre Q and a radius ".J There can be found in 13, and hence
in K, a point Q* such that (Q  Q*) <i < 0, which is obviously abslircl . There
fore, Q belongs to the bou1l(/ary 4 K.
Also, the theorem of maximum work indicates that at the point of limit
loading Q, ci is orient(lled (I/ollg (III outward norl/lo/to the yield bound(lry. which,
aceortling to Section 3.2, is a convex surface.
3.7 COJlverse of the preceding theorem
...
. .
Under the hypothesis of the principle of maximum plastic work, the boundary
of the convex K is the yicltl boundary of the associaled rir/illp/aslic syst.cIII and
it also is a conlJ('x sUI/ace.
This result is I be socalled 'theorem of uniqueness of the limit loads' and
implies, amongst other lhings, that a loading situated on the bOllntlary of K is
the limil loading of any loading path that arrives there. 2 Concerning the elasto
plastic and the rigidplastic systems (the Ialter being defined by passing to the
limit in each case), the preceding theorem gives the following results.
Here an :\ssumptioll is made which can be l:onsidered as a fact or experience. For the eX[1erimenl
or proporl iOlla I loading or an clasillplastic syslem (under the assllmpl ion or small ddorllla t ions).
accounl being laken Ih;\t the limit 10adillg.~ of this system arc limit loadings ror the associated
rigidplastic syslem, it is evident lhal either:
(I). It is possible 10 go on loadi;\g endlessly, which implies lhat lhe set K has;\ point at inrinity
in the loading direelion, or
(2). I t is not possible to go on loading endlessly. and it must be admilled that this always h;\ppens
as a consequence of the appearance or uncontained pl astic now; i.e. there exists a limit loading.
When dynamic data arc fixecl at their prescribed values. a yield houndary is obt;\ined for the other
loading parameters which is the intersection of the boundary of K with a (np) hyperplane of R".
where p is the number of fixed 10ilding pilrameters. Hence the properties or this yield boundary
arc known .
1J 0
. .......
."..
.,..... ~
....
".
..~
""~......,...
:
(I). From the viewpoint of limit loadings, there is no longer any reason for
distinguishing between tile rigidplastie systems, as they are all equivalent to
the associated rigidplastic system.
(2). The limit loadings are, as a consequence, independent of the clastic
properties of the in itial rna terial.
(3). The limit loadings being independent of thcloading paths, it is, therefore,
unnecessary to specify the initial stress state at the beginning of a loading
process.
The following theorem forms the basis of the underapproximation of the
limit loading.
GVOZDEY'S THEOREM: A loadillg which call bc cquilihratcd by all allowahle
stressjield is bcyolld or
becomes
'Any value of A, such that an allowable stress field can be associated with it,
is smaller than or equal to the limit loading'.
Al is thc great cst vaillc of Athat an allolVahle strcssjield call bc associated with.
3.9 Static method
Taking Gvozdev's theorem as a basis. together with the convexity of K, gives
a static method for the determination of the limit loads and the yield boundary.
The construction of allowable stressfields permits the observation of allow
able loadings; and the largest convex polygon with those loadings as summits
is an inner approximation of thc yield boulldary (Figure V.2).
.
  unknown boundary of
OI .
(a )
known admissible
loadings
I'
( b)
Figure V.2
I This
theorem is more general than that given by Gv07.tlev [24J for the OInalysisofstructures, taking
as a basis the model due to Kazinczy [33J and Kist [34] (see [56]). Thc present statement, linked
to the principle of maximum plastic work, seems to be due to Hill [26], in the form of a maximum
principle.
III
~'

     
. ~
4. Kincmatic Approach
L I Th.:orcm
Pro4:
Let
'
(J*
Q*q =
cr*v d V.
( 14)
<T*V ~ <TV
(15)
= n(v)
where cr is a stress tensor resulting from the inversion of the now rule for
Hence, the result,
Q*(i
n(v) d V
P.
( J 0)
For all the allowable strain rate fields, let K. denote a convex surface of {Q}
space, the intersection of the halfspaces defined by
Q(H/J)
n(v) d V
(J 7)
I'
n(v) d V
n(v) d V
(18)
112
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ . _~_ _ _ _ _ O_
_ _
0_ ,
_ _ _ _ _ _ ___
Q(ltv) =
1.
klloll'lI.
O __ _ ~ _ _ O _ _ _ _ _ _ _
_ _ _ _ _ _ _
n(v) d V
L, n(,,) d JI
;?:
J. = '  Of.U
)1
Here, )'1 is the slIlallest vall/e oJ). sl/ch that the work dOlle by the exteriorJorces
is eql/alto the dissipatioll ill at least aile allo\\'ahlC' velocityfie'ld.
4.3 Kinematic approach
As in the static approach, the preceding results are used for the killematic
method of determining the limit loadings and the yield bOIlJldary. !\llow<lble
velocity fields are constructed and the convex polygon limitillg the intersection
of the halfspaces defined by (17) is an exterior approximatioll of the yield
hOUlul(/ry (Figure Y.3).
unknown yield boundary
o/
approximation from
outside
0,
O~,m
~\\\\(\\\\\\\\\\\:
o lIm
1111111\\\\\\\~\\\\\\\\\\\\\~\~"i
Figure V . .l
5. Ih'marks
011
Ihe neslllis
Analyst..
5.1
From the logical viewpoint. the results of Section 3.6 prove that the yield
boundary is either the whole or part of the K boundary, which is fundamental
113
'i
0 __
to the static method. Similarly, the results of Section 4.1 contain the basis of
the kinematic method. However, it seems desirable to invoke the existence
hypothesis in order lO arrive at simpler and more 'natural' statements.
5.2
The results of the theory of limit loads, also termed limit analysis, can be
expressed in the following form.
[15,49,51]'
5.3
In the case where the principle of maximum plastic work is not verified,
whether because of the constitutive materials of the structure or because of the
interface conditions between the different constitutive solids (e.g. Coulomb
friction), the yield boundary can no longer be proved to be of (11  I) dimen
sions. Stated otherwise, the 'theorem of uniqueness of the limit loads' is no
longer applicable.
The independence, with respect to the initial stresses, the loading path and
the elastic properties, of the limit loadings of the elastoplastic system is no
longer ensured. Also, it can no longer he stated that all the definitions of the
rigidplastic material are equivalent with respect to the limit loadings.
Nonstandard systems have been studied extensively and Appendix 1\ gives
the results [5, 15.31,32,42,4446,50,52,55]'
6. Minimum Principles
Using the principle of maximum plastic work, the classical minimum
principles are given. They are valid for the case where the boundary conditions
may be expressed in the classical form:
T given = Td 011 S .. ;
F given
u given = ud on SII
The principle must be verified also at the interfaces of the solids that constitute the system.
_ 114
_ _ _
~
T(q) . u'dS.
(19)
Then, i/o soll/tioll oJrlle IlI/collt(/illCd plastic:.flolV prohlel/l eXists/or the give/l dottl.
the accompanying strcssfleld rcnders the fl/Ilcriol/al .)'(' a mil/imum amol/{j all the
allowable srrcssJields.
6.2 Minimum principle for the strain rates (Marko\').
With v being an allowable strain rate field. derived rrom the velocity field
fUllclional is defined by
.'M(u) =
J.
IIJ d V .
J.
r' 1\ dS r
II,
(20)
ST
Then, ({ a sollltion oj 'he /llIcolltained .flo\\' prohlelll exists Jor these dala, rite
aCCOIIIJl(/II),in{j strain ratc field rellders tlte/illlct iOIl(/llJ a minimum (lIllOI/{j (lllllte
ollmv(/!Jle srraill r(/re (iC'!rls.
The proof of these two principles is simple as they are supported by the
theorem of virtual work and the principle of maximulll plastic work. I t can also
be proved that for a solution of the uncontained now problem
!Ja(ll) =  .1('(a)
(21 )
In the study of plane strain problems of uncontained plastic now the exact
significance of the solutions ohtained was left aside. In particular, the fact that
attenlion Was paid only exceptionally to the undeformed zones is important.
It is now possible to deal with these points, assuming the principle of maxi
mum plastic work to be valid. by means of the theory of limit analysis. Also, the
uniqueness of the stressfields proved in Chapter TTl (Section 6) makes it
possible to derive further conclusions.
7.1 An example study
115
        .J.j
~ivCJl
IA:o
~o
AO.2b
I
Figure V.4
,.
Thi~ application is po~~ible ror the whole ~tructure. although the ~tre~~field in lhe undcformed
zone remains unknown, a:; the equilibrium or the boundary rorces is salisfied here.
116
~I
,.
(22)
(2). frQJ is not too great a limit loading has been ohl:lined corresponding
the rolation of Ihe plale around the point I:
Al = 0
10
N = 211[QJ
2/,:(1
+ Ctl)]
(23)
==
(24)
In the case wherc QJ is not too great, and where it is possible to cxtend thc
stressfield, a solution or the problem or uncontained plastic now is obtained.
Then thc thcorem of uniquencss ror the strcssfield, as given in Chapter III
(Section 6). can be applied.
The stressrield in the dcrormec\ zone is shown to be uniqlle ror the givcn value
or Q. i.c. (23), or the given value or cj. i.e.
eil = n
ei 2 = n((/ + h)
1 h)] .
Obviously, the results have more practical interest in the latter form, which
implics that the stress distribution in 011 /JCD, and in particular undcr 011. is
the exact distribution. Thus. the exact distribution or stresses bencath 0;1 is ,I
unirorm pressure cqualto [QJ + 2k(f + (I))j.
7.2 General case
For plane strain problems, assuming the principle or maximum plastic work.
the rollowing general statements apply,
(f). If the proposed solution provides only a stressrield in limit equilibrium,
in only a par! or the .~ystem, then no conclusion can be rcached concerning the
result obtaincd.
(2). Ir thc proposed solution provides a strcssfield in limit equilibrium in a
part D or the system. such that the static equilbrium or the boundary data for
the remainder or the system is ensured, and :til allowable velocity field is
associated with the stressfield in D,leaving underorlllcd the exterior of D, then
the solution is said to bc ;1l(:OII/I'/c'{(' [3]. This corresponds to the application or
the kinematic method, as demonstrated in the example.
The result is an upper bound of 1.he limit load for the case where there is only
117
I
I



:
(4). If the proposed solution corresponds to both (2) and (3), the solution is
colllpletc, and provides the limit load, or more generally, the limit loading, and
.r
In fact, only complete solutions warrant the name solution. However, usc or
the above terminology, due to Bishop, has the advantage of being very explicit.
For complete solutions, the theorem of uniqueness of the stressfield is
applicable. and demonstrates that the stress distribution in the deformed zones
is the exact. distribution for the given problem. This docs not entail the unique
ness of the complete solutions. e.g. for the same incomplete solution several
allowable extensions of the stressfield may be found to complete it.
The construction of the allowa ble ex tension of t he stressfield of a n incomplete
solution is of no interest in itself. What is important is its feasibility. It is sufficient
to have a theorem which proves that the extension is possible. At first, it might
seem tha t such a theorem would be simple, since the stressfields of the ex tension
have only to verify the equilibrium equations and fit the stress boundary
conditions, whilst not viol;lting the yield criterion. However, a theorem docs not
exist, and it is usually necessary to actually construct an allowable extension.
In fact, theorems arc available which sometimes show that the extension is
certainly not possible, e.g. Hill's theorem [28J, and Bonneau's theorem (see
Aprendix B).
Following the work of Dishop [3J and Shield [58J, research interest has in
latter years been devoted to the static approach. A number of nontrivia I static
solutions and complete solutions have been demonstrated, though no general
method for their construction exists [1,911,18,25,47,48,53.54,59]'
. Finally, although being obviolls, it must he stressed that there is no unique
ness of incomplete solutions. These can give quite different results; and (2)
indicates that the one that gives the best upper bound of the limit load (i.e. the
lowest one) must be taken into consideration, but should not be thought to
give the actuill limit load. Also, it docs not necessarily follow that the solution
can be completed .
Incomplete solutions constitute most of the 'solutions' proposed for plane
now problems with a Tresca material.
7.3 Conclusions
Limit analysis acts as a guide in the research for 'solutions' of problems of
118
Ie .. '
' . _' 0 _
. . .. . .
119
   
The study of the case ofa nonstandard material with a convex yicld criterion.
presented in Appcndix A of Chapter I V (also [55J). suggcsts ideas of great
importance.
Ir/is thc COIlVCX yield crilt:rion or the material (not necessarily homogeneolls).
thcn the allowahle loadings arc defined as in Section 3.1. and constitute a
convex scl K I'" For any system wit h a criterionI, reg:\Hlless or its clastic proper
ties or now rule. it is known that the loads which the system can hear and the
limit loadings for all the loading paths necessarily lie within Kr Only in the
case of a standard system is it possible to state that the system can bear all the
loads within K/. and Ihal the boundary of Kr is the loclls of the limit loadings.
For the determination of K I' and its boundary. which reprcsent 'the maximum
the system can do'. all the available methods will be used: the static method
founded on thc convexity, and the kinematic method. assuming the material to
be standard. which premise has no other significance than that of being a means
or calculation. Following this reasoning. the solutions of plane problems will
be interpreted assuming a standard material.
If a static extension of the stressfield is known, a static solution for the
standard Coulomb material is obtained, and hence. an inner approximation to
the boundary of Kp. If a velocity field can be associated with the stress field, an
incomplete solution is found for the standard Coulomb material. and hence. an
outcr approximation to the houndary of K,... Finally, a complete solution for
the standard Coulomb material provides a point on the boundary of K I' and
an associatcd tangent plane.
8.2 Gcncral remarks
~~
(In outside approximation to all the [Jossib\c limit loadings for a nonstandard
material. Ilowever. it would not he reasonable t{) speak of a static method for
a nonstandard material. especially relating to st,ltic solutions constructed ror
a standard Coulomb material with a criterionf
8.3 nadenkovic's theorem
A theorem origina ted by Radenkovic [44, 45J. and :l1so proposed under
va rious forms ill [5. J I. J2, 42. 46. 52. 55J III a kcs j t possible t () refer to sta t ic
methods in the case of nOllstandard materials whose now rilles have p:lrlicul:tr
properties [55]. This leads to all inner approximation of the I.one of possible
lim it; load ings.
The detailed proof of this theorem is given in Appendix A of the present
chapter and in reference [55]. It supposes that the now rule of the nonstClndClrd
material derives from a plastic potcntial {I which is COllvex, alld h:ls ccrtain
properties with respect to the criterion! It is proved that the limilloadings ror
the nonstandard material cannot lie within the set K(; of allowable loadings
for the standard system constituted by a (fictitious) material with:1 criterion fl.
Thus, the boundary or K(; provides an internal boundary for the zone of
possible limit loadings for the Ilonstandard material. and hence, by means of
the st:ltic method for a system made of the standard m:lterial with criterion {I,
it gives an internal approximation to all possible limit loadings for the non
standard material.
This theorem is applicable in partiCUlar to a Coulomb material which has a
flow rule defined by an angle of dilation 1', where 0 :oS; I' :oS; 4) (sec Chapter 1).
The potential g is then a Coulomb potential, with an angle 1', which must be
internal to the criterion/in the region where it is used.
Unfortunately. the restllts obtained by means or this theorem are two con
servative to be of practical usc. particularly in the casc of I' = O.
8.4 The concept of a possible solution
This docs nol proye Ihal Ihe corresponding loading is nol a J1(lssihlc limil loading
fllr l'
of </"
121
... ...
.  ......
 .:..~
...... ._....
__.
aO" + ..:Y.
a. + V =
ax
oy .
_x
~~ + oO"y
ax
ay
IfTl  O"zl ~ 2k
and the stress boundary conditions,
'
=0y >
= h y < 0:
0 : fT .<
0" X
=.=.
=.
'<Y
=0
xy
O<x<lty=O : O" Y
0
'<Y
=0
Conditions at infinity apply only to the velocities, which must be equal to zero.
The discontinuolls stressfield proposed in [17J is represented in Figure V.S.
..y
h
"(Lh)~_
l'x i.. 
'(,lxh)
t .(Lh)
x
Figure V.S
1')')
'.
It is defined by
y ~ 0 0 ~ x ~ h: a l = 0,
y~0h~ x
: a~. =  y(x  h).
Y~ h ~ x
: a). =  r(.x  h),
t x )'
= 0, a.
t .\")'
= 0'
.\",\'
= yx
0, ax = yx
a .\"
y(xh)
This field satisfies the equilibrium equations, the boundary conditions, and
the continuity of the stress applied along y = 0, which is the line of discontinuity
of the field. It is, therefore. statically admissible. It is also plastically admissible if
yh
2k
Therefore,
2k
h=~h
U)'
= 0 at
infinity.
For the mechanism shown in Figure V.G, a rigid body slides along an isolated,
(necessarily) circular line with a centre 0 and a radius h.
~~~.
x
Figure V.6
k x D.II x Te/'2h
The work done by external (i .e. gravity) forces on the rotating block is equal to
1"'2 du
f: yn,.
yn II J /3
l
/.~ ' ,
,J
 ~
"
It
In k
k
==
4.7
y
y
= ' 2
Figure Y.7
The dissip ation is equal to k x IJ/eos CJ. x U and the work done by the
extern al
forces is
~,,2
4k
= 
11
.<''
sin 2CJ.
"I
/.:
r
? 2 J 2 ,
I knee
3k
 ' ~"
)'
~ J.HJ 
)'
prohle m.
Private cOllllllunication .
124
The exact vallie of h I for a bank made of a Tresca material is :;till unknown.
For u bank made ofa Tre:;ca malerial with ten:;ion clIlofT(i.c. no len:;ile sIres:;
allowed) the critical height is hi = 2k/y (see [17J).
9.2 Coulomb's wedge, Fellenius' method
The theory of limit analysis makes it possible to lise the Cinite clement method,
either in the static method ror the construction of allowable stress rields [35, 36J,
or in the kinematic method for the construction of allowable velocity rields
[20,21 J. The author believes that the kinematic approach is to be preferred to
thestatic approach in problems involving large dimensions, e.g. stability oran
embankment. It orrers the po:;sibility or limiting. (/ priori, the di:;cretil.ation to
the regions known intuitively to be under greatest strain, the remainder of the
system having a rigidbody motion determined by the boundary conditions.
The reader should refer to [20J for an example of the thrust of a smooth wall
on a plastic infinite wedge ofTresca material. It is shown how the combination
of static and kinematic methods and of the various processes for the construc
tion of allowable fields, including the finite clement method, canlcad to remark
able results for the determination of the yield boundary of ~ system.
125
J
For the problem of the critical height of a bank I made of a Tresca material,
lIsing the finite clement method in the static approach yields 31 k/y as a lower
bound for hi L43]' Various attempts made with finite demcnts through the
kinematic method did not succeed in yielding a better upper bound for h I than
383 kfy.
Concerning threedimensional continuous media, with the exccption of
axially symmetrical problems very few works are available dealing with the
determination of limit loadings [18]' The finite method element could be very
useful in this case.
References
[I] J. M. Alexander (1961) On complete solutions for frictionless extrusion in plane
[2] E. Anderheggen and H . Kn6pfel (1972) Finite element limit analysis using linear
[4] S. J. Button (1953) The bearing capacity of footings on a two layer cohesive sub
soil, Proc. 3rd Inl. ConI Soil Mech. & Found. EIIOg., Zurich, I, pp. 332335.
Collins (1969) The upper bound theorem for rigidpl as tic solids, J. Mech.
[6] l. F. Collins (1973) A note on the interpretation of Coulomb's analysis of the thrust
[7] J. Courbon (1971) Plasticite Appliquee em Calcul des Structures, E.N.P.C., Paris.
[8] M . Croc, G. Michel and J . Salen<;on (1971) Application de la programmation
mathcm a tique au calcul Ia rupture des structures, Jill. J . Sol. Strucl., 7, No. 10,
pp.13171332.
[9] E. H. Davis and J. R. Booker (1971) The bearing capacity of strip footings from the
standpoint of pla$ticity theory. Ulliv. Syciney, Civ. Ellg. Lah., Res. Rep. R 170.
[10] E. H. Davis and J . R. Dooker (1972) A note on a plasticity solution to the stability
of slopes in inhomogeneous claY$, Ge:otec/lIJiqul'. 22, No.3, pro 509513.
LII] E. II. Davis and J. R. Booker (1973) The effect of increasing $hear strellgth on the
bearing capacity of clays. Geotechnique, 23, No . 4, pp. 551563.
[12] L. Dietri c h and W. Szczepinski (1969) A note on complete soilltions for the plastic
bending of notched bars, J. Mech . Phys. Solids,!7, No.3, pp. 171176.
[ 13] A. Drescher (1971) A note on rlane now of granular media. I'roh/e}II1(!s cle III Hheo
louie', SYlllp. Frwlcol'%llais, V(lrsovic 1971, pp. 1)5144.
[14] A. Drescher (1972) Some remarks on plane now of granular media, Archives (?f
[15] D. C. Drucker (1954) Coulomb friction. plasticity and limit loads, J. Appl. M ech.,
21, rr. 7174.
[16] D. C. Drucker (1956) On uniqueness in the theory of plasticity, Quart. Appl. M alit.
26, No. I, pp. 3542.
[17] D . C. Drucker and W. Prager (1952) Soil mechanics and plastic ana lysis or limit
design, Quart. Appl. Math., 10, pp. 157165.
[18] D : C. Drucker and R. T. Shield (1953) The application of limit analysis to punch
indentation problems, JI. IIppl. MecJ,., Trans. ASM E, 20, pp. 453460.
[19] Y. d'Escatha and J. Mandel (1971) Profondeur critique d'cboulement d'un sOllter
[5] I. F.
126
  ..
.. ~ ... , .
.. 
127

~.
~r '
'. .
        

128
J
CHAPTER V
Appendixes
1. Introduction
is not in
to
a
t of the
of
't analysis, but attempts,
adopting a more mathematical mode of
exposltlon,
more clearly the
required
each
. will make it easier to
on to nonstandard materials, and
mcrease
understanding
numerical
and
similar
has already been adopted m [12, 1
2. The
of a Standard Material
2.1 Theorem 1
f be 3. convex
function.
f(o)
'open'in
possible
which are all
of the convexity off,
directions of a convex cone.
set
=
{vlv E ;"of(cr), A
0, f(cr)
assumed to be
as a consequence
IS
(1)
is a convex cone with a summit 0 of R6. This cone is the complementary of the
the
J(cr) = is
cone of directions in
Mechanical aspect:
G = {()IJ(cr) ~ O}
(3)
:"
.. ...
;. :
~.
"
."
Sup{F((), v) (J" E3 G}
(4)
= 0, V E J.~n()), }. >
"
(5)
r OJ
In this case,
OJ
Mechanical aspect:
(1). For a material with a loading function}: G is the convex domain of plasti
TC
v 1,
Consider
v
}.V 1
(1 
A) v 2 ,
). E
[0,
1]
According to Theorem 1, v E G 1
Let () be a stress tensor associated with v by (5), so that
n(v) = cr 'v = Acr' v 1
(1  J.) cr . v 2
;
:.
_.. :.
_..r.~
130
. _'..
~.
. ::. .'
n(v 2 )
() . v 1
() V 2
n( VI)
rc(yl)
whence,
(6)
rc IS,
According to
convention,
rc(v) =
rc is convex on the
Another
IS
IS
co
if
v$
of all
2.4 Definitions
ote the
The symbols (J and v
stresste fields () and v
tensors, i.e. values of
fields
a particular pomt)
viewpoint
It is not intended, in the following, to describe from a
in tegrals have their
the
. te functional spaces in which the
1
meanmg.
The
defini .
used is
{(J
: H forms a convex
is assumed to be a linear
G a convex
It is i
+
It
The
(1 
(see Appendix
Chap
verified that, if (J' E
),)(J2 E
(J
H,
0, H
III),
..,
(J E
1J.
AE
O.
K.A. ass.
H'
lJ
the allowable
(statically
is Dot
nC<.;C::>:Si:l.1
plastically
homogeneous. At
131
.,
i
,.: I.
.
admissible) for the system under study, subject to a loading process with n
parameters.
H' is the cone of the allowable velocity fields (kinematically and plastically
admissible) for the system under study in the same conditions.
2.5 Functional I
A functional J is defined by
J(a,v)
. v
cr'vJdv
(7)
for any statically admissible stress field a and any kinematically admissible
strain rate field v.
This functional is nonnegative on H x H', i.e.:
VaEH,
VVEH ' ,
we have
J(a, v)
(8)
2.6 Theorem
THEOREM: A solution to the problem of uncontained plastic flow for a system
of a standard material renders J(G, v) a minimum on H x H'.
Proof:
Such a solution consists of:
(1). An allowable stressfield, a E H, and
(2). An allowable strain rate field, v E H'.
Both fields are associated by the constitutive law for a standard material; i.e.
if v # 0, then f(cr) ' ~ 0 and v,= ),af(cr), ), > O. It follows that for both fields
I(G, v) =
[,,(v) 
<r'
v] d V = 0
(9)
2.7 Converse
THEOREM: Any solution (a, v)to the problem
Min J(a, v)
(0", v)
H'
(10)
such that v =I= 0, is a solution of the problem of uncontained flow for the system
of a standard material.
.I
1 ._
P/,(}(!f.
It i~ known that
Min l(a, v) = 0,
(a, v)
Jl
H'
minimiza
as the field v = 0 belongs to Jl'. Therefore, any other solution of the
that
such
is
m
tion proble
lea, v) = 0
of 71',
A t any poin t where v/;O it follows, accord ing to the definition
n(v)
=:
(J'
,{ > O.
that J(q) = 0 and v E J..8J(cr),
of a
A soluti on to the proble m of uncon tained plastic now for the system
ed.
standa rd material is, therefore, obtain
2.8 Other definit ions
M ec/zaJlical aspecc:
is the convex
K is the convex se( of (he allowable loadings of the system. K'
cone of the allowable strain rates of the system.
2.9 Coroll ary 1: theore m of maxim um work
standa rd
Let (a, v) be a ~olution to the problem of ullcontaincd now for a
material.
Let a' E /I, so that
l(a', v)
I(a, v)
or,
whence
f.
71'(v) d V  Q(a)q(v)
(11)
of K and
As a consequence, the Q(a) limit loading belongs to the bound ary
ary.
q(v) is an outwa rd norma l to this bound
133
J
M echallic(I/ aspect:
The ineq\lality (II) exrres ses the lhcore m of maxim um work (Sectio
n V.3.5)
from which the static theore m and the static metho d may be derive
o tSectio ns
V.3.8 and 3.9.).1
2.10.1 Convex K,
The convex set K, in space {Q} = R" is deline d by
K
n. (Q Ir n(v) dV Jv
""II
Q. q(v)
~ 0)
(12)
(t follows from Section 2.2 that the same set K I is obtain ed by consid
ering in (12)
all the K.A. strain rate field~, wheth er or not they are P .A.
Consi dering now any Q' E K and a corres pondi ng allowa ble stress
field
(J' E H, it follows from (8) that:
Vv E H'
J((J', ti)
n(v) d V Q'q(ll)
~0
There fore
Whcnce
KcK I
n(v) d V  Qil(ll)
I'
~~ 0
M cclw/1ica/ aspect:
The result obtain ed is the basis of the kinem atic theore m and the
kinem atic
2.10.2. CO/lC{lI JC L I
1..1 is conca ve since its compl ement ary set in space {Q} is eviden
tly convex.
Marco ver
CK , C L, c CK ,
<i}
y
I
134
q E R".
2.1 t Properties of the limit loadings
n(v) dV  QI(j(t:) = 0
and, therefore,
QI
ELI
It results rrom Section 2.10.2 that at this point L, cannot bc open and Q I
belongs to the LI (and K I) boundary.
Furthermore, the plane
n(v) d V  Qq(v)
(13)
passes through Ql' and is a tangent to K (since (Hv) is an outward normal to K).
I' by definition; therefore. it is a tangcnt to K I also.
It cannot intersect K
(1). K
Mechanical aspecl:
This hypothesis is equivalent to the following proposition, which has been
presented as the existence hypothesis in Section V.3.7.
For a proportional loading process given by
= ).Q*,
2>0
135
 .
J
.lob
either the loading call increase endlessly, i.e. ).Q* is allowable, V)' > 0, or there
exists a limit loading Q = ).Q* corresponding to the solution of a rrohlern of
uncontained plastic now.
Effectivc/y, either A.Q* is the direction of a point of K at infinity, or there
exists in this direction a point Q l on the common boundary of the closed sets
K, K I' and L , . In this case,
Q I EKI
and
QI
Q 1 = Q(O:I)
ELI=:>
71 (V , )dV
3v 1 EH',
 QJI(V I )
VI
1= 0:
(giving properties of the planes which are tangential to the boundary of the
closed set L I)' or
1(<T1' VI) =0
so that (<T" vJ is a solution oftbc problem of uncontained plastic now. The proof
of the reciprocal property is derived from Section 2.6.
It follows from this result that any point at a finite distance, of the common
boundary of K, K I and Ll' is a limit loading.
Remark:
The necessity of the existence hypothesis may appear merely mathematical
since, when stated in a mechanical form it seems physically selfevident. But
it is to be remembered that the concept of a rigidplastic material is purely
mathemaLical by itself; an example has been recently given [17J of a problem
where a limit loading docs exist without uncontaincd plastic flow being possible.
2.13
v).
O.
Q*(j(v) > 0
( 14)
Theil, eilher V rf: /1', or v E H', and the plastically deformed zone
has an infinite extent.'
111
this field
Pro(~f:
Iv n(v) d
I
V 
AQ*q(V)
~0
VA. > 0
(15)
In practical problems, this circumstance will often be excluded by the very form of the boundary
conditions: generally, u = 0 at 00; while T = 0 al 00 is much rarer.
136
Hence,
lI~ing
(14),
JI'
It(Y) d V
I
(Xl
= AQ"}
(I G)
(17)
= Sill (Q"(j(o))
Figure V.A.!
137
As a conse quenc e of the exisle nce hypot hesis the loadin gs dealt
with are limit
loadin gs (if Lhey are at a linite distan ce). This means that they
corres pond to
fields u~ (resp. u~J of H which realize the Max term in expres
sion (17) (Min in
ain(1 6)).
The existe nce ofa soluti on v'+ f:: 0 of the proble m
Min
{Iv
n(v) d V 
(18)
the problem
O}
(19)
Thus, an attem pt is made to invest igate the conve x set or( 19),
so as to maxi
mize). . K is explor ed, follow ing vector radii, and by dealin g with
a subse t of the
con vex set of (19), an approximation of the valid boundaryfro 111
inside is obtain ed.
2. 14.2 K il1ematic method
The kinem atic determ inatio n of the yield bound ary is effecte
d by setting
4(v) in (12).
(~
Figure V.A.2
Let ('1" E K', q" ~ O. The soluti ons of the uncon t a ined now proble
m are now
sough t, such that the corres pondi ng strain rate of the system
(Figur e V.A.2)
be given by
.M in {I(<T, v) u E H;
138
VE
H', q(v) =
ci"}
(20)
is a solution to the uncontained now problem if Min is zero. Using the notation
P(v)
n(v) dV
(21)
Jr, q(v)
q"}  Qq" ? 0
(23)
it
(j"
K'
c{
Finally, the condition (J" E K' stated at the outset prevents 'the convex ~ct of
(23) from being void, but it is sometimes difficull to know, a priori, whether
it" E K'. In fact, in (20) and also in the statements of lhe classic;). I kinematic
method and its dual approach, any iI" whatever in R n may be considered, both
latter problems being sta ted
(23')
H}, for any qd whatever, and the results will be unchanged as,
(1). If
q'd E K' ,
I
P(v) ==
+ 00
, 139


and, thererore,
Inf {P(u)} = I co,=> Sup {Q(oYJ"} =
+ co
il"
K'
and
+ <Xl
(\ Min is reached for v E H' (as v rf H' => P(v) = I <Xl) and again the initia I for
mulation results.
La:>tly, the absence of a solution can occur, even if <ii' E K, Inf{P(v)} = + 00
can be rcalized in this case, when all the field:> f) of Ir, such that <HI)) = qJ, have
an unlimited deformed zone (this agreeing with the results of Section 2.13).
''',
P(v*)  Q* 'q* = 0
The following can then be stated.
(I). Q* is a limit loading.
Q*, <'\*.
Figure V.A.3
140
[I
H', q(v)
= I}
Q;;'n\
= Max {Q(a)
(T
II}
3.1 Definition
The classical theory of limit analysis prcsentcd ill thc prcceding paragraph
explicitly uscs both properties of convexity and normality, cCJuivalent to thc
principle of maximum plastic work.
As already stated in Chapter I, the convexity of the yield criterion is a properly
with almost general validity. On the contrnry, the normality of the flow rule is
often nonexistcnt. In particular, this is the case for soils obeying the Coulomb
criterion, and also, as will be seen in Section 4, in many cases for the condition
of contact at the interfaces between the solids which constitute a system.
Thus, the case dealt with will be that of systems with a convex yield criterion, 1
but with a flow rule which does not satisfy the condition or normality at any
point. These are 1/0/ls[(/lId(/rd systems.
This type of system was first investigated by Drucker [3J with regard to the
conditions at the intcrfaces; then rollowed a general survey by Radenkovic
[7,8J and studies by Josselin de .long [4,5], Palmer [0], Collins [1, 2J and
Salen<;:on [II, J 2, I
oJ.
f(er}
G,.,
{erlf(er) ~ O}
I The
expression 'yield criterion' is taken in it:; widest sense: it includes not only the yield criterion
of the constitutive materials, but also the friction condition at the interfaces between the solids
that constitute a system.
M includes the constitutive material itsclf and the con tact interface between solids or the system.
141
Similarly defined is lhe sel of allowable slress fields (or S.P.A.) for (M),
(J'
II M}
As a consequence of the convexity off, the sets G M' H M' Kh{ are convex, following
the same arguments as in Section 2. It results from the definition of KM that all
the loadings that can be borne by (M) are necessarily included, and, in particular,
the limit loadings for (M).
If F denotes a standard material with a yield criterion f, and (F) a system
geometrically similar to (M) and constitu ted by F, the sets GM' II M' K Mare
identical to spaces G, [I, K, as defined for (F) in Section 2, and will be denoted by
GI" Up KJ" In particular,
KM = KJo'
Whereas for (F) the boundary of KJo' is the yield boundary, the same property
cannot be proved for (M), for the normality rule states that the standard system
(F) 'proceeds to the limit of its possibilities'.
The boundary of KM appears for (M) as the boundary oftolcrable loads, and,
in particular, as an outer boundary of limit loadings. Its determination is
interesting for this reason. As a consequence of the identity KM = Kp this
determination is carried out through the intermediary of the standard system (F),
(IS (ill auxiliary for lhe calculalio/1 by either
(J). The static method for (F), or
(2). The kinematic method for (F).
for lFl
Figure V.AA
142
0,
0
(24)
and .'
v /'( cr)
E ). iJg (cr'),
A~ 0
Also
(25)
3.3.2 Remarks
(1). Standard systems are obviously a particular case of the nonstandard
systems presented above, and for these f = fJ.
(2). A Coulomb material, with a flow rule defined by a constant dilatancy
angle v, satisfies the conditions of Section 3.3. 1. The value of g is given by the
Coulomb loading function with an angle v and a cohesive pressure equal to
that of f: cg/tan v = c/tan c/>.
(3). For a nonstandard material satisfying the conditions of Section 3.:1.1,
there is no uniqueness of function g or of the correspondence
cr
+
cr'(cr)
Thus, if g and cr + cr' satisfy the conditions, then {J", defined by {J",(CJ.) = {J(IIICJ.)Vex,
with'm > 1 and cr + cr" = cr'/III, also satisfy Lhem.
.
Similarly, some translations can be effected on cr' and on g, etc.
(4). It results from (25) and the convexity of f and {J that if G c is defined by
G c = {crl{J(cr) ~ O}
then
, GG
GF
(5). In Chapter I the concept of a plastic potential that was differen t from the
yield criterion was evoked, VI' appearing as a subgradient of a function of cr.
This function is not usually the function g that appears in Section 3.3.1.
In the case ofa nonstandard Coulomb material, with a flow rul~ defined by a
constan t dilatancy angle v (0 ~ v ~ ) or with a standard von Mises flow rule,
the function g and the plastic potential can become the same. It was from this
~J
[7J that the concept ofa plastic potential different from the yield criterion
first gcncr;t1ized [H], The important concefJl in the general case, for whal
follows, is tilat of the function g.
case
W;I.<;
(J E 11 F
"
=>
Q((J)
K ,: = K M
(Section 3.2)
and as a consequence of (24), v E JI~, the set of the all allowable velocity fields
ror (G).IIcnce, <HI)) E K~, the set of all allowable strain rates of (G).
For the field a' defined at any point of the zone formed by (24), it follows
from (25) tha t
Iv (0' ,
O")ovdV
~0
(26)
or, also,
Iv
The first term of (27)
and thus
IS
0"
v d V Q(a) q(u)
0
~0
(27)
110t
3.J.4 COlJscquenccs
The boundary of K(i' therefore, appears as an inner boundary for the limit
loadings of the system (M). Its determination will be carried out by either the
kinematic or the static method of the classical theory, as (C) is standard. The
static method leads to an approximation from tbe inside of the boundary of KG'
justifying the name of sUllie mcl/lOci/or (M) (see Figure V.A .S).
Thus, by grouping the results of Sections 3.2 and 3.3, for the conditions or
validity of the Radenkovic theorem, it is proved that the limit loadings arc to
be founu in the 'ring' comprised between KF and K(i, the boundaries being
included:
(29)
I
The importance or this result should be emphasiz,ed. In a solution Ca. u) or Ihe problem or uncon
tained now ror (M). the yield criterion f = 0 is necessarily reached al some points. Thus, a is on
the boundary of H r Now G(i c GI' and therefore H G C U y and KG c K f .; but this is obviously
lIot sufficientlo prove thal Q(IT) is not inside KG'
144
I I
Figure V.I\..5
3.3.5 Remarks
As stated in Section 3.3.2, there is no uniqueness of the function 0 specified
in the definition of the now rule for M. A.s the theorem is valid for each function 0,
it follows that the limit loadings are not inside
and
Q1illlE
KJ' 
U KG
VI'
The Radenkovie theorem retains all the generality of the classical limit
theorems with respect to the nature of the system and the loading proeess.
Starting from a property of the now rule for M, the theorem is proved inde
pendently of any particular condition .
This generality leads to the possibility that the inner boundary may be trivial
or present lillie interest. This is the case for a Coulomb material with a now
rule corresponding to v = 0, and for which Gil = 0; i.e. the G material is a
liquid!
.
If the proof of the theorem is again considered, it is seen to require only that
(26) be true globally for a limit equilibrium solution and that a field a' verifies
(24). This observation is not of lise as stated, sillce the solution (a, v) is assullled
to be known. However, if it were possible to estimate, (J priori, at each point of
the system and for a given loading process, a likely range for the stress <T, then
(24) and (25) would only have to ~)e imposed for <T varying in this range. This would
make il possible to use 'beller' 0 functions and would improve the results of lhe
lheorem. Such procedures appear to be the aim of the works of Josselin de long
[4,5]'
145
~ ~~~~
..
~ )
(30)
= 0
< 0,
't
a = 0,
=
=
[IIJn =0,
any [IIJt
[lIJ 'n
~ 0,
any [lIJ t
figure V.A.6
17igll1'c V.I\.6 rcpresents thc 'load ing surfacc' of this 'con tact' and thc corrcspond
ing strain ratcs, in this case vclocity discontinuities, [uJ = 1I 2  u'. The prin
ciple of maximum plastic work is vcrified, and with the notations of Section 3.1 I
is convex and I == g, for the contact
(31)
146
1                    
(32)
0< 0,
\t\
0= 0,
\t\ =
= O. t = 0
_atano:[uln=O,[lIltt~O
: [1I] . 11
O.
(33)
any lI' t
()
~
147
_
_f''''
... ~~
by rJ I or by r/, according to the stress state. 1 Figure V.A.8 represents the case
in which M I is rigid and M 2 is a standard Tresca material.
It is assumed for the example of Figure V.A.8 that tan (p ~ 1. The condition
(32) then limits the P.A. range of Figure V.A.8 to small values ofl al. As a limiting
case the scheme of Figure V.A.9 represents the socalled 'perfectly rough'
interrace for M I rigid and M 2 a standard Tresca material. A similar procedure
applies for any other M 1 and M 2 materials.
Figure V.A.9
Some theorems [3J assume an ideal model in which the interface itself dot:s
not allow any relative motion. The P.A. range and the rules for the velocity
c1iscon tin uities then depend only on /1, /2, g 1, g2.
more precisely, I. and 12 being the yield functions of M and M 2' both regarding the stress
Icnsor <1, induce restrictions concerning the (J and t components of the stress vector acting on the
interface. Let 4i. ~ 0 and 4'2 ~ 0 denote these rc.~trictions, the plastically admissible range for
(IT, t) is therefore the intersection of (32), (P I ~ 0 and cfJ 1 ~ O.
I Slated
148
~ij.~~~
Figure V.A.IO
An upper bound of the limit loads of the real system is then obtained which
cannot be better than the previous value, as the convex surface of allowable
loadings for this second standard system contains that of the first standard
system.
This theorem is equivalen t to theorem A' stated in [11 J. The Drucker theorem
A [3J uses the condition of an interface with no relative motion, and supplies
an upper bound which cannot be beller than the previous one.
For simplicilY lhc terms of the proportional loading case are used.
149
_
~_.~~'~'~H~OMe.~ .~~~
______
____
______________________
..
Hcfcrcllccs
LIJ l.
F. Collin;.; (I%X) An OP!iJllUnl loading c rilc:io;l [or rig id pl;lsli c ::l;;l c rials, J/.
M echo Phys. Solids, 16, No.2, pp. 7380.
[2] I. F. Collins (1969) The upper bound lheorcm for rigid plaslic solids generalized
10 include Coulomb friclion, JI. Mech. Pllys. So/ids, 17, No.5, pp. 323338.
[3J D. C. Drucker (1954) Coulomb friction plasticity and limil loads, J. App/. M ecll.
TrOllS. A.S.ME, 21, No. I, pp. 7174.
[4] G. de Josselin de Jong (1964) Lower bound collapse theorem and lack of normality
of strain rate to yield surface for soils, Proc. I UTA M SymfJ. ()/I Rheology & Soil
M echo/Jics, Grenoble (Fr.), pp. 6975.
[5] G. de Josselin de long (1973) A limit theorem for material with internal friction,
I'roc. Symp. OIl the Ro/e of Plasticity ;11 Soil M ccll., Cambridge (G.n.), pp. 1221.
[6] A. C. Palmer (1966) A limit theorem for materials with nonassociated now laws,
.I. M ciCllllique, 5, No.2, pp. 217222.
. P'I I). I{adenkovie (1961) Thcorcll1es limites pour un material! de Coulomb ,\ dilala
tion non standardisce, C.R. Ac. Sc., Paris, 252, pp. 41034104.
r!f] I). Raden kovie (1962) Theorie des charges limiles, Scm;lIo;rc rle I'l0slicitc, Ed .
J. Mandel, P.S.1'. No.1 16, pp. 129142.
[9] D. Radenkovic and Nguyen Quoe Son (1972) La dualitc dc.<; Ihcorcmes limites pour
unc structurc en matcriau rigide plastique standard, ArchilJes of Mechanics, 24,
No. 56, pp. 991998.
[10'1 G . Saeehi and M. Save (1968) A note on the limit loads of nOIHitandard materials,
M(~ cc(/lI;ca, 3, No. I, pp. 1\3 45.
J.
Salenc;on (1969) La lheorie des charges limiles clans la resolution des problclIles
[I I
de plaslicile en deformalion plane, Thesis Doc!. Sc., Paris.
[12] J. Salenyon (1972) Ecoulell1enl plastique libre et analyse Ii mile pour les malcriaux
slandards et non standards, Anl1. 1.T.B.T.P., No. 295296,pp. 90100.
[13J J. Salen<;on (1972) Ull exemplc de non validitc de la theorie dassique dc.<; eharges
limites pour un systcme non standard, Proc.llll. Symp. on Foundations of Plasticity,
Warsaw 1972, North Holland Pub . Co., Amslerdam .
[Ill] J. Salcnc,:on (! 972) Thcorie des l:hargcs lilllites. Sem. PI(lsticitc c:t viscop/oslicilc:,
Ed. D . Radenkovic and J. Salell<;oll, Ediscience, Paris, 1974, pp. 207229.
[15] J. Salcnyon (1972) Charge limite d'un systcllle nonstandard. Un con Ire exemplc
pOllr la lheorie classique. Scm. l'i(/sticite c:t Viscopl(/st;citc, Ed. D. Radenkovie and
J . Salcnc,:on, Ediscienee, Paris, 1974, pp. 427430.
[ 161 .I . Salenc;on (1974a) Plasticitc pour la MccClnique des Sols. C.J.S.M., R;lIlkine
session, .Iuly 1974, Ulline (It.).
L17:1 J . Salcnyon (I n4b) Bearing eapacily of a i'ooting on a 41 = 0 soil wilh linearly
varying shear slrength . Gcotcchllique, 24, No. 3, pp. 443446.
[IX] M. Save (1961) 011 yield condilions in gelleralized stresses. Quart. Appl. Math.,
.
19, No.3, Pl'. 259267.
B. BONNEAU'S THEOREM
The general proof of Bonneau's theorem [1] will be given for the case of a
nonhomogeneous material with any intrinsic curve. The existence ofcontinllous
first derivatives of the loading function with respect to x and y is assumed.
150
~ 


1. The Prohlcm
"
IT I =
lI(a, x, y)
(1)
at any point of (C), with a constant sign (i.e. 't = II or 't = II). Thus (C) is an
envelope of'marginal' surfaces of the same type.
It is intended to show that for an allowable stressfield to exist in the solid
(i.e. for stressfields lo be in equilibrium in (I) and (I I) while satisfying the con
tinuity or the stress components (J and 't on (C), without violating the yield
criterion at any poinl), it is necessary that the stresses along (C) veriry the dif
ferential relation for slresses obtained in the Appendix of Chapter IV, along the
characteristics corresponding to the considered lypc or surface. (The relations
are denoted by Ea and Ell') Thus (C) must be characlerislic of the stresses.
2.1
I
i
The problem has several origins. The firsl is the question of the characlcristic
envelopes [2J, whether they be rectilinea I or not. 1n fact, slich an envelope, if
touched by the arcs of characteristics in the plastic range, is the clirve (C) of
Section I,along which the equation Ea (or Ep) is not verified since it is not a
charaeteristic. Bonneau's theorem then indicates that (C) canllol be lOllched by
the arcs of the characteristics within the plastic zone but only at its boundary,
or else the envelope is not tOllched by the arcs or the characteristics themselve.<;
but by their prolongations.
For problems ofplane deformation, the solution give~ curves (C) as boundaries
between the zones of type a (I) and type IJ (11). In this case the allowable stress
field is known in (I) (in limit equilibrium), and (C) is a characteristic or an
envelope of characteristics. Bonneau's theorem gives a particularly important
result in this last case, since it shows tha t if (C) is an envelope of characteristics
within the solid, an allowable prolongation of the stressfield does not exist.
Finally, in the case of a standard ma terial, (C) can also be a line or discontinuity
of the velocity, isolated and separating two rigid zones. In this case, 't =
11((J, X, y), the sign being determined by the sense of the velocity jump, and the
stressfields are unknown in (I) and (II) . Bonneau's theorem specifics that if an
allowable stressfield can be associated with this mode of deformation, it
necessarily verifies equation Ea (resp. Ell) along the velocity discontinuity line.
151
, / r             _ _
II
'I
! _"
.J
2.2
Th c:; c rc:) ulls h(\ '1 (~ ; ill p()rlal~t ap p!ic:l:olls for the incomplete solutions of
problems of plane deformation for a standard material, as indicated below.
(I). From the viewpoint of applying the kinematic method and the use of the
particular properties of the incomplete solutions, it is unnecessary for the
equation Ea, (or E{I) to be satisfied either at the boundary of the deformed zones
in the solid or along the isolated slip lines.
I\n example is supplied by Ostrowska [4J which involves an envelope or
characteristics touched by those in the plastic zone.
Ifan a 1I0wa bl e stressfield ex ists in a sol id, thell it is cont in lIOllS i11 crossi I1g (C).
fJro(ll
(J
The allowable stressfield must satisfy the continuity of the stress components
and T in crossing (C).
r
Figure V. D. l
I
152

 
~;[re~s vector
T) at a point M or(C) is on the intrinsic curve or this point.
The loading function is assumed continuous with respect to x anc! y. Il
follows that at point M t,he intrinsic curve is identical on both sides of (C) to
that on (C). Now the only Mohr circle passing through T, representative of a
plastically admissible stress tensor at M, is the circle (r) which is tangential to
the intrinsic curve of point M in T.
11 may be deduced from lhis, since (f and Tare conlinuous across (C), thaI
(r) represenls the slress tensor at M, not only on (C) but also in the regions (I)
and (II) on both sides of(C), at points M. and M . Thererore, thcre is continuity
orlile slress tensor'ill crossillg (C),
(11,
Corol/ary:
Consider the case of Figure V.I3.2 where T is nega tive. 2 The relation (1) which
is salisfied along (C) is then

h((f, x, .1')
M~A
'
~
Figut'e Y.n.2
ax
T
as
aT: ".
.,,=~
ax
uS
In the case in which (C) is OIn envelope of charOlcteristics, it is an envelope of the ex characteristics.
153
ii
As the body forces are assumed to be continuous across (C), and since the
equilibrium equations must be satisfied in (1) and (II) so that the strcsslield is
allowable, it follows that ar x/8y and aO"Jay are continuous across (C) at poin t lvi.
For the expressi.on
(2)
g(x, y) = r xy  I1(O"y, X, y)
Ihe derivalive with respecL to y is given by
og
{r
oy  oy
h(cr,x,y)}
xy
8r
8h 80"
ocry oy
ah
oy
=.2y. __ ._.:....::J. _ _
oy
(3)
= r xy
y(x, y)
= r  h(cr, x, y) = 0
"(cry, x, y)
I(a, x, y)
Now
I((J,
X,
y) ~ 0
=>
r xy  h(O"y, x, y)
O.
is for iL to be zero: I
(4)
ar
_Xl
oy
aO"?Jh
tan (/) .l  oy
vy
= 0 at
(5)
iJ
1
; h(cr, x, y) = :; ; R(p, x, y)
oy
cos (P oy
I
(6)
Thlls lhe slressfield is nol only OIl lhe yield boundary on (C) and conlinuous across ii, bUI also,
on bolh sides ncar (C). il is necessarily langenliallo a field allhe yield boundary.
154



      
Then (5) can be transformed by taking (6) into account and inlroducing the
derivatives with respect to x of the stresses by means of the equations of equi
librium. The components of the body forces in M following M . and M), are
given by X and Y. Hence,
oa
_.t
ax
tan
'Dr
2):
Dx
I (J(X
I aR
+ cos (/) ay
Y tan 4))
= 0
(7)
Let M' be a poin ton (C) in the vicinity of M, set {J =  (a I + a 2)/2, and denole
by 0 the angle of the direction of greatest tension at 1'11' with flllx. Then, at M',
a.,. : p + R cos 20
{ r )' R sin 20
X
and hence, since
DR
a{J =
aa.. _
Dr
Dp..
ap (1
ax
',1.."'0
cos L )
= ._ SII1
_':D:
(/) Sill
ax
20
I
4)
S111
2R
SII1
DO
2R cos 20 
ax
aR
20 ao I cos 20
~
SIl1
DR
20
ax
aa .
ax
at. =
2)a
'"
ao
ax
ap. 2
 (I I SII1 eM ax
" = 
ap.
ax
SII1
4) cos cp 
2H cos (/)  
2R
DO
Sill (/) 
ax
I cos
SII1
aR
4) 
ax
aH
ax
4)
ap
ax
 
R ao +
(p ax
"+
 2
(J(X
cos
Y tan
(M + 1 aR
= 0
cos 4) ay
(8)
n
I oR
c7R
+ c/)    =
2
cos 4) ay
aXIl
(c , e ) = a
(I
using the notation of the appendix of Chapter IY. Thus, the following equation
is obtllined.
dp
+  21<'I
cos
OR) dx
dO  ( (JP I 
= 0 along (C)
aX{I
155
,jr
5.2
Thc now rule or the material docs not appear in the above proofs. The con
sider:llions concern only the stresses, and express the possibility of the existence
oran allowable stressfield in the indicated conditions. It follows that the result
obtained is valid for nonstandard materials, and also for elastoplasticity.
References
M. !3ollllt:au (1947) Eqllilibre limite et rupture des milieux eOlltinlls.
111111. P(}IIl.~ cl
.I. Ie Book~r (1970) t\ propcrly of limiting lines for a pcrb;tly plastic material.
Uiliv. Sydllcy Civ. Eng. Lab" Rcs . Rcpl. No. R 134, Mar~h 1970.
It 1'lill (1950) t\ theoretical investigation or the effect ofspeeimell size in the measure
156
~

Index
Thc numbcrs rcfcr to thc chapter (Roman ligure~), and to thc paragraph within thc
chaptcr (Arabic figllfe~)
;i
I
IV App. B
Il
BONN EA U ('s thcorcm) V App. B
Boundary (clastic )11.3
Boundary (yicld)IU
Briltlc (matcrial, fracturc) 1.2
Elastoplasticity II
c
CAQUOT1.2
Ca vities (sphcrical and cylindrica\ )11.5
Charactcrist ic lincsI V_U
Clwractcristics (Mcthod 0" ') I V.X
Charactcristics (Rclations along thc strcss
 ) IV.7
Charactcristics (Rcl;ltions along thc vclo
city) IV . D
CoaxialityI . IO
Completc solutionV.7
Consistcnt boundary conditions111.5
Constitutive law1.5
Containcd ( plastic now)11.2
Convexity (of thc yicld function)1.2
Corrcsponding sta tcs (thcorcm of thc)
IV .23
COULOMB ('s yicld critcrion)1.2
COULOMB CS wcdgc)V .9
Critcrion (yicld )1.1
Critical (\oad)I 1.4
Curvc (intrinsic)1 .2
Flow (  rule)1 .5
Fractllrel.2
G
GI~IIUNGER
('s cqll:ltions)IV.lJ
II
157
_....
Interrace (condition s
A.4
IrreversibilityI . I
Isotropy1.2
OIL
tlle)V App.
K
Kinematic approachVA
K inema tic method V A
Killelllali<.: solulionV.7
K0TTEI~ ('s eClualions)IV.7
RANKINE (eClllilihrium)IV.24
Rigid plastic materialI I 1.1
I~ule (now)l.5
s
L
Limit analysisV
Limit equilibrium111.2
Limit loadIl.3
Lilllit (elasticof a system)I1.3
Loading proeessI 1.3
Loading ( surrace)l.1
M
MANDEL IVA
MANDEL ('s equations)lV .7
MASSAU ('s method)IV.8
Minim\lll1 (principle for the strain rates)
V.6
. MinimuI11 (principle for the stresses)
~emihomogeneolls
T
TERZAGHI ('s formllIa)IV .23
TRESCA ('s yield criterion)1.2
V.o
Norlllality Ui
Path (loading)I1.2
Perfect plasLicityl.l
Permissible (stresslield)V.2
Permissible (velocityfield)V.2
158
v
Viscoplasticity I.5
Y
Yield
Yield
Yield
Yield
(boundary)11.3
(criterion)l.l
(fulletion)1.1
(limit)I.l
Consulting Editors
T. W. Lambe
R. V. Whitman
.......
J. Salel190n
Ecole Poly technique