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Personal Ornamentation - objects,

natural or handmade, worn on the

human body

sections from shoulders to the wrist.

Men are decorated with geometric
designs on the chest and upper arms

Beautifying oneself is a universal

Personal Ornaments are objects
worn on the human body. May be
natural or handcrafted (Ex. Jewelry)

Pintados of Visayas - only small,

reclusive mountain groups have
maintained the art. It has been
replaced by anting-anting tattoos
which are influenced by Christianity

Tattoo - decoration inscribed

on skin with a sharp instrument,
and plant dyes and inks. Traditionally
done by cutting designs into the skin
with chisel-like blades and rubbing
pigment into the grooves

Tattoo motifs of the Ifugao - ex.

kinabu (dog), tinabu (man),ginawang
(eagle), ginayaman (centipedes), and
kinalat (lightning)
Prisoner Tattoos - Motifs include
animals, religious symbols, loved
women, scantily-clothed girls, and
names of relatives, friends, loved
ones, etc. in decorative frames and
hearts. Is a way of remembering loved
ones. As a form hobby to relieve
boredom. Typically applied on the
biceps, chest and forearm

Functions of tattoos:
1. enhances physical beauty
2. drives away spirits and enemies
3. distinguish brave warriors
4. convey social values/attributes
5. symbolize sexual maturity and
6. record designs of tribal hosts
Types of Tattoos:
1. Panlalaki - transmits manly
powers, signifies the status
symbol, of its bearer
2. Pangontra - provides protection
evil spirits, enemies, the elements,
and injury, may depend on the
wearers occupation, usually
influenced by religious beliefs
Hakang of the Tboli - defined by
stylized animal and human motifs, as
well as zigzag patterns. Men are
tattooed on the
chest and forearms while women are
tattooed on the calves and forearms
Tattoo motifs of the Ifugao women are thickly and elegantly
decorated with horizontal and vertical

Orasyon Tattoos - certain taboos

and restrictions (ex. abstaining from
entertainment, heavy work, sexual
activity, etc.)
may be implemented by shamans to
guarantee efficacy of the tattoos
Specific Functions of Tattoos
Tattoos as a rite of passage Ifugaos and most Cordillera tribes and
the Hakang of the
Tboli use tattoos to signify the ordeals
involved in the rites of passage
Tattoos as a type of clothing - The
Pintados of Visayas apply tattoos so
skilfully that there
is an illusion of clothing, according to
early explorers, The Hakang of the
Tboli are
applied to enhance human anatomy/
physical appearance

Tattoos as a status symbol Prisoner tattoos are sometimes used

as a symbol of membership
to prison gangs, and also to show
machismo. Among the Ifugaos, tattoos
on a man show strength, valor, and
sometimes, headhunting experience.
Tribal chiefs often wear the most
elaborate tattoos
Tattoos as magical amulets tattoos are believed to grant
invincibility (against witchcraft,
weapons and bullets, illness,
spirits, etc.) or a desirable afterlife,
motifs may include religious, themes,
prayers, runes, and geometric
patterns. Hakang of Tboli are used
to lighten journey to the afterlife
-Orasyon tattoos are mostly
taken from prayer books (ex. the
librito of the Waray) which may act as
magical spells
Tattoos as a symbol of maturity Tattoos (especially on men) may
establish dominance/prowess, power,
and experience in battle. Prisoner
tattoos sometimes
symbolize physical and sexual
prowess and maturity
Tattoos as a symbol of allegiance Orasyon tattoos are received as part
of the initiation rites for cults in the
Visayas and
Mindanao regions. Tattoos are used to
brotherhood among revolutionary
peasant movements from the mid19th century to the 1940s

Method of the Cordillera - the

initial design is drawn on body in soot.
The pattern is then pricked by a stick
or needles and the soot pressed into
Scarification - live coals are applied
onto skin to create raised patterns of
scar. Used as proof of endurance by
men, like the Aeta
Method of Leyte - initiate is tattooed
using a wand that could consist of 24
needles are used to puncture skin. It is
the culmination of rituals set by the
pamaratbat (shaman) as well as
abstinence from stuff like sweet
potatoes, cigarettes, and

Jewelries of some Tribal Groups:

Necklaces of capiz shell discs
Finely woven behuco as leglets
Tbolis inch-thick chokers
Bagobos brass bracelets with
little bells
Functions of Personal Ornaments:
to enhance a part of the
wearers body.
to signify prestige, rank, status
and wealth.
to symbolize ritualistic and
emotional state.

Materials in tattoo-making
1. Dog dung
2. Pointed needles of the Pintados
3. Sharpened wood of the Kankanay
4. Igihisi of the Isneg of Apayao

General Characteristics of
Philippine Jewelry:
Dominance of symmetry
Formal proportions
Strong sense of rhythm
Distinctive rather than specific

Methods in tatoo making

Techniques in making Jewelry

Filligree - Intricate and delicate

ornamentation from fine twisted
Granulation - A surface is
covered in granules of precious
Loop-in-loop - process of
Engraving - Incising designs on
a surface.

Materials in making Jewelry

Shell discs, cone shells (Cypraea
annulus and Cypraea moneta)
Colored stones
Shells, metal, jade and gold
Boar tusks (necklaces)
Black coral
horsehair, beads and wild
cotton, bundles of grass
(chandelier earrings)
Nephrite or "true jade"
Types of Earrings
Plug - Bilaan plug have piece of
mirror framed by tiny beads.
Kalinga by front ends covered
with embroidered cloth coins or
glass bits.
Chandelier - long tassels of
beads on horsehair or tuffs of
wild cotton.
Graduated Ring series - Kawat
may be worn if wearer's ears
were pierced 7-8 times from to
to lobe in which hoops are
Ear-with-Bib combination


Isneg menghal warrior wers

capiz-shell discs to signify
headhunting feats.
Bontoc and Ifugao wear boartusk necklaces and armlets
after war expedition
Tboli wore chokers with
geometric designs to please
the gods.
Aeta wore behuco leglets to
have wild boar's strength,
stamina and speed.
Warning them of danger.
Tboli and Bagobo, huge earrings
9.8cm in diameter, showed
high status.
Ifugao ginut-tu, belt from shell
discs, is worn by nobilities
during festivities.

Semiotic Readings
Art and Power. Tattoos and
jewelry can signify a person's
social rank or status or if they
have headhunting
Art and Gender. Tattoos can
show the sexuual maturity of
females and masculinity of the
Art and Everyday Life. Tattoos
can be used as protection in
everyday life or as a form of
remembrance. Jewelry, even
modern jewelry, served to
improved the general
appearance of our ancestors.